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# BUCKLING OF COLUMNS

! ! !

Critical Load Ideal Column with Pin Supports Columns Having Various Supports

Pcr

P > Pcr

Pcr

P > Pcr

P P tan " L/2 " L/2 k L/2 !="(L/2) A " L/2 k A " P " P F

P tan "

2 P tan " \$ F

2 P tan " \$ k!

L ) 2

## P Unstable equilibrium Neutral equilibrium

Bifurcation point

Stable equilibrium

Pcr \$

kL 4

"

## Ideal Column with Pin Supports

Pcr

P P x L

%
x

%
N=0 P M

+ #Mx&= 0 ;
P% ' M \$ 0
M \$ ( P%

Moment-curvature
d 2% M \$ EI 2 \$ ( P% dx d 2% EI 2 ' P% \$ 0 dx d 2% P ' ( )% \$ 0 2 EI dx
d 2% P 2 ' ( ) % \$ 0 ( ( (* 2 dx EI

%
x P x

% ' ''c 2% \$ 0

% \$ C1 sin(

P P x) ' C2 cos( x) EI EI

P P x L % x N=0 P M %

% \$ C1 sin(

P P x) ' C2 cos( x) EI EI

Boundary condition
)x\$0 , % \$0
0 \$ C1 (0) ' C2 (1), C2 \$ 0
)x\$L , % \$0

%
x

C1 sin(

P x
sin(

P L) \$ 0 , C1 + 0 EI

P L) \$ 0 \$ sin( n* ) EI
P L \$ n* EI : n \$ 1,2,3,...

P P v x L % x P x % x 0 P M %

P L \$ n* EI

: n \$ 1,2,3,...

P L \$ n* EI
P 2 L \$ n 2* 2 EI

n 2* 2 EI P\$ L2 Pcr \$

( ( ( ( (* ( ( ( ( (*

* 2 EI
L
2

n 2* 2 EI Pcr \$ L2

, n \$ 1,2,3,...

P x L % %max

%
L/2

%
L/2 L/2

P x n=1
12 * 2 EI Pcr \$ L2

P n=2
2 2 * 2 EI Pcr \$ L2

## P Unstable equilibrium Neutral equilibrium Pcr Bifurcation point x *2EI Pcr = L2 L

Stable equilibrium

"
Pcr x

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Critical Stress
Pcr \$

* 2 EI
( KL ) 2

* 2 E ( Ar 2 )
( KL) 2

* 2E Pcr \$ A ( K L )2 r , cr \$ * 2E
( KL 2 ) r

r = radius of gyration K = effective-length factor, for pin-pin column K = 1 L K \$ effective slenderness ratio r

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Structural steel A 36 E = 200 GPa ,y = 250 MPa ,cr&-& MPa 400 300 ,y&= 250 200 100 0 50 100 89 150

, cr \$

* 2E
KL ( )2 r

( KL 2 ) r

, cr \$

* 2E
( KL 2 ) r

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\$

, cr \$

* 2E
( KL 2 ) r

## * 2 (70 .103 MPa)

( KL 2 ) r

,cr&-& MPa 200 150 100 69 MPa 50 0 30 MPa 17 MPa KL/r 150 200 215 MPa

## ,cr (MPa) 215 122.8 69.1 44.2 30.7 22.6 17.3

, cr \$

* 2E
( KL 2 ) r

50 57 100

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Example 1 A 7 m long A-36 steel tube having the cross section shown is to be used as a pin-ended column. Determine the maximum allowable axial load the column can support so that it does not buckle or yield. Take the yield stress of 250 MPa Pcr

70 mm 7m 75 mm

Pcr

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Pcr

70 mm Using Eq. 5 to obtain the critical load with Est = 200 GPa, 75 mm
Pcr \$

* 2 EI
L2

7m
\$

## * * * 2 [(200 .106 )( 0.0754 ( 0.07 4 )

4 72 4

= 241.4 kN This force creates an average compressive stress in the column of Pcr

, cr \$

## = 106 MPa < ,Y = 250 MPa

O.K

The maximum allowable axial load the column can support is 241.73 kN

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Pcr

Alternate method: 70 mm * 2E , cr \$ KL 75 mm ( )2 r
I r \$ A
2

7m

r \$ 79.5 mm

Pcr

, cr \$

* 2E

O.K

## Pcr = ,cr A = (106 x 106) * (.0752-.0702) = 241.7 kN

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,cr&-& MPa 400 300 ,y&= 250 200 100 0 50 100 150 89 136.5 ,cr&= 106

, cr \$

* 2E
( KL 2 ) r

## Structural steel A 36 R 40 (4000 kg/cm2)

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Example 2 The A-36 steel W200x46 member show is to be used as a pin-connected column. Determine the largest axial load it can support before it either begins to buckle or the steel yields.

y 4m x

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Pinned - Pinned Column x A-36 steel W200x46 A = 5890 mm2 , Ix = 45.5x106 mm4, and Iy = 15.3x106 mm4 y
Pcr \$

* 2 EI
L2

42

= 1887. 6 kN

, cr \$
\$

4m

## = 320.5 MPa > ,Y = 250 MPa

Pallow \$ , / A \$ , y / A

\$ 1472 kN

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## Columns Having Various Type of Supports

x 0 % L P 0 % M P This equation is non-homogeneous because of the nonzero term on the right side. The solution consists of both a complementary and particular solution, namely, P
d 2% EI 2 \$ P10 ( % 2 dx d 2% P P ' \$ % 0 2 dx EI EI

-----(7)

% \$ C1 sin(

## P P x) ' C2 cos( x) ' 0 EI EI

The constants are determined from the boundary conditions. At x = 0, % = 0, so that C2 = -0. Also,
d% P P P P \$ C1 cos( x ) ( C2 sin( x) dx EI EI EI EI

## At x = 0, d%3dx = 0, so that C1 = 0. The deflection curve is therefore P % \$ 0 [1 ( cos( x )] -----(8) EI

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Since the deflection at the top of the column is 0, that is, at x = L, %&= 0, we require

0 \$ 0 [1 ( cos(
Since 0 + 0,

P x )] EI

-->

0 cos(

P L) \$ 0 EI

cos(

P L) \$ 0 EI

or cos(

P n* L) \$ cos( ) 2 EI

Pcr \$

* 2 EI
4 L2

-----(9)

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Pcr \$

* 2 EI
( KL)
2

or

, cr \$

* 2E
( KL / r ) 2

P P

Le = L

L Le = 2L

Le = 0.5L

Le = 0.7L

## Fixed - free ends K=2 Note : K = effective-length factor

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Example 3 A W 150x24 (A=3060 mm2, Ix = 13.4x106 mm4, Iy = 1.83x106 mm4) steel column is 8 m long and is fixed at its ends as shown. Its load-carrying capacity is increased by bracing it about the y-y (weak) axis using struts that are assumed to be pin-connected to its mid-height. Determine the load it can support so that the column does not buckle nor the material exceed the yield stress. Take E = 200 GPa and ,y = 250 MPa P y x x y

3m

5m

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## E = 200 GPa , ,y = 414 MPa

W 150x24 A = 3060 mm2 Iy = 1.83x106 mm4 Pinned (top) Fixed (bottom) Ky = 0.7 ry = 24.5 mm P x y

8m

3m

6 (6 2

3m

( Pcr ) x \$

* 2 EI x
( KL) x
2

(0.5 . 8 m)
2

5m
\$ 1653 kN

( Pcr ) y \$

* 2 EI y
( KL) y
2

(0.7 . 5 m) 2

\$ 294.9 kN

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## NOTE Structural steel A 36 E = 200 GPa

KL (0.5)(8 . 103 ) ( )x \$ \$ 60.42 r 66.2 (0.7)(5 . 103 ) KL ( )y \$ \$ 178.6 <--- buckling occurs r 24.5

, cr \$

* 2E
KL ( )2 r

( KL 2 ) r

## ,cr (MPa) 250 197 126 88 64 49 39

, cr \$
300 ,y&= 250 200 100 61.9 MPa 0 50 100 89

* 2E
(K L 2 ) r

## 49 MPa KL/r 200 179

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Example 4 The aluminum column is fixed at its bottom and is braced at its top by two rods so as to prevent movement at the top along the x axis, If it is assumed to be fixed at its base, determine the largest allowable load P that can be applied. Use a factor of safety for buckling of F.S. = 3.0. Take Eal = 70 GPa, ,y = 215 MPa, A = 7.5(10-3) m2, Ix = 61.3(10-6) m4, Iy = 23.2(10-6) m4. z P

Rod

5m

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Eal = 70 GPa, ,y = 215 MPa, A = 7.5(10-3) m2 Ix = 61.3(10-6) m4 Free (top) Fixed (bottom) Kx = 2 rx = 90 mm z P Iy = 23.2(10-6) m4 Pinned (top) Fixed (bottom) Ky = 0.7 ry = 50 mm

5m

5m

## x-x axis buckling

y-y axis buckling Yield Stress (,y) PY \$ , y A \$ (215 . 106 Pa )(7.5 . 10 (3 m 2 ) \$ 1612 kN Bucking x-x axis y * 2 EI x * 2 (70 .106 kPa)(61.3 .10 (6 m 4 ) ( Pcr ) x \$ \$ \$ 425 kN 2 2 ( 2 . 5 m) ( KL) x 425 kN P \$ 141 kN Pallow \$ cr \$ F .S 3 Bucking y-y axis
( Pcr ) y \$
Pallow \$

Rod

5m

* 2 EI y
( KL ) y
2

(0.7 . 5 m) 2

\$ 1308 kN

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\$

, cr \$

* 2E
( KL 2 ) r

( KL 2 ) r

## ,cr (MPa) 215 122.8 69.1 44.2 30.7 22.6 17.3

, cr \$
150 100 50 0 56 MPa 69 MPa

* 2E
( KL 2 ) r

50 57 100

## 30 MPa 17 MPa KL/r 150 200 111

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Example 5 Determine the maximum load P the column can support before it either begins to buckle or the steel yields. Assume that member BC is pinned at its end for the x-x axis and fixed for y-y axis buckling. Take E = 200 GPa, ,y = 250 MPa. x 25 mm 35 mm 5 C 4 4m 35 mm B 1m P 2m 3 A

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x 25 mm 35 mm 5 C F 4 4m 35 mm B 1m P 2m 3 A Ay Ax

3 + #MA&= 0: ( ( F )(4) ' P(2) \$ 0 5 5 F \$ P ( ( (* 6 5 FY \$ PY \$ , Y A \$ (250 . 103 )(.025 . .035) \$ 218.8 kN 6 PY \$ 262.5 kN 1(5) KL / ( )x \$ \$ 495 1 (0.025)(0.035) 3 1/ 2 r [ ] 12 (0.025)(0.035)

/ (

/ F \$ , cr A \$

* 2E
KL ( )2 r

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