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MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

K of DA impacts
K of DA impacts.............................................................................................................................................................1 Predictions Bad (1 ..........................................................................................................................................................2 Predictions Bad (2 ..........................................................................................................................................................! Predictions Bad (! ........................................................................................................................................................" #is$ Assessment Bad (1 ................................................................................................................................................% #is$ Assessment Bad (2 ................................................................................................................................................& 'o ()tinction..................................................................................................................................................................* +onse,-entialism Bad...................................................................................................................................................... Kriti$ of Terror Tal$ (1 ................................................................................................................................................../ Kriti$ of Terror Tal$ (2 ................................................................................................................................................10 Kriti$ of Terror Tal$ (! ................................................................................................................................................11 Kriti$ of Terror Tal$ (" ................................................................................................................................................12 Kriti$ of 0e1emon2 3mpacts (1 ...................................................................................................................................1! Kriti$ of 0e1emon2 3mpacts (2 ...................................................................................................................................1" Kriti$ of 0e1emon2 3mpacts (! ...................................................................................................................................1% Kriti$ of 0e1emon2 3mpacts (" ...................................................................................................................................1& Kriti$ of 0e1emon2 3mpacts (% ...................................................................................................................................1* Kriti$ of (conom2 3mpacts (1 .....................................................................................................................................1. Kriti$ of (conom2 3mpacts (2 .....................................................................................................................................1/ Kriti$ of (conom2 3mpacts (! .....................................................................................................................................20 Kriti$ of (conom2 3mpacts (" .....................................................................................................................................21 Kriti$ of '-clear War 3mpacts (1 ...............................................................................................................................22 Kriti$ of '-clear War 3mpacts (2 ................................................................................................................................2! Kriti$ of Proliferation 3mpacts .....................................................................................................................................2% Kriti$ of War 3mpacts (1 ..............................................................................................................................................2* Kriti$ of War 3mpacts (2 ..............................................................................................................................................2. Kriti$ of Disease 3mpacts (1 ........................................................................................................................................2/ Kriti$ of Disease 3mpacts (2 ........................................................................................................................................!0 Krit$ of Disease 3mpacts (! ........................................................................................................................................!1 Kriti$ of Disease 3mpacts (" ........................................................................................................................................!2 Kriti$ of Disease 3mpacts (% ........................................................................................................................................!! Kriti$ of Disease 3mpacts (& ........................................................................................................................................!" Kriti$ of Disease 3mpacts (* ........................................................................................................................................!% Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (1 ................................................................................................................................!& Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (2 ................................................................................................................................!* Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (! ...............................................................................................................................!. Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (" ................................................................................................................................!/ Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (% ................................................................................................................................"0 Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (& ................................................................................................................................"1 Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (* ................................................................................................................................"2 Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (. ................................................................................................................................"! Kriti$ of (n4ironment 3mpacts (/ ................................................................................................................................""

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Predictions Bad (1)


The precautionary principle failsthere are always possibilities of impacts that we cannot know. Dupuy 20045 (6ean7Pierre. (cole Pol2tec8ni,-e5 Paris5 and 9tanford :ni4ersit2 ;+omple)it2 and :ncertaint2< A Pr-dential Approac8 to 'anotec8nolo12.= 8ttp<>>???.-lb.ac.be>penser7la7 science>ima1es>conf2>d-p-2@comple)it2.pdf W8en t8e preca-tionar2 principle states t8at t8e Aabsence of certainties5 1i4en t8e c-rrent state of scientific and tec8nical $no?led1e5 m-st not dela2 t8e adoption of effecti4e and proportionate pre4enti4e meas-res aimed at forestallin1 a ris$ of 1ra4e and irre4ersible dama1e to t8e en4ironment at an economicall2 acceptable costA5 it is clear t8at it places itself from t8e o-tset ?it8in t8e frame?or$ of epistemic -ncertaint2. T8e pres-pposition is t8at ?e $no? ?e are in a sit-ation of -ncertaint2. 3t is an a)iom of epistemic lo1ic t8at if 3 do not $no? p5 t8en 3 $no? t8at 3 do not $no? p. Bet5 as soon as ?e depart from t8is frame?or$5 ?e m-st entertain t8e possibilit2 t8at ?e do not $no? t8at ?e do not $no? somet8in1. An analo1o-s sit-ation obtains in t8e realm of perception ?it8 t8e blind spot5 t8at area of t8e retina -nser4ed b2 t8e optic ner4e. At t8e 4er2 center of o-r field of 4ision5 ?e do not see5 b-t o-r brain be8a4es in s-c8 a ?a2 t8at ?e do not see t8at ?e do not see. 3n cases ?8ere t8e -ncertaint2 is s-c8 t8at it entails t8at t8e -ncertaint2 itself is -ncertain5 it is impossible to $no? ?8et8er or not t8e conditions for t8e application of t8e preca-tionar2 principle 8a4e been met. 3f ?e appl2 t8e principle to itself5 it ?ill in4alidate itself before o-r e2es. Fatalist predictions are inherently flawedpredictions ignore contingent effects upon the world and ignore the fact that the future is preventable. Dupuy 20045 (6ean7Pierre. (cole Pol2tec8ni,-e5 Paris5 and 9tanford :ni4ersit2 ;+omple)it2 and :ncertaint2< A Pr-dential Approac8 to 'anotec8nolo12.=. T8e temporal e)perience 3 am tr2in1 to describe and ?8ic85 a1ain5 3 call AproCected timeA 75 is o-rs on a dail2 basis. 3t is facilitated5 enco-ra1ed5 or1aniDed5 not to sa2 imposed b2 n-mero-s feat-res of o-r social instit-tions. All aro-nd -s5 more or less a-t8oritati4e 4oices are 8eard t8at proclaim ?8at t8e more or less near f-t-re ?ill be< t8e ne)t da2Es traffic on t8e free?a25 t8e res-lt of t8e -pcomin1 elections5 t8e rates of inflation and 1ro?t8 for t8e comin1 2ear5 t8e c8an1in1 le4els of 1reen8o-se 1ases5 etc. T8e f-t-rists and s-ndr2 ot8er pro1nosticators5 ?8ose appellation lac$s t8e 1rande-r of t8e prop8etEs5 $no? f-ll ?ell5 as do ?e5 t8at t8is f-t-re t8e2 anno-nce to -s as if it ?ere ?ritten in t8e stars is a f-t-re of o-r o?n ma$in1. We do not rebel a1ainst ?8at co-ld pass for a metap82sical scandal (e)cept5 on occasion5 in t8e 4otin1 boot8 . 3t is t8e co8erence of t8is mode of
coordination ?it8 re1ard to t8e f-t-re t8at 3 8a4e endea4ored to brin1 o-t. A sine ,-a non m-st be respected for t8at co8erence to be t8e case< a clos-re condition5 as s8o?n in t8e follo?in1 1rap8. ProCected time ta$es t8e form of a loop5 in ?8ic8 past and f-t-re reciprocall2 determine eac8 ot8er. To foretell t8e f-t-re in proCected time5 it is necessar2 to see$ t8e loopEs fi)ed point5

T8e predictor5 $no?in1 t8at 8is prediction is 1oin1 to prod-ce ca-sal effects in t8e ?orld5 m-st ta$e acco-nt of t8is fact if 8e ?ants t8e f-t-re to confirm ?8at 8e foretold. Traditionall25 ?8ic8 is to sa2 in a ?orld dominated b2 reli1ion5 t8is is t8e role of t8e prop8et5 and especiall2 t8at of t8e biblical prop8et.!* 0e is an
?8ere an e)pectation (on t8e part of t8e past ?it8 re1ard to t8e f-t-re and a ca-sal prod-ction (of t8e f-t-re b2 t8e past coincide. e)traordinar2 indi4id-al5 often e)centric5 ?8o does not 1o -nnoticed. 0is prop8ecies 8a4e an effect on t8e ?orld and t8e co-rse of e4ents for t8ese p-rel2 8-man and social reasons5 b-t also beca-se t8ose ?8o listen to t8em belie4e t8at t8e ?ord of t8e prop8et is t8e ?ord of Ba84e8 and t8at t8is ?ord5 ?8ic8 cannot be 8eard directl25 8as t8e po?er of ma$in1 t8e 4er2 t8in1 it

the prop8etEs ?ord 8as a performati4e po?er< b2 sa2in1 t8in1s5 it brin1s t8em into e)istence. 'o?5 t8e prop8et $no?s t8at. Fne mi18t be tempted to concl-de t8at t8e prop8et 8as t8e po?er of a re4ol-tionar2< 8e spea$s so t8at t8in1s ?ill c8an1e in t8e direction 8e intends to 1i4e t8em . T8is ?o-ld be to for1et t8e fatalist aspect of prop8ec2< it describes t8e e4ents to come as t8e2 are ?ritten on t8e 1reat scroll of 8istor25 imm-table and inel-ctable. #e4ol-tionar2 prop8ec2 8as preser4ed t8is 8i18l2 parado)ical mi) of fatalism and 4ol-ntarism t8at c8aracteriDes biblical prop8ec2. Mar)ism is
anno-nces come to pass. We ?o-ld sa2 toda2 t8at t8e most stri$in1 ill-stration of t8is. 0o?e4er5 3 am spea$in1 of prop8ec25 8ere5 in a p-rel2 sec-lar and tec8nical sense. T8e prop8et is t8e one ?8o5 more prosaicall25 see$s o-t t8e fi)ed point of t8e problem5 t8e point ?8ere 4ol-ntarism ac8ie4es t8e 4er2 t8in1 t8at fatalit2 dictates. T8e prop8ec2 incl-des itself in its o?n disco-rseG it sees itself realiDin1 ?8at it anno-nces as destin2. 3n t8is sense5 as 3 said before5 W8at is missin1 is t8e realiDation t8at t8is ?a2 of relatin1 to t8e f-t-re5 ?8ic8 is neit8er b-ildin15 in4entin1 or creatin1 it5 nor abidin1 b2 its necessit25 re,-ires a special metap82sics. Per8aps t8e best ?a2 to brin1 o-t t8e specificit2 of t8e metap82sics of proCected time is to ponder t8e fact t8at t8ere is no s-c8 clos-re or loopin1 condition as re1ards o-r Aordinar2A metap82sics5 in ?8ic8 time bif-rcates into a series of s-ccessi4e branc8es5 t8e act-al ?orld constit-tin1 one pat8 amon1 t8ese. 3 8a4e d-bbed t8is metap82sics of temporalit2 Aocc-rrin1 timeAG it is str-ct-red li$e a decision tree< Fb4io-sl2 t8e scenario approac8 pres-pposes t8e metap82sics of occ-rrin1 time. B-t t8at is also t8e case of t8e metap82sical str-ct-re of pre4ention. Pre4ention consists in ta$in1 action to ins-re t8at an -n?anted possibilit2 is rele1ated to t8e ontolo1ical realm of non7act-aliDed possibilities. T8e catastrop8e5 e4en t8o-18 it does not ta$e place5 retains t8e stat-s of

prop8ets are le1ion in o-r modern democratic societies5 fo-nded on science and tec8nolo12.

W8en one anno-nces5 in order to a4ert it5 t8at a catastrop8e is comin15 t8is anno-ncement does not possess t8e stat-s of a prediction5 in t8e strict sense of t8e term< it does not claim to sa2 ?8at t8e f-t-re ?ill be5 b-t onl2 ?8at it ?o-ld 8a4e been 8ad one failed to ta$e 2/ pre4enti4e meas-res. T8ere is no need for an2 loop to close 8ere< t8e anno-nced f-t-re does not 8a4e to coincide ?it8 t8e act-al f-t-re5 t8e forecast does not 8a4e to come tr-e5 for t8e anno-nced or forecast Af-t-reA is not in fact t8e f-t-re at all5 b-t a possible ?orld t8at is and ?ill remain not act-al. . B2 contrast5 in proCected time5 t8e f-t-re is 8eld to be fi)ed5 ?8ic8 means t8at an2 e4ent t8at is not part of t8e present or t8e f-t-re is an impossible e4ent. 3t immediatel2 follo?s
a possibilit25 not in t8e sense t8at it ?o-ld still be possible for it to ta$e place5 b-t in t8e sense t8at it ?ill fore4er remain tr-e t8at it co-ld 8a4e ta$en place. t8at in proCected time5 pr-dence can ne4er ta$e t8e form of pre4ention. Fnce a1ain5 pre4ention ass-mes t8at t8e -ndesirable e4ent t8at one pre4ents is an -nrealiDed possibilit2. T8e e4ent m-st

9-c8 notions as Aanticipator2 self7defenseA5 Apreempti4e attac$A5 or Apre4enti4e ?arA do not ma$e an2 sense in proCected time. T8e2 correspond to a parado) e)emplified b2 a classic fi1-re from literat-re and p8ilosop825 t8e $iller C-d1e. T8e $iller C-d1e Ane-traliDesA (m-rders t8e criminals of ?8om it is A?rittenA t8at t8e2 ?ill commit a crime ! b-t t8e
be possible for -s to 8a4e a reason to actG b-t if o-r action is effecti4e5 it ?ill not ta$e place. T8is is -nt8in$able ?it8in t8e frame?or$ of proCected time. conse,-ence of t8e ne-traliDation in ,-estion is precisel2 t8at t8e crime ?ill not be committedH!/ T8e parado) deri4es from t8e fail-re of t8e past prediction and t8e f-t-re e4ent to come to1et8er in a closed loop. B-t5 3 repeat5 t8e 4er2 idea of s-c8 a loop ma$es no sense in o-r ordinar2 metap82sics .

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Predictions Bad (2)


"#perts are no better predictors than dart throwing monkeysspecialist biases and market incentives for punditry $enand 200% (Io-is. ;(4er2bod2Js An ()pert.= The New Yorker. December %5 8ttp<>>???.ne?2or$er.com>arc8i4e>200%>12>0%>0%120%crbo@boo$s1Kc-rrentPa1eL1
3t is t8e some?8at 1ratif2in1 lesson of P8ilip Tetloc$Js ne? boo$5 ;()pert Political 6-d1ment< 0o? Good 3s 3tK 0o? +an We Kno?K= (PrincetonG M!% 5 t8at people ?8o ma$e prediction t8eir b-sinessNpeople ?8o appear as e)perts on tele4ision5 1et ,-oted

in ne?spaper articles5 ad4ise 1o4ernments and b-sinesses5 and participate in p-nditr2 ro-ndtablesNare no better t8an t8e rest of -s. W8en t8e2Jre ?ron15 t8e2Jre rarel2 8eld acco-ntable 5 and t8e2 rarel2 admit it5 eit8er. T8e2 insist t8at t8e2 ?ere C-st off on timin15 or blindsided b2 an improbable e4ent5 or almost ri18t5 or ?ron1 for t8e ri18t reasons. T8e2
8a4e t8e same repertoire of self7C-stifications t8at e4er2one 8as5 and are no more inclined t8an an2one else to re4ise t8eir beliefs abo-t t8e ?a2 t8e ?orld ?or$s5 or o-18t to ?or$5 C-st beca-se t8e2 made a mista$e. 'o one is pa2in1 2o- for 2o-r 1rat-ito-s opinions abo-t ot8er people5 b-t t8e e)perts are bein1 paid5 and Tetloc$ claims t8at t8e better $no?n and more fre,-entl2 ,-oted t8e2 are5 t8e less reliable t8eir 1-esses abo-t t8e f-t-re are li$el2 to be. T8e acc-rac2 of an e)pertJs predictions act-all2 8as an in4erse relations8ip to 8is or 8er self7

confidence5 reno?n5 and5 be2ond a certain point5 dept8 of $no?led1e. People ?8o follo? c-rrent e4ents b2 readin1 t8e papers and ne?sma1aDines re1-larl2 can 1-ess ?8at is li$el2 to 8appen abo-t as acc-ratel2 as t8e specialists ?8om t8e papers ,-ote. F-r s2stem of e)pertise is completel2 inside o-t< it re?ards bad C-d1ments o4er 1ood ones. ;()pert Political 6-d1ment= is not a ?or$ of media criticism. Tetloc$ is a ps2c8olo1istN8e teac8es at Ber$ele2Nand 8is concl-sions are based on a lon17term st-d2 t8at 8e be1an t?ent2 2ears a1o. 0e pic$ed t?o 8-ndred and ei18t27 fo-r people ?8o made t8eir li4in1 ;commentin1 or offerin1 ad4ice on political and economic trends5= and 8e started as$in1 t8em to assess t8e probabilit2 t8at 4ario-s t8in1s ?o-ld or ?o-ld not come to pass 5 bot8 in t8e areas of
t8e ?orld in ?8ic8 t8e2 specialiDed and in areas abo-t ?8ic8 t8e2 ?ere not e)pert. Wo-ld t8ere be a non4iolent end to apart8eid in 9o-t8 AfricaK Wo-ld Gorbac8e4 be o-sted in a co-pK Wo-ld t8e :nited 9tates 1o to ?ar in t8e Persian G-lfK Wo-ld +anada disinte1rateK (Man2 e)perts belie4ed t8at it ?o-ld5 on t8e 1ro-nd t8at O-ebec ?o-ld s-cceed in secedin1. And so on. B2 t8e end of t8e st-d25 in 200!5 t8e e)perts 8ad made .25!&1 forecasts. Tetloc$ also as$ed ,-estions desi1ned to determine 8o? t8e2 reac8ed t8eir C-d1ments5 8o? t8e2 reacted ?8en t8eir predictions pro4ed to be ?ron15 8o? t8e2 e4al-ated ne? information t8at did not s-pport t8eir 4ie?s5 and 8o? t8e2 assessed t8e probabilit2 t8at ri4al t8eories and predictions ?ere acc-rate. Tetloc$ 1ot a statistical 8andle on 8is tas$ b2 p-ttin1 most of t8e forecastin1 ,-estions into a ;t8ree possible f-t-res= form. T8e respondents ?ere as$ed to rate t8e probabilit2 of t8ree alternati4e o-tcomes< t8e persistence of t8e stat-s ,-o5 more of somet8in1 (political freedom5 economic 1ro?t8 5 or less of somet8in1 (repression5 recession . And 8e meas-red 8is e)perts on t?o dimensions< 8o? 1ood t8e2 ?ere at 1-essin1 probabilities (did all t8e t8in1s t8e2 said 8ad an ) per cent c8ance of 8appenin1 8appen ) per cent of t8e timeK 5 and 8o? acc-rate t8e2 ?ere at predictin1 specific o-tcomes. T8e res-lts ?ere -nimpressi4e. Fn t8e first scale5 t8e e)perts

performed ?orse t8an t8e2 ?o-ld 8a4e if t8e2 8ad simpl2 assi1ned an e,-al probabilit2 to all t8ree o-tcomesNif t8e2 8ad 1i4en eac8 possible f-t-re a t8irt27t8ree7per7cent c8ance of occ-rrin1. 0-man bein1s ?8o spend t8eir li4es st-d2in1 t8e state of t8e ?orld5 in ot8er ?ords5 are poorer forecasters t8an dart7t8ro?in1 mon$e2s5 ?8o ?o-ld 8a4e distrib-ted t8eir pic$s e4enl2 o4er t8e t8ree c8oices. Tetloc$ also fo-nd t8at specialists are not si1nificantl2 more reliable t8an non7specialists in 1-essin1 ?8at is 1oin1 to 8appen in t8e re1ion t8e2 st-d2 . Kno?in1 a little mi18t ma$e someone a more reliable forecaster5 b-t Tetloc$ fo-nd t8at $no?in1 a lot can act-all2 ma$e a person less reliable . ;We
reac8 t8e point of diminis8in1 mar1inal predicti4e ret-rns for $no?led1e disconcertin1l2 ,-ic$l25= 8e reports. ;3n t8is a1e of academic 82perspecialiDation5 t8ere is no reason for s-pposin1 t8at contrib-tors to top Co-rnalsN distin1-is8ed political scientists5 area st-d2

specialists5 economists5 and so onNare an2 better t8an Co-rnalists or attenti4e readers of t8e 'e? Bor$ Times in Preadin1J emer1in1 sit-ations.= And t8e more famo-s t8e forecaster t8e more o4erblo?n t8e forecasts. ;()perts in demand5= Tetloc$ sa2s5 ;?ere more o4erconfident t8an t8eir collea1-es ?8o e$ed o-t e)istences far from t8e limeli18t.= "#pert predictions have the lowest probabilitybias and grandstanding are inherent in their self&interested politics Menand5 Io-is. ;(4er2bod2Js An ()pert.= The New Yorker. December %5 200%. 8ttp<>>???.ne?2or$er.com>arc8i4e>200%>12>0%>0%120%crbo@boo$s1Kc-rrentPa1eL1 T8e e)pert7prediction 1ame is not m-c8 different. W8en tele4ision p-ndits ma$e predictions5 t8e more in1enio-s t8eir forecasts t8e 1reater t8eir cac8et. An arrestin1 ne? prediction means t8at t8e e)pert 8as disco4ered a set of interloc$in1 ca-ses t8at no one else 8as spotted5 and t8at co-ld lead to an o-tcome t8at t8e con4entional ?isdom is i1norin1. Fn s8o?s li$e ;T8e McIa-18lin Gro-p5= t8ese e)perts ne4er lose t8eir rep-tations5 or t8eir Cobs5 beca-se lon1 s8ots are t8eir b-siness. More serio-s commentators differ from t8e p-ndits onl2 in t8e de1ree of s8o?mans8ip. T8ese serio-s e)pertsNt8e t8in$ tan$ers and area7st-dies professorsNare not entirel2 o-t to entertain5 b-t t8e2 are a little o-t to entertain5 and bot8 t8eir stat-s as e)perts and t8eir appeal as performers re,-ire t8em to predict f-t-res t8at are not ob4io-s to t8e 4ie?er. T8e prod-cer of t8e s8o? does not ?ant 2o- and me to sit t8ere listenin1 to an e)pert and t8in$in15 3 co-ld 8a4e said t8at. T8e e)pert also s-ffers from $no?in1 too m-c8< t8e more facts an e)pert 8as5 t8e more information is a4ailable to be enlisted in s-pport of 8is or 8er pet t8eories5 and t8e more c8ains of ca-sation 8e or s8e can find be1-ilin1. T8is 8elps e)plain ?82 specialists fail to o-t1-ess non7specialists. T8e odds tend to be ?it8 t8e ob4io-s. !

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Predictions Bad (3)


Don't grant their long internal link anything more than a low risk probabilitythe more variables! the less likely something is likely to occur.

$enand 200%
(Io-is. ;(4er2bod2Js An ()pert.= The New Yorker. December %5 8ttp<>>???.ne?2or$er.com>arc8i4e>200%>12>0%>0%120%crbo@boo$s1Kc-rrentPa1eL1 And5 li$e most of -s5 e)perts 4iolate a f-ndamental r-le of probabilities b2 tendin1 to find scenarios ?it8 more 4ariables more li$el2. 3f a prediction needs t?o independent t8in1s to 8appen in order for it to be tr-e5 its probabilit2 is t8e prod-ct of t8e probabilit2 of eac8 of t8e t8in1s it depends on. 3f t8ere is a one7in7t8ree c8ance of ) and a one7in7fo-r c8ance of 25 t8e probabilit2 of bot8 ) and 2 occ-rrin1 is one in t?el4e. B-t ?e often feel instincti4el2 t8at if t8e t?o e4ents ;fit to1et8er= in some scenario t8e c8ance of bot8 is 1reater5 not less . T8e classic
;Iinda problem= is an analo1o-s case. 3n t8is e)periment5 s-bCects are told5 ;Iinda is t8irt27one 2ears old5 sin1le5 o-tspo$en5 and 4er2 bri18t. 98e maCored in p8ilosop82. As a st-dent5 s8e ?as deepl2 concerned ?it8 iss-es of discrimination and social C-stice and also participated in antin-clear demonstrations.= T8e2 are t8en as$ed to ran$ t8e probabilit2 of se4eral possible descriptions of Iinda toda2. T?o of t8em are ;ban$ teller= and ;ban$ teller and acti4e in t8e feminist mo4ement.= People ran$ t8e second description 8i18er t8an t8e first5 e4en t8o-185 lo1icall25 its li$eli8ood is smaller5 beca-se it re,-ires t?o t8in1s to be tr-eNt8at Iinda is a ban$ teller and t8at Iinda is an acti4e feministN rat8er t8an one.

(redictions failthere will never be complete disorder like the impacts! only the emergence of new patterns. )tabili*ing the system by eliminating the difference between the rich and the poor is the best option +oung ,--, (T.#.5 #ed Qeat8er 3nstit-te for Ad4anced 9ociolo125 T8e 9ocial 9cience 6o-rnal5 ;+8aos and social c8an1e< Metap82sics of t8e postmodern5= 2.<!5 (B9+F
9ince ?e do not t8in$ in terms of bif-rcations in social c8an1e t8eor2 it is necessar2 to 1i4e some t8o-18t to t8e epistemic correlates of s-c8 bif-rcations no?. 3n ot8er ?or$5 3 8a4e s-11ested t8at ?8en t8e forms of ?ealt85 stat-s and po?er bif-rcate be2ond a critical 4al-e5 t8en far from e,-ilibri-m patterns of c8aos set in.(n!% 3n terms of ?ealt85 ?8en land 8oldin1s bif-rcate s-c8 t8at t8e a4era1e 8oldin1s of one 1ro-p are do-bled fo-r times5 i.e.5 are 1& or more times as lar1e as t8e land 8oldin1s of a second 1ro-p5 one can e)pect destabiliDin1 c8aos. Fr5 in t8e case of demo1rap8ics5 if one 1ro-p 8as an infant mortalit2 rate t?o5 t8en fo-r5 t8en ei18t5 t8en 1& times as 8i18 as a second5 more pri4ili1ed 1ro-p5 -nstable c8aotic s2stems can be e)pected.(n!& A1ain5 in t8e case of po?er5 W8en one 1ro-p do-bles and redo-bles its representation in a le1islat-re ?8ile ot8er 1ro-ps of t8e same or lar1er siDe lose 8alf and 8alf a1ain of t8eir representation5 t8en political -nrest mi18t be e)pected. 3t is t8ese bif-rcations for ?8ic8 t8e c8an1e researc8er mi18t ?ell loo$. 3n t8e case of economic be8a4ior5 small mar1ins of profit ma2 optimiDe t8e s2stem ?8ile sli18tl2 lar1er mar1ins of profit prod-ce bif-rcations in demand and s-ppl2 -ntil t8e s2stem 1oes into far from stable c8aotic be8a4ior.(n!* Fne m-st $eep in mind t8at c8aos t8eor2 ?o-ld not predict complete

disorderG an end to prod-ction and distrib-tionG it ?o-ld predict t8e emer1ence of ne? patterns. A pattern ?e see no? in s-c8 a sit-ation is a 4er2 comple) life st2le for t8e ric8 and a 4er2 c8aotic life st2le for t8e poor. 9ince t8ere are linear social connections bet?een ric8 and poor in o-r societ25 s8o-ld life st2les contin-e bif-rcatin15 t8e ?8ole s2stems ?ill transform to far7from7stable c8aotic d2namics. As ine,-alit2 1ro?s ?it8in a social formation5 t8e c2cles of life of differin1 b-t interdependent se1ments of t8e pop-lation ma2 1et so far o-t of p8ase t8at a ?ide 4ariet2 of contradictor2 and pret8eoretical responses are adopted to meet t8e life crises of t8ose affectedG inflation5 crime5 mi1ration or totalitarian met8ods of social control.(n!. 3n t8e case of crime5 bif-rcations bet?een desire and reso-rces ma2 be in4ol4ed in 8i18 crime societies. Wit8 t8e interaction of American 4al-es5 4iolent crime and propert2 crime become attractors of be8a4ior.(n!/ 3t is not5 t8en5 po4ert2 ?8ic8 Eca-sesE crime b-t c2cles of desire for 1oods and ser4ices not matc8ed b2 t8e c2cles of reso-rces ?it8 ?8ic8 to obtain t8em. 3n t8is perspecti4e5 t8e ric8 are as li$el2 to commit crime as 4iolent as are t8e poorG more li$el2 if t8eir le4els of desire 1reatl2 o-tr-n t8eir le4els of income.

"

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Risk Assessment Bad (1)


.s a /udge you must not base decisions on worst&case scenarios but rather balanced risk assessment 0escher 12
R'ic8olas5 Professor of P8ilosop82 at :ni4ersit2 of Pittsb-r185 #is$< A P8ilosop8ical 3ntrod-ction to t8e T8eor2 of #is$ (4al-ation and Mana1ement5 P1 %0S T8e A?orst possible case fi)ationA is one of t8e most dama1in1 modes of -nrealism in deliberations abo-t ris$ in real7life sit-ations. Preocc-pation abo-t ?8at mi18t 8appen Aif ?orst comes to ?orstA is co-nterprod-cti4e ?8ene4er ?e proceed ?it8o-t reco1niDin1 t8at5 often as not5 t8ese ?orst possible o-tcomes are ?ildl2 improbable (and sometimes do not deser4e to be 4ie?ed as real possibilities at all . T8e cr-) in ris$ deliberations is not t8e iss-e of loss Aif ?orst comes to ?orstEE b-t t8e potential ac7 ceptabilit2 of t8is prospect ?it8in t8e ?ider frame?or$ of t8e ris$ sit-ation5 ?8ere ?e ma2 ?ell be prepared Ato ta$e o-r c8ances5A considerin1 t8e possible ad4anta1es t8at bec$on alon1 t8is ro-te.
T8e ?orst t8reat is certainl2 somet8in1 to be borne in mind and ta$en into acco-nt5 b-t it is emp8aticall2 not a satisfactor2 inde) of t8e o4erall serio-sness or 1ra4it2 of a sit-ation of 8aDard.

3ow probabilities should be dismissed as *ero risk. 0escher ,-2


('ic8olas. :ni4ersit2 Professor of P8ilosop82 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of Pittsb-r1. +8airman of t8e P8ilosop82 Department. Director of t8e +enter for P8ilosop82 of 9cience. 0onorar2 de1rees from . -ni4ersities on ! continents. Doctorate in P8ilosop82 from Princeton. ;#is$< A P8ilosop8ical 3ntrod-ction to t8e t8eor2 of #is$ (4al-ation and Mana1ement=.. :ni4ersit2 Press of America. P !/7"0 B-t in decision t8eor2 t8ere are t?o different5 more pressin1 reasons for dismissin1 s-fficientl2 improbable possibilities. Fne is t8at t8ere are C-st too man2 of t8em. To be as$ed to rec$on ?it8 s-c8 remote possibilities is to baffle o-r t8o-18t b2 sendin1 it on a c8ase after endless alternati4es. Anot8er reason lies in o-r need and desire to a4oid st-ltif2in1 action. 3tJs simpl2 ;8-man nat-re= to dismiss s-fficientl2 remote e4ent-alities in oneJs personal calc-lations. T8e ;TacationerJs Dilemma= of Qi1-re 1 ill-strates t8is. Fnl2 b2 dismissin1 certain s-fficientl2 remote catastrop8ic possibilities as o-tside t8e ran1e of real possibilities can ?e a4oid t8e st-ltification of action on an2t8in1 li$e standard decision7ma$in1 approac8 represented b2 e)pected74al-e calc-lations. T8e 4acationer ta$es t8e
pla-sible line of re4ie?in1 t8e c8ance of disaster as effecti4el2 Dero5 t8ereb2 eliminatin1 t8at -nacceptable possible o-tcome from pla2in1 a role b2 ?a2 of intimidation. People 1enerall2 (and C-stifiedl2 proceed on t8e ass-mption t8at t8e probabilit2 of s-fficientl2 -nli$el2

disasters can be set at DeroG t8at -npleasant e4ent-ations of ;s-bstantial improbabilit2= can be dismissed and ta$en to lie o-tside t8e realm of ;real= possibilities. 4igh magnitude impacts like e#tinction must be avoided regardless of probability! some impacts should not be suspect to risk evaluation5we /ust can't take the chance6

0escher ,-2
('ic8olas. :ni4ersit2 Professor of P8ilosop82 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of Pittsb-r1. +8airman of t8e P8ilosop82 Department. Director of t8e +enter for P8ilosop82 of 9cience. 0onorar2 de1rees from . -ni4ersities on ! continents. Doctorate in P8ilosop82 from Princeton. ;#is$< A P8ilosop8ical 3ntrod-ction to t8e t8eor2 of #is$ (4al-ation and Mana1ement=.. :ni4ersit2 Press of America. P &"7&% A disparit2 of ris$s arises ?8en t8ere is so serio-s an imbalance amon1 alternati4e e4ent-ations so 1reat a difference in t8e relati4e siDe of t8e prospecti4e ne1ati4ities at iss-e t8at one alternati4e can be 4ie?ed as simpl2 ineli1ible relati4e to anot8er5 ,-ite independentl2 of considerations of probabilistic detail. T8e prospect of s-c8 a ne1ati4it2 is simpl2 -nacceptable relati4e to t8e 1ains or losses ot8er?ise operati4e in t8e sit-ation5 ?it8o-t reference to an2 ;balance of probabilities.= T8-s no matter what the balance of probabilities, the reasonable man would not risk
loss of life or limb to avert the prospect of some trivial inconvenience. 'or ?o-ld 8e e4er ris$ -tter impo4eris8ment to a4ert t8e possible loss of a fe? cents at an2 rate as lon1 as ?e are not dealin1 ?it8 probabilities t8at are ;effecti4el2 Dero.= T8e prospecti4e dama1e of t8e one

alternati4e is too 1reat in relation to t8e potential loss of t8e ot8er5 re1ardless of t8e odds. Fne ;C-st canJt ta$e t8e c8ance.= 3n t8is li18t consider a c8oice7sit-ation of t8e form set o-t in Qi1-re 1. 3n a sit-ation of t8is sort5 t8e possible losses at iss-e can
pro4e to be of alto1et8er different orders. T8e ne1ati4it2 of B can be so lar1e relati4e to t8at of U t8at t8e2 are simpl2 not in t8e same lea1-e one ?o-ld rationall2 opt for one and s8-n t8e ot8er re1ardless of 8o? t8e probabilities of x and y are adC-sted. 3n t8e conditions at iss-e5 t8e Y ris$in1 8aDard is simpl2 -nacceptable. 3t is -nC-stified as ?ell as -nrealistic to ta$e t8e stance t8at all ne1ati4ities are

essentiall2 comparable and to 8old t8at one can al?a2s be balanced off a1ainst anot8er b2 s-c8 probabilistic manip-lations.

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Risk Assessment Bad (2)


4igh magnitude impacts like e#tinction must be avoided regardless of probability 0escher! ,-2 .
('ic8olas. :ni4ersit2 Professor of P8ilosop82 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of Pittsb-r1. +8airman of t8e P8ilosop82 Department. Director of t8e +enter for P8ilosop82 of 9cience. 0onorar2 de1rees from . -ni4ersities on ! continents. Doctorate in P8ilosop82 from Princeton. ;#is$< A P8ilosop8ical 3ntrod-ction to t8e t8eor2 of #is$ (4al-ation and Mana1ement=. :ni4ersit2 Press of America. P &*7&. 3n s-c8 sit-ations ?e are dealin1 ?it8 8aDards t8at are C-st not in t8e same lea1-e. +ertain 8aDards are simpl2 -nacceptable beca-se t8e2 in4ol4e a (relati4el2 -nacceptable t8reat t8in1s ma2 1o so ?ron1 so badl2 t8at5 relati4e to t8e alternati4e5 itJs C-st not ?ort8?8ile to ;r-n t8e ris$=G e4en in t8e face of a fa4orable balance of probabilities . T8e rational man is
not ?illin1 to trade off a1ainst one anot8er b2 C-11lin1 probabilities s-c8 o-tcomes as t8e loss of one 8air and t8e loss of 8is 8ealt8 or 8is freedom. T8e imbalance or disparit2 bet?een t8e ris$s is C-st too 1reat to be restored b2 probabilistic readC-stments. T8e2 are (probabilisticall2 incommens-rable< confronted ?it8 s-c8 ;incomparable= 8aDards5 ?e do not bot8er to ?ei18 t8is

;balance of probabilities= at all5 b-t simpl2 dismiss one alternati4e as in4ol4in1 ris$s t8at are in t8e circ-mstances5 ;-nacceptable.= T8e disparit2 of ris$s resides in considerations of self protections so basic and r-dimentar2 t8at considerations of probabilistic detail are br-s8ed aside and o4erridden. T8e o4er?8elmin1 ne1ati4it2 of a possible o-tcome is itself a decidin1
factor. T8e sit-ation cries o-t to be 4ie?ed in terms of t8e follo?in1 principle of safet2 first in t8e face of -nacceptable ris$s. Unacceptable isk !rinciple. A disparit2 of ris$ e)ists ?8en t8e ma)im-m possible loss associated ?it8 one of t8e c8oice

alternati4es is massi4el25 na25 incomparabl2 1reater t8an t8at associated ?it8 ot8ers. 3n s-c8 cases ?e re1ard t8ese comparati4el2 catastrop8ic alternati4es as a-tomaticall2 ineli1ible. (:nless t8e relati4el2 -nacceptable o-tcomes at iss-e are
associated are associated ?it8 effecti4el2 Dero probabilities.

&

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

No Extinction
)ingle impacts will not cause e#tinction& humans are resilent Tonn 200% (Br-ce5 Q-t-res 9t-dies Department5 +or4in-s :ni4ersit2 of B-dapest5 ;0-man ()tinction
9cenarios5= ???.b-dapestf-t-res.or1>do?nloads>abstracts>Br-ceV20TonnV207V20Abstract.pdf T8e 8-man species faces n-mero-s t8reats to its e)istence. T8ese incl-de 1lobal climate c8an1e5 collisions ?it8 near7eart8 obCects5 n-clear ?ar5 and pandemics. W8ile t8ese t8reats are indeed serio-s5 ta$en separatel2 t8e2 fail to describe e)actl2 8o? 8-mans co-ld become e)tinct. Qor e)ample5 n-clear ?ar b2 itself ?o-ld most li$el2 fail to $ill e4er2one on t8e planet5 as stri$es ?o-ld probabl2 be concentrated in t8e nort8ern 8emisp8ere and t8e Middle (ast5 lea4in1 pop-lations in 9o-t8 America5 9o-t8 Africa5 A-stralia and 'e? Wealand some 8ope of s-r4i4al. 3t is 8i18l2 -nli$el2 t8at an2 -ncontrollable nanotec8nolo12 co-ld e4er be prod-ced b-t e4en it if ?ere5 it is li$el2 t8at 8-mans co-ld de4elop effecti4e5 if costl25 co-ntermeas-res5 s-c8 as prod-cin1 t8e tec8nolo1ies in space or destro2in1 sites of r-na?a2 nanotec8nolo1ies ?it8 n-clear ?eapons. Tir-ses co-ld indeed $ill man2 people b-t effecti4e ,-arantine of a 8ealt82 people co-ld be accomplis8ed to sa4e lar1e n-mbers of people. 0-mans appear to be resilient to e)tinction ?it8 respect to sin1le e4ents.

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Conseq entia!ism Bad


7sing the contemporary notions of conse8uentialism relies on the rationalist ontology of strategy and security which only enframe the image of technology and being which results in the reinforcement of war norms. 970:" 200; (Ant8on2 B-r$e. 9enior Iect-rer in Politics and 3nternational #elations at :'9W. ;Fntolo1ies of
War< Tiolence5 ()istence and #eason= Co8n 0op$ins :ni4ersit2 Press. 8ttp<>>m-se.C8-.ed->Co-rnals>t8eor2@and@e4ent>4010>10.2b-r$e.8tml T8is essa2 describes firstl2 t8e ontolo12 of t8e national sec-rit2 state (b2 ?a2 of t8e political p8ilosop82 of T8omas 0obbes5 +arl 9c8mitt and G. W. Q. 0e1el and secondl2 t8e rationalist ontolo12 of strate12 (b2 ?a2 of t8e 1eopolitical t8o-18t of 0enr2 Kissin1er 5 s8o?in1 8o? t8e2 cr2stallise into a m-t-all2 reinforcin1 s2stem of s-pport and C-stification5 especiall2 in t8e t8o-18t of +la-se?itD. T8is creates bot8 a profo-nd et8ical and pra1matic problem. T8e et8ical problem arises beca-se of t8eir militaristic force 77 t8e2 embod2 and reinforce a norm of ?ar 77 and beca-se t8e2 enact ?8at Martin 0eide11er calls an Eenframin1E ima1e of tec8nolo12 and bein1 in ?8ic8 8-mans are merel2 -tilitarian instr-ments for -se5 control and destr-ction5 and force 77 in t8e ?ords of one famo-s +old War strate1ist 77 can be t8o-18t of as a Epo?er to 8-rtE. 1/ T8e pra1matic problem arises beca-se force so often prod-ces neit8er t8e linear s2stem of effects ima1ined in strate1ic t8eor2 nor an2t8in1 ?e co-ld meanin1f-ll2 call sec-rit25 b-t rat8er t-rns in -pon itself in a ni8ilistic spiral of pain and destr-ction. 3n t8e era of a E?ar on terrorE dominantl2 concei4ed in 9c8mittian and +la-se?itDian
terms5A20 t8e ar1-ments of 0anna8 Arendt (t8at 4iolence collapses ends into means and (mman-el Ie4inas (t8at Ee4er2 ?ar emplo2s arms t8at t-rn a1ainst t8ose t8at ?ield t8emE ta$e on added si1nificance. 'eit8er5 8o?e4er5 e)plored ?8at occ-rs ?8en ?ar and bein1 are made to coincide5 ot8er t8an Ie4inasE intri1-in1 comment t8at in ?ar persons Epla2 roles in ?8ic8 t8e2 no lon1er reco1nises t8emsel4es5 ma$in1 t8em betra2 not onl2 commitments b-t t8eir o?n s-bstanceE.

<onse8uences only seek a set of truths about the world which never 8uestions the epistemology of violence 970:" 200; Ant8on2 B-r$e. 9enior Iect-rer in Politics and 3nternational #elations at :'9W. ;Fntolo1ies of
War< Tiolence5 ()istence and #eason= Co8n 0op$ins :ni4ersit2 Press. 8ttp<>>m-se.C8-.ed->Co-rnals>t8eor2@and@e4ent>4010>10.2b-r$e.8tml W8at 3 am tr2in1 to describe in t8is essa2 is a comple) relation bet?een5 and inter?ea4in1 of5 epistemolo12 and ontolo12. B-t it is not m2 4ie? t8at t8ese are distinct modes of $no?led1e or le4els of tr-t85 beca-se in t8e social field named b2 sec-rit25 statecraft and 4iolence t8e2 are made to bl-r to1et8er5 contin-all2 referrin1 bac$ on eac8 ot8er5 li$e c8ar1es dartin1 bet?een electrodes. #at8er t8e2 are related s2stems of $no?led1e ?it8 partic-lar s2stemic roles and intensities of claim abo-t tr-t85 political bein1 and political necessit2. Positi4istic or scientific claims to epistemolo1ical tr-t8 s-ppl2 an air of predictabilit2 and reliabilit2 to polic2 and political action5 ?8ic8 in t-rn s-pport lar1er ontolo1ical claims to national bein1 and p-rpose5 dra?in1 t8em into a common 8oriDon of certaint2 t8at is one of t8e central feat-res of past7+artesian modernit2. 0ere it ma2 be -sef-l to see ontolo12 as a more totalisin1 and metap82sical set of claims abo-t tr-t85 and epistemolo12 as more pra1matic and instr-mentalG b-t ?8ile a distinction bet?een epistemolo12 ($no?led1e as tec8ni,-e and ontolo12 ($no?led1e as bein1 8as anal2tical 4al-e5 it tends to brea$ do?n in action. T8e epistemolo12 of 4iolence 3 describe 8ere (strate1ic science and forei1n polic2 doctrine claims positi4istic clarit2 abo-t tec8ni,-es of militar2 and 1eopolitical action ?8ic8 -se force and coercion to ac8ie4e a desired end5 an end t8at is s-pplied b2 t8e ontolo1ical claim to national e)istence5 sec-rit25 or order. 0o?e4er in practice5 tec8ni,-e ,-ic$l2 passes into ontolo12. T8is it does in t?o ?a2s. Qirst5 instr-mental 4iolence is married to an ontolo12 of insec-re national e)istence ?8ic8 itself admits no ,-estionin1. T8e nation and its identit2 are $no?n and essential5 prior to an2 conflict5 and t8e resort to 4iolence becomes an e,-all2 essential predicate of its perpet-ation. 3n t8is ?a2 $no?led1e7as7strate12 claims5 in a positi4istic fas8ion5 to ac8ie4e a calc-labilit2 of effects (po?er for an -ltimate p-rpose (sec-rin1 bein1 t8at it m-st al?a2s ass-me. 9econd5 strate12 as a tec8ni,-e not merel2 becomes an instr-ment of state po?er b-t ontolo"ises itself in a tec8nolo1ical ima1e of EmanE as a ma$er and -ser of t8in1s5 incl-din1 ot8er 8-mans5 ?8ic8 8a4e no essence or inte1rit2 o-tside t8eir 4al-e as obCects. 3n 0eide11erEs terms5 tec8nolo12 becomes bein1G epistemolo12 immediatel2 becomes tec8ni,-e5 immediatel2 bein1. T8is combination co-ld
be seen in t8e aftermat8 of t8e 200& Iebanon ?ar5 ?8ose ob4io-s strate1ic fail-re for 3sraelis 1enerated fierce attac$s on t8e arm2 and political leaders8ip and forced t8e resi1nation of t8e 3DQ c8ief of staff. Bet in its ?a$e neit8er ontolo12 ?as ret8o-18t. +onsider 8o? a reser4e soldier5 ?8ile on bri1ade7siDed manoe-4res in t8e Golan 0ei18ts in earl2 200*5 ?as ,-oted as sa2in1< E?e are read2 for t8e ne)t ?arE. :ri A4ner2 ,-oted 3sraeli commentators e)plainin1 t8e rationale for s-c8 a ?ar as bein1 to Eeradicate t8e s8ame and restore to t8e arm2 t8e Adeterrent po?erA t8at ?as lost on t8e battlefields of t8at -nfort-nate ?arE. 3n E3sraeli p-blic disco-rseE5 8e remar$ed5 Et8e ne)t ?ar is seen as a nat-ral p8enomenon5 li$e tomorro?Es s-nrise.E

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of "error "a!k (1)


The idea of a threatening terrorist in academic discourse! such as debate! constructs the terrorist as the se#ual! 8ueer! and racial 5monster6 that is defined in relation to a heteronormative patriotism. (uar and 0ai 02 (6asbir K. P-ar5 assistant professor of ?omenEs st-dies and 1eo1rap82 at #-t1ers :ni4ersit2.
Amit 9. #ai teac8es c-lt-ral and literar2 st-dies at t8e 'e? 9c8ool :ni4ersit2 in 'e? Bor$ +it2. ;Monster5 Terrorist5 Qa1< T8e War on Terrorism and t8e Prod-ction of Docile Patriots= 9ocial Te)t 20.! (2002 5 proCect m-se. DQ 0o? are 1ender and se)-alit2 central to t8e c-rrent A?ar on terrorismAK T8is ,-estion opens on to ot8ers< 0o? are t8e tec8nolo1ies t8at are bein1 de4eloped to combat AterrorismA depart-res from or transformations of older tec8nolo1ies of 8eteronormati4it25 ?8ite s-premac25 and nationalismK 3n ?8at ?a2 do contemporar2 co-nterterrorism practices deplo2 t8ese tec8nolo1ies5 and 8o? do t8ese practices and tec8nolo1ies become t8e ,-otidian frame?or$ t8ro-18 ?8ic8 ?e are obli1ed to str-11le5 s-r4i4e5 and resistK 9e)-alit2 is central to t8e creation of a certain $no?led1e of terrorism 5 specificall2 t8at branc8 of strate1ic anal2sis t8at 8as entered t8e academic mainstream as Aterrorism st-dies.A T8is $no?led1e 8as a 8istor2 t8at ties t8e ima1e of t8e modern terrorist to a m-c8 older fi1-re5 t8e racial and se)-al monsters of t8e ei18teent8 and nineteent8 cent-ries. Q-rt8er5 t8e constr-ction of t8e pat8olo1iDed ps2c8e of t8e terrorist7monster enables t8e practices of normaliDation5 ?8ic8 in toda2Es conte)t often means an a11ressi4e 8eterose)-al patriotism. As opposed to initial post79eptember 11 reactions5 ?8ic8 foc-sed narro?l2 on At8e disappearance of ?omen5A
?e consider t8e ,-estion of 1ender C-stice and ,-eer politics t8ro-18 broader frames of reference5 all ?it8 m-ltiple 1enealo1iesNindeed5 as ?e 8ope to s8o?5 1ender and se)-alit2 prod-ce bot8 82per4isible icons and t8e 18osts t8at 8a-nt t8e mac8ines of ?ar. T8-s5 ?e ma$e t?o related ar1-ments< (1 t8at t8e constr-ct of t8e terrorist relies on a $no?led1e of se)-al per4ersit2 (failed 8eterose)-alit25 Western notions of t8e ps2c8e5 and a certain ,-eer monstrosit2 G and (2 t8at normaliDation

in4ites an a11ressi4e 8eterose)-al patriotism t8at ?e can see5 for e)ample5 in dominant media representations (for e)ample5 T8e West Win1 5 and in t8e or1aniDin1 efforts of 9i$8 Americans in response to 9eptember 11 (t8e fetis8 of t8e At-rbanedA 9i$8 man is cr-cial 8ere . 1 T8e forms of po?er no? bein1 deplo2ed in t8e ?ar on terrorism in fact dra? on processes of ,-arantinin1 a racialiDed and se)-aliDed ot8er5 e4en as Western norms of t8e ci4iliDed s-bCect pro4ide t8e frame?or$ t8ro-18 ?8ic8 t8ese 4er2 same ot8ers become s-bCects to be corrected . F-r itinerar2 be1ins ?it8 an e)amination of Mic8el Qo-ca-ltEs fi1-re of monstrosit2 as a member of t8e WestEs Aabnormals5A follo?ed b2 a consideration of t8e -ncann2 ret-rn of t8e monster in t8e disco-rses of Aterrorism st-dies.A We t8en mo4e to t8e relations8ip R(nd Pa1e 11*S bet?een t8ese monstro-s fi1-res in contemporar2 forms of 8eteronormati4e patriotism. We concl-de b2
offerin1 readin1s of t8e terrorism episode of T8e West Win1 and an anal2sis of 9o-t8 Asian and 9i$8 American comm-nit27based or1aniDin1 in response to 9eptember 11.

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of "error "a!k (2)


9y talking about the terrorist as irrational! dirty! and something to be feared you transform the category into that of the 5monster6& a direct sight through which power operates to create a hetero&se#ual! racial! and cultural norm at the e#pense of all others. (uar and 0ai 02 (6asbir K. P-ar5 assistant professor of ?omenEs st-dies and 1eo1rap82 at #-t1ers :ni4ersit2.
Amit 9. #ai teac8es c-lt-ral and literar2 st-dies at t8e 'e? 9c8ool :ni4ersit2 in 'e? Bor$ +it2. ;Monster5 Terrorist5 Qa1< T8e War on Terrorism and t8e Prod-ction of Docile Patriots= 9ocial Te)t 20.! (2002 5 proCect m-se. DQ To be1in5 let -s consider t8e monster. W825 in ?8at ?a25 8as monstrosit2 come to or1aniDe t8e disco-rse on terrorismK Qirst5 ?e co-ld merel2 1lance at t8e lan1-a1e -sed b2 t8e dominant media in its interested depictions of 3slamic militanc2. 9o5 as an
article in t8e 'e? Bor$ Times points o-t5 AFsama bin Iaden5 accordin1 to Qo) 'e?s +8annel anc8ors5 anal2sts and correspondents5 is Ea dirtba15E Ea monsterE o4erseein1 a E?eb of 8ate.E 0is follo?ers in Al Oaeda are =terror goons.= Taliban fi18ters are EdiabolicalE and E8enc8men.EA 2 Fr5 in anot8er Web article5 ?e read< A3t is important to realiDe t8at t8e Taliban does not simpl2 tolerate t8e presence of bin Iaden and 8is terrorist trainin1 camps in Af18anistan. 3t is part and parcel of t8e same e4il alliance. Al7OaEida and t8e Taliban are t?o different 8eads of t8e same monster5 and t8e2 s8are t8e same fanatical obsession< imposin1 a strict and distorted brand of 3slam on all M-slims and brin1in1 deat8 to all ?8o oppose 8im.A ! 3n t8ese in4ocations of terrorist7monsters an absol-te moralit2 separates 1ood from a As8ado?2 e4il.A " As if ca-18t -p in its o?n s8ado? dance ?it8 t8e anti7Western r8etoric of radical 3slam5 % t8is disco-rse mar$s off a fi1-re5 Fsama bin Iaden5 or a 1o4ernment5 t8e Taliban5 as t8e opposite of all t8at is C-st5 8-man5 and 1ood. T8e terrorist7monster is p-re e4il and m-st be destro2ed5 accordin1 to t8is 4ie?. & B-t does t8e monster 8a4e a mindK T8is be1s anot8er ,-estion< Do s-c8 fi1-res and s-c8 representational strate1ies 8a4e a 8istor2K We s-11est t8is lan1-a1e of terrorist7monsters

s8o-ld be read b2 considerin1 8o? t8e monster 8as been -sed t8ro-18o-t 8istor2 in Western disco-rses of normalit2. We co-ld be1in b2 rememberin15 for instance5 t8at t8e monster ?as one of t8ree elements t8at Qo-ca-lt lin$ed to t8e formation of
t8e Aabnormals.A T8e 1ro-p of abnormals ?as formed o-t of t8ree elements ?8ose o?n formation ?as not e)actl2 s2nc8ronic. 1. T8e 8-man monster. An Ancient notion ?8ose frame of reference is la?. A C-ridical notion5 t8en5 b-t in t8e broad sense5 as it referred not onl2 to social la?s b-t to nat-ral la?s as ?ellG t8e monsterEs field of appearance is a C-ridico7biolo1ical domain. T8e fi1-res of t8e 8alf78-man5 8alf7animal bein1 . . .5 of do-ble indi4id-alities . . .5 of 8ermap8rodites . . . in t-rn represented t8at do-ble 4iolationG ?8at ma$es a 8-man monster a monster is not C-st its e)ceptionalit2 relati4e to t8e species R(nd Pa1e 11.S formG it is t8e dist-rbance it brin1s to C-ridical re1-larities (?8et8er it is a ,-estion of marria1e la?s5 canons of baptism5 or r-les of in8eritance . T8e 8-man monster combines t8e impossible and t8e forbidden. . . . 2. T8e indi4id-al to be corrected. T8is is a more recent fi1-re t8an t8e monster. 3t is t8e correlati4e not so m-c8 of

t8e imperati4es of t8e la? as of trainin1 tec8ni,-es ?it8 t8eir o?n re,-irements. T8e emer1ence of t8e Aincorri1iblesA is contemporaneo-s ?it8 t8e p-ttin1 into place of disciplinar2 tec8ni,-es d-rin1 t8e se4enteent8 and
ei18teent8 cent-ries5 in t8e arm25 t8e sc8ools5 t8e ?or$s8ops5 t8en5 a little later5 in families t8emsel4es. T8e ne? proced-res for trainin1 t8e bod25 be8a4ior5 and aptit-des open -p t8e problem of t8ose ?8o escape t8at normati4it2 ?8ic8 is no lon1er t8e so4erei1nt2 of t8e la?. * Accordin1 to Qo-ca-lt5 t8e monster can be bot8 8alf an animal and a 82brid 1ender (later in t8is te)t Qo-ca-lt ?ill 1o on to position t8e onanist as t8e t8ird of t8e abnormals . B-t cr-ciall2 t8e monster is also to be differentiated from t8e indi4id-al

to be corrected on t8e basis of ?8et8er po?er operates on it or t8ro-18 it. 3n ot8er ?ords5 t8e absol-te po?er t8at prod-ces and ,-arantines t8e monster finds its dispersal in tec8ni,-es of normaliDation and discipline. W8at Qo-ca-lt does5 ?e belie4e5 is enable an anal2sis of monstrosit2 ?it8in a broader 8istor2 of se)-alit2. T8is 1enealo12 is cr-cial to -nderstandin1 t8e 8istorical and political rela2s5 rein4estments5 and resistances bet?een t8e monstro-s terrorist and t8e disco-rse of 8eteronormati4it2. And t8at is beca-se monsters and abnormals 8a4e al?a2s also been se)-al de4iants. Qo-ca-lt tied monstrosit2 to se)-alit2 t8ro-18 specific anal2ses of t8e deplo2ment of 1endered bodies5 t8e re1-lation of proper desires5 t8e manip-lation of domestic spaces5 and t8e ta)onom2 of se)-al acts s-c8 as sodom2. As s-c85 t8e se)-aliDed monster ?as t8at fi1-re t8at called fort8 a form of C-ridical po?er b-t one t8at ?as tied to m-ltiform apparat-ses of discipline as ?ell. . We -se Qo-ca-ltEs concept of monstrosit2 to elaborate ?8at ?e consider to be central to t8e present ?ar on terrorism< monstrosit2 as a re1-lator2 constr-ct of modernit2 t8at imbricates not onl2 se)-alit25 b-t also ,-estions of c-lt-re and race. Before ?e tie t8ese practices to contemporar2 politics5 let -s note t?o t8in1s< Qirst5 t8e monster is not merel2 an ot8erG it is one cate1or2 t8ro-18 ?8ic8 a m-ltiform po?er operates. As s-c85 disco-rses t8at ?o-ld mobiliDe monstrosit2 as a screen for ot8erness are al?a2s also in4ol4ed in circ-its of normaliDin1 po?er as ?ell< t8e monster and t8e person to be corrected are close co-sins. 9econd5 if t8e monster is part of t8e WestEs famil2 of abnormals5 ,-estions of race and se)-alit2 ?ill 8a4e al?a2s 8a-nted its fi1-ration . T8e cate1or2 of monstrosit2 is also an implicit inde) of ci4iliDational de4elopment and c-lt-ral adaptabilit2 . As t8e mac8ines of ?ar be1in to narro? t8e c8oices and life R(nd Pa1e 11/S c8ances people 8a4e 8ere in America and in decidedl2 more blood2 ?a2s abroad5 it seems a certain 1rid of ci4iliDational pro1ress or1aniDed b2 s-c8 $e2?ords as Ademocrac25A Afreedom5A and A8-manit2A 8a4e come to s-perintend t8e fi1-re of t8e monster. We t-rn no? to t8is do-ble deplo2ment of
t8e disco-rse of monstrosit2 in Aterrorism st-dies.A R(nd Pa1e 120S

10

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of "error "a!k (3)


>hen we view terrorists as irrational actors with psychological pathologies we reduce their struggle to a reaction against heterose#ual impotence and deprive the entire struggle of political significance. >e construct them as the 8ueer enemy of the heterose#ual norm. (uar and 0ai 02 (6asbir K. P-ar5 assistant professor of ?omenEs st-dies and 1eo1rap82 at #-t1ers :ni4ersit2.
Amit 9. #ai teac8es c-lt-ral and literar2 st-dies at t8e 'e? 9c8ool :ni4ersit2 in 'e? Bor$ +it2. ;Monster5 Terrorist5 Qa1< T8e War on Terrorism and t8e Prod-ction of Docile Patriots= 9ocial Te)t 20.! (2002 5 proCect m-se. DQ As a leadin1 li18t in t8e constellation of Aterrorism e)perts5A 6errold Post 8as proposed t8at terrorists s-ffer from pat8olo1ical personalities t8at emer1e from ne1ati4e c8ild8ood e)periences and a dama1ed sense of self. 1% Post ar1-es for t?o
terrorist personalit2 t2pes5 dependin1 on t8e specific ,-alit2 of t8ose c8ild8ood e)periences. Qirst5 Post s-11ests5 t8ere is t8e Aanarc8ic7 ideolo1-e.A T8is is t8e terrorist ?8o 8as e)perienced serio-s famil2 d2sf-nction and maladC-stment5 ?8ic8 lead to rebellion a1ainst parents5 especiall2 a1ainst t8e fat8er. Anarc8ic7ideolo1-es fi18t Aa1ainst t8e societ2 of t8eir parents . . . an act of dissent a1ainst parents lo2al to t8e re1ime.A 9econd5 t8ere is t8e terrorist personalit2 t2pe $no?n as t8e Anationalist7secessionistANapparentl2 t8e name indicates Aa sense of lo2alt2 to a-t8orit2 and rebellion a1ainst e)ternal enemies.A D-rin1 c8ild8ood5 a terrorist of t8is personalit2 t2pe e)perienced a sense of compassion or lo2alt2 to?ard 8is or 8er parents. Accordin1 to Post5 nationalist7secessionists 8a4e pat8olo1icall2 failed to differentiate bet?een t8emsel4es and t8e ot8er (parental obCect . +onse,-entl25 t8e2 rebel Aa1ainst societ2 for t8e 8-rt done to t8eir parents . . . an act of lo2alt2 to parents dama1ed b2 t8e re1ime.A Bot8 t8e anarc8ic7ideolo1-e and nationalist7secessionist find Acomfort in Coinin1 a terrorist 1ro-p of rebels ?it8 similar e)periences.A 1& T8e personalit2 defect model 4ie?s terrorists as s-fferin1 from personalit2 defects t8at res-lt from e)cessi4el2 ne1ati4e c8ild8ood e)periences5 1i4in1 t8e indi4id-al a poor sense of self and a resentment of a-t8orit2. As #-b2 notes5 A3ts s-pporters differ in ?8et8er t8e2 propose one (Kaplan 5 t?o (Post and 6ones X Qon1 5 or t8ree (9trentD personalit2 t2pes.A 1* W8at all t8ese models and t8eories aim to s8o? is 8o? an ot8er?ise normal indi4id-al becomes a m-rdero-s terrorist5 and t8at process time and a1ain is tied to t8e fail-re of t8e normal(iDed ps2c8e. 3ndeed5 an implicit b-t fo-ndational s-pposition str-ct-res

t8is entire disco-rse< t8e 4er2 notion of t8e normal ps2c8e5 ?8ic8 is in fact part of t8e WestEs o?n 8eterose)-al famil2 romanceNa narrati4e space t8at relies on t8e normaliDed5 R(nd Pa1e 12!S e4en if per4erse5 domestic space of desire s-pposedl2 common in t8e West. Terrorism5 in t8is disco-rse5 is a s2mptom of t8e de4iant ps2c8e5 t8e ps2c8e 1one a?r25 or t8e failed ps2c8eG t8e terrorist enters t8is disco-rse as an absol-te 4iolation. 9o ?8en Bill2 +ollins (t8e 2001 poet la-reate asserted on 'ational P-blic #adio immediatel2 after 9eptember 11< A'o? t8e :.9. 8as lost its 4ir1init25A 8e ?as -nderscorin1 t8is fra-18t relations8ip bet?een (8etero se)-alit25 normalit25 t8e nation5 and t8e 4iolations of terrorism. 'ot s-rprisin1l25 t8en5 comin1 o-t of t8is disco-rse5 ?e find t8at anot8er 4er2 common ?a2 of tr2in1 to ps2c8olo1iDe t8e monster7terrorist is b2 positin1 a $ind of failed 8eterose)-alit2 . 9o ?e 8ear often t8e idea t8at se)-all2
fr-strated M-slim men are promised t8e 8ea4enl2 re?ard of si)t25 si)t27se4en5 or sometimes e4en se4ent2 4ir1ins if t8e2 are mart2red in Ci8ad. B-t AsEad Ab- K8alil 8as ar1-ed5 A3n realit25 politicalNnot se)-alNfr-stration constit-tes t8e most important factor in

moti4atin1 2o-n1 men5 or ?omen5 to en1a1e in s-icidal 4iolence. T8e tendenc2 to d?ell on t8e se)-al moti4es of t8e s-icide bombers belittles t8ese sociopolitical ca-ses. A 1. 'o? of co-rse5 t8at is precisel2 ?8at terrorism st-dies intends to do< to red-ce comple) social5 8istorical5 and political d2namics to 4ario-s ps2c8ic ca-ses rooted in c8ild8ood famil2 d2namics. As if t8e Palestinian 3ntifada or t8e lon15 br-tal ?ar in Af18anistan can be simpl2 boiled do?n to bad mot8erin1 or se)-al fr-strationH 3n s8ort5 t8ese e)planator2 models and frame?or$s f-nction to (1 red-ce comple) 8istories of str-11le5 inter4ention5 and (non de4elopment to Western ps2c8ic models rooted in t8e bo-r1eois 8eterose)-al famil2 and its d2namicsG (2 s2stematicall2 e)cl-de ,-estions of political econom2 and t8e problems of c-lt-ral translationG and (! attempt to master t8e fear5 an)iet25 and -ncertaint2 of a form of political dissent b2 resortin1 to t8e banalit2 of a
ta)onom2. 1/ F-r contention is t8at toda2 t8e $no?led1e and form of po?er t8at is mobiliDed to anal2De5 ta)onomiDe5 ps2c8olo1iDe5 and defeat terrorism 8as a 1enealo1ical connection to t8e WestEs abnormals5 and specificall2 t8ose premodern monsters t8at Western ci4iliDation 8ad seemed to b-r2 and la2 to rest lon1 a1o. T8e monsters t8at 8a-nt t8e prose of contemporar2 co-nterterrorism emer1e o-t of fi1-res in t8e ei18teent8 and nineteent8 cent-ries t8at 8a4e al?a2s been racialiDed5 classed5 and se)-aliDed. T8e -ndesirable5 t8e 4a1rant5 t8e G2ps25 t8e sa4a1e5 t8e 0ottentot Ten-s5 or t8e se)-al depra4it2 of t8e Friental torrid Done s8ares a basic $ins8ip ?it8 t8e terrorist7monster. As ?e $no?5 in t8e t?entiet8 cent-r2 t8ese disparate monsters became case st-dies5 obCects of et8no1rap8ies5 and interestin1 ps2c8olo1ical cases of de1enerac2. T8e same Western5 colonial modernit2 t8at created t8e ps2c8e created t8e racial and se)-al monster. R(nd Pa1e 12"S 3n ot8er ?ords5 ?8at lin$s t8e monster7terrorist to t8e fi1-re of t8e indi4id-al to be corrected is first and foremost t8e racialiDed and de4iant ps2c8e. 3snEt t8at ?82 t8ere is somet8in1 terrif2in1l2 -ncann2 in t8e terrorist7monsterK As one specificall2 liberal article in t8e #and Co-rnal p-t it5 AMembers of s-c8 1ro-ps are not infre,-entl2 prepared to $ill and die for t8eir str-11les and5 as sociolo1ists ?o-ld attest5 t8at pres-pposes a sort of con4iction and mindset t8at 8as become -ncommon in t8e modern a1e. T8-s5 not onl2 t8e acts of EterrorismE b-t also t8e dri4in1 forces be8ind t8em often appear incompre8ensible and fri18tenin1 to o-tsiders. Terrorism st-dies emer1ed as a s-bcate1or2 ?it8in t8e social sciences in t8e earl2 1/*0s see$in1 to e)plain t8e res-r1ence of t8e seemin1l2 ine)plicable.A 20

11

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of "error "a!k (#)


The construction of the terrorist as a 8ueer monster causes homophobic violence and otheri*ation. (uar and 0ai 02 (6asbir K. P-ar5 assistant professor of ?omenEs st-dies and 1eo1rap82 at #-t1ers :ni4ersit2.
Amit 9. #ai teac8es c-lt-ral and literar2 st-dies at t8e 'e? 9c8ool :ni4ersit2 in 'e? Bor$ +it2. ;Monster5 Terrorist5 Qa1< T8e War on Terrorism and t8e Prod-ction of Docile Patriots= 9ocial Te)t 20.! (2002 5 proCect m-se. DQ
Posters t8at appeared in midto?n Man8attan onl2 da2s after t8e attac$s s8o? a t-rbaned caricat-re of bin Iaden bein1 anall2 penetrated b2 t8e (mpire 9tate B-ildin1. T8e le1end beneat8 reads5 AT8e (mpire 9tri$es Bac$A or A9o 2o- li$e s$2scrapers5 8-85 bitc8KA Fr t8in$ of t8e Web site ?8ere5 ?it8 a series of ?eapons at 2o-r disposal5 2o- can tort-re Fsama bin Iaden to deat85 t8e last tort-re bein1 sodom2G or anot8er Web site t8at s8o?s t?o pict-res5 one of bin Iaden ?it8 a beard5 and t8e ot8er ?it8o-tNand t8e p8oto of 8im s8a4en t-rns o-t to be F. 6. 9impson. 21 W8at t8ese representations s8o?5 ?e belie4e5 is t8at ,-eerness as se)-al de4ianc2 is tied to t8e monstro-s fi1-re of

t8e terrorist as a ?a2 to ot8eriDe and ,-arantine s-bCects classified as Aterrorists5A b-t also to normaliDe and discipline a pop-lation t8ro-18 t8ese 4er2 monstro-s fi1-res. T8o-18 m-c8 1ender7dependent Ablac$A 8-mor describin1 t8e appropriate p-nis8ment for bin Iaden foc-ses on t8e liberation of Af18an ?omen (liberate Af18an ?omen and send t8em to colle1e or ma$e bin Iaden 8a4e a se) c8an1e operation and li4e in Af18anistan as a ?omanNdeepl2 racist5 se)ist5 and 8omop8obic s-11estions 5 t8is portra2al s-11ests somet8in1 f-rt8er still< American retaliation promises to emasc-late bin Iaden and t-rn 8im into a fa1. T8is promise not onl2 s-11ests t8at if 2o-Ere not for t8e ?ar5 2o-Ere a fa15 it also incites 4iolence a1ainst ,-eers and specificall2 ,-eers of color. And indeed5 t8ere 8a4e been reports from comm-nit27based or1aniDations t8ro-18o-t 'e? Bor$ +it2 t8at 4iolent incidents a1ainst ,-eers of color 8a4e increased. 9o on t8e one 8and5 t8e :nited 9tates is bein1 depicted as feminist and 1a27safe b2 t8is comparison ?it8 Af18anistan5 and on t8e ot8er 8and5 t8e :.9. state5 8a4in1 e)perienced a castration and penetration of its capitalist masc-linit25 offers -p narrati4es of emasc-lation as appropriate p-nis8ment for bin Iaden5 bro?n7s$inned fol$s5 and men in t-rbans.

12

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of $e%emon& 'mpacts (1)


7) hegemony policy is deeply rooted in patriarchal! racist! and militarist assumptions! resulting in dehumani*ation! murder! and se#ual assault. :irk 2002 G?2n5 Women for Gen-ine 9ec-rit25 ;Gender and :.9. Bases in Asia7Pacific= Marc8 1"
8ttp<>>???.fpif.or1>articles>1ender@and@-s@bases@in@asia7pacific 99 Militarism is a s2stem of instit-tions5 in4estments5 and 4al-es5 ?8ic8 is m-c8 ?ider and more deepl2 entrenc8ed t8an an2 specific ?ar. To create alternate definitions of 1en-ine peace and sec-rit25 it is important to -nderstand instit-tionaliDed 1endered relations and ot8er -ne,-al po?er d2namics incl-din1 t8ose based on class5 colonialism5 and racism in8erent in :.9. militar2 polic2 and practice. DemilitariDation re,-ires a de7lin$in1 of masc-linit2 and militarism5 stoppin1 t8e 1lorification of ?ar and ?arriors5 and definin1 ad4ent-re and 8eroism in nonmilitar2 terms. 3t also re,-ires 1en-inel2 democratic processes and str-ct-res for political and economic decision7ma$in1 at comm-nit25 national and
transnational le4els. 3n addition5 t8e :nited 9tates m-st ta$e responsibilit2 for cleanin1 -p all militar2 contamination in t8e Asia7Pacific re1ion.3nstead of -nderminin1 indi1eno-s control of lands and reso-rces in G-am5 for e)ample5 t8e :nited 9tates and local 1o4ernment a1encies s8o-ld s-pport t8e self7determination of t8e +8amorro people. T8e proposed Marines base for 0eno$o (F$ina?a s8o-ld be scrapped and t8e 6apanese 1o4ernment s8o-ld redirect f-nds earmar$ed for it to economic de4elopment to benefit F$ina?an people.9ince militar2 e)pansion is a partner in corporate capitalist e)pansion5 economic5 political5 and social de4elopment based on self7s-fficienc25 self7 determination5 and ecolo1ical restoration of local reso-rces m-st be enco-ra1ed. +omm-nities adCoinin1 :.9. bases in all parts of t8e re1ion s-ffer from 1rossl2 distorted economies t8at are o4erl2 reliant on t8e ser4ices (le1al and ille1al t8at :.9. soldiers s-pport. T8is economic dependenc2 affects local men as ?ell as ?omen. Iocall2 directed proCects5 led b2 t8ose ?8o -nderstand comm-nit2 concerns5 s8o-ld be s-pported5 to1et8er ?it8 1o4ernment reforms to redistrib-te reso-rces for s-c8 initiati4es. 3n addition5 t8e :nited 9tates and Asian 1o4ernments need to re4ise t8eir le1al a1reements to protect local comm-nities. Iocal people need transparenc2 in t8e implementation of t8ese policies5 in intera1enc2 in4ol4ement (Penta1on5 9tate Department5 Department of t8e 3nterior5 (n4ironmental Protection A1enc2 and in e)ec-ti4e orders t8at affect :.9. militar2 operations in t8e re1ion. 9-c8 re4isions s8o-ld incl-de t8e abilit2 for 8ost 1o4ernments to prosec-te perpetrators of militar2 4iolence so t8at t8e :.9. militar2 can be 8eld acco-ntable for t8e 8-man conse,-ences of its policies. :.9. militar2 e)pansion

and restr-ct-rin1 in t8e Asia7Pacific re1ion ser4e patriarc8al :.9. 1oals of ;f-ll spectr-m dominance.= Allied 1o4ernments are bribed5 flattered5 t8reatened5 or coerced into participatin1 in t8is proCect. (4en t8e apparentl2 ?illin1 1o4ernments are C-nior partners ?8o m-st5 in an -ne,-al relations8ip5 s8o-lder t8e costs of :.9. militar2 policies. Qor t8e :.9. militar25 land and bodies are so m-c8 ra? material to -se and discard ?it8o-t responsibilit2 or serio-s conse,-ences to t8ose in po?er. #e1ardless of 1ender5 soldiers are trained to de8-maniDe ot8ers so t8at5 if ordered5 t8e2 can $ill t8em. 9e)-al ab-se and tort-re committed b2 :.9. militar2 personnel and contractors a1ainst 3ra,i prisoners in AbG8raib prison ill-strate a 1rim ne? t?ist on militariDed 4iolence5 ?8ere race and nation ;tr-mped= 1ender . W8ite :.9. ?omen ?ere amon1 t8e perpetrators5 t8ereb2 appropriatin1 t8e masc-liniDed role. T8e 4iolated 3ra,i men5 mean?8ile5 ?ere forced into t8e feminiDed role.

The constructed 8ualification of manliness for foreign policy backfires! generating conflict and reinforcing patriarchy "nloe 0% (+2nt8ia. Ieadin1 feminist sc8olar and a professor of 1o4ernment and ?omenJs st-dies at +lar$
:ni4ersit2. ;Masc-linit2 as Qorei1n Polic2 3ss-e ; QP3Q 8ttp<>>???.peace?or$ma1aDine.or1>p?or$>1100>112$10.8tm Fctober 11 99 Man2 obser4ers 8a4e remar$ed on t8e pec-liar American contemporar2 political c-lt-re t8at e,-ates militar2 e)perience and>or militar2 e)pertise ?it8 political leaders8ip. 3t is t8is c-lt-ral inclination t8at 8as made it 4er2 ris$2 for an2 American p-blic fi1-re to appear less ;manl2= t8an a -niformed senior militar2 male officer . 3t is a c-lt-reNtoo often -nc8allen1ed b2 ordinar2 4otersNt8at 8as 1i4en indi4id-als ?it8 alle1ed militar2 $no?led1e a disproportionate ad4anta1e in forei1n polic2 debates.9-c8 a masc-liniDed and militariDed c-lt-re press-res ner4o-s ci4ilian candidates into appearin1 ;to-18= on militar2 iss-es. T8e t8o-18t of not embracin1 a parade of militariDed polic2 positionsNt8at increase t8e defense b-d1et5 ma$e 'ATF t8e primar2 instit-tion for b-ildin1 a ne? (-ropean sec-rit25 e)pand 6-nior #FT+ pro1rams in 8i18 sc8ools5 ins-re American male soldiersJ access to prostit-tes o4erseas5 in4est in destabiliDin1 antimissile tec8nolo125 maintain cripplin1 b-t politicall2 ineffect-al economic sanctions and bombin1 raids a1ainst 3ra,5 accept t8e Penta1onJs fla?ed polic2 of ;donJt as$5 donJt tell5 donJt p-rs-e5= and finance a militar27dri4en antidr-1 polic2N?o-ld lea4e most American p-blic officials (?omen and men feelin1 -ncomfortabl2 4-lnerable in t8e political c-lt-re t8at assi1ns 8i18 4al-e to masc-liniDed to-18ness . T8e res-lt< a political competition to appear ;to-18= 8as prod-ced :.9. forei1n policies t8at se4erel2 limit t8e American capacit2 to pla2 a -sef-l role in creatin1 a more 1en-inel2 sec-re international comm-nit2. T8at is5 AmericaJs con4entional5 masc-liniDed political c-lt-re ma$es it -nli$el2 t8at Was8in1ton polic2ma$ers ?ill eit8er come to 1rips ?it8 a realistic anal2sis of potential 1lobal t8reats or act to stren1t8en t8ose m-ltilateral instit-tions most effecti4e in pre4entin1 and endin1 conflicts. 1!

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

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Kritik of $e%emon& 'mpacts (2)


The 7) uses hegemonic e#pansion as tool to ensure the e#tension of capitalism's tentacles across the globe. Foster 02 (6o8n Bellam2 and t8e (ditors. Professor of 9ociolo12 at :ni4ersit2 of Fre1on. ;:9 Militar2 Bases and
(mpire.= 8ttp<>>mont8l2re4ie?.or1>0!02editr.8tm 99 T8e :nited 9tates5 as ?e 8a4e seen5 8as b-ilt a c8ain of militar2 bases and sta1in1 areas aro-nd t8e 1lobe5 as a means of deplo2in1 air and na4al forces to be -sed on a momentJs noticeNall in t8e interest of maintainin1 its political and economic 8e1emon2. T8ese bases are not5 as ?as t8e case for Britain in t8e nineteent8 and earl2 t?entiet8 cent-ries5 simpl2 inte1ral parts of a colonial empire5 b-t rat8er ta$e on e4en 1reater importance5 ;in the absence of colonialism.=Y T8e :nited 9tates5 ?8ic8 8as so-18t to maintain an imperial economic s2stem ?it8o-t formal political controls o4er t8e territorial so4erei1nt2 of ot8er nations5 8as emplo2ed t8ese bases to e)ert force a1ainst t8ose nations t8at 8a4e so-18t to brea$ o-t of t8e imperial s2stem alto1et8er5 or t8at 8a4e attempted to c8art an independent co-rse t8at is percei4ed as t8reatenin1 :.9. interests. Without the worldwide dispersion of U.S. military forces in these bases, and without the U.S. predisposition to employ them in its military interventions, it would be impossible to keep many of the more dependent economic territories of the periphery from breaking away . :.9. 1lobal political5 economic5 and financial po?er t8-s re,-ire t8e periodic e)ercise of militar2 po?er . T8e ot8er ad4anced capitalist co-ntries tied into t8is s2stem 8a4e also become reliant on t8e :nited 9tates as t8e main enforcer of t8e r-les of t8e 1ame. T8e positionin1 of :.9. militar2 bases s8o-ld t8erefore be C-d1ed not as a p-rel2 militar2 p8enomenon5 b-t as a mappin1 o-t of t8e :.9.7dominated imperial sp8ere and of its spear8eads ?it8in t8e perip8er2 . W8at is clear
at present and bears repeatin1 is t8at s-c8 bases are no? bein1 ac,-ired in areas ?8ere t8e :nited 9tates 8ad pre4io-sl2 lost m-c8 of its ;for?ard presence5= s-c8 as in 9o-t8 Asia5 t8e Middle (ast>Africa5 and Iatin America and t8e +aribbean5 or in re1ions ?8ere :.9. bases 8a4e not e)isted pre4io-sl25 s-c8 as t8e Bal$ans and +entral Asia . T8ere can be no do-bt5 t8erefore5 t8at t8e last remainin1

s-perpo?er is presentl2 on a co-rse of imperial e)pansion5 as a means of promotin1 its political and economic interests5 and t8at t8e present ?ar on terrorism5 ?8ic8 is in man2 ?a2s an indirect prod-ct of t8e proCection of :.9. po?er5 is no? bein1 -sed to C-stif2 t8e f-rt8er proCection of t8at po?er.Qor t8ose ?8o c8oose to oppose t8ese de4elopments t8ere s8o-ld be no ill-sion. The global expansion of military power on the part of the hegemonic state of world capitalism is an integral part of economic globalization. To say no to this form of military expansionism is to say no at the same time to capitalist globalization and imperialism and hence to capitalism itself.

American (e%emon& is doomed to s cc m) to imperia!ist expansionism* res !tin% in perpet a! and esca!atin% +ars, -a&ne* 2..3 (+8ristop8er5 Associate Professor in t8e B-s8 9c8ool of Go4ernment and P-blic 9er4ice at Te)as
AXM :ni4ersit2 AT8e +ost of (mpireA5 8ttp<>>???.amconma1.com>article>200!>oct>0&>0000*> 99 Per8aps t8e proponents of AmericaJs imperial ambitions are ri18t and t8e :.9. ?ill not s-ffer t8e same fate as pre4io-s 8e1emonic po?ers. DonJt bet on it. T8e 4er2 fact of AmericaJs o4er?8elmin1 po?er is bo-nd to prod-ce a 1eopolitical bac$las8N?8ic8 is ?82 itJs onl2 a s8ort step from t8e celebration of imperial 1lor2 to t8e recessional of imperial po?er. 3ndeed5 on its present co-rse5 t8e :nited 9tates seems fated to s-cc-mb to t8e ;8e1emonJs temptation.= 0e1emons 8a4e lots of po?er and beca-se t8ere is no co-nter4ailin1 force to stop t8em5 t8e2 are tempted to -se it repeatedl25 and t8ereb2 o4erreac8 t8emsel4es. F4er time5 t8is 8e1emonic m-scle7fle)in1 8as a price. T8e c-m-lati4e costs of fi18tin1 Nor preparin1 to fi18tN1-erilla ?ars in 3ra, and Af18anistan5 as2mmetric conflicts a1ainst terrorists (in t8e P8ilippines5 possibl2 in a failed Pa$istan5 and else?8ere 5 re1ional po?ers (3ran5 'ort8 Korea 5 and risin1 1reat po?ers li$e +8ina co-ld erode AmericaJs relati4e po?erNespeciall2 if t8e :.9. s-ffers setbac$s in f-t-re conflicts5 for e)ample in a ?ar ?it8 +8ina o4er Tai?an.

1"

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The support and scale of the wars on .fghanistan and ?ra8 shows the imperial mindsets entrenched in 7) hegemonic policy and their inherent failures. Foster! 4olleman! $c<hesney 02 (6o8n Bellam25 professor of 9ociolo12 at :ni4ersit2 of Fre1on5 editor of
#onthly eview5 0anna85 doctoral st-dent at :ni4ersit2 of Fre1on5 #obert W.5 G-ts1ell (ndo?ed Professor in t8e Department of +omm-nication at :ni4ersit2 of 3llinois :rbana7+8ampai1n5 ;T8e :.9. 3mperial Trian1le and Militar2 9pendin15= #onthly eview Fctober 200. 99
W8at does t8e fore1oin1 tell -s in relation to o-r ori1inal ,-estionK 3s it reasonable to ar1-e5 as 0obsba?m and ot8ers 8a4e5 t8at t8e e)pansion of :.9. militarism and imperialism in t8e present period is t8e res-lt of ;a 1ro-p of political craDies5= ?8o 8a4e come to po?er in Was8in1ton and constr-cted a ;radical ri18t7?in1 re1ime= abo-ndin1 in ;me1alomania=K As an e)planation of t8e c-rrent p8ase of :.9. empire t8is is clearl2 inade,-ate. Despite t8e often neoconser4ati4e nat-re of t8e B-s8 administrationJs top operati4es5 t8e2 8a4e

8ad t8e broad bac$in1 of t8e 1reater part of t8e establis8ment in t8e ?ars on Af18anistan and 3ra,5 t8e War on Terrorism as a ?8ole5 t8e 8-1e militar2 b-ild-p5 etc.To be s-re5 if a Democratic administration -nder Al Gore 8ad come into po?er in 2000 it is not at all certain t8at t8e :nited 9tates ?o-ld 8a4e 1one to ?ar ?it8 3ra,5 in addition to Af18anistan5 t8o-18 an attempt ?o-ld 8a4e been made to -p8old :.9. imperial interests . T8e B-s8 administration from t8e first ?as distin1-is8ed b2 t8e partic-larl2 bellicose 1ro-p of neoconser4ati4es at its 8elm. B-t in p-rs-in1 t8eir belli1erent ends t8e2 8ardl2 lac$ed solid bac$in1 ?it8in t8e circles of po?er. 9tron1 s-pport ?as e)tended b2 bot8 political parties5 +on1ress5 t8e C-diciar25 t8e media5 and t8e corporations 1enerall2. Disa1reements ?ere lar1el2 abo-t troop le4els5 t8e amo-nt of force to be applied5 relations to allies5 dates of ?it8dra?al (partial or ?8ole 5 distrib-tion of forces bet?een t8e maCor ;t8eaters5= etc. More f-ndamental ,-estions5 e4en t8e -se of tort-re5 ?ere a4oided. MaCor dissent 8as mainl2 come from t8e bottom of t8e societ2. All of t8is s-11ests t8at e)panded militarism and imperialism is deepl2 entrenc8ed at present5 at least ?it8in t8e top ec8elons of :.9. societ2. 3t reflects a 1eneral concern to e)pand :.9. 8e1emon2 as part of an imperial 1rand strate125 incl-din1 rollin1 bac$ ins-r1ent forces and ;ro1-e states= aro-nd t8e ?orld5 and $eepin1 C-nior partners in line. T8e ?ar in 3ra, is best 4ie?ed as an attempt to assert :.9. 1eopolitical control o4er
t8e entire Persian G-lf and its oilNan obCecti4e t8at bot8 political ?in1s of t8e establis8ment s-pport5 and ?8ic8 is part of t8e lar1er aim of t8e restoration of a 1rand :.9. 8e1emon2. 2* T8e 4ast scale of :.9. militar2 spendin1Nencompassin1 more t8an %0 percent of t8e federal b-d1et (e)cl-din1 social sec-rit25 medicare5 and ot8er transfer pa2ments and constit-tin1 * percent of t8e entire GDPN is t8-s e)ternall2 rooted in t8e needs of t8e :.9. imperial 1rand strate125 ?8ic8 contin-all2 strains t8e :.9. s2stem to its limits (as meas-red b2 t8e b-d1et and trade deficits .:.9. imperialism 8as been transformed in recent decades b2 t8e absence of t8e 9o4iet :nion5 1i4in1 t8e :nited 9tates more immediate po?er (partic-larl2 in t8e militar2 realm 5 co-pled5 parado)icall25 ?it8 si1ns of a sec-lar decline in :.9. economic 8e1emon2. 3t is t8is d-al realit2 of a temporar2 increase in :.9. po?er alon1 ?it8 indications of its lon17term decline t8at 8as led to -r1ent calls t8ro-18o-t t8e po?er elite for a ;'e? American +ent-r25= and to attempts b2 Was8in1ton to le4era1e its enormo-s militar2 po?er to re1ain economic and 1eopolitical stren1t85 for e)ample5 in t8e Persian G-lf oil re1ion. 3n recent 2ears5 t8e :nited 9tates 8as

enormo-sl2 e)panded its militar2 bases and operations aro-nd t8e ?orld ?it8 bases no? in aro-nd se4ent2 co-ntries and :.9. troops present in 4ario-s capacities (incl-din1 Coint e)ercises in per8aps t?ice t8at n-mber. Was8in1ton is t8-s not C-st spendin1 mone2 on t8e militar2 and prod-cin1 destr-cti4e ?eapons5 or en1a1in1 in ?ars and inter4entions. 3t is also b-ildin1 a lastin1 p82sical presence aro-nd t8e ?orld t8at allo?s for control>s-b4ersion>rapid deplo2ment.2.

1%

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Kritik of $e%emon& 'mpacts (#)


Foreign military bases are empirically shown to be inherent to imperial control of the world hegemonic powers. Foster 2002 (6o8n Bellam2 and t8e (ditors. Professor of 9ociolo12 at :ni4ersit2 of Fre1on. ;:9 Militar2 Bases
and (mpire.= 8ttp<>>mont8l2re4ie?.or1>0!02editr.8tm 99 (mpires t8ro-18o-t 8-man 8istor2 8a4e relied on forei1n militar2 bases to enforce t8eir r-le5 and in t8is respect at least5 Pa) Americana is no different t8an Pa) #omana or Pa) Britannica. ;T8e principal met8od b2 ?8ic8 #ome establis8ed 8er political s-premac2 in 8er ?orld5= ?rote 8istorian Arnold To2nbee in 8is $merica and the %orld evolution (1/&2 5 ?as b2 ta$in1 8er ?ea$er nei18bors -nder 8er ?in1 and protectin1 t8em a1ainst 8er and t8eir stron1er nei18bors. #omeJs relation ?it8 t8ese protZ1Zes of 8ers ?as a treat2 relation. 6-ridicall2 t8e2 retained t8eir pre4io-s stat-s of so4erei1n independence. T8e most t8at #ome as$ed of t8em in terms of territor2 ?as t8e cessation5 8ere and t8ere5 of a patc8 of 1ro-nd for t8e plantation of a #oman fortress to pro4ide for t8e common sec-rit2 of #omeJs allies and #ome 8erself. At least t8is is t8e ?a2 #ome started o-t. B-t as time passed5 ;t8e 4ast territories of
#omeJs one7time allies5= ori1inall2 sec-red b2 t8is s2stem of #oman militar2 bases5 ;became C-st as m-c8 a part of t8e #oman (mpire as t8e less e)tensi4e territories of #omeJs one time enemies ?8ic8 #ome 8ad deliberatel2 and o4ertl2 anne)ed= (pp. 10%710& . Britain5 in its

8e2da2 as t8e leadin1 capitalist po?er in t8e nineteent8 cent-r25 r-led o4er a 4ast colonial empire sec-red b2 a 1lobal s2stem of militar2 bases. As #obert 0ar$a42 8as e)plained in 8is important ?or$5 &reat !ower 'ompetition for (verseas )ases
(1/.2 5 t8ese ?ere deplo2ed in fo-r net?or$s alon1 sea corridors dominated b2 Britis8 na4al po?er< (1 t8e Mediterranean t8ro-18 9-eD to 3ndiaG (2 9o-t8 Asia5 t8e Qar (ast5 and t8e PacificG (! 'ort8 America and t8e +aribbeanG and (" West Africa and t8e 9o-t8 Atlantic. At t8e Britis8 empireJs pea$ t8ese militar2 bases ?ere located in more t8an t8irt27fi4e separate co-ntries>colonies . Alt8o-18 Britis8 8e1emon2 declined rapidl2 in t8e earl2 t?entiet8 cent-r25 its bases ?ere retained as lon1 as t8e empire itself contin-ed5 and its base s2stem e4en e)panded briefl2 d-rin1 t8e 9econd World War. 3n t8e immediate aftermat8 of t8e ?ar5 8o?e4er5 t8e Britis8 (mpire cr-mbled5 and t8e 1reat maCorit2 of bases 8ad to be relin,-is8ed. T8e fall of t8e Britis8 empire ?as accompanied b2 t8e rise of

anot8er5 as t8e :nited 9tates too$ BritainJs place as t8e 8e1emonic po?er of t8e capitalist ?orld econom2. T8e :nited 9tates emer1ed from t8e 9econd World War ?it8 t8e most e)tensi4e s2stem of militar2 bases t8at t8e ?orld 8ad e4er seen. Accordin1 to 6ames Bla$er5 former 9enior Ad4isor to t8e Tice +8airman of t8e 6oint +8iefs of 9taff5 t8is o4erseas basin1 s2stem at t8e end of t8e 9econd World War consisted of o4er t8irt2 t8o-sand installations located at t?o t8o-sand base sites residin1 in aro-nd one 8-ndred co-ntries and areas5 and stretc8in1 from t8e Arctic +ircle to Antarctica. :.9. militar2 bases ?ere spread o4er all t8e continents and t8e islands in bet?een. ; 'e)t to t8e :.9. n-clear monopol25= Bla$er ?rites5 ;t8ere ?as no more -ni4ersall2 reco1niDed s2mbol of t8e nationJs s-perpo?er stat-s t8an its o4erseas basin1 s2stem.=

7nited )tates hegemony is rooted in white solipsism resulting in racist disregard for deaths of foreigners. :inane 20,0 ((d5 ?riter for Toices in t8e Wilderness and Peace +o-ncil staff member5 ;M2 'ameJs (d. 3 am a
#acist= 8ttp<>>dissident4oice.or1>2010>0!>m27name7is7ed7im7a7racist> 99 Basic to t8ese se1re1ated societies and to o-r militarism is ?8at poet Adrienne #ic8 calls solipsism. 3n p8ilosop82 solipsism is t8e t8eor2 t8at t8e self is t8e onl2 realit2< 2o- e)ist onl2 as a fi1ment of m2 ima1ination. #ic8 spea$s5 in partic-lar5 of ?8ite solipsism< a c-lt-ral e1oism5 ?8ic8 ass-mes N ,-ite -nconscio-sl2 N t8at onl2 ?8ite 8istor2 or disco4er2 or s-fferin1 or interests 8a4e merit and standin1. Most ?8ite fol$s N ?8et8er in 9o-t8 Africa or 3srael or 8ere N 1ro? -p in ?8ite nei18bor8oods 1oin1 to
?8ite sc8ools and cons-min1 ?8ite7controlled media. T8is is 8o? ?e internaliDe ?8ite ;realit2.= Qor man2 of -s t8e solipsism t8at denies or demeans or destro2s did not ori1inate ?it8 racism. 3t be1an5 8istoricall2 and personall25 before ?e ?ere e)posed to et8nic di4ersit2. W8ile bein1 molded for roles defined b2 1ender5 bo2s ac,-ire t8e parallel male solipsism of a patriarc8al c-lt-re. 9e)ism precedes racism5 1rindin1 t8e lens t8at ma$es o-r racist o-tloo$ second nat-re. 9e)ist be8a4ior pro4ides an on1oin1 re8earsal for o-r racist performance. W8en ?e ?ere 2o-n1 ?e 8ad little control o4er o-r enc-lt-ration and so ?erenJt to blame for s-c8 t-nnel 4ision. B-t no? t8at ?eJre 1ro?n5 ?e are responsible for t8e $inds of callo-sness and e)cl-si4it2 ?e c8oose to 8onor. Man2 of -s ea1erl2 N or obli4io-sl2 N float alon1 t8e mainstream t8at in4alidates t8e li4es of people of color. T8eir labor and t8eir li4in1 conditions5 t8eir needs and t8eir

W8ite solipsism 8elps e)plain t8e forei1n polic2 do-ble standard ?8ic8 re1ards onl2 political 4iolence aimed at ?8ites as ;terrorism.= 9ince World War 33 fe? ?8ites 8a4e been 4ictims of aerial ?arfare< no ?onder fe? 8ere see s-c8 ?arfare as t8e co?ardl2 terrorism it is. Alt8o-18 t8e p-ndits 1libl2 lin$ ;terrorism= to 3slam5 t8e2 ne4er call +on1ress or B-s8>+linton>B-s8>Fbama terrorist ?8en t8e2 s,-ander billions in4adin1 3slamic oil lands or ?8en (sa2 :.9. drone aircraft assassinate t8ose resistin1 t8e in4asion and occ-pation. Fr ?8en t8ose -nmanned drones $ill ci4ilians ?ill27nill2. 3n t8e moral calc-l-s of ?8ite America t8e tens N ma2be 8-ndreds N of t8o-sands of slain 3ra,is or Af18ans barel2 e)ist. (4en ?e ?8o acti4el2 oppose :.9. militarism in West Asia and t8e Mid (ast often i1nore t8e racism at its 8eart. To o4ercome o-r ;isms5= ?e co-ld c-rb o-r o4er7cons-mption and o-r o4er7ea1er embrace of pri4ile1e . We co-ld s8ed o-r patterns of e)cl-si4it25 b-rstin1 t8e
pain5 t8eir 1ifts and t8eir ri18ts5 are s2stematicall2 ne1ated5 rendered in4isible5 rendered m-te.

b-bble of self7reinforced se1re1ation. We co-ld ?it88old and re7direct o-r federal ta)es ?it8o-t ?8ic8 :.9. militarism ?o-ld soon e)8a-st itself. T8ro-18 cross7c-lt-ral st-d2 and solidarit2 ?or$ ?e co-ld better -nderstand t8e 8-man condition

especiall2 t8at of t8e 8-1e maCorit2 of o-r species ?8o arenJt ?8ite5 ?8o arenJt affl-ent5 ?8o donJt blac$mail t8e 1lobe ?it8 aerial ?arfare and n-clear terror. 1&

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

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Kritik of $e%emon& 'mpacts (/)


Their hegemonic imposition of an .merican global system culminates in threat construction! generating enemies and ensuring endless conflicts and war where none e#isted previously 3ipschut* -% (#onnie5 Professor of Politics at :+ 9anta +r-D5 Fn 9ec-rit25 1%71&
+onsider5 t8en5 t8e conse,-ences of t8e intersection of sec-rit2 polic2 and economics d-rin1 and after t8e +old War. 3n order to establis8 a ;sec-re= 1lobal s2stem5 t8e :nited 9tates ad4ocated 5 and p-t into place5 a 1lobal s2stem of economic liberalism. 3t t8en -nder?rote5 ?it8 dollars and ot8er aid5 t8e 1ro?t8 of t8is s2stem." ! Fne conse,-ence5 of t8is proCect ?as t8e 1lobaliDations of a partic-lar mode of prod-ction and acc-m-lation5 ?8ic8 relied on t8e re7creation5 t8ro-18o-t t8e ?orld5 of t8e domestic political and economic en4ironment and preferences of t8e :nited 9tates. T8at s-c8 a proCect cannot be accomplis8ed -nder conditions of reall27e)istin1 capitalism is not important< t8e idea ?as t8at economic and political liberalism ?o-ld reprod-ce t8e American self aro-nd t8e ?orld."" T8is ?o-ld ma$e t8e ?orld safe and sec-re for t8e :ntited 9tates inasm-c8 as it ?o-ld all be t8e self5 so to spea$. T 8e Co$er in t8is

partic-lar dec$ ?as t8at efforts to reprod-ce some 4ersion of American societ2 abroad5 in order to ma$e t8e ?orld more sec-re for Americans5 came to t8reaten t8e c-lt-res and societies of t8e co-ntries bein1 transformed5 ma$in1 t8eir citiDens less sec-re. T8e process t8ereb2 transformed t8em into t8e 4er2 enemies ?e feared so 1reatl2. 3n 3ran5
for e)ample5 t8e 98a8Js efforts to create a WesterniDed societ2 en1endered so m-c8 domestic resistance t8at not onl2 did it brin1 do?n 8is empire b-t so5 for a time5 seemed to pose a mortal t8reat to t8e American (mpire based on Persian G-lf oil. 3slamic ;f-ndamentalism5= no? c8aracteriDed b2 some as t8e enem2 t8at ?ill replace +omm-nism5 seems to be :.9. polic2ma$ersJ ?orst ni18tmares made real5 "% alt8o-18 ?it8o-t t8e :nited 9tates to interfere in t8e Middle (ast and else?8ere5 t8e 3slamic mo4ements mi18t ne4er 8a4e ac,-ired t8e domestic po?er t8e2 no? 8a4e in t8ose co-ntries and re1ions t8at seem so essential to American ;sec-rit2.= T8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 t8e framin1 of

t8reats is infl-enced b2 a c8an1in1 1lobal econom2 is seen no?8ere more clearl2 t8an in recent debates o4er competiti4eness and ;economic sec-rit2.= W8at does it mean to be competiti4eK 3s a national ind-strial polic2 consistent ?it8 1lobal
economic liberaliDationK 0o? is t8e sec-rit2 compenent of t8is iss-e sociall2 constr-ctedK Be4erl2 +ra?ford (+8apter &< ;0a?$s5 Do4es5 b-t no F?ls< T8e 'e? 9ec-rit2 Dilemma :nder 3nternational (conomic 3nterdependence= s8o?s 8o? strate1ic economic interdependence a conse,-ence of t8e 1ro?in1 liberaliDation of t8e 1lobal economic s2tem5 t8e increasin1 a4ailabilit2 of ad4anced tec8nolo1ies t8ro-18 commercial mar$ets5 and t8e e4er7increasin1 4elocit2 of t8e prod-ct c2cle -ndermines t8e abilit2 .

1*

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

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Kritik of Econom& 'mpacts (1)


7sing economics to e#plain interstate actions presupposes economics as a neutral reflection of reality! rather than a historical construct. The affirmatives predictions rely upon a flawed understanding of interpersonal interactions! dooming them to failure. @oede 200 (Marie$e De5 P8D 3nternational 9t-dies5 R#e4ie? of 3nternational 9t-dies5 Tol. 2/5 'o. 1 (Tan.5
200! 5 pp. */7/* +ambrid1e :ni4ersit2 Press 8ttp<>>???.Cstor.or1>stab1e>2FF/*.!% Qirst5 t8e epistemic comm-nities approac8 8as been offered as a ?a2 in ?8ic8 Pst-dents of ?orld politics can empiricall2 st-d2 t8e role of ideas in international relationsJ.! / 3t prioritises ?it8in 3P( and 6# an in4esti1ation into Pt8e manner in ?8ic8
people and instit-tions interpret and represent p8enomena and str-ct-resJ5 ?8ic8 ma$es a difference for t8e Po-tcomes ?e can e)pect in international relationsJ."[ T8e literat-re on epistemic comm-nities seems to offer a ?a2 to inte1rate ,-estions of 4al-ation and meanin17ma$in1 into t8e st-d2 of 3P(. 6o8n #-11ie ar1-es t8at members of epistemic comm-nities s8are Pa dominant ?a2 of loo$in1 at social realit25 a set of s8ared s2mbols and references5 m-t-al e)pectations5 and a m-t-al predictabilit2 of intentionJ."J Wit8 respect to financial politics5 #-11ie 8as considered t8e post?ar Bretton Woods order as Pan inters-bCecti4e frame?or$ of

A financial epistemic comm-nit25 0elleiner ar1-es5 in4ol4es state a1encies as ?ell as pri4ate actors ."! #-11ie and 0elleiner problematise
meanin1 t8at incl-ded a s8ared narrati4e abo-t t8e conditions t8at 8ad made t8ese re1imes necessar2 and ?8at t8e2 intended to accomplis8J."2 t8e ima1e of finance as an a-tonomo-s and predator2 a1enc2 b2 ar1-in1 t8at 1o4ernments ?ere an acti4e force in dere1-lation and liberalisation of finance capital.

Bet ?8en t8e concept of epistemic comm-nities is translated into a researc8 a1enda5 t8e approac8 is red-ced to considerin1 t8e traditional concerns of international relations5 s-c8 as state interaction and international ne1otiation. As t8e 1//2 special iss-e of *nternational (r"ani+ation demonstrates5 t8e epistemic comm-nities a1enda is limited to t8e st-d2 of international
ne1otiations in specialist iss-e7areas5 s-c8 as n-clear arms control and en4ironmental re1-lation5 ?8ere scientists are seen to pla2 a pri4ile1ed role. 3deas are

T8e operationalisation of ideas as Pindependent 4ariables (as 0aas p-ts it allo?s t8is literat-re to ass-me a s8arp dic8otom2 bet?een ideas and a prior -nproblematic material realit2 ?8ic8 s8apes and informs scientific researc8 . 3deas5 in t8is
concei4ed of as self7contained entities5 ?8ic8 Pcirc-late from societies to 1o4ernments5 as ?ell as from co-ntr2 to co-ntr2J and inform polic2ma$in1. ar1-ment5 are Pfi1-red as no more t8an t8at ?8ic8 is not material . . . ?8ic8 can be isolated as 4ariables possessin1 at least some ca-sal a-tonom2J .P 9imilarl2 to Iaffe2Js ar1-ments5 t8en5 t8e

epistemic comm-nities approac8 maintains a dic8otom2 bet?een ideas and realit25 and ar1-es t8at a preocc-pation ?it8 t8e former forecloses a consideration of t8e latter . T8-s5 in KatDenstein5 Keo8ane and KrasnerJs
interpretation5 t8e (so7called postmodern researc8 a1enda5 ?8ic8 see$s to PRdecentreS establis8ed disco-rse . . b2 pa2in1 attention to ?8at is mar1inal or silent..5 falls clearl2 o-tside of t8e social science enterprise5 and in international relations researc8 it ris$s becomin1 self7referential and disen1a1ed from t8e ?orld5 protests to t8e contrar2 not?it8standin1J."& A similar point is made b2 #-11ie5 ?8o ma$es a distinction bet?een meanin1s and Pbr-te factsJ5 in ?8ic8 t8e latter e)ist in Pt8e familiar ?orld of material capabilities and similar palpable properties5 of pre1i4en and fi)ed preferences5 of increases in trade restraints and depreciations of c-rrencies and so onJ."* T8ese

ar1-ments o4erloo$ a bod2 of literat-re in t8e 8istor2 of science ?8ic8 in4esti1ates t8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 scientific facts are c-lt-rall25 sociall2 and 8istoricall2 artic-lated and contested .". T8e2 also foreclose t8e possibilit2 of considerin1 t8e political processes of 4al-ation t8at -nderpin t8e f-nctionin1 of mone2 and capital5 e)emplified b2 #-11ieJs ass-mption t8at c-rrencies e)ist independentl2 of mental states5 beliefs5 desires5 8opes and fears."/ 3n concl-sion5 t8en5 t8e epistemic comm-nities approac8 operates ?it8 a 8i18 de1ree of economism5 ?8ic8 ta$es t8e Peconomic sp8ere to be a distinct5 independentl2 e)istin1 sp8ere of life ?8ose elements 8a4e no intrinsic political aspect and5 as s-c85 can be definitel2 separated from t8e social5 political and le1al aspects of lifeJ .%0

1.

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Kritik of Econom& 'mpacts (2)


0eliance on rational economic enframings of reality destroy the environment! entire populations! and 8uality of life culminating in e#tinction. Ahanenge B R62tte Masters \ : 9o-t8 Africa5 paper s-bmitted in part f-lfilment of t8e re,-irements for t8e
de1ree of master of arts in t8e s-bCect De4elopment 9t-dies5 ;(+FQ(M3'9M< TFWA#D9 3'T(G#AT3'G T0( +F'+(#'9 FQ WFM('5 PFF# P(FPI( A'D 'AT:#( 3'TF D(T(IFPM('TS
Generation of ?ealt8 ?as an important part of t8e 9cientific #e4ol-tion and its modem societ2. T8e scientific discipline of economics t8erefore became a si1nificant means for ?ealt8 creation. 0o?e4er5 since it is fo-nded on similar d-alised premises as science5 also economics became a s2stem of domination and e)ploitation of ?omen5 Ft8ers and nat-re. T8e follo?in1 disc-ssion is intended to s8o? t8at. T8e ?a2 in ?8ic8 economics5 ?it8 its priorit2 on masc-line forces5 becomes dominant relates to ?eb7 li$e5 inter7connected and comple) processes5 ?8ic8 are not al?a2s clearl2 percei4ed . T8e belo? disc-ssions tr2 to s8o? 8o? t8e d-alised priorit2 of t8e indi4id-al o4er societ25 reason o4er emotion5 self7interest o4er comm-nit27interest5

competition o4er cooperation5 and more pairs5 1enerate domination t8at leads to t8e fo-r crises of 4iolence and ?ar5 po4ert25 8-man oppression and en4ironmental de1radation. T8e aim in s-m is to s8o? 8o? t8e c-rrent perspecti4e of economics is destro2in1 societ2 (?omen and Ft8ers and nat-re. T8e follo?in1 disc-ssion is conse,-entl2 a criti,-e of economics. 3t is meant to 8i18li18t some elements t8at ma$e economics a dominant ideolo125 rat8er t8an a s2stem of $no?led1e. 3t adopts a feministic 4ie? and it is t8erefore seen from t8e side of ?omen5 poor people and nat-re. T8e criti,-e is e)tensi4e5
b-t not e)8a-sti4e. 3t is e)tensi4e beca-se economics is t8e sin1le most important tool -sed b2 mainstream instit-tions for de4elopment in t8e 9o-t8. T8-s if ?e ?ant to -nderstand ?82 de4elopment does not alle4iate po4ert25 t8en ?e first need to compre8end ?82 its main instr-ment5 economics5 cannot alle4iate po4ert2. A critical anal2sis of economics and its infl-ence in de4elopment is t8erefore important as an introd-ction to ne)t c8apter5 ?8ic8 disc-sses ecofeminism and de4elopment. 0o?e4er5 t8e criti,-e is not e)8a-sti4e beca-se it foc-ses onl2 on t8e d-alised elements in economics. 3t is 8i18l2 li$el2 t8at t8ere are man2 more critical iss-es in economics5 ?8ic8 s8o-ld be anal2Ded in addition to t8e belo? mentioned. 0o?e4er5 it ?o-ld e)ceed t8is scope. (ac8 of t8e follo?in1 10 sections disc-sses a specific iss-e in economics t8at relates to its d-alised nat-re. T8-s5 eac8 can as s-c8 be read on its o?n. 0o?e4er5 all sections are s2stemicall2 interconnected. T8erefore eac8 re7 enforces t8e ot8ers and inte1rated5 t8e2 are meant to s8o? t8e ?eb of masc-line forces t8at ma$e economics dominant to?ards ?omen5 Ft8ers and nat-re. T8e first t8ree sections intend to s8o? t8at economics sees itself as a ne-tral5 obCecti4e5 ,-antitati4e and -ni4ersal

science5 ?8ic8 does not need to be inte1rated in social and nat-ral realit2. T8e o-tcome of t8is is5 8o?e4er5 t8at economics cannot 4al-e social and en4ironmental needs. 0ence 5 a fe? indi4id-als become 4er2 ric8 from capitalisin1 on free social and nat-ral reso-rces5 ?8ile t8e 8ealt8 of t8e p-blic and t8e en4ironment is de1raded. 3t also is s8o?n t8at t8e e)a11erated foc-s on monetar2 ?ealt8 does not increase 8-man 8appiness. 3t rat8er leads to a deterioratin1 ,-alit2 of life. T8-s5 t8e false belief in eternal economic 1ro?t8 ma2 e4ent-all2 destro2 life on planet (art8. T8e ne)t section s8o?s t8at economics is based on d-alism5 ?it8 a foc-s solel2 on 2an1 forces. T8is 8as serio-s conse,-ences for all 2in iss-es< Qor e)ample5 t8e priorit2 on indi4id-alism o4er comm-nit2 ma2 in its e)treme form lead to self7destr-ction . 9imilarl25 t8e priorit2 on rationalit2 ?8ile e)cl-din1 8-man emotions ma2 end in 1reed5 domination5 po4ert25 4iolence and ?ar. T8e ne)t section is important as a means to -nderstandin1 ;rational= economics. 3ts aim is to clarif2 t8e ps2c8olo1ical meanin1 of mone2. 3n realit25 reason and emotion are interrelated parts of t8e 8-man mindG t8e2 cannot be separated. T8-s5 economic ;rationalit2= and its foc-s on eternal ?ealt8 1eneration are based on personal emotions li$e fears and inade,-acies5 rat8er t8an reason. T8e false belief in d-alism means t8at 8-man bein1s are l2in1 to t8emsel4es5 ?8ic8 res-lts in dist-rbed minds5 st-pid actions ?it8 disastro-s conse,-ences. T8e foc-s on masc-line forces is conse,-entl2 ps2c8olo1icall2 -n8ealt82G it leads to domination of societ2 and nat-re5 and ?ill e4ent-all2 destro2 t8e ?orld.

1/

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Kritik of Econom& 'mpacts (3)


7nrestrained capitalism leads to e#tinction 4arman! ,--B (+8ris5 (ditor of t8e 9ocialst Wor$er5 (conomics of t8e mad8o-se5 P1 /071
T8e s2stem ma2 8a4e entered a ne? p8ase. B-t t8e ?a2 it operates is not ne?. 3t is5 in its essentials e)actl2 t8e ?a2 described b2 Mar) T8e onl2 sense in ?8ic8 Mar) is ;o-tdated= is not t8at t8e s2stem is more rational t8an 8e t8o-18t b-t rat8er 8is pict-re -nderstates t8e destr-cti4eness of t8e s2stem. +apitalists do not merel2 battle a1ainst eac8 ot8er on t8e mar$ets. T8e2 also -se t8e state

to force ri4al capitalists to accept t8eir dictates5 s-pplementin1 economic competition ?it8 displa2s of militar2 pro?ess. American capitalism see$s to pers-ade (-ropean and 6apanese capitalism to accept its dictates b2 pro4in1 t8at it alone 8as t8e
po?er to ?a1e ?ar in t8e 4ital oil ric8 re1ions of t8e middle eastG 3ranian and T-r$is8 capitalists rel2 on t8e 8elp of t8eir states as t8e2 compete ?it8 eac8 ot8er for infl-ence and contracts in t8e so-t8ern belt of t8e former :99#G T-r$is8 and Gree$ capitalists enco-ra1e a mini7arms race as eac8 see$s to establis8 a dominate role in t8e Bal$an co-ntries once controlled b2 #-ssiaG German2 bac$s +roatia5 t8e :9 bac$s Bosnian M-slims5 and Greece bac$s t8e 9erbs to t8e 8orrific ?ars in t8e former B-1osla4iaG t8e #-ssian militar2 ?a1e 4icio-s ?ars to 8an1 onto 4ital oil pipelines t8ro-18 +8ec8n2a and in t8e TadCi$ rep-blic borderin1 Af18anistanG +8ina t8e P8ilippines5 Mala2sia and Tietnam clas8 o4er control of t8e oil reser4es t8o-18t to lie close to t8e -nin8abited islands in t8e +8ina 9eaG 3srael tries to car4e (12pt o-t from economic infl-ence in t8e Arabian penins-la. T8e res-lt is t8at at an2 point in time t8ere are 8alf a doDen ?ars or ci4il ?ars -sin1

t8e most 8orrendo-s forms for ;con4entional= ?eaponr2 in one part of t8e ?orld or anot8er. Alon1side t8e sla-18ter and de4astation afflictin1 e4er ?ider sections of 8-manit2 is anot8er t8reat to -s all ?8ic8 is 8ardl2 4isible in Mar)Js time7 t8e t8reat of destr-ction of t8e en4ironment ?e depend on to s-r4i4e. Mar) and (n1els ?ere f-ll2 a?are t8at t8e
mad dri4e to capital acc-m-lation led to poll-tion5 t8e poisonin1 of t8e 1ro-nd and air5 t8e ad-lteration of foodst-ffs and t8e spread of 8orrific epidemics. (n1els ?rote 4i4idl2 of t8ese t8in1s in 8is boo$ Anti7d-8rin1. B-t t8e2 li4ed in a time ?8en capitalist ind-str2 ?as confined to relati4el2 small areas of t8e 1lobe and t8e de4astation ?as local de4astation5 affectin1 c8iefl2 t8e ?or$ers emplo2ed in a partic-lar factor25 mill or minin1 4illa1e. Toda2 capitalist ind-str2 operates on a 1lobal scale and its impact is on t8e 1lobal en4ironment7 as is s8o?n b2 t8e ?a2 in ?8ic8 radioacti4e clo-ds o4er +8ernob2l spread across t8e ?8ole of (-rope5 b2 t8e ?a2 in ?8ic8 t8e seas are bein1 fis8ed clean of fis85 b2 t8e dama1e to t8e oDone la2er b2 t8e 1ases -sed in aerosols and refri1erators. Abo4e all t8ere is t8e t8reat of t8e P1reen8o-seJ 1ases destabiliDin1 t8e ?8ole ?orldJs climate5 floodin1 lo? l2in1 co-ntries t-rnin1 fertile re1ions into desert

.nd! capitalism destroys the environment and is the root cause of oppression 3atin .merica )olidarity <oalition5 200 (;Gettin1 to t8e #oots< (colo12 and (n4ironmental 6-stice=5
8ttp<>>???.lasolidarit2.or1>papers>en4iro.8tm T8e 1lobaliDation of capital and t8e inter?ea4in1 of financial and 1o4ernmental instit-tions 8a4e opened t8e flood 1ates for e4en 1reater destr-ction of ecos2stems (ecocide and t8e anni8ilation of traditional peoples5 c-lt-res and 4al-es
(1enocide ?8ile ?a1in1 a ?ar on t8e poor5 ?oman and ?or$ers. 3n t8is position paper ?e belie4e t8at t8ose ?8o read t8is are disill-sioned ?it8 t8e c-rrent condition of life on eart8< 1lobal forest destr-ction5 increased mono7c-lt-re timber plantations5 oDone la2er depletion5 militarism5 cons-merism5 e)tinction of species5 -tter collapse of life s-pport s2stems5 racism5 air5 ?ater and

food poll-tion5 c8emical ?arfare5 1enetic en1ineerin15 s?eats8ops5 se)ism5 fascism and nationalism5 ab8orrent corporate m-ltinationalism5 ind-strialism and brea$do?n of comm-nit2. All of t8ese are e)acerbated b2 t8e ne?est ideolo12 of capitalism< neoliberalism. T8e neoliberalist ideolo12 le1itimates corporate control5 proposin1 a AfreeA 1lobal mar$et5 ?8ose sole concern is profit and ?8ose primar2 8indrances are social desires and en4ironmental conser4ation. (4ident in t8e socio7ecolo1ical conse,-ences are a1reements li$e t8e 'ort8 American Qree Trade A1reement ('AQTA 5 t8e
General A1reement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 5 t8e World Ban$ (WB 5 t8e c-rrent proposed Qree Trade Area of t8e Americas (QTAA 5 and bodies s-c8 as t8e World Trade Fr1aniDation (WTF 5 t8e 3nternational Monetar2 Q-nd (3MQ 5 and t8e 3nter7American De4elopment Ban$ (3DB . 'eoliberalism f-rt8er f-els an elite to control t8e eart8 and all of its in8abitants5 leadin1 to desperation5 de1radation and s-fferin1 .

20

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Kritik of Econom& 'mpacts (#)


<apitalism is the root cause of oppression )cott! 200; (0elen5 5 Prof Post+olonial Iit X T8eor2 \ : Termont 5;#eadin1 t8e Te)t in its Worldl2 9it-ation<
Mar)ism5 3mperialism5 and +ontemporar2 +aribbean WomenJs Iiterat-re=5 Postcolonial Te)t5 2.15 8ttp<>>postcolonial.or1>inde).p8p>pct>article>4ie?Article>"/1>1*"
Qor GedalofJs st-d25 t8e material coordinates of oppression are secondar2 to t8e ;concept-al space ?8ere t8e social and t8e self meet ] ?it8in partic-lar disco-rses of 1ender5 race5 national and class identities= (2 . 0er foc-s is on ;narrati4es= and ;disco-rses = and s8e s-bscribes to a Qo-ca-ldian -nderstandin1 of po?er as ;not C-st a pri4ile1e possessed b2 a dominant 1ro-pG it is rat8er e)ercised b2 and t8ro-18 -s all5 sit-ated as ?e are in m-ltiple net?or$s of Pnone1alitarian and mobile relationsJ= (1/ . T8is form-lation effecti4el2 Cettisons

t8e primac2 of social str-ct-res and class anta1onism and instead 1eneraliDes po?er as somet8in1 omnipresent5 e,-atin1 t8e e)pression of a s2stem of ideas ?it8 t8e e)ercise of social domination.R&S 3t t8-s 8as m-c8 in common ?it8
t8e post7Alt8-sserian ;reCection of economism and ] reprioritiDation of ideolo12= and disposal of ;Alt8-sserJs rat8er neb-lo-s b-t necessar2 affirmation of t8e primac2 of t8e material Pin t8e last instanceJ in fa4or of a conception of ideolo12 as absol-tel2 a-tonomo-s= (Brenner 127 1! . T8e problem ?it8 disco-rse t8eor2 is t8at ;once ideolo12 is se4ered from material realit2 it no lon1er 8as an2 anal2tical -sef-lness5 for it becomes impossible to posit a t8eor2 of determination N of 8istorical c8an1e based on contradiction= (Brenner5 parap8rasin1 Mic8^le Barrett5 1! . Mar)ists -nderstand class in contrast not as an ;identit2= b-t rat8er as a material relations8ip to t8e 1o4ernin1 mode of prod-ction.R*S 3n e)tension5 all forms of oppression N racial5 national5 1ender and se)-al N 8a4e specific material ca-ses and effects and are s8aped b2 t8e comp-lsions of capitalism.R.S As Debora8 Ie4enson7(strada maintains in a st-d2 of ?omen -nion acti4ists in 1/*0s G-atemala< ;T8ere is no Pmore importantJ or PpriorJ iss-e N class or 1ender N t8ese are inside one anot8er5 and t8e str-11le a1ainst 1ender con4entions and se)ist ideolo1ies is inte1ral to an2 proCect of liberation. A critical conscio-sness abo-t class needs a critical conscio-sness abo-t 1ender5 and 4ice 4ersa= (22* .

$ilitarism and imperialism come from capitalism Foster! 200% Bellam25 professor at t8e -ni4ersit2 of Fre1on RMont8l2 #e4ie?5 ;'a$ed 3mperialism5= 9eptember
200%5 8ttp<>>mont8l2re4ie?.or1>0/0%Cbf.8tmS
T8e ar1-ment ad4anced 8ere points to a different concl-sion. :.9. militarism and imperialism 8a4e deep roots in :.9. 8istor2 and t8e political7economic lo1ic of capitalism. As e4en s-pporters of :.9. imperialism are no? ?illin1 to admit5 t8e :nited 9tates 8as been an empire from its inception. ;T8e :nited 9tates5= Boot ?rites in ;American 3mperialismK5= ;8as been an empire since at least 1.0!5 ?8en T8omas 6efferson p-rc8ased t8e Io-isiana Territor2. T8ro-18o-t t8e 1/t8 cent-r25 ?8at 6efferson called t8e Pempire of libert2J e)panded across t8e continent.= Iater t8e :nited 9tates con,-ered and coloniDed lands o4erseas in t8e 9panis87American War of 1./. and t8e br-tal P8ilippine7American War t8at immediatel2 follo?edNC-stified as an attempt to e)ercise t8e ;?8ite manJs b-rden.= After t8e 9econd World War t8e :nited 9tates and ot8er maCor imperialist states relin,-is8ed t8eir formal political empires5 b-t retained informal economic empires bac$ed -p b2 t8e t8reat and not infre,-entl2 t8e realit2 of militar2 inter4ention. T8e +old War obsc-red t8is neocolonial realit2 b-t ne4er entirel2 8id it. T8e 1ro?t8 of empire is neit8er pec-liar to t8e :nited 9tates nor a mere

o-t1ro?t8 of t8e policies of partic-lar states. 3t is t8e s2stematic res-lt of t8e entire 8istor2 and lo1ic of
capitalism. 9ince its birt8 in t8e fifteent8 and si)teent8 cent-ries capitalism 8as been a 1loball2 e)pansi4e s2stem None t8at is 8ierarc8icall2 di4ided bet?een metropole and satellite5 center and perip8er2. T8e obCecti4e of t8e imperialist s2stem of toda2 as in t8e past is to open -p perip8eral economies to in4estment from t8e core capitalist co-ntries5 t8-s ens-rin1 bot8 a contin-al s-ppl2 of ra? materials at lo? prices5 and a net o-tflo? of economic s-rpl-s from perip8er2 to center of t8e ?orld s2stem. 3n addition5 t8e t8ird ?orld is 4ie?ed as a so-rce of c8eap labor5 constit-tin1 a 1lobal reser4e arm2 of labor. (conomies of t8e perip8er2 are str-ct-red to meet t8e e)ternal needs of t8e :nited 9tates and t8e ot8er core capitalist co-ntries
rat8er t8an t8eir o?n internal needs. T8is 8as res-lted (?it8 a fe? notable e)ceptions in conditions of -nendin1 dependenc2 and debt peona1e in t8e poorer re1ions of t8e ?orld. 3f t8e ;ne? militarism= and t8e ;ne? imperialism= are not so ne? after all5 b-t in line ?it8 t8e entire 8istor2 of :.9. and ?orld capitalism5 t8e cr-cial ,-estion t8en becomes< W82 8as :.9. imperialism become more na$ed in recent 2ears to t8e point t8at it 8as s-ddenl2 been redisco4ered b2 proponents and opponents ali$eK Fnl2 a fe? 2ears a1o some t8eorists of 1lobaliDation ?it8 roots in t8e left5 s-c8 as Mic8ael 0ardt and Antonio 'e1ri in t8eir boo$ ,mpire (2000 5 ?ere ar1-in1 t8at t8e a1e of imperialism ?as o4er5 t8at t8e Tietnam War ?as t8e last imperialist ?ar. Bet5 toda25 imperialism is more openl2 embraced b2 t8e :.9. po?er str-ct-re t8an at an2 time since t8e 1./0s. T8is s8ift can onl2 be -nderstood b2 e)aminin1 t8e 8istorical c8an1es t8at 8a4e occ-rred in t8e last t8ree decades since t8e end of t8e Tietnam War.

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Kritik of N c!ear 0ar 'mpacts (1)


The otheri*ation that emerges from hegemonic cultural imperialism is at the center of the genocidal process and nuclear war :ovel! ,-24 (6oel5 Professor Political5 +omm-nication5 X Ps2c8 at (instein A1ainst t8e 9tate of '-clear Terror5
p1*%7&
T8e irrationalit2 t8at often befalls 1ro-ps on t8e mar1ins of societ2 re4eals t8e ?or$in1 of a 1eneral mec8anism t8at -ndo-btedl2 contrib-tes in a maCor ?a2 to t8e stabilit2 of irrational and oppressi4e social orders. W8en societ2 as a ?8ole is irrational and permeated ?it8 4iolence and domination5 t8en eac8 indi4id-al ?it8in it ?ill stand to internaliDe some of t8e same as 8e or s8e r-ns t8e 1a-ntlet of personal de4elopment. B2 ;internaliDe5= 3 mean t8e de4elopment of -nconscio-s str-ct-red relations ?it8 ot8ers . We eac8 8a4e an internal (i.e.5 intraps2c8ic 1ro-p of relations bet?een t8e ;3= and t8e ;Ft8er= t8at is5 on t8e one 8and5 ,-ite fantastic and o-t of immediate contact ?it8 e)ternal realit25 ?8ile5 on t8e ot8er5 is s8aped b2 t8at realit2 and is s8aped b2 it in t-rn. 9-c8 s8apin1 occ-rs t8ro-18 t8e mental processes called intro-ection (modelin1 of t8e self b2 t8e ?orld and pro-ection (modelin1 of t8e ?orld accordin1 to t8e self . T8e

Ft8er5 bein1 t8e ne1ation of t8e self5 can ta$e on man2 c8aracteristics5 1ood or bad. T8e Ft8er5 t8erefore5 is bot8 a ro-18 replication of t8e 1oodness and badness of t8e e)ternal ?orld as ?ell as a determinant of t8at 1oodness or badness. W8en ?e con1r-1ate into 1ro-ps (incl-din1 t8e societ2 ?8ic8 is inte1ral to t8ese 1ro-ps t8e relations of Ft8erness ta$e on a
decisi4e importance. Qor in t8e formation of a 1ro-p a $ind of splittin1 necessaril2 ta$es place bet?een elements of t8e Ft8er. T8is splittin1 is s8aped abo-t t8e irred-cible fact of t8e 1ro-p (or societ2 and its identit2. 3f t8ere is a 1ro-p5 t8en one is eit8er in it or not. Qrom anot8er an1le5 1ro-ps ta$e s8ape abo-t t8e deplo2ment of t8e feelin1 of ;insideness.= And once one is in5 t8en t8ere m-st be an o-tside. 3f t8ere is an America5 t8en one can be an American. 3f so5 t8en all ot8ers become Ft8er5 and non7Americans or forei1ners. A lot of 8istor2 8as t-rned

aro-nd t8e fact t8at t8e basic inside7o-tside relations of 1ro-ps 8a4e come to be f-sed ?it8 t8e 1oodness and badness of t8e Ft8er. T8en all t8ose inside become 1ood5 and all o-tside5 bad. T8e members of t8e 1ro-p eac8 ret-rn to
bein1 of t8e ;p-rified pleas-re e1o5= described earlier ?8en ?e ?ere de4elopin1 t8e notion of paranoia and t8e 1eneral ps2c8olo12 of tec8nocrac2. 3nsofar as t8e bad o-tside ta$es on a persec-tor2 ,-alit25 t8e 1ro-p itself becomes paranoidN?it8 t8is $e2 difference bet?een t8e 1ro-p and t8e indi4id-al le4el< t8at t8e indi4id-al paranoiac e)periences t8e persec-tion immediatel25 ?8ile t8e member of t8e 1ro-p is ins-lated b2 identification ?it8 t8e ot8ers and 8is or 8er participation in t8e 1ro-pJs practice. 3n t8is ?a25 t8e paranoia is dele1ated to t8e 1ro-p as a ?8ole. We mi18t sa2 t8at it becomes de7s-bCectified and passes be2ond t8e ps2c8olo1ies of t8e indi4id-als of t8e 1ro-p. T8e indi4id-al mind remains -nder t8e s?a2 of t8e affiliation of t8e 1ood Ft8er t8at remains inside 1ro-p relations. Mean?8ile t8e persec-tor2 potential of t8e o-tsiders is red-ced b2 de8-maniDation. T8is is 8o? people remain ;normal=

indi4id-all2 ?8ile co-ntenancin1 and e4en acti4el2 carr2in1 o-t t8e most 8eino-s and irrational acts on t8e ;t8in1ified= and de8-maniDed bodies of o-tsiders. 3t tells -s a lot abo-t 8o? 1racio-s and $indl2 ?8ite 9o-t8erners co-ld l2nc8 and castrate blac$sG of 8o? 1ood5 clean efficient Germans co-ld t-rn 6e?s into lamps8adesG of 8o? 3sraelis5 ?it8 t8eir ancient tradition of 6e?is8 compassionateness5 earned t8ro-18 cent-ries of s-fferin15 co-ld calc-latedl2 dispossess t8e Palestinian peopleG and of co-rse5 8o? t8e friendl2 Americans co-ld anni8ilate 0iros8ima and c-t
t8eir s?at8 t8ro-18 8istor2.

Auclear war will not cause e#tinction. There way of thinking is created by e#aggeration to /ustify inaction! fear of death! and e#aggeration to stimulate action. "#aggerating the effects of a Auclear war reduces action on other issues. $artin! ,-22 (Brian5 Professor of 9ocial 9ciences at t8e :ni4ersit2 of Wollon1on15= +riti,-e of '-clear
()tinction=5 6o-rnal of Peace #esearc85 Tol. 1/5 'o. "5 1/.25 8ttp<>>???.bmartin.cc>p-bs>.2Cpr.8tml 5 pp. 2.*7!00. T8e idea t8at 1lobal n-clear ?ar co-ld $ill most or all of t8e ?orldEs pop-lation is criticall2 e)amined and fo-nd to 8a4e little or no scientific basis. A n-mber of possible reasons for beliefs abo-t n-clear e)tinction are presented5 incl-din1 e)a11eration to C-stif2 inaction5 fear of deat85 e)a11eration to stim-late action5 t8e idea t8at plannin1 is
defeatist5 e)a11eration to C-stif2 concern5 ?8ite ?estern orientation5 t8e pattern of da27to7da2 life5 and reformist political anal2sis. 9ome of t8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 t8ese factors in8ibit a f-ll political anal2sis and practice b2 t8e peace mo4ement are indicated. Pre4alent ideas abo-t t8e irrationalit2 and s8ort d-ration of n-clear ?ar and of t8e -nli$eli8ood of limited n-clear ?ar are also briefl2 e)amined. Qor man2 people5

n-clear ?ar is seen as s-c8 a terrible e4ent5 and as somet8in1 t8at people can do so little abo-t5 t8at t8e2 can see no point in ta$in1 action on peace iss-es and do not e4en t8in$ abo-t t8e dan1er. Qor t8ose ?8o 8a4e ne4er been concerned or ta$en action on t8e iss-e5 acceptin1 an e)treme acco-nt of t8e effects of n-clear ?ar can pro4ide conscio-s or -nconscio-s C-stification for t8is inaction. 3n s8ort5 one remo4es from oneEs a?areness t8e -psettin1 topic of n-clear ?ar5 and C-stifies t8is ps2c8olo1ical denial b2 belie4in1 t8e ?orst. people in4ol4ed ?it8 an2 iss-e or acti4it2 tend to e)a11erate its importance so as to C-stif2 and s-stain t8eir concern and in4ol4ement. '-clear ?ar is onl2 one problem amon1 man2
pressin1 problems in t8e ?orld5 ?8ic8 incl-de star4ation5 po4ert25 e)ploitation5 racial and se)-al ine,-alit2 and repressi4e 1o4ernments. B2 concentratin1 on peace iss-es5 one m-st b2 necessit2 1i4e less attention to ot8er pressin1 iss-es. An -nconscio-s tendenc2 to

e)a11erate t8e effects of n-clear ?ar 8as t8e effect of red-cin1 conscio-s or -nconscio-s 1-ilt at not doin1 more on ot8er iss-es.

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Kritik of N c!ear 0ar 'mpacts (2)


Fear of the nuclear 5other6 entrenches us in the type of logic that inevitably leads to human e#tinction @leisner '2 RDr. 6o8n Gleisner5 a cons-ltant ps2c8iatrist at t8e 'ort8 Western #e1ional 0ealt8 A-t8orit2 in
Greater Manc8ester5 is acti4e in t8e Medical +ampai1n A1ainst '-clear Weapons5 'e? 3nternational5 ;T8e (nem2 Wit8in=5 Marc8 1/.!S
GFT+0AHJ screamed t8e 8eadline in t8e Iondon 9-n t8e mornin1 after a Britis8 s-bmarine san$ t8e Ar1entinian ?ars8ip General Bei1rono in t8e 9o-t8 Atlantic last 2ear. T8e !&0 sailors ?8o ?ent do?n ?it8 t8eir s8ip ?ere onl2 Ar1iesN t8e enem2N and c8eers reso-nded in p-bs -p and do?n t8e co-ntr2. Man2 ?ere s8oc$ed to 8ear Britis8 people c8ant Pn-$e t8e Ar1iesJ and to see 8o? t8e Ministr2 of Defense and t8e media portra2ed Ar1entina as a nation of international 1an1sters. 3t ?as a s8oc$5 b-t it s8o-ld not 8a4e been. After all ! 1o4ernments and media t8ro-18o-t t8e ?orld 8a4e perfected a ps2c8olo1ical ?ar mac8ine ?8ic8 is 8i18l2 efficient in fosterin1 fear and 8atred of Pt8e enem2J. Tr-e5 for -s in t8e West t8e enem2 t8ese da2s is -s-all2 portra2ed as totin1 a red fla1 and a fistf-l of n-clear missiles5 b-t t8e fear and 8atred are free7floatin1 and can be attac8ed5 b2 s$ilf-l manoe-4erin15 to an2 obCect. 9oftened b2 cent-ries of insec-rit25 o-r minds are

often been 1ood 1ro-nds


malleable cla2 for t8e ps2c8olo1ical ?ar mac8ine. T8ere 8a4e

in t8e past

for

fearin1 t8e enem25 and t8e

distinction bet?een Pt8emJ and P-sJ ?as once necessar2 for s-r4i4al. B-t n-clear ?eapons 8a4e c8an1ed e4er2t8in1. Toda2 t8at ancient t8em -s distinction t8reatens t8e s-r4i4al of t8em and -s. As (instein once said< PT8e -nleas8ed po?er of t8e atom 8as c8an1ed e4er2t8in1 e)cept o-r ?a2 of t8in$in1. . . ?e need an essentiall2 ne? ?a2 of t8in$in1 if man$ind is to s-r4i4e.J T8e old t8em7-s t8in$in1 is dan1ero-s beca-se it leads -s to accept t8e -nacceptable. And t8e reasonin1 1oes
somet8in1 li$e t8is< PT8e #-ssians are basicall2 different from -s. T8e2 are ?ic$ed b-llies ?8o intend to ta$e o4er t8e ?orld. We can stop t8em onl2 b2 t8reatenin1 t8em beca-se b-llies onl2 respond to t8reats. And beca-se t8e2 are basicall2 different from -s it is alri18t to destro2 t8em if necessar2. '-clear ?eapons are terrible b-t it ma2 be t8at t8e #-ssians cannot be stopped b2 an2 ot8er means. Alt8o-18 n-clear ?ar ?o-ld be 8orrible5 ?e 8a4e a reasonable c8ance of s-r4i4in1. And an2?a2 life -nder #-ssian r-le ?o-ld be far ?orse t8an deat8.J 3f an2 indi4id-al spo$e abo-t anot8er -sin1 lo1ic li$e t8is t8e2 ?o-ld be dia1nosed as paranoid. And5 indeed5 t8em7-s t8in$in1 is a time78ono-red s2mptom of ps2c8osis (a ps2c8otic bein1 someone ?8o can no lon1er distin1-is8 bet?een e4ents in t8e ?orld and e4ents ta$in1 place in t8eir ima1ination 5 c8aracterised b2 ?8at ps2c8olo1ists call PdenialJ and PproCectionJ. PDenialJ is ref-sin1 to ac$no?led1e oneJs o?n -npleasant moti4es. PProCectionJ is attac8in1 t8ese -nac$no?led1ed moti4es onto someone else and t8en reCectin1 t8em. 3t is t8e perfect ?a2 of 8a4in1 2o-r ca$e and eatin1 it too< of ind-l1in1 2o-r o?n bad moti4es and criticisin1 t8em at t8e same time. F-r media and 1o4ernments depict t8e #-ssians as a11ressi4e e)pansionists bent on o-r destr-ction. A po?erf-l perception of t8reat is created to soften -p t8e p-blic for 2et more PdefenceJ spendin15 And in t8e 9o4iet :nion precisel2 t8e same tric$s are -sed to pers-ade 9o4iet citiDens to ma$e t8e necessar2 PsacrificesJ for protection a1ainst -s. Most of -s 8a4e ne4er met a #-ssian. Bet t8ere are fe? of -s ?it8o-t opinions abo-t 8o? dan1ero-s t8e2 are. We

tend to see o-r o?n co-ntr2 as conciliator25 C-st5 tr-st?ort825 rational5 le1itimate. T8eirs is a11ressi4e5 -nC-st5 -ntr-st?ort825 irrational and ille1itimate. Bet an2one tra4ellin1 in t8e 9o4iet :nion is soon str-c$ not onl2 b2 t8e 9o4ietsJ stron1 belief in t8eir o?n peacef-lness5 b-t also b2 t8eir s-rprise and p-DDlement at t8e fact t8at forei1ners do not 4ie? t8em in t8e same li18t. T8e2 fear -s N for precisel2 t8e same reasons t8at ?e fear t8em.

Fearing the 9omb buys into a mode of nuclear opposition that grants control of the debate to nuclear proponents! preventing change. <haloupka -2 (William5 Professor of Political 9cience5 :ni4ersit2 of Montana5 Kno?in1 '-$es< T8e Politics
and +-lt-re of t8e Atom. 21722 Ii$e fe? ot8er iss-es5 n-clearism strains to become more t8an an instance. 3t aspires to be conte)t and case5 to s8ape p-blic and pri4ate life. 3t see$s a s2mbolic position of s-c8 force t8at ot8er concerns ?o-ld arise ?it8in t8e conte)t of n-clear tec8nolo125
sometimes e4en ?8en e)plicit5 connections are absent. T8e policies5 practices5 and disco-rses of n-clear tec8nolo12 seem to 8a4e a capacit2 to capt-re attention t8at ri4als e4en t8eir destr-cti4e capabilit2. 3n s8ort5 n-clearism or1aniDes p-blic life and t8o-18t so t8oro-18l2 t8at5 in anot8er era of political t8eor25 ?e ?o-ld anal2De it as an ideolo12. T8e frame?or$ of s-r4i4al or defense 8as become per4asi4e in Western political c-lt-res5 dominatin1 not onl2 t8e b-d1ets and debates of p-blic life b-t t8e more pri4ate dimensions as ?ell. 3n o-r time5 ?8en one dreams of p-blic life5 t8e fantasies ma2 e4en be atomic. T8e le4el of comp-lsion attendant to n-clear ,-estions co-ld become a s-bCect of interpretationG a critic co-ld c8oose to disc-ss t8ese ,-estions as more f-ndamental t8an iss-es t8at merel2 confirm e)istin1 frame?or$s and 8abits. Qor citiDens of n-clear states5 n-$es are t8e metap8ors for s-ccess and fail-re5 t8e constraints for e)perimentation5 t8e analo12 for all ot8er ;problems. 'onet8eless5 t8ese same citiDens seem rel-ctant to ta$e n-$es so serio-sl2. T8e bac$1ro-nd for m2 proCect is a s-spicion t8at a sort of conser4atism5 a slo?ness to mo4e5 c8aracteriDes e4en t8e most alarmist tal$ of n-$es. T8e 4ario-s positions on n-clearism are p8rased ?it8in familiar political ?a2s of spea$in15

2!

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

despite t8eir proponentsJ considered C-d1ment t8at precisel2 t8ese -nderta$in1s 8a4e made t8e ?orld so different5 so dan1ero-s. T8e n-clearism adopted b2 states and diplomats pres-mes a Mac8ia4ellian co-nterbalance of t8reats5 ?8ile opponents pres-me t8e efficac2 of 8-manist commitment. Despite ob4io-s differences5 bot8 positions reinforce a contemporar25 ideolo1ical ?a2s of -nderstandin1 politics.

2"

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of Pro!iferation 'mpacts


.. Their discourse of nuclear proliferation is Crientalist and racist. @usterson 1-- R0-18 G-sterson5 Professor of Ant8ropolo125 Geor1e Mason :ni4ersit2 5 ;'-clear Weapons and
t8e Ft8er in Western 3ma1ination5= +-lt-ral Ant8ropolo125 p1. 11"S
T8-s in Western disco-rse n-clear ?eapons are represented so t8at At8eirsA are a problem ?8ereas Ao-rsA are not. D-rin1 t8e +old War t8e Western disco-rse on t8e dan1ers of An-clear proliferationA defined t8e term in s-c8 a ?a2 as to se4er the two senses of the word proliferation. This usage split off t8e A4erticalA proliferation of t8e s-perpo?er arsenals Dthe development of new and improved weapons designs and the numerical e#pansion of the stockpilesE from t8e A8oriDontalA proliferation of n-clear ?eapons to ot8er co-ntries5 presentin1 onl2 t8e latter as t8e Aproliferation problem.A Following the end of the <old >ar! the .merican and 0ussian arsenals are being cut to a few thousand weapons on each side.% 4owever! the 7nited )tates and 0ussia have turned back appeals from various nonaligned nations! especially ?ndia! for the nuclear powers to open discussions on a global convention abolishing nuclear weapons. .rticle ; of the Aon&(roliferation Treaty notwithstanding! the <linton administration has declared that nuclear weapons will play a role in the defense of the 7nited )tates for the indefinite future. $eanwhile! in a controversial move! the <linton administration has broken with the policy of previous administrations in basically formali*ing a policy of using nuclear weapons against nonnuclear states to deter chemical and biological weapons D(anofsky ,--2F )loyan ,--2E. T8e dominant disco-rse t8at stabiliDes t8is s2stem of n-clear apart8eid in >estern ideology is a speciali*ed variant within a broader system of colonial and postcolonial disco-rse t8at ta$es as its essentialist premise a profo-nd Ft8erness separatin1 T8ird World from Western co-ntries. T8is inscription of Third >orld Despecially .sian and $iddle "asternE nations as ineradicably different from our own 8as! in a different conte#t! been labeled AFrientalismA by "dward )aid D,-B2E. )aid argues that orientalist disco-rse constr-cts t8e ?orld in terms of a series of binar2 oppositions that produce the Crient as the mirror image of the >estG ?8ere A?eA are rational and disciplined5 At8e2A are imp-lsi4e and emotionalG where A?eA are modern and fle)ible! HtheyH are slaves to ancient passions and routinesF where HweH are honest and compassionate! HtheyH are treacherous and uncultivated. >hile t8e blatantl2 racist orientalism of the high colonial period has softened! more subtle orientalist ideologies end-re in contemporary politics. They can be found! as .khil @upta D,--2E has argued! in discourses of economic development that represent Third >orld nations as child nations lagging behind >estern nations in a uniform cycle of development or! as 3ut* and <ollins D,-- E suggest! in the imagery of popular maga*ines! such as Aational @eographic. ? want to suggest here that another variant of contemporary orientalist ideology is also to be found in :.9. national sec-rit2 disco-rse.

9. These racist dichotomies grant states the power to e#terminate I this is the root of all war $endieta 12 R(d-ardo Mendieta5 9:'B at 9ton2 Broo$5 APA +entral Di4ision Meetin15 Meetin1 of t8e
Qo-ca-lt +ircle5 ;To Ma$e Ii4e and to Iet Die Qo-ca-lt on #acism=5 April 2%5 2002S
T8is is ?8ere racism inter4enes5 not from ?it8o-t5 e)o1eno-sl25 b-t from ?it8in5 constit-ti4el2. Qor t8e emer1ence of biopo?er as t8e form of a ne? form of political rationalit25 entails t8e inscription ?it8in t8e 4er2 lo1ic of t8e modern state t8e lo1ic of racism. Qor racism 1rants! and here ? am 8uotingG ;t8e conditions for t8e acceptabilit2 of p-ttin1 to deat8 in a society of normali*ation. >here there is a society of normali*ation! where there is a power that is! in all of its surface and in first instance! and first line! a bio&power! racism is indispensable as a condition to be able to put to death someone! in order to be able to put to death others. T8e 8omicidal JmeurtriKreL f-nction of t8e state! to the degree that the state functions on the modality of bio&power! can onl2 be ass-red b2 racism 5DFoucault ,--B! 22BE To use the formulations from his ,-22 lecture 5The (olitical Technology of ?ndividuals6 Iwhich incidentally! echo his ,-B- Tanner 3ectures Ithe power of the state after the ,2th century! a power which is enacted through the police! and is enacted over the population! is a power over living beings! and as such it is a biopolitics. .nd! to 8uote more directly! ;since

t8e pop-lation is not8in1 more t8an ?8at t8e state ta$es care of for its o?n sa$e5 of co-rse5 t8e state is entitled to sla-18ter it5 if necessar2. )o the reverse of biopolitics is thanatopolitics.6 DFoucault 2000! 4,;E. #acism5 is t8e t8anatopolitics of t8e biopolitics of t8e total state. They are two sides of one same political technology! one same political rationalityG the management of life! the life of a population! the tending to the continuum of life of a people. .nd ?it8 t8e inscription of racism ?it8in t8e state of biopo?er5 t8e lon1 8istor2 of ?ar that Foucault has been telling in these da**ling lectures has made a new turnG t8e ?ar of peoples5 a ?ar a1ainst in4aders5 imperials coloniDers5 ?8ic8 t-rned into a ?ar of races5 to t8en t-rn into a ?ar of classes5 8as no? t-rned into t8e ?ar of a race! a biological unit! against its polluters and threats. #acism is t8e means b2 ?8ic8 bourgeois political power! biopo?er5 re7$indles t8e fires of ?ar ?it8in ci4il societ2. #acism normaliDes and medicaliDes ?ar. #acism ma$es ?ar t8e permanent condition of societ25 ?8ile at t8e same time mas$in1 its ?eapons of deat8 and tort-re. .s ? wrote somewhere else! racism banaliDes 1enocide b2 ma$in1 ,-otidian t8e l2nc8in1 of s-spect t8reats to t8e 8ealt8 of t8e social bod2. #acism ma$es t8e $illin1 of t8e ot8er5 of ot8ers5 an

e4er2da2 occ-rrence b2 internaliDin1 and normaliDin1 t8e ?ar of societ2 a1ainst its enemies.

To
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protect societ2 entails ?e be read2 to $ill its t8reats5 its foes5 and if ?e -nderstand societ2 as a -nit2 of life5 as a contin--m of t8e li4in15 t8en t8ese t8reat and foes are biolo1ical in nat-re.

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)eeing war an event obfuscates the continued legacy of state&sponsored violence going on everyday. This ethic prevents mobili*ation against structural forms of violence that make the outbreak of war inevitable. <uomo -; (+8ristine5 Associate Professor of P8ilosop82 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of +incinnati5 ;War 3s 'ot 6-st an
(4ent< #eflections on t8e 9i1nificance of (4er2da2 Tiolence=5 02patia5 Tol. 115 3ss. "5 Qall5 Pro,-est T8eor2 t8at does not in4esti1ate or e4en notice t8e omnipresence of militarism cannot represent or address t8e dept8 and specificit2 of t8e e4er2da2 effects of militarism on ?omen5 on people li4in1 in occ-pied territories5 on members of militar2 instit-tions5 and on t8e en4ironment. T8ese effects are rele4ant to feminists in a n-mber of ?a2s beca-se militar2 practices and instit-tions 8elp constr-ct 1endered and national identit25 and beca-se t8e2 C-stif2 t8e destr-ction of nat-ral non8-man entities and comm-nities d-rin1 peacetime. Iac$ of attention to t8ese aspects of t8e b-siness of ma$in1 or pre4entin1 militar2 4iolence in an e)tremel2 tec8nolo1iDed ?orld res-lts in t8eor2 t8at cannot accommodate t8e connections amon1 t8e constant presence of militarism5 declared ?ars5 and ot8er closel2 related social p8enomena5 s-c8 as
nationalistic 1lorifications of mot8er8ood5 media 4iolence5 and c-rrent ideolo1ical 1ra4itations to militar2 sol-tions for social problems.

(t8ical approac8es t8at do not attend to t8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 ?arfare and militar2 practices are ?o4en into t8e 4er2 fabric of life in t?ent27first cent-r2 tec8nolo1ical states lead to crisis7based politics and anal2ses . Qor an2 feminism t8at aims to resist oppression and create alternati4e social and political options5 crisis7based et8ics and politics are problematic beca-se t8e2 distract attention from t8e need for s-stained resistance to t8e enmes8ed5 omnipresent s2stems of domination and oppression t8at so often f-nction as 1i4ens in most peopleEs li4es. 'e1lectin1 t8e omnipresence of militarism allo?s t8e false belief t8at t8e absence of declared armed conflicts is peace5 t8e polar opposite of ?ar. 3t
is partic-larl2 eas2 for t8ose ?8ose li4es are s8aped b2 t8e safet2 of pri4ile1e5 and ?8o do not re1-larl2 enco-nter t8e realities of militarism5 to maintain t8is false belief. T8e belief t8at militarism is an et8ical5 political concern onl2 re1ardin1 armed conflict5

creates forms of resistance to militarism t8at are merel2 e)ercises in crisis control. Anti?ar resistance is t8en mobiliDed ?8en t8e ArealA 4iolence finall2 occ-rs5 or ?8en t8e stabilit2 of pri4ile1e is directl2 t8reatened5 and at t8at point it is diffic-lt not to respond in ?a2s t8at ma$e resisters drop all ot8er political priorities. +risis7dri4en attention to declarations of ?ar mi18t act-all2 $eep resisters complacent abo-t and complicito-s in t8e 1eneral presence of 1lobal militarism. 9eein1 ?ar as necessaril2 embedded in constant militar2 presence dra?s attention to t8e fact t8at 8orrific5 state7sponsored 4iolence is 8appenin1 nearl2 all o4er5 all of t8e time5 and t8at it is perpetrated b2 militar2 instit-tions and ot8er militaristic a1ents of t8e state . Mo4in1 a?a2 from crisis7dri4en politics and ontolo1ies concernin1 ?ar and militar2 4iolence also enables consideration of relations8ips amon1 seemin1l2 disparate p8enomena5 and t8erefore can s8ape more n-anced t8eoretical and practical forms of resistance . Qor e)ample5 in4esti1atin1 t8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 ?ar is part of a presence allo?s consideration of t8e relations8ips amon1 t8e e4ents of ?ar and t8e follo?in1< 8o? militarism is a fo-ndational trope in t8e social and political ima1inationG 8o? t8e per4asi4e presence and s2mbolism of soldiers>?arriors>patriots s8ape meanin1s of 1enderG t8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 t8reats of state7sponsored 4iolence are a sometimes in4isible>sometimes bold a1ent of racism5 nationalism5 and corporate interestsG t8e fact t8at 4ast n-mbers of comm-nities5 cities5 and nations are c-rrentl2 in t8e midst of e)cr-ciatin1l2 4iolent circ-mstances. 3t also pro4ides a lens for considerin1 t8e relations8ips amon1 t8e 4ario-s $inds of 4iolence t8at 1et labeled A?ar.A Gi4en c-rrent American obsessions ?it8 nationalism5 1-ns5 and militias5 and 1ro?in1
8-n1er for t8e deat8 penalt25 prisons5 and a more po?erf-l police state5 one cannot -nderestimate t8e need for p8ilosop8ical and political attention to connections amon1 p8enomena li$e t8e A?ar on dr-1s5A t8e A?ar on crime5A and ot8er state7f-nded militaristic campai1ns .

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To discuss war as an event that occurs outside of our day to day world is to actively forgo a discussion the war which takes place every day against a variety of femini*ed others. This ontological and epistemological shortsightedness creates an ongoing war against women and the environment. <uomo5 Professor of P8ilosop82 and WomenJs 9t-dies5 ,--; +8ris +-omo 7 Professor of P8ilosop82 and
WomenEs 9t-dies5 and Director of t8e 3nstit-te for WomenEs 9t-dies at t8e :ni4erit2 of Geor1ia 1//& ;War 3s 'ot 6-st an (4ent< #eflections on t8e 9i1nificance of (4er2da2 Tiolence= P-blis8ed in 02patia 11."5 pp. !07"& Alt8o-18 m2 position is in a1reement ?it8 t8e notion t8at ?ar and militarism are feminist iss-es5 3 ar1-e t8at approac8es to t8e et8ics of ?ar and peace ?8ic8 do not consider ;peacetime= militar2 4iolence are inade,-ate for feminist and en4ironmentalist concerns. Beca-se m-c8 of t8e militar2 4iolence done to ?omen and ecos2stems 8appens o-tside t8e bo-ndaries of declared ?ars5 feminist and en4ironmental p8ilosop8ers o-18t to emp8asiDe t8e si1nificance of e4er2da2 militar2 4iolence. P8ilosop8ical attention to ?ar 8as t2picall2 appeared in t8e form of C-stifications for enterin1 into ?ar5 and o4er appropriate acti4ities ?it8in ?ar. T8e spatial metap8ors -sed to refer to ?ar as a separate5 bo-nded sp8ere indicate ass-mptions t8at ?ar is a realm of 8-man acti4it2 4astl2 remo4ed from normal life5 or a sort of 8appenin1 t8at is appropriatel2 concei4ed apart from e4er2da2 e4ents in peacef-l times. 'ot s-rprisin1l25 most disc-ssions of t8e political and et8ical dimensions of ?ar disc-ss ?ar solel2 as an e4entNan occ-rrence5 or collection of occ-rrences5 8a4in1 clear be1innin1s and endin1s t8at are t2picall2 mar$ed b2 formal5 instit-tional declarations.
As 8appenin1s5 ?ars and militar2 acti4ities can be seen as moti4ated b2 identifiable5 if comple)5 intentions5 and directl2 enacted b2 indi4id-al and collecti4e decision7ma$ers and a1ents of states. B-t man2 of t8e ,-estions abo-t ?ar t8at are of interest to feminists

incl-din1 8o? lar1e7scale5 state7sponsored 4iolence affects ?omen and members of ot8er oppressed 1ro-psG 8o? militar2 4iolence s8apes 1endered5 raced5 and nationalistic political realities and moral ima1inationsG ?8at s-c8 4iolence consists of and ?82 it persistsG 8o? it is related to ot8er oppressi4e and 4iolent instit-tions and 8e1emoniesNcannot be ade,-atel2 p-rs-ed b2 foc-sin1 on e4ents. T8ese iss-es are not merel2 a matter of 1ood or bad
intentions and identifiable decisions. 3n AGender and EPostmodernE War5A #obin 9c8ott introd-ces some of t8e ?a2s in ?8ic8 ?ar is c-rrentl2 best seen not as an e4ent b-t as a presence (9c8ott 1//% . 9c8ott ar1-es t8at postmodern -nderstandin1s of persons5 states5 and politics5 as ?ell as t8e 8i187tec8 nat-re of m-c8 contemporar2 ?arfare and t8e preponderance of ci4il and nationalist ?ars5 render an e4ent7based conception of ?ar inade,-ate5 especiall2 insofar as 1ender is ta$en into acco-nt. 3n t8is essa25 3 ?ill e)pand -pon 8er ar1-ment b2 s8o?in1 t8at acco-nts of ?ar t8at onl2 foc-s on e4ents are impo4eris8ed in a n-mber of ?a2s5 and t8erefore feminist consideration of t8e political5 et8ical5 and ontolo1ical dimensions of ?ar and t8e possibilities for resistance demand a m-c8 more complicated approac8 . 3 ta$e 9c8ottEs c8aracteriDation of ?ar as presence as a point of depart-re5 t8o-18 3 am not committed to t8e idea t8at t8e constanc2 of mili ions of ?8ite5 ?estern Eci4ilisationE 7 alt8o-18 n-clear ?ar is 8ardl2 t8e ?a2 to ac8ie4e t8is. T8ese considerations s-11est t8e importance of stren1t8enin1 lin$s bet?een peace str-11les and str-11les for C-stice5 e,-alit2 and freedom from e)ploitation in poor co-ntries .

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<onstructing foreign countries as unsafe for 57s!6 the >esterners! due to disease allowed for coloni*ation by >estern medicine. 9ankoff 0, (Gre1or25 Professor of Modern 0istor2 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of 0-ll5 ;#enderin1 t8e World :nsafe<
ET-lnerabilit2E as Western Disco-rse=5 8ttp<>>???.1eo.mt-.ed->4olcanoes>0&-p1rade>9ocial7KateG>Attac8ments V20:sed>T-lnerabilit2.WesternDisco-rse.pdf 99 T8e process b2 ?8ic8 lar1e areas of t8e 1lobe ?ere rendered -nsafe to (-ropeans predates t8e nineteent8 cent-r2 b-t a s2stematicall2 constr-cted paradi1m5 based on consistent ar1-ment and s-bstantiated b2 empirical in4esti1ation t8at depicts certain areas of t8e ?orld as partic-larl2 deleterio-s to 8-man 8ealt8 5 8ad to a?ait t8e scientific ad4ances of t8e ne? cent-r2. Da4id Arnold describes 8o? t8e 1ro?t8 of a branc8 of Western medicine t8at specialiDed in t8e pat8olo12 of E?arm climatesE ?as a conspic-o-s element in t8e process of (-ropean contact and coloniDation from t8e earliest 2ears of o4erseas e)ploration. More t8an a mere c8ronolo12 of scientific disco4er2 t8at dre? attention to t8e medicinal c8aracteristics of ne? plants5 t8erape-tic practices and esoteric $no?led1e5 8e refers to t8e manner in ?8ic8 Western medicine came to demarcate and define parts of ?orld ?8ere t8ese E?arm climateE diseases ?ere pre4alent (Arnold5 1//&< %7& . 0ere it is t8e role of t8e medical practitioner as colonial rat8er t8an simpl2 medical e)pert5 ?8ere 8is lon17term attit-des to distincti4e indi1eno-s societies and distant 1eo1rap8ical en4ironments pro4ed instr-mental in 8o? s-c8 lands came to be concept-aliDed.

>estern disease discourse otheri*es foreign lands and their people. 9ankoff 0, (Gre1or25 Professor of Modern 0istor2 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of 0-ll5 ;#enderin1 t8e World :nsafe<
ET-lnerabilit2E as Western Disco-rse=5 8ttp<>>???.1eo.mt-.ed->4olcanoes>0&-p1rade>9ocial7KateG>Attac8ments V20:sed>T-lnerabilit2.WesternDisco-rse.pdf 99 Arnold ar1-es t8at t8e 1ro?in1 bod2 of scientific $no?led1e abo-t t8ese re1ions5 increasin1l2 s-bstantiated b2 statistical en-meration of morbidit2 and mortalit2 and b2 a medical 1eo1rap82 t8at attrib-ted local diseases to specific climates5 4e1etation and p82sical topo1rap8ies5 prod-ced not onl2 a literat-re on ?arm climates b-t also in4ented a partic-lar disco-rse t8at 8e refers to as tropicality (Arnold5 1//&< *.5 10 . Fne of t8e most distincti4e c8aracteristics of t8is disco-rse ?as t8e creation of a sense of otherness t8at (-ropeans attac8ed to t8e tropical en4ironment5 t8e difference of plant and animal life5 t8e climate and topo1rap825 t8e indi1eno-s societies and t8eir c-lt-res and t8e distincti4e nat-re of disease. More t8an denotin1 simpl2 a p82sical space5 t8e ot8erness con4e2ed b2 tropicalit2 is as m-c8 a concept-al one< EA Western ?a2 of definin1 somet8in1 c-lt-rall2 and politicall2 alien5 as ?ell as en4ironmentall2 distincti4e5 from (-rope and ot8er parts of t8e temperate DoneE (Arnold5 1//&< & . 3n t8is first rendition of t8e stor25 t8en5 Western medicine effecti4el2 defines e,-atorial re1ions as a Done of dan1er in terms of disease and t8reat to life and 8ealt85 one t8at concept-all2 c-lminates ?it8 t8e establis8ment of t8e Iondon 9c8ool of 021iene and Tropical Medicine in 1.//. T8e medical disco4eries of t8e late nineteent8 cent-r25 t8e elaboration of 1erm t8eor2 and t8e realisation t8at bacteria and not climate ?ere responsible for disease5 credited Western medicine ?it8 t8e means of effectin1 a Ec-reE to t8e re1ionsE in8erent dan1ers5 an impression t8at persisted t8ro-18 most of last cent-r2. 0o?e4er5 t8e reappearance in t8e last decades of t8e t?entiet8 cent-r2 of antibiotic7resistant strains of $no?n diseases5 t8e spread of t8e A3D9 pandemic5 and t8e emer1ence of ne? 4ir-ses li$e (bola fe4er for ?8ic8 t8ere are no $no?n c-res5 8a4e serio-sl2 s8a$en t8e notion of Western sec-rit2 (Broo$esmit85 1//* ." Fnce a1ain5 t8ose re1ions of E?arm climatesE5 from ?8ic8 t8ese ne? t8reats are seen to emanate5 are depicted as dan1ero-s and life7t8reatenin1 to Western people5 1i4in1 a ne? lease of life to t8e notion of tropicalit2 in t8e t?ent27first cent-r2 (Altman5 1//. .

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>estern medicine discourse has divided the world into superior donors and inferior recipients of western ideals. 9ankoff 0, (Gre1or25 Professor of Modern 0istor2 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of 0-ll5 ;#enderin1 t8e World :nsafe<
ET-lnerabilit2E as Western Disco-rse=5 8ttp<>>???.1eo.mt-.ed->4olcanoes>0&-p1rade>9ocial7KateG>Attac8ments V20:sed>T-lnerabilit2.WesternDisco-rse.pdf 99 W8ile lar1e parts of t8e 1lobe ?ere 1rad-all2 rendered -nsafe and t8en pro1ressi4el2 safer b2 t8e concept-al 1eo1rap82 of Western medicine5 t8e dominant position of disease as t8e primar2 delimitin1 condition ?as s-perseded5 t8o-18 ne4er completel2 replaced5 b2 a ne? disc-rsi4e frame?or$ especiall2 in t8e 2ears follo?in1 t8e second ?orld ?ar. 'ot t8at tropicalit2 8as e4er been completel2 eclipsed as a paradi1matic concept< Western 1o4ernments contin-e to iss-e 8ealt8 and 4accination ?arnin1s to t8eir citiDens tra4ellin1 to re1ions re1arded as l2in1 ?it8in endemic malarial5 c8oleric or ot8er s-c8 Dones5 as ?ell as imposin1 strin1ent ,-arantine re1-lations on prod-ce5 material ( and mi1rants ori1inatin1 from t8ose same areas . B-t cold ?ar ri4alr2 bet?een t8e :nited 9tates and t8e former 9o4iet :nion for 1lobal
dominance led Western t8eorists to form-late ne? $inds of policies desi1ned to sol4e ?8at ?ere deemed t8e pressin1 social and economic conditions of Africa5 Asia and Iatin America. T8e intent ?as not8in1 less t8an to replicate t8e c8aracteristic feat-res of

Ead4ancedE Western nations< ind-strial5 -rban5 tec8nical societies ?it8 8i18 1ro?t8 rates and risin1 li4in1 standards ?8ose citiDens ?ere ed-cated and 8ad lar1el2 imb-ed modern c-lt-ral 4al-es. B-t in attemptin1 to E?in t8e 8earts and mindsE of t8e people ?8o li4ed in t8ese re1ions5 to 1i4e t8em a Efair dealE and so contain t8e spread of +omm-nism5 Western in4estment and aid policies effecti4el2 di4ided t8e ?orld concept-all2 in t?o N bet?een donor and recipient nations5 bet?een de4eloped and -nderde4eloped co-ntries

Through >estern representations of disease! tropical countries are labeled as dangerous to western people and are opened up to colonialism by >estern medicine. 9ankoff 0, (Gre1or25 Professor of Modern 0istor2 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of 0-ll5 ;#enderin1 t8e World :nsafe<
ET-lnerabilit2E as Western Disco-rse=5 8ttp<>>???.1eo.mt-.ed->4olcanoes>0&-p1rade>9ocial7KateG>Attac8ments V20:sed>T-lnerabilit2.WesternDisco-rse.pdf 99 T8e Western disco-rse on disasters5 ?8et8er it be abo-t abnormal nat-ral e4ents or abo-t 4-lnerable pop-lations5 still remains ?8at 0e?itt calls Ea socio7c-lt-ral constr-ct reflectin1 a distinct5 instit-tion7centred and et8nocentric 4ie? of man and nat-reE (1/.!< . . 0ealt8 and disease5 ?ell7bein1 and dan1er are 4ie?ed as f-ndamentall2 dependent -pon partic-lar 1eo1rap8ies. T8e concept of nat-ral disasters forms part of a m-c8 ?ider 8istorical and c-lt-ral 1eo1rap82 of ris$ t8at bot8 creates and maintains a partic-lar depiction of lar1e parts of t8e ?orld (mainl2 non7Western co-ntries as dan1ero-s places for -s and o-rs. More importantl25 it also ser4es as C-stification for Western interference and inter4ention in t8e affairs of t8ose re1ions for o-r and t8eir sa$es. Ff co-rse5 t8e matter is ne4er presented ,-ite so cr-del2 b-t is -s-all2 dis1-ised ?it8in a 1reater disco-rse more appropriate to t8e time and a1e. Bet?een t8e se4enteent8 and earl2 t?entiet8 cent-ries5 t8is disco-rse ?as abo-t Etropicalit2E and Western inter4ention ?as $no?n as EcolonialismE. Post71/"%5 it ?as mainl2 abo-t Ede4elopmentE and Western inter4ention ?as $no?n as EaidE. 3n t8e 1//0s5 it ?as abo-t E4-lnerabilit2E and Western inter4ention is $no?n as EreliefE . 'or 8a4e t8e conditions t8at s-pposedl2 rendered t8ese areas of t8e 1lobe -nsafe remained constant o4er time< t8e 8istorical nat-re of dan1er 8as transformed once primaril2 disease7ridden re1ions into po4ert27stric$en ones5 and no? depicts t8em as disaster7prone. T8e s-ccession ?it8
?8ic8 dan1er ?as initiall2 identified as p-rel2 climatic5 t8en as more political5 before once a1ain emp8asisin1 t8e en4ironmental reflects ?ider c8an1es in t8e co-rse of Western 8istor2. T8e creation of t8e tropics as t8e abode of dan1ero-s diseases C-stified t8e

establis8ment of 8i18 colonialism d-rin1 t8e late7nineteent8 and earl2 t?entiet8 cent-ries in terms of Western medicine. 3t 1a4e s-bstance to t8e r8etoric of t8e Qrenc8 mission civilatrice, t8e Britis8 E?8ite manEs b-rdenE and t8e Eet8ical polic2E of t8e D-tc8. 9imilarl25 t8e creation of t8e T8ird World follo?in1 t8e second ?orld ?ar as poor and -nderde4eloped ?as
lar1el2 t8e prod-ct of t8e political r8etoric of t8e cold ?arEs attempt to ?in t8e E8earts and mindsE of its peoples and formed part of t8e -nremittin1 str-11le a1ainst +omm-nism .

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Disease rhetoric constructs disease as a bi&product of the Cther! motivating murderous destruction. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 8ttp<>>sociolo12.-csc.ed->director2>reinarman>addiction.pdf 99 T8e association bet?een race or et8nicit2 and disease is not no4elG epidemic disease5 t8at is5 disease ?8ic8 t8reatens a societ25 in4ariabl2 comes from ;some?8ere else=12G pla1-es are ;4isitations=.1! 9-san 9onta1 too$ t8e e)ample of s2p8ilis5 ?8ic85 ?8en it be1an to s?eep t8ro-18 (-rope in t8e late fifteent8 cent-r2 ?as t8e ;Qrenc8 po) to t8e (n1lis85 morb-s Germanic-s to t8e Parisians5 t8e 'aples sic$ness to t8e Qlorentines5 t8e +8inese disease to t8e 6apanese . . . t8ere is a lin$ bet?een ima1inin1 disease and ima1inin1 forei1nness. 3t lies per8aps in t8e 4er2 concept of ?ron15 ?8ic8 is arc8aicall2 identical ?it8 t8e non7-s5 t8e alien. A poll-tin1 person is al?a2s ?ron15 as Mar2 Do-1las 8as obser4ed. T8e in4erse is also tr-e< a person C-d1ed to be ?ron1 is re1arded as5 at least potentiall25 a so-rce of poll-tion.1" T8e ad4ent of modernit2 allo?ed t8e transformation of t8is association bet?een ancestr2 and p-rit25 and bet?een disease and ot8erness5 into a m-rdero-s r8etoric ?8ic8 moti4ated not onl2 t8e mistreatment or e)p-lsion of t8e Ft8er5 b-t t8eir complete destr-ction .

Disease is represented as a punishment of weakness and evil! resulting in the defining of the Cther as unnatural and diseased. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 8ttp<>>sociolo12.-csc.ed->director2>reinarman>addiction.pdf 99
9-san 9onta15 ?8o credited +8ristianit2 ?it8 t8e ad4ent of a moralised concept of disease ?8ic8 sa? it as p-nis8ment5 described t8e follo?in1 process in relation to disease< Qirst5 t8e s-bCects of deepest dread (corr-ption5 deca25 poll-tion5 anomie5 ?ea$ness are identified ?it8 t8e disease. T8e disease itself becomes a metap8or. T8en5 in t8e name of t8e disease (t8at is5 -sin1 it as a metap8or 5 t8at 8orror is imposed on ot8er t8in1s . . . (pidemic diseases ?ere a common fi1-re for social disorder. Qrom pestilence (b-bonic pla1-e came Ppestilent5J ?8ose fi1-rati4e meanin15 accordin1 to t8e F)ford (n1lis8 Dictionar25 is PinC-rio-s to reli1ion5 morals5 or p-blic peace 1%1!JG and Ppestilential5J meanin1 Pmorall2 banef-l or pernicio-s 1%!1.J Qeelin1s abo-t e4il are proCected onto a disease. And t8e disease (so enric8ed ?it8 meanin1s is proCected onto t8e ?orld.&" 3n t8e nineteent8 cent-r25 8o?e4er5 t?o c8an1es too$ place. Qirst5

diseases -sed as metap8ors for e4il c8an1ed from epidemic5 collecti4e diseases5 to diseases li$e s2p8ilis5 t-berc-losis and cancer5 -nderstood to be diseases of t8e indi4id-al.&% 9econd5 ;t8e notion t8at disease fits t8e patientJs c8aracter5 as t8e p-nis8ment fits t8e sinner5 ?as replaced b2 t8e notion t8at it e)presses c8aracter. Disease can be c8allen1ed b2 t8e ?ill=.&& #eco4er2 from disease5 accordin1 to 9c8open8a-er5 depended on t8e ?ill ass-min1 ;dictatorial po?er in order to s-bs-me t8e rebellio-s forces= of t8e bod2.&* T8e coincidence of t8e idea of disease as p-nis8ment ?it8 t8e idea t8at it is related to t8e ?ill created a p-niti4e and moralistic concept-al frame?or$ ?8ic8 allo?ed disease to be seen as a prod-ct of ?ea$ness5 an e)pression of t8e inner self ?8ic8 co-ld be
re4ersed b2 a conscio-s effort of stren1t8.&. Fn t8e national scale5 defeat and debilit2 partic-larl2 contrib-ted to perceptions of national ;illness=< t8e Fttoman (mpire5 in a period of disinte1ration and of disastro-s5 8-miliatin1 militar2 defeat5 ?as commonl2 $no?n as ;t8e sic$ man of (-rope=. 0itler described t8e period follo?in1 German2Js defeat in t8e Qirst World War as ;in?ardl2 sic$ and rotten=G 8is actions5 ?rote Iifton5 can be -nderstood as an effort to recreate t8e pre7War period and5 as 0itler p-t it5 to ;cleanse it of all imp-rities5 and preser4e it5 so t8at t8is time t8e 1oal of 1/1" ?o-ld be reac8ed . . .=&/ W8ile moral C-d1ement co-ld onl2 be passed on a diseased

indi4id-al as an indi4id-al5 in terms of t8e metap8or of societ2 as a diseased bod25 societ2 became a secondar2 and redeemable obCect of moral opprobri-m5 ?8ile t8e alien bodies of t8e Ft8er co-ld bear t8e f-ll br-nt of condemnation. ;T8ro-18o-t t8e nineteent8 cent-r2=5 ?rote 9onta15 ;disease metap8ors become more 4ir-lent5 prepostero-s5 dema1o1ic. And t8ere is an increasin1 tendenc2 to call an2 sit-ation one disappro4es of a disease. Disease5 ?8ic8 co-ld be considered as m-c8 a part of nat-re as is 8ealt85 became t8e s2non2m of ?8ate4er ?as P-nnat-ralJ =.*0 3n4asi4e diseases ;constit-te t8e -ltimate ins-lt to t8e nat-ral order=*1G b-t ?it8 t8e e)ercise of br-te force in t8e ser4ice of stren1t8 of ?ill5 order co-ld be restored.

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MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

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Kritik of Disease 'mpacts (#)


The metaphor of the germ infecting the body causes genocide of the threatening Cther. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25
(-1enics and race t8eor2 8ad pro4ided a literal5 scientific7 intellect-al ar1-ment as to ?82 biolo1icall27defined 1ro-ps posed a t8reat to societ2. At t8e same time5 medicine pro4ided a metap8orical r8etoric ?8ic85 1i4en t8e establis8ed scientific ;proof=5 co-ld be emplo2ed to call for t8e destr-ction of o-t1ro-ps. T8e concept of social disease in t8e bod2 politic ?as not no4elG b-t t8e disco4er2 of

1erm t8eor2 allo?ed a partic-larl2 4icio-s concept-alisation of disease and illness as an alien5 t8reatenin1 Ft8er in4adin1 t8e bod2. T8e concept t8at li4in1 or1anisms 8ad a role in ca-sin1 disease5 t8e ;animac-lar 82pot8esis=5 ?as a t8eor2 ?8ic8 dated bac$ to classical timesG 8o?e4er5 from
t8e 1.&0s on?ards5 brea$t8ro-18s b2 scientists5 most notabl2 Io-is Paste-r and #obert Koc85 pre7 sented increasin1l2 con4incin1 proof of t8e relations8ip bet?een microbes and illnesses. B2 1/005 ;t8e 1eneral principle t8at microor1anisms pla2ed a central role in ca-sin1 comm-nicable diseases . . . 8ad ac8ie4ed ?idespread acceptance in bot8 (-rope and America=.*2 T8e ne?

3n t8e 1/!0s5 1ro?in1 reco1nition of t8e importance of 4ir-ses added a ne? sp-r to disease r8etoric .*" 3llness in 1eneral 8ad lon1 been -sed as societal metap8or.*% B-t t8e ad4ent of 1erm t8eor2 allo?ed more specific and partic-lar $inds of -nderstandin1s of illness5 ?8ic8 t8en became a4ailable for metap8orical -se. Pre4io-s political metap8ors ?8ic8 sa? ;societal illnesses= as treatable b2 reason5 foresi18t or tolerance ?ere replaced b2 a 4ie? in ?8ic8 disease e,-als deat85 in ?8ic8 t8e emp8asis is on diseases t8at are loat8some and fatal5 diseases ?8ic8 are not to be mana1ed or treated5 b-t attac$ed.*& 3n contrast to pre4io-s t8eories ?8ic8 8ad seen miasma and 4apo-rs as spreadin1 illness5 1erm t8eor2 created acti4e a1ents of illness ?8ic8 so-18t o-t t8eir 4ictims5 a1ents ?8ic8 co-ld be 4is-alised5 confined and destro2ed .** T8ere ?as a c8an1e from a defensi4e5 to an offensi4e attit-de.*. Disease c8an1ed from a p-nis8ment5 to somet8in1 to be p-nis8ed*/< 821iene too$ on reli1io7 moral o4ertones. As t8e American pioneer 8ome economist (llen #ic8ards ?rote5 e4en small 821ienic c8ores 8ad become ;a step in t8e con,-erin1 of e4il5 for dirt is sin=..0 Disease7ca-sin1 bacteria ?ere described as ;in4isible enemies=5 ;banef-l=5 ;l2in1 in ?ait=5 ;forei1n=5 ;base=5 ;m-rdero-s= and ;c-nnin1=G and t8e2 ;?ere often described in martial terms as attac$in15 in4adin15 and con,-erin1 t8eir 8-man 8osts= (a t8eme 3 ret-rn to belo? ..1 A p-rposef-l -se of Dar?inist r8etoric and analo12 also emer1ed . Man2 of t8e leadin1 fi1-res in debate ?ere committed Dar?inists5 ?8o sa? and described t8e relations8ip bet?een microbe and 8ost not onl2 as a ?ar5 b-t specificall2 as a manifestation of t8e ;s-r4i4al of t8e fittest=..2 W8ile 1erm t8eor2 made disease more compre8ensible5 it also became more fri18tenin15 for people5 not places5 ?ere no? responsible for disease.! and a closer association ?as no? possible bet?een partic-lar 1ro-ps of people and disease.." T8e ad4ent of 1erm t8eor2 also
;1erm t8eor2= tra4elled rapidl2 into t8e pop-lar realm5 t8ro-18 p-blic 8ealt8 campai1ns5 lect-res and p-blications in pop-lar science and 8o-se8old iss-es5 and ad4er7 tisin1.*!

1a4e rise to an important c8an1e in -nderstandin1 of t8e nat-re of incarnated poll-tion. 3t ?as no lon1er identifiable b2 o-t?ard appearance5 ?8ic8 became decepti4e< t8e cleanest7loo$in1 person mi18t 8arbo-r 8idden and conta1io-s imp-rit2..% 3n t8e metap8ors created b2 1erm t8eor25 t8is tied in neatl2 ?it8 t8e 4ie? ?8ic8 sa? assimilation as an -nac7 ceptable5 and e4en a t8reatenin15 option. Assimilated

minorities and ;political traitors= ?ere more5 not less5 dan1ero-s beca-se t8e2 fitted in and beca-se t8e2 co-ld not be readil2 identified..& Qor it ?as t8eir essential5 imm-table inner nat-re ?8ic8 ?as t8e so-rce of t8e t8reat .

Disease rhetoric on foreign infection result in genocide of the Cther. "mpirically proven in @ermany and <ambodia. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 T8e r8etoric of 4ictims as disease or1anisms appeared soon after t8e inception of t8e t8eor2 and5 in German25 in parallel ?it8 6e?is8 emancipation and t8e entrance of ;-pstart= 6e?s into t8e pre4io-sl2 separate Gemeinsc8aft (;comm-nit2= . De Gobinea- maintained5 in t8e ?ords of TatD5 t8at ;ci4ilisations de1enerate and die ?8en t8e primordial race7-nit is bro$en -p and s?amped b2 an infl-) of forei1n elements . . . P-rit2 of blood ?as essential to maintain t8at po?er5 and p-rit2 8ad to be protected from dan1ero-s 1erm plasms5 t8e bacilli t8e 6e?s =..* B2 1..& Pa-l de Ia1arde co-ld describe 6e?s as ;not8in1 b-t carriers of decomposition= and ar1-e t8at ;?it8 tric8inae and bacilli one does not ne1otiate . . . t8e2 are e)terminated as ,-ic$l2 and t8oro-18l2 as possible=G.. and in 1./% 0ermann A8l?ardt5 attac$in1 6e?is8 immi1ration5 labelled 6e?s ;c8olera bacilli=../ #ic8ard Wa1nerJs son7in7la?5 0o-ston 9t-art +8amberlain5 ?rote t8at ;alien elements= in Te-tonism 8ad not 2et been e)orcised ;and still5 li$e banef-l 1erms5 circ-late in o-r blood=./0 Qrom t8is point on?ards5 s-c8 r8etoric is commonl2 fo-nd in t8e ?ords of t8e perpetrators of 1enocidal episodes. A 1/*& K8mer #o-1e Part2 +enter #eport (t8o-18t to 8a4e been ?ritten b2 Pol Pot 8imself states t8e follo?in1< ;t8ere is a sic$ness inside t8e Part2 . . . ?e cannot locate it precisel2. T8e illness m-st emer1e to be e)amined . . . ?e searc8 for t8e microbes ?it8in t8e Part2 ?it8o-t s-ccess . . . T8e2 ?ill rot societ25 rot t8e Part25 rot t8e arm2 . . . We m-st e)pose t8em.=/1 T8ose ?8o e)8ibited ;re1ressi4e= si1ns ?ere 8eld to 8a4e a ;sic$ conscio-sness= (c88oe- s_tiar_mma G and a K8mer #o-1e sa2in1 8eld t8at t8e 1oal ?as to ;completel2 anni8ilate diseases of conscio-sness= and create a societ2 of p-re re4ol-tionaries..

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MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of Disease 'mpacts (/)


Disease discourse results in biopolitical control over the health of society to 5cure6 us from the Cther. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 8ttp<>>sociolo12.-csc.ed->director2>reinarman>addiction.pdf 99 Wit8 t8e ad4ent of t8e nation7state5 821ienic medicine as a tec8ni,-e of 8ealt8 ass-med an increasin1l2 important place in t8e administrati4e s2stem and t8e mac8iner2 of po?er. T8e 8ealt8 of t8e pop-lation as a ?8ole became one of t8e essential obCecti4es of political po?er./! T8e nation7state5 s8aped as it ?as b2 t8e ne? tec8nolo12 of pop-lation (t8at is5 political science 5 encompassin1 t8e tools for internal meas-rement and re1-lation5 ?as t8e onl2 bod2 e,-ipped to deal ?it8 t8e necessar2 processes of discipline< identification5 cate1oriDation5 containment5 and (if necessar2 elimination./" T8e 8ealt8 of t8e pop-lation ?o-ld be ens-red b2 t8e ;police= of t8e social bod25 and specificall2 b2 t8e ne? formation5 ;medical police=/%G t8-s5 ?it8 t8e ne? conception of illness5 p-blic 8ealt8 became more t8an e4er before a ,-estion of policin1./& Germ t8eor2 redefined t8e concept of indi4id-al libert25 ;ma$in1 it acceptable for 1o4ernments to in4esti1ate citi7 Dens and restrict t8eir mo4ements5 since no indi4id-al 8ad t8e ri18t to contaminate ot8ers=./* Q-rt8ermore5 t8e elimination of illness t8ro-18 state s-r4eillance and state control of t8e indi4id-al co-ld be seen not onl2 as a necessit25 b-t also as 8-maneG s-c8 a 4ie? ?as espo-sed b2 important scientists5 notabl2 Koc85 a fo-nder of
bacteriolo12./.

Disease discourse acts as dehumani*ing rhetoric for particular groups or foreign threat. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 8ttp<>>sociolo12.-csc.ed->director2>reinarman>addiction.pdf 99 G`tD Al2 t8eorised t8at t8e most important connection bet?een Fperation T7" (t8e first 'aDi mass m-rder pro1ram to tar1et an entire5 caref-ll2 defined set of people and t8e m-rder of 6e?s ?as ;t8e disco4er2 made b2 t8e or1anisers t8at all le4els of German administration5 as ?ell as t8e German people in 1eneral5 ?ere ?illin1 to accept s-c8 a proced-re.=10! De8-maniDin1 r8etoric ?8ic8 cast partic-lar 1ro-ps as a t8reat and e)cised t8em from t8e national comm-nit2 8ad ?or$ed more t8an effecti4el2. Walter Gross5 8ead of t8e 'aDi Fffice of #acial Polic25 dated t8e e)plicit lin$ made bet?een 1enetic 8ealt8 and German blood to t8e '-rember1 Ia?s of 1/!%. All s-bse,-ent le1islation on race and pop-lation5 Gross claimed5 ?as based on t8e distinction t8ese la?s dre? bet?een ;8ealt82= and ;diseased races =.10" T8e concentration and elimination of 6e?s too$ place -nder t8e 1-ise of ;,-arantine= < 18ettoes ?ere a ;821ienic necessit2= and 6e?s ?ere c8aracterised as ;1erm7carriers= ?8o spread epidemic disease.10% T8is r8etoric emer1e a1ain in Democratic Kamp-c8ea (DK 5 ?8ere at times t8e eradication of ;microbes= ?as li$ened to a p-blic 8ealt8 decision . . . P Ieaders C-stified destr-ction of t8e ;diseased elements= of t8e old societ2 . . . We ?ere told repeatedl2 t8at in order to sa4e t8e co-ntr25 it ?as essential to destro2 all t8e contaminated parts . . . 3t ?as essential to c-t deep5 e4en to destro2 a fe? 1ood people rat8er t8an c8ance one ;diseased= person escapin1 eradication.J

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MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of Disease 'mpacts (1)


<onstructing the 5germ6 and the 5Cther6 as the enemy is genocidal priming. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 8ttp<>>sociolo12.-csc.ed->director2>reinarman>addiction.pdf 99 T8e rise of t8e nation7state5 and de4elopments in science5 t8-s allo?ed t8e creation of abodil2 metap8or in ?8ic8 t8e perpetrator societ2 ?as presented as a -nitar2 bod2 in4aded or infected b2 t8reatenin1 life7forms5 ?8ic8 mi18t be all t8e more dan1ero-s beca-se of t8eir in4isibilit2. 1%0 Qor t8e 4er2 s-r4i4al of t8e patient5 t8ese or1anisms m-st be destro2ed. T8is metap8or 8as been persistent since its establis8ment < Bro?n ?rote t8at from t8e inception of 1erm t8eor2 -ntil t8e mid7t?entiet8 cent-r25 alt8o-18 t8e specific t8reat c8an1ed5 ; t8e 1eneric ima1e of t8e 1erm as Penem25J and of 821iene as Pdefense5J remained constant5 ?it8 contin-in1 implications not onl2 for 8ealt85 disease and medicine b-t also for . . . political conceptions of social dan1er=.1%1 3t is important to note t8at in and of itself t8is metap8or alone ?as not
a moti4ation for 1enocide. 3 do not attempt to establis8 a ca-sal relations8ipG t8is r8etoric 8ad been a4ailable for -se5 and 8ad been -sed b2 4ario-s fi1-res5 for *07odd 2ears before it ?as emplo2ed b2 t8e 'aDis in s-pport of t8eir ,-est to ma$e 1reater German2 6-denrein (;6e? clean= . #at8er5 s-c8 r8etoric is a tool< ?8en it is -sed b2 t8ose in positions of po?er and infl-ence as ?idespread and ?idel27accepted p-blic disco-rse it ser4es a C-stificator2 and le1itimator2 f-nction . As Iifton ?rote5 t8e ;1enocidal t8res8old re,-ires e)tensi4e prior ideolo1ical ima1er2 of imperati4e=.1%2 9-c8 disco-rse is5 accordin1 to 0inton5 a $e2 part of

t8e process of ;1enocidal primin1=< 4ictim 1ro-ps5 too5 are ;ima1ined comm-nities=5 ima1ined5 8o?e4er5 not b2 t8emsel4es b-t b2 t8eir persec-tors.1%! 3t is not t8e metap8or itself5 b-t t8e ;realit2= ?8ic8 t8is metap8or represents5 t8e perception of intrinsic essentialised t8reat5 ?8ic8 moti4ates 1enocideG and s-c8 r8etoric ser4es to establis8 t8e connection in pop-list and po?erf-ll2 s2mbolic terms. 'anc2 Tomes ?rote t8at ;RtS8e identification of dread
disease ?it8 a concrete enem2 pi,-ed pop-lar interest in 1erm t8eor2 from its earliest da2s. As one commentator obser4ed in Pop-lar 9cience Mont8l2 in 1..%5 PT8e 1erm t8eor2 appeals to t8e a4era1e mind< it is somet8in1 tan1ibleG it ma2 be 8-nted do?n5 capt-red5 colored5 and loo$ed at t8ro-18 a microscope5 and t8en in all its 4arieties5 it can be 8eld directl2 responsible for so m-c8 dama1e.J=1%" T8is metap8or is -sed

b2 political elites and ideolo1-es to le1itimise 1enocidal action to t8e direct perpetrators5 t8e ;men on t8e 1ro-nd=5 and to ,-as8 ?8ate4er moral ,-alms ma2 be felt in relation to t8e destr-ction of people ?8o mi18t ot8er?ise be seen as fello? 8-man bein1s.

The representation of dirty disease results in 5cleansing6 of the Cther. )avage 0B (#o?an5 de1ree in Medical Bioc8emistr2 from Iondon :ni4ersit25 ;Disease 3ncarnate=< Biopolitical
Disco-rse and Genocidal De8-manisation in t8e A1e of Modernit25 8ttp<>>sociolo12.-csc.ed->director2>reinarman>addiction.pdf 99 T8e concept of t8e Ft8er as dirt2 1i4es rise to t8e related concept of t8e ;cleansin1= of 4ictim peoples. As 'orman +i1ar noted in relation to 1enocide in Bosnia5 RpSer8aps no?8ere ?as t8e po?er of lan1-a1e to cate1oriDe and destro2 as e4ident as t8e c8oice of t8e term Pcleansin15J -sed freel2 in -nofficial disco-rse to describe t8e 4iolent remo4al of M-slims. Io1icall25 a proced-re ?it8 s-c8 a name . . . co-ld onl2 be 4ie?ed as positi4e and desirable5 t8e implicit
antit8esis and correction of an ass-med imp-re5 -nnat-ral5 and demeanin1 state. W8en t8e commander of a 9erbian militia -nit ?as able to report t8at Pt8is re1ion is et8nicall2 clean5J for e)ample5 8e ?as clearl2 pro-d of ?8at 8e 4ie?ed as an ac8ie4ement.1** ;(t8nic cleansin1= ?as ;a e-p8emism in4o$ed b2 t8e 9erbs t8em7 sel4es to describe t8e process of creatin1 et8nicall2 p-re 9erbian re1ions t8ro-18 t8e met8odical m-rder and e)p-lsion of non7 9erbs=.1*. T8e term 8as a lon1 8istor2< t8e T-$ Karadaic b and r-ler of Montene1ro5 t8e Tladi$a (Bis8op Petar 33 Petro4ic b 'Ce1oc5 an earl2 9erb nationalist intellect-al5 ?as ;one of t8e first ?riters to -se t8e ?ord PcleanseJ (ocdistiti 5 ?it8 all its +8ristian o4ertones of t8e redempti4e po?ers of baptism5 to describe t8e $illin1 of M-slims in Bel1rade in 1.0&=. +detni$ ideolo1-e 9te4an MolCe4ic b also ad4ocated ;cleansin1 t8e land of all non79erb elements=.1*/ 'orman M. 'aimar$ noted t8at ;RiSn bot8 9la4ic and German -sa1es5 Pcleansin1J 8as a d-al meanin1G one p-r1es t8e nati4e comm-nit2 of forei1n bodies5 and one p-r1es oneJs o?n people of alien elements.=1.0

T8e K8mer #o-1e anno-nced t8e creation of ;t8e cleanest5 most fair societ2 e4er $no?n in o-r 8istor2= and5 ?8en t8eir plans ran into problems5 be1an to ;p-rif2= t8e 1eneral pop-lace .1.1 ;0idden enemies b-rro?in1 from ?it8in= ?ere to be
;cleansed from inside t8e ran$s of o-r re4ol-tion=5 ?8ile re1iments ?ere c8ar1ed ?it8 ;s?eepin1 clean= (baos samat t8e enem25 and ;re4ol-tionar2 2o-n1 men and ?omen= ?ere e)8orted to ;p-rif2 4ario-s bad composi7 tions so t8at t8e2 are completel2 1one5 cleansed from inside t8e ran$s of o-r re4ol-tion=.1.2 :rbanites ?ere described as bein1 ;poisoned= b2 t8e ;rotten c-lt-re= of :.9.

imperialism5 in contrast to t8e practices of t8e ;p-re and clean= peasantr2.

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MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of Disease 'mpacts (2)


>4C determines no chance for .?D) epidemic and admits to disease statistic inflation. 3aurance 02 (6erem25 ?riter for T8e 3ndependent5 ;T8reat of ?orld Aids pandemic amon1 8eterose)-als is o4er5
report admits5= 8ttp<>>???.independent.co.-$>life7st2le>8ealt87and7families>8ealt87ne?s>t8reat7of7?orld7aids7 pandemic7amon178eterose)-als7is7o4er7report7admits7."2"*..8tml A ,-arter of a cent-r2 after t8e o-tbrea$ of Aids5 t8e World 0ealt8 Fr1anisation (W0F 8as accepted t8at t8e t8reat of a 1lobal 8eterose)-al pandemic 8as disappeared . 3n t8e first official admission t8at t8e -ni4ersal pre4ention strate12 promoted b2 t8e maCor Aids or1anisations ma2 8a4e been misdirected5 Ke4in de +oc$5 t8e 8ead of t8e W0FJs department of 03T>Aids said t8ere ?ill be no 1eneralised epidemic of Aids in t8e 8eterose)-al pop-lation o-tside Africa. Dr De +oc$5 an epidemiolo1ist ?8o 8as spent m-c8 of 8is career leadin1 t8e battle a1ainst t8e disease5 said -nderstandin1 of t8e t8reat posed b2 t8e 4ir-s 8ad c8an1ed. W8ereas once it ?as seen as a ris$ to pop-lations e4er2?8ere5 it ?as no? reco1nised t8at5
o-tside s-b79a8aran Africa5 it ?as confined to 8i187ris$ 1ro-ps incl-din1 men ?8o 8a4e se) ?it8 men5 inCectin1 dr-1 -sers5 and se) ?or$ers and t8eir clients. Dr De +oc$ said< ;3t is 4er2 -nli$el2 t8ere ?ill be a 8eterose)-al epidemic in ot8er co-ntries. Ten 2ears a1o a lot of

people ?ere sa2in1 t8ere ?o-ld be a 1eneralised epidemic in Asia +8ina ?as t8e bi1 ?orr2 ?it8 its 8-1e pop-lation. T8at doesnJt loo$ li$el2. B-t ?e 8a4e to be caref-l. As an epidemiolo1ist it is better to describe ?8at ?e can meas-re. T8ere
co-ld be small o-tbrea$s in some areas.= 3n 200&5 t8e Global Q-nd for 03T5 Malaria and T-berc-losis5 ?8ic8 pro4ides 20 per cent of all f-ndin1 for Aids5 ?arned t8at #-ssia ?as on t8e c-sp of a catastrop8e. An estimated 1 per cent of t8e pop-lation ?as infected5 mainl2 t8ro-18 inCectin1 dr-1 -se5 t8e same le4el of infection as in 9o-t8 Africa in 1//1 ?8ere t8e pre4alence of t8e infection 8as since risen to 2% per cent. Dr De +oc$ said< ;3 t8in$ it is -nli$el2 t8ere ?ill be e)tensi4e 8eterose)-al spread in #-ssia. B-t clearl2 t8ere ?ill be some spread.= ] Aids

or1anisations5 incl-din1 t8e W0F5 :' Aids and t8e Global Q-nd5 8a4e come -nder attac$ for inflatin1 estimates of t8e n-mber of people infected5 di4ertin1 f-nds from ot8er 8ealt8 needs s-c8 as malaria5 spendin1 it on t8e ?ron1 meas-res s-c8 as abstinence pro1rammes rat8er t8an condoms5 and failin1 to b-ild -p 8ealt8 s2stems . Dr De
+oc$ labelled t8ese t8e ;fo-r mali1nant ar1-ments= -nderminin1 s-pport for t8e 1lobal campai1n a1ainst Aids5 ?8ic8 still faced formidable c8allen1es5 despite t8e recedin1 t8reat of a 1eneralised epidemic be2ond Africa. An2 re4ision of t8e t8reat ?as liable to be seiDed on b2 t8ose ?8o reCected 03T as t8e ca-se of t8e disease5 or ?8o -sed t8e disease as a ?eapon to sti1matise 8i18 ris$ 1ro-ps5 8e said] +ritics of t8e 1lobal Aids strate12 complain t8at 4ast s-ms are bein1 spent ed-catin1 people abo-t t8e disease ?8o are not at ris$5 ?8en a far bi11er impact co-ld be ac8ie4ed b2 tar1etin1 8i187ris$ 1ro-ps and foc-sin1 on inter4entions $no?n to ?or$5 s-c8 as circ-mcision5 ?8ic8 c-ts t8e ris$ of infection b2 &0 per cent5 and red-cin1 t8e n-mber of se)-al partners. T8ere ?ere ;elements of tr-t8= in t8e criticism5 Dr De +oc$ said. ;Bo?ill not do m-c8 abo-t Aids in Iondon b2 spendin1 t8e f-nds in sc8ools. Bo- need to 1o ?8ere transmission is occ-rrin1. 3t is tr-e t8at co-ntries 8a4e not al?a2s been 1ood at t8at.= ]

There is no legitimate threat of a bird flu epidemic. Division of 3abor 0; (Adam 9mit8ian blo15 ;()pert rates a bird fl- pandemic -nli$el2=
8ttp<>>di4isionoflabo-r.com>arc8i4es>002&*1.p8p 99
T2ler +o?en is ?orried abo-t t8e bird fl-. 9o ?orried t8at 8e started a blo1 (no? dormant de4oted entirel2 to it. Gillian

Air5 infl-enDa 4ir-s e)pert and Professor of Molec-lar Biolo12 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of F$la8oma5 ?rites toda2 in t8e F$la8oman (re1istration re,-ired t8at fears of a bird fl- pandemic are o4erblo?n. 0ere are t8e mone2 ,-otes< An a4ian infl-enDa pandemic mi18t prod-ce 1ood ratin1s for a made7for7tele4ision mo4ie5 b-t in realit2 t8e ris$ to t8e maCorit2 of people is almost none)istent ri18t no?. ]T8e facts do not point to an impendin1 pandemic.] Alt8o-18 t8e 4ir-s 8as met man2 prere,-isites for t8e start of a pandemic5 it still does not 8a4e an abilit2 to spread efficientl2 amon1 8-mans.
]T8e pict-re in 3ndonesia stron1l2 s-11ests t8at t8ere is a rare 1ene in t8e 8-man pop-lation t8at ma$es some 8-mans s-sceptible to bird fl?8ile t8e 4ast maCorit2 are eit8er resistant to t8e infection or 1et a 4er2 mild infection.

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The causes of pollution implicates us all! we are all guilty but to preserve our way of life& the very way of life that generates pollution! we call upon environmental laws to help us escape the psychological dilemma. >hich create clear lines between victims and perpetrators and puts us on the safe side. 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I Beca-se t8e deep7seated ca-ses of poll-tion tend to implicate -s all5 ?e feel t8e desire for ps2c8olo1ical 1-ilt release or redemption ?it8 special force. T8-s5 la?s t8at e)ternaliDe blame to o-tside forces allo? -s to preser4e a ?a2 of life to ?8ic8 ?e 8a4e 1ro?n acc-stomed and one t8at ?e are rel-ctant to c8an1e 77 t8e 4er2 ?a2 of life t8at 1enerates poll-tion in t8e first place. (n4ironmental la?s 8elp -s escape t8is ps2c8olo1ical dilemma . T8e2 establis8 clear lines bet?een t8e perpetrators and t8e 4ictims5 maintainin1 o-r position safel2 on t8e side of t8e innocent b2 treatin1 poll-tion not as a nat-ral5 e)pected o-tcome of ind-strialiDation5 b-t instead as an aberration from a norm of cleanliness.

"nvironmental laws discourage scrutiny of our ways of life and legitimi*es our actions by identifying scapegoats! which then allows us to believe that the problem is being 5taken care of6 and ridding us of blame. 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I (n4ironmental la?s and t8e social patterns t8e2 reflect raise tro-blin1 ,-estions. 3f ?e red-ce t8e p-rpose of en4ironmental la? to merel2 stoppin1 end7point poll-tion5 ?e ine4itabl2 disco-ra1e scr-tin2 of o-r basic 8abits and ?a2s of life. Wit8 poll-tion bein1 Ata$en care ofA b2 t8e 1o4ernment5 onl2 t8e most 1-ilt7sensiti4e ?ill ta$e action to c8an1e t8eir o?n be8a4ior5 and onl2 t8e most fer4entl2 committed ?ill press for deeper c8an1es in o-r s2stems of prod-ction and ?aste disposal. :nfort-natel25 t8ese ardent fe? occ-p2 a mar1inaliDed position in mainstream America5 and as t8e process of en4ironmental la?ma$in1 marc8es on?ard 77 identif2in1 and p-nis8in1 its scape1oats 77 t8e -nderl2in1 ca-ses of poll-tion are rarel2 mentioned5 let alone acted -pon. n1& T8-s5 en4ironmental le1islation presents a stri$in1 e)ample of 8o? t8e la? can le1itimiDe an e)istin1 state of affairs ?8ile sim-ltaneo-sl2 creatin1 t8e appearance of reformin1 it.

"nvironmental laws blame easily identifiable ob/ects rather than the social and economic practices that actually produces them! which creates a scapegoat that cleanses the community of its wrongdoing. 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I A ro-tine pattern in en4ironmental la?ma$in1 is a tendenc2 to blame en4ironmental problems on easil2 identifiable obCects or entities rat8er t8an on t8e social and economic practices t8at act-all2 prod-ce t8em. n1* Fnce identified as t8e c-lprit of an en4ironmental problem5 t8is blame78older comes to s2mboliDe and embod2 t8e problem itself. Ia?ma$in1 t8en be1ins to resemble a re7enactment of a scape1oat rit-al5 in ?8ic8 t8e comm-nit2Es misfort-nes are s2mbolicall2 transferred to an entit2 t8at is t8en banis8ed or slain in order to cleanse t8e comm-nit2 of its collecti4e ?ron1doin1 and remo4e t8e so-rce of its ad4ersit2. T8e topic of scape1oatin1 is commonl2
enco-ntered in st-dies of racism5 n1. famil2 ps2c8olo125 n1/ and mass sociolo125 n20 b-t is not often associated ?it8 la? and le1al sc8olars8ip. 'e4ert8eless5 parallels appear to e)ist bet?een t8e 1eneral scape1oat p8enomenon and en4ironmental la?ma$in1. T8is Article is not intended to s-pport t8e notion t8at t8e tar1ets of en4ironmental re1-lation5 in one ?a2 or anot8er5 are Ascape1oatsA in t8e common -nderstandin1 of t8e term 77 deser4in1 of pit2 and freedom from compliance ?it8 en4ironmental la?s. 3nstead5 3 intend to s8ed li18t on a simple b-t tro-blin1 pattern< (n4ironmental le1islation is more li$el2 to emer1e from t8e la?ma$in1

process ?8en t8e problem it see$s to control is readil2 s2mboliDed b2 an identifiable obCect5 entit25 or person 77 a Ascape1oatA in t8e sense disc-ssed abo4e. 3n t8e absence of s-c8 a scape1oat5 8o?e4er5 la?ma$ers are less li$el2 to ta$e action. T8is
pattern is partic-larl2 problematic beca-se t8e identified scape1oat often bears an incomplete or distorted relations8ip to t8e act-al problem at 8and5 res-ltin1 in la?s t8at are li$e?ise incomplete or distorted. As disc-ssed belo? in Part T5 beca-se ?e deal 8ars8l2 ?it8

c-lt-rall2 accepted s2mbols of en4ironmental problems5 it is less li$el2 t8at ?e ?ill deal ?it8 t8e problems (and t8eir ca-ses t8emsel4es. Qor an2one concerned abo-t t8e correlation bet?een social problems and t8e le1al re1imes ?e create to sol4e
t8em5 t8is p8enomenon s8o-ld be ca-se for concern.

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Aews about environmental issues are deconte#tuali*ed and cause environmental problems to be easily identified! understood! and acted upon by elected officials 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I T8e idea t8at t8e media simpl2 reports ne?s in an obCecti4e5 mirror7li$e fas8ion retains fe? ad8erents. n!% Media sc8olars 8a4e s8o?n t8at ne?s reports5 li$e most forms of stor2tellin15 rel2 on predictable narrati4e str-ct-res and beliefs abo-t 8eroism and 4illain25 ca-sation and desert. n!& T8e ne?s 8as become a form of c-lt-ral m2t8olo125 n!* a ?a2 for societ2 to con4erse ?it8 itself and reinforce its essential beliefs5 ?orld 4ie?s5 and ideolo1ies . n!. Fne obser4er calls tele4ision5 incl-din1 t8e ne?s5 a Aconsens-s narrati4eA 77 a set of ass-mptions -sed Ato artic-late t8e c-lt-reEs central m2t8olo1ies5 in a ?idel2 accessible Elan1-a1e5E an in8eritance of s8ared stories5 plots5 c8aracter t2pes5 c-lt-ral s2mbols5 RandS narrati4e
con4entions.A n!/ Gi4en its basis in t8e seemin1l2 obCecti4e ?orld of science5 t8e reportin1 of en4ironmental iss-es ?o-ld seem to present an e)ception to t8e r-le. 9c8olars of en4ironmental Co-rnalism 8a4e5 if an2t8in15 fo-nd t8e opposite to be tr-e. n"0 T2picall25 ne?s abo-t en4ironmental iss-es is deconte)t-aliDed and presented as a series of discrete e4ents t8at are RY*20S fra-18t ?it8 drama5 rat8er t8an as on1oin1 problems or predictable malf-nctionin1s of comple) tec8nolo1ies . n"1 (n4ironmental problems (partic-larl2 t8ose of a catastrop8ic nat-re are reported as aberrations from a norm of 8ealt8 and safet2. As one obser4er s-mmed it -p5 en4ironmental stories Aare part of a modern m2t8 t8at foc-ses attention on nat-ral po?ers be2ond o-r control and on t8e bl-nderin1 efforts of 8-mans to deal ?it8 t8e fr-its of t8e ind-strial re4ol-tion. T8e idea t8at blame for

en4ironmental t8reats can be ,-ic$l2 identified is one res-lt of t8ese Co-rnalistic tendencies. T8e p-blic comes to belie4e RY*2%S t8at t8e ca-ses of en4ironmental problems can be identified5 -nderstood5 and acted -pon b2 e)perts and elected officials. T8is inclination to attrib-te comple) problems to simple ca-ses ma2 8a4e far7reac8in1 conse,-ences for t8e e4ol-tion of en4ironmental la? and polic25 as t8e follo?in1 case st-d2 ill-strates.

The <lean .ir .ct empirically demonstrates the scapegoating ritual 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I T8e +lean Air Act contains its o?n e4idence of t8e scape1oatin1 pattern. Alt8o-18 t8e Act is often cited as a prime e)ample of re1-lation based on 8eat87related en4ironmental conditions5 n1%* e)perience 8as demonstrated bot8 a preocc-pation ?it8 t8e entities t8at prod-ce air poll-tion and a blind e2e for t8e patterns of social and personal be8a4ior t8at s-pport t8ese entities. We blame tailpipes5 not transportation practicesG factories5 not t8e demand for t8eir prod-cts . n1%. 3n ot8er ?ords5 t8e Act emp8asiDes t8e t8in1 t8at poll-tes 77 t8e scape1oat entit2 77 o4er t8e reasons ?82 s-c8 a t8in1 e)ists in t8e first place. (4en t8e m-c878eralded air to)ics pro1ram of t8e 1//0 +lean Air Act amendments5 ?it8 RY*!/S its blac$list of nearl2
200 c8emicals5 relies on t8e st-bborn concept t8at t8e application of tec8nolo1ical retrofits on e)isitn1 entities ?ill e4ent-all2 lead -s to -ni4ersal5 nonto)ic air.

"nvironmental scapegoating legitimi*es pollution while appearing to curtail them! two factors&, it does not does not punish the cause of the problem! and it e#onerates the 5innocent6 and 2 it creates new e#pectations that are flawed and prove nearly impossible to alter 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I :ltimatel25 t8e le1ac2 of en4ironmental scape1oatin1 ma2 be t8e parado) of le1itimiDin1 poll-tin1 acti4ities ?8ile sim-ltaneo-sl2 appearin1 to c-rtail t8em. T8e le1itimiDin1 effect of en4ironmental la?ma$in1 in4ol4es t?o factors t8at ?ill be disc-ssed in detail in separate sections belo?. T8e first section notes t8at en4ironmental le1islation does not merel2 p-nis8 t8e blame?ort82G it e)onerates t8e Ainnocent.A :pon t8e con4iction of one s-spect5 t8e ot8ers are set free. T8-s5 t8e appearance of positi4e action in Was8in1ton (or t8e state capitol creates t8e impression t8at a problem 8as been sol4ed and repairs t8e percei4ed brea$ in t8e social order t8at 8ad 1i4en t8e la? its initial moment-m. T8e second section RY*""S obser4es t8at enactin1 an2 social reform le1islation5 incl-din1 en4ironmental la?s5 n1.& creates ne? e)pectations and patterns of be8a4ior t8at 8arden ?it8 time into societal str-ct-res t8at5 8o?e4er fla?ed5 pro4e nearl2 impossible to alter. Toda2Es inno4ati4e sol-tions can become tomorro?Es instit-tionaliDed ni18tmares 5 n1.* a pattern from ?8ic8 en4ironmental la? enCo2s no imm-nit2.

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"nvironmental laws don't create social reform! nor solve the true problem! creating barriers to public understanding and involvement! which discourage the theoretical virtues of a democracy. 9obert*! ,--% (Bradle25 Assistant Professor of Ia?5 :ni4ersit2 of 'ebras$a +olle1e of Ia?5 ;le1itimiDin1
Poll-tion=5 Te)as Ia? #e4ie?5 1//%5:#I5 8ttp<>>???.le)isne)is.com>8ottopics>lnacademic>5 (I T8e p8enomenon of en4ironmental scape1oatin1 8elps to foster t8e massi4eness5 disor1aniDation5 and incompre8ensibilit2 t8at pla1-e en4ironmental la?. n1*& W8en la?ma$ers react to a social problem b2 enactin1 le1islation t8at 8in1es on a distorted pict-re of realit25 a le1al re1ime t8at lac$s appropriate formati4e principles is an -ns-rprisin1 res-lt. Moreo4er5 a la? t8at depends on false dia1noses ?ill 1ro? in comple)it2 as its le1al RY*"2S s-ppositions come into increasin1 conflict ?it8 t8e facts. n1** As a copin1 strate125 la?ma$ers opt to adC-st (and complicate le1islati4e pro1rams onl2 eno-18 to accommodate t8e c-rrent problematic factors instead of startin1 fres8 ?it8 ne? models t8at conform more acc-ratel2 to t8e tr-e problem. n1*. F4ercomple)it2 in t8e la? b2 itself imposes costs on societ2. 3nitiall25 re1-lated
entities m-st add to t8eir ordinar2 cost of compliance t8e cost of simpl2 -nderstandin1 ?8at t8e la? re,-ires t8em to do. +omplicated la?s also increase t8e li$eli8ood of noncompliance5 n1.1 -nderminin1 t8e attainment of en4ironmental 1oals and creatin1 press-res for e)tendin1 RY*"!S deadlines and raisin1 permissible emission le4els 77 a pattern endemic in en4ironmental la?. n1.2 (4en more tro-blin1 is t8e fact t8at -nnecessar2 le1al comple)it2 depri4es societ2 at lar1e of a common5 compre8ensible 4ocab-lar2 for debatin1 en4ironmental polic2. A s2stem of democratic r-le implies disco-rse not onl2 amon1 a select 1ro-p of e)perts5 b-t also amon1 t8e 4otin1 p-blic. (n4ironmental la? 8as

s?ollen into a fortress of specialiDed concepts and Car1on practicall2 impre1nable to ordinaril2 informed and a?are citiDens. n1.! +reatin1 barriers to p-blic -nderstandin1 of5 and in4ol4ement in5 en4ironmental la? fr-strates t8e t8eoretical 4irt-es of democratic self7r-le and also en1enders a problem of more practical import 77 a spirit of conf-sion and an1er t8at c8aracteriDes most p-blic enco-nters ?it8 en4ironmental problems and t8e la?s erected to correct t8em. n1." 9-c8 enco-nters t2picall2 res-lt in resi1nation and apat82 to?ard t8e la?5 ,-alities t8at impo4eris8 an2 le1al s2stem directed to?ard social reform . n1.%

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Kritik of En3ironment 'mpacts (#)


Technological fi#es make environmental problems worse I the plan legitimi*es destruction of nature by framing humans as the orderers of the natural world :at*! 00 ((ric KatD5 associate professor of p8ilosop82 and director of t8e 9cience5 Tec8nolo125 and 9ociet2 Pro1ram5 'e? 6erse2 3nstit-te
of Tec8nolo12G reco1niDed pioneer5 en4ironmental et8ics5 2K5 'at-re as 9-bCect< 0-man Fbli1ation and 'at-ral +omm-nit2 (4en more important5 t8e ,-estion arises ?8et8er or not 'at-re can 8eal t8ese ?o-nds of 8-man oppression. +onsider t8e

re4erse process5 t8e 8-man attempt to 8eal t8e ?o-nds of 'at-re. We often tend to clean -p nat-ral areas poll-ted or dama1ed b2 8-man acti4it2! s-c8 as t8e Alas$an coast 8armed b2 t8e ())on TaldeD oil spill. B-t ?e also attempt to impro4e nat-ral areas dramaticall2 altered b2 nat-ral e4ents5 s-c8 as a forest dama1ed b2 a massi4e br-s8 fire5 or a beac8 s-fferin1 se4ere nat-ral erosion . 3n most of t8ese $inds of cases5 8-man science and tec8nolo12 are capable of ma$in1 a si1nificant c8an1e in t8e appearance and processes of t8e nat-ral area. Qorests can be replanted5 oil is remo4ed from t8e s-rface of ba2s and est-aries5 sand and d-ne 4e1etation replenis8 a beac8. B-t are t8ese acti4ities t8e 8ealin1 of 'at-reK 0as 8-man acti4it2Nscience and tec8nolo12 Nrestored 'at-re to a 8ealt82 stateK 'o. W8en 8-mans modif2 a nat-ral area t8e2 create an artifact5 a prod-ct of 8-man labor and 8-man desi1n. 12 T8is restored nat-ral area ma2 resemble a ?ild and -nmodified nat-ral s2stem5 b-t it is5 in act-alit25 a prod-ct of 8-man t8o-18t5 t8e res-lt of 8-man desires and interests. All 8-manl2 created artifacts are manifestations of 8-man interestsNfrom comp-ter screens to rice p-ddin1. An ecos2stem restored b2 8-man acti4it2 ma2 appear to be in a different cate1or2Nit ma2 appear to be an a-tonomo-s li4in1 s2stem -ncontrolled b2 8-man t8o-18tN b-t it nonet8eless e)8ibits c8aracteristics of 8-man desi1n and intentionalit2< it is created to meet 8-man interests5 to satisf2 8-man desires5 and to ma)imiDe 8-man 1ood. +onsider a1ain m2 e)amples of 8-man attempts to 8eal dama1ed nat-ral
areas. A forest is replanted to correct t8e dama1e of a fire beca-se 8-mans ?ant t8e benefits of t8e forestN?8et8er t8ese be timber5 a 8abitat for ?ildlife5 or protection of a ?aters8ed. T8e replantin1 of t8e forest b2 8-mans is different from a nat-ral re71ro?t8 of t8e forest 4e1etation5 ?8ic8 ?o-ld ta$e m-c8 lon1er. T8e forest is replanted beca-se 8-mans ?ant t8e beneficial res-lts of t8e mat-re forest in a s8orter time. 9imilarl25 t8e eroded beac8 is replenis8edN?it8 sand p-mped from t8e ocean floor se4eral miles offs8oreNbeca-se t8e 8-man comm-nit2 does not ?ant to maintain t8e nat-ral stat-s of t8e beac8. T8e eroded beac8 t8reatens oceanfront 8omes and recreational beac8es. 0-manit2 prefers to restore t8e 8-man benefits of a f-ll2 protected beac8. T8e restored beac8 ?ill resemble t8e ori1inal5 b-t it ?ill be t8e prod-ct of 8-man tec8nolo125 a 8-manl2 desi1ned artifact for t8e promotion of 8-man interests . After t8ese actions of 8-man restoration and

modification5 ?8at emer1es is a 'at-re ?it8 a different c8aracter t8an t8e ori1inal. T8is is an ontolo1ical difference5 a difference in t8e essential ,-alities of t8e restored area. A beac8 t8at is replenis8ed b2 8-man tec8nolo12 possesses a different essence t8an a beac8 created b2 nat-ral forces s-c8 as ?ind and tides. A sa4anna
replanted from ?ildflo?er seeds and ?eeds collected b2 8-man 8ands 8as a different essence t8an 1rassland t8at de4elops on its o?n. T8e so-rce of t8ese ne? areas is differentNmanNmade5 tec8nolo1ical5 artificial. T8e restored 'at-re is not reall2 'at-re at all. A 'at-re 8ealed b2 8-man action is t8-s not 'at-re. As an artifact5 it is desi1ned to meet 8-man p-rposes and needsNper8aps e4en t8e need for areas t8at loo$ li$e a pristine5 -nto-c8ed 'at-re. 3n -sin1 o-r scientific and tec8nolo1ical $no?led1e to restore nat-ral areas5 ?e act-all2

practice anot8er form of domination. We -se o-r po?er to mold t8e nat-ral ?orld into a s8ape t8at is more amenable to o-r desires. We oppress t8e nat-ral processes t8at f-nction independent of 8-man po?erG ?e pre4ent t8e a-tonomo-s de4elopment of t8e nat-ral ?orld. To belie4e t8at ?e 8eal or restore t8e nat-ral ?orld b2 t8e e)ercise of o-r tec8nolo1ical po?er is5 at best5 a self7deception and5 at ?orst5 a rationaliDation for t8e contin-ed de1radation of 'at-reN for if ?e can 8eal t8e dama1e ?e inflict ?e ?ill face no limits to o-r acti4ities. T8is
concl-sion 8as serio-s implications for t8e idea t8at 'at-re can repair 8-man destr-ction5 t8at 'at-re can some8o? 8eal t8e e4il t8at 8-mans perpet-ate on t8e eart8. 6-st as a restored 8-man landscape 8as a different ca-sal 8istor2 t8an t8e ori1inal nat-ral s2stem 5 t8e reemer1ence

of 'at-re in a place of 8-man 1enocide and destr-ction is based on a series of 8-man e4ents t8at cannot be erased .
T8e nat-ral 4e1etation t8at co4ers t8e mass 1ra4e in t8e Warsa? cemeter2 is not t8e same as t8e 4e1etation t8at ?o-ld 8a4e 1ro?n t8ere if t8e mass 1ra4e 8ad ne4er been d-1. T8e 1rass and trees in t8e cemeter2 8a4e a different ca-se5 a different 8istor25 t8at is ine)tricabl2 lin$ed to t8e 8istor2 of t8e 0oloca-st. T8e 1rass2 field in t8e MaCdane$ parade 1ro-nd does not co4er and 8eal t8e m-d and desolation of t8e deat8 campNit rat8er 1ro?s from t8e dirt and as8es of t8e siteEs 4ictims. Qor an2one ?8o 8as an -nderstandin1 of t8e 0oloca-st5 of t8e inn-merable e4ils 8eaped -pon an oppressed people b2 t8e 'aDi re1ime5 t8e ric8ness of 'at-re cannot obliterate nor 8eal t8e 8orror . 3n t8is essa2 3 ,-estion

t8e en4ironmentalistsE concern for t8e restoration of nat-re and ar1-e a1ainst t8e optimistic 4ie? t8at 8-manit2 8as t8e obli1ation and abilit2 to repair or reconstr-ct dama1ed nat-ral s2stems. T8is conception of en4ironmental polic2 and en4ironmental et8ics is based on a misperception of nat-ral realit2 and a mis1-ided -nderstandin1 of t8e 8-man place in t8e nat-ral en4ironment. Fn a simple le4el5 it is t8e same $ind of Atec8nolo1ical fi)A t8at 8as en1endered t8e en4ironmental crisis. 0-man science and tec8nolo12 ?ill fi)5 repair5 and impro4e nat-ral processes.

!/

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of En3ironment 'mpacts (/)


They re&establish the sub/ect ob/ect dichotomy I in their politics! a sub/ectivi*ed Aature is a blank slate that humanity draws its collective visions of salvation upon! using it as nothing more than a means to an end Timot82 W. 3uke5 Professor of Political 9cience at Tir1inia Pol2tec8nic 3nstit-te and 9tate :ni4ersit25 ,--B5
(cocriti,-e5 p. 1%71& Deep ecolo12Js -ltimate 4al-e of self7realiDation claims to 1o ;be2ond t8e modern Western self ?8ic8 is defined as an isolated e1o stri4in1 primaril2 for 8edonistic 1ratification or for a narro? sense of indi4id-al sal4ation in t8is life or t8e ne)t.=%1
#eal self8ood5 it is claimed5 deri4es from 8-man -nit2 ?it8 'at-re5 realiDin1 o-r mat-re person8ood and -ni,-eness ?it8 all ot8er 8-man and non8-man forms of bein1. 0-manit2 m-st be ;nat-raliDed=G t8at is5 t8e ;8-man self= is not an atomistic e1o5 b-t a species7bein1 and a 'at-re7 bein1 as a self7in79elf5 ;?8ere 9elf stands for or1anic ?8oleness.=%2 0ere5 t8e essence of 'at-re5 to a lar1e e)tent5 ?o-ld appear to

be a proCection of an idealiDed 8-manit2 onto t8e nat-ral ?orld. 'at-re is ;8-maniDed= in a m2t8 of s-bCecti4it2 to c8an1e 8-man be8a4ior. T8e reanimation of 'at-re in deep ecolo12 e)tends t8is self8ood to all nat-ral entitiesNroc$s5 bacteria5 trees5 clo-ds5 ri4er s2stems5 animalsNand
permits t8e realiDation of t8eir inner essence. As deep ecolo12 depicts it5 and as Geor1 I-$acs ?o-ld obser4e5 'at-re 8ere refers to a-t8entic 8-manit25 t8e tr-e essence of man liberated from t8e false5 mec8aniDin1 forms of societ2< man as a perfected ?8ole ?8o in?ardl2 8as o4ercome5 or is in t8e process of o4ercomin15 t8e dic8otomies of t8eor2 and practice5 reason and t8e senses5 form and contentG man ?8ose tendenc2 to create 8is o?n forms does not impl2 an abstract rationalism ?8ic8 i1nores concrete contentG man for ?8om freedom and necessit2 are

'at-re in t8is m2t8 of s-bCecti4it2 becomes for 8-manit2 t8e correct mediation of its actin1 t8at can 1enerate a ne?5 more C-st totalit2. Deep ecolo1ists5 8o?e4er5 cannot reall2 enter into an inters-bCecti4e disco-rse ?it8 roc$s5 ri4ers5 or r8inos5 despite 6o8n M-irJs inC-nction to t8in$ li$e 1laciers or mo-ntains ?8en confrontin1 'at-re. ;T8e medi7 tati4e deep ,-estionin1 process= mi18t allo? 8-manit2 ;an identification ?8ic8 1oes be2ond 8-manit2 to incl-de t8e non8-man ?orld.=%" A 82postatiDation of self in 8-man species bein15 ?8ales5 1riDDlies5 rain forests5 mo-ntains5 ri4ers5 and bacteria is no more t8an t8e indi4id-alJs identification of 8is>8er self ?it8 t8ose partic-lar aspects of 'at-re t8at e)press t8eir pec-liar 8-man liberation. T8is ideolo1ical appropriation5 in t-rn5 is al?a2s (8-man self7ser4in1. Fne m-st as$5 3s 8-manit2 nat-raliDed in s-c8 self7realiDation or is 'at-re merel2 8-maniDed to t8e de1ree t8at its components promote 8-man ;mat-rit2 and 1ro?t8=KT8is 4ision of self7realiDation appears to 1o be2ond a modern Western notion of self tied to 8edonistic 1ratification5 b-t it does not transcend a narro? sense of indi4id-al sal4ation in t8is life or t8e ne)t. 'at-re in deep ecolo12 becomes 8-manit2Js transcendent identical s-bCect7obCect. B2 proCectin1 self8ood into 'at-re5 8-mans are sa4ed b2 findin1 t8eir self7mat-ration and spirit-al 1ro?t8 in it . T8ese 1oals are
identical.%!

fo-nd in oneJs life b2 in7d?ellin1 ps2c8icall2 and p82sicall2 in or1anic ?8oleness5 as ?ell as in t8e ne)t life b2 reco1niDin1 t8at one ma2 s-r4i4e (p82sicall2 in fact ?it8in ot8er 8-mans5 ?8ales5 1riDDlies5 rain forests5 mo-ntains5 ri4ers5 and bacteria or (ps2c8icall2 in fait8 as an essential part of an or1anic ?8ole. 'at-re5 t8en5 becomes ecosop8ical 8-manit2Js alienated self7-nderstandin15 partl2 reflected bac$ to itself and selecti4el2 percei4ed as self7realiDation5 redisco4ered in selected biosp8eric processes .

>armer >orld Cffers $ore Cpportunity For )pecies! Aot 3ess ?dso! 200B 98er?ood 5 +enter t8e 9t-d2 of +arbon Dio)ide and Global +8an1e5 &>& 200*
8ttp<>>???.co2science.or1>>ed-cation>reports>8ansen>0ansenTestimon2+riti,-e.pdf5 (I T8ese obser4ations5 ?8ic8 are similar to ?8at 8as been obser4ed in man2 ot8er plants5 s-11est t8at ?8en t8e atmosp8ereEs temperat-re and +F2 concentration rise to1et8er (+o?lin15 1/// 5 t8e 4ast maCorit2 of eart8Es plants ?o-ld li$el2 not feel a need (or onl2 4er2 little need to mi1rate to?ards cooler re1ions of t8e 1lobe . An2 ?armin1 ?o-ld ob4io-sl2 pro4ide t8em an
opport-nit2 to mo4e into places t8at ?ere pre4io-sl2 too cold for t8em5 b-t it ?o-ld not force t8em to mo4e5 e4en at t8e 8ottest e)tremes of t8eir ran1esG for as t8e planet ?armed5 t8e risin1 atmosp8eric +F2 concentration ?o-ld ?or$ its biolo1ical ?onders 5 si1nificantl2 increasin1 t8e temperat-res at ?8ic8 most of eart8Es +! plants 7 ?8ic8 comprise abo-t /%V of t8e planetEs 4e1etation 7 f-nction best5 creatin1 a sit-ation ?8ere eart8Es plant life ?o-ld act-all2 ApreferA ?armer conditions.

)pecies 4ave 3ived For $illions Cf +ears Despite 0apid <limate <hanges I .nd >arming ?ncreases 9iodiversity
A4er25 200* Dennis A4er25 0-dson 3nstit-te5 Testimon2 before t8e 9enate +ommittee on (n4ironment and P-blic Wor$s5 9eptember 2&5 2100*5 8ttp<>>ep?.senate.1o4>p-blic>inde).cfmK Q-seActionLQiles.Tie?XQile9tore@idL1%&*0ce07a1%e7"aa17/bbe7%edd!2&0"!*/ 5 (I 3n t8e first place5 t8e record of past Dans1aard7Fesc81er c2cles indicates t8at t8e2 are t2picall2 abr-pt. Bet most of o-r ?ild species ;bod2 t2pes= date bac$ abo-t &00 million 2ears and are still 1oin1 stron1. 3n t8e second place5 t8e s8ifts in ecos2stems are not li$el2 to be abr-pt. Most trees and plants are cold7limited b-t t8e2 are not 8eat7limited. 9tand replacement of trees m-st a?ait fires or disease o-tbrea$s to clear a pat8 for t8e in4adin1 species to ta$e o4er. T8-s5 t8e c-rrent ?armin1 is enco-ra1in1 t8e 4e1etation to 1rad-all2 e)pand ran1es5 and t8e associated fa-na 8a4e t8e same opport-nit2. 9t-d2 after st-d25 aro-nd t8e ?orld5 s8o?s more biodi4ersit2 in o-r forests and ?ild meado?s toda2 t8an 8a4e resided in t8em for cent-ries. "0

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of En3ironment 'mpacts (1)


The belief that humans can understand or control climate change is hubristic I the plan replicates the technological mindset which brought us to the brink of destruction in the first place 4ill! 0; (Prof. at :ni4ersit2 of 92dne2 ;D(93G' W3T0F:T +A:9AI3TB< 0(3D(GG(#J9 3MPF993BI(
+0AII('G( QF# (+FIFG3+AIIB 9:9TA3'ABI( A#+03T(+T:#(=5 8ttp<>>epress.lib.-ts.ed-.a->ocs>inde).p8p>AA9A>200*>paper>4ie?Qile>!.>1/5 200& At t8is point5 t8e implications for ecolo1ical s-stainabilit2 and for desi1n also become clear. Wit8 modernit2Js belief t8at ca-salit2 in nat-re co-ld be -nderstood and t8erefore controlled5 tec8nolo1ies 8a4e been increasin1l2 deplo2ed ?it8 t8e confidence t8at t8eir o-tcomes can be predicted. W8ile t8e desi1n of eac8 indi4id-al tec8nolo1icall2 mediated inter4ention ?o-ld 8a4e been intended to ca-se a (local beneficial o-tcome for some portion of 8-manit2 (1ro-nded in PcareJ in 0eide11erJs terms 5 t8eir c-m-lati4e impact on t8e ecolo1ical s2stems of t8e planet is no? considered b2 man2 to be potentiall2 catastrop8ic. ?f this scenario is accepted! then design could be characterised as the well&intentioned engine driving the proliferation of technologies that now threatens the planet. Desi1ners5 and not least arc8itects5 are enframed ?it8in a 4ie? of ca-salit2 ?8ic8 instils confidence t8at desi1ned o-tcomes 8a4e predictable effects. Tellin1l25 t8is confidence is no less e4ident in t8e responses to t8e percei4ed ecolo1ical crisis5 ?8ere desi1n is confidentl2 bein1 ad4ocated to de4elop sol-tions to o4ercome t8e 4er2 problems t8at confident desi1nin1 8as created. <onfirming such
a view of the designer! 4eidegger refers to the 1engineer in his drafting room' Dwhich could e8ually be the architect in hisMher studioE as being part of an enframed system! 1an e#ecuter! within "nframing' DNuestion! 2- . Modernit2Js -nderstandin1 t8at t8e entities

constit-tin1 o-r -ni4erse are a partic-lar ?a2 and operate -nder t8e r-le of ca-salit25 mar$s a momento-s s8ift< in pre7modernit2 nat-re is appre8ended as m2sterio-s and mar4ello-sG in modernity nature is apprehended as systematic and
operable. This shift is! for me! no better illustrated than in the surreal Dyet 8uite seriousE design for a solar umbrella consisting of trillions of satellites launched from earth and intended to stop global warming D9rahicE. The pre&modern understanding

of the mystery and wonder of the sun's warmth granting life to all beings on earth (for many pre&
5 8as s8ifted to a modern -nderstandin1 ?8ere t8e s-nJs ?armin1 of t8e eart8 is a calc-lable s2stem t8at ?e do not merel2 belie4e ?e can -nderstand5 b-t 8a4e t8e 8-bris to belie4e t8at ?e can control.
modern cultures the sun and @od were one

Their characteri*ation of environmental degradation is fear mongering and relies on overblown assessments )imon -; (6-lian5 #obert 0. 9mit8 9c8ool of B-siness5 :ni4ersit2 of Mar2land5 T8e :ltimate #eso-rce 33<
People5 Materials5 and (n4ironment5 8ttp<>>???.r8smit8.-md.ed->fac-lt2>Csimon>:ltimate@#eso-rce> Per8aps t8ere is an instincti4e est8etic reaction to ?astes as t8ere seems to be to sna$es or blood . #e4-lsion to e)crement is seen in t8e -se of s-c8 ?ords as AcrapA for an2t8in1 ?e do not li$e. 3t ma2 be t8at t8is instinct ma$es it diffic-lt for -s to t8in$ abo-t poll-tion in a cool and calc-latin1 fas8ion. 3ndeed5 no?ada2s ?as8in1 dis8es pertains mainl2 to est8etics rat8er t8an disease5 t8o-18 ?e AfeelA t8at -ncleanness is -n8ealt82. Anot8er rele4ant analo12 is t8at poll-tion is li$e sinG none is t8e ideal amo-nt. B-t in economic t8in$in1 t8e ideal amo-nt of poll-tion is not Dero. 3t is no easier to ?ean en4ironmentalists from t8e ideal of no radiation and no trace of carcino1ens t8an it ?as to pers-ade t8e 9imon $ids t8at ?e s8o-ld simpl2 dil-te t8e dirt to an acceptable e)tent . T8is mind7set stands in t8e ?a2 of rational c8oice on t8e pat8 to t8e red-ction of poll-tion.

"1

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of En3ironment 'mpacts (2)


There is no real biodiversity loss! all estimations are based on species that are undiscovered. Foster! 2002 (Peter5 A?ard ?innin1 a-t8or and 'BT bestsellin1 a-t8or5 ;Biodi4ersit2 +laims Will Ma$e Bo9ic$=5 8ttp<>>net?or$.nationalpost.com>np>blo1s>fpcomment>arc8i4e>200.>0">2%>biodi4ersit27claims7?ill7ma$e72o-7 sic$7foster.asp) PBiodi4ersit2 loss N it ?ill ma$e 2o- sic$.= T8is is t8e latest claim from t8e 3nternational :nion for +onser4ation of 'at-re5 3:+'5 t8e 8-1e
en4ironmental or1aniDation and s-pposed 1-ardian of endan1ered species. Accordin1 to an 3:+'7sponsored boo$5 9-stainin1 Iife5 t8e ?orld stands to lose a ?8ole ran1e of -ndisco4ered medicinal mar4els beca-se of fast7disappearin1 plant5 fis8 and animal species< ; T8e e)perts ?arn t8at ?e ma2 lose man2 of t8e land and marine7based life forms of economic and medical interest before ?e can learn t8eir secrets5 or5 in some cases5 before ?e $no? t8e2 e)ist.= B-t 8an1 on. Accordin1 to t8e 3:+'Js o?n fi1-res5 t8e ann-al rate of e)tinction of $no?n species is aro-nd DeroH Mean?8ile claims of species loss of "05000 a 2ear 5 ?8ic8 are endlessl2 re1-r1itated5 are based on -ltra7pessimistic ass-mptions abo-t t8e on1oin1 fate of -ndisco4ered species. Fb4io-sl2 no medicinal benefits co-ld 8a4e come from species t8at ?e donJt $no?. And to deli4er a list of c-res t8at mi18t come from -n$no?n species is disin1en-o-s5 especiall2 if 2o- are part of a sc8eme t8at is effecti4el2 8oldin1 -p p8armace-tical researc8. T8e a-t8ors do pro4ide one e)ample< of t8e e)tinction of ;1astric broodin1 fro1s= ?8ic8 t8e2 claim ;co-ld 8a4e= led to ne? insi18ts into t8e treatment of peptic -lcers. B-t if t8ese fro1s ?ere onl2 fo-nd in ;-ndist-rbed rain forests= in A-stralia in t8e 1/.0s5 and 8ad s-c8 potential 4al-e5 ?82 ?ere t8e2 allo?ed to 1o e)tinctK T8e stor2 so-nds fis825 b-t not as fis82 as t8e ?8ole t8esis of a ;biotic 8oloca-st= t8at alle1edl2 endan1ers t8e f-t-re of medicinal disco4er2. 3n fact5 t8e 3:+' boo$ is p-re propa1anda a8ead of t8e massi4e meetin1 on t8e +on4ention on Biolo1ical Di4ersit2 (+BD 5 ?8ic8 is d-e to bo1 do?n e)pensi4el2 in Bonn ne)t mont8. T8ere5 dele1ates ;?ill loo$ to accelerate action to red-ce t8e rate of loss of biodi4ersit2 b2 2010.= B-t 8o? can 2o- red-ce t8e rate of biodi4ersit2 loss if almost none is bein1 recorded5 and //./V of it is simpl2 ass-medK 0ere ?e come -pon t8e distincti4e odo-r of a dan1ero-s and far7from7e)tinct species< t8e :nited 'ations socialist-s ratt-s ratt-s. Biodi4ersit25 and its related :' con4ention5 is t8e lesser7$no?n t?in to t8at mot8er of all :' boondo11les< ;addressin1= man7made climate c8an1e. 3t is a c8ild of Ma-rice 9tron1Js #io5 ?8ic8 ?as in t-rn a c8ild of t8e Br-ndtland reportJs concept of ;s-stainable de4elopment.= T8e ?8ole t8r-st of t8is 4ast or1aniDational ?etland is anti71ro?t8 and pro7re1-lation. As s-c85 it t8reatens 8-man ?elfare far more t8an t8e loss of an2 dr-1 t8at mi18t be st-mbled -pon in an -n$no?n species of salamander ?allo?in1 some?8ere -p t8e Frinoco. As BCorn Iombor1 noted in T8e 9$eptical (n4ironmentalist5 ?e do not 8a4e an2 practical means of testin1 t8e medical benefits of e4en a fraction of t8e plants and animals t8at ?e do $no? abo-t. T8e (conomist 8as also stressed t8at t8e notion of ;billion7dollar bloc$b-ster dr-1s= ?aitin1 to be disco4ered in t8e C-n1le is bo1-s.

"2

MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of En3ironment 'mpacts (4)


(rotections for biodiversity are motivated by attempts to preserve 5nature6 for e#ploitation in the future Timot82 W. 3uke5 Professor of Political 9cience at Tir1inia Pol2tec8nic 3nstit-te and 9tate :ni4ersit25 ,--B5
(cocriti,-e5 p. *!7*"
T8ese aest8etic appeals5 8o?e4er5 to preser4e lands and scener2 in $eepin1 ?it8 t8e +onser4anc2Js initial or1aniDational a1endas5 C-st m2stif2 t8e or1aniDationJs more recent obCecti4es of preser4in1 biodi4ersit2. 9cener2 pro4ides le1itimation5 land creates a containment area5 and rare ecos2stems constit-te stora1e sites for precio-s bio1enetic information. T8-s5 t8ese memorial par$s for ;nat-re conser4anc2 more importantl2 are becomin1 a net?or$ of cr2o1ennic depots. 3nside t8eir bo-ndaries5 nat-ral ?et?are accepts deposits as 1enome ban$s5 acc-m-latin1 bio7 plasmic memor2 on t8e 8oof5 at t8e roots5 -nder t8e bar$5 and in t8e soil of 'at-re +onser4anc2 protection actions . 'at-re is dead5 b-t its

en4ironmental remains are p-t into a cr2o1enic statis -ntil some f-t-re da2 ?8en science and tec8nolo12 can brin1 t8e f-ll prod-cti4e potential o-t of t8em t8at escapes 8-man de4elopment no?. At t8at point5 t8e2 too ?ill be released from t8eir froDen state to become t8e trade lands of tomorro?5 as some snail5 lic8en5 or b-1 is disco4ered to 8old a c-re for cancer or t8e common cold. :nder t8e 1-idance of Bob 6en$insJs biodi4ersit2 plan5 'at-re 8as been transmo1rified from t8e matter and space 8oarded b2 t8e (colo1istJs :nion into informational codes and biosp8eric addresses arc8i4ed b2 T8e 'at-re +onser4anc2. Plants and animals become more t8an endan1ered flo?ers or t8reatened fis8G t8e2 become -n$no?n and -n7 e)ploited economic reso-rces essential to 8-man s-r4i4al. ;Ff all t8e plants and animals ?e $no? on t8is eart85= as one
+onser4anc2 s-pporter testifies5 ;onl2 one in a 8-ndred 8as been tested for possible benefit. And t8e species ?e 8a4e not e4en identified 2et far o-tn-mber t8ose t8at ?e 8a4e. We destro2 t8em before ?e disco4er t8em and determine 8o? t8e2 mi18t be -sef-l.="" +onser4anc2 preser4es! t8en5 are biodi4ersit2 collection centers5 allo?in1 a free7enterprise7minded fo-ndation to s-spend t8eir

nati4e flora and fa-na in an ecolo1icall2 correct deep freeDe -ntil scientists can assa2 t8e possible ?ort8 of t8e ninet27nine -ntested species o-t of eac8 8-ndred ban$ed in t8ese preser4es ."% Mean?8ile5 1riDDl2 bears5 bald ea1les5 and
spotted o?ls pro4ide 8i18 4isibilit2 entertainment 4al-e in its preser4es for ecoto-rists5 +onser4anc2 members5 and o-tdoor recreationists all see$in1 to enCo2 s-c8 (denic spaces. 3n ;preser4in1 (den5= t8e +onser4anc2 more importantl2 is 1-ardin1 t8e bioplasmic so-rce codes t8at enable t8e ?et?are of life to recapit-late its e)istence in t8e timeless ro-tines of birt85 life5 reprod-ction5 and deat8."& 9-c8 ric8es can onl2 be e)ploited slo?l25 b-t t8e2 cannot be de4eloped at all -nless toda2Js -nc8ec$ed cons-mption of e4er2t8in1 e4er2?8ere is contained b2 'at-re +onser4anc2 protection actions brin1in1 t8e ?orld econom2 to an absol-te Dero point of inacti4it2 in t8ese (denic e)panses of t8e 1lobal en4ironment.

)pecies e#tinction is necessary for evolution 9oulter 2002 (Mic8ael5 professor of paleobiolo12 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of (ast Iondon5 ()tinction< (4ol-tion and
t8e (nd of Man5 p. 1*0
T8e same trend of lon17dra?n7o-t s-r4i4al of t8e final relicts 8as been f-rt8er considered b2 Bob Ma2Js 1ro-p at F)ford5 partic-larl2 9ean 'ee. T8e F)ford 1ro-p are 4ocifero-s ?ailers of 1loom and doom< P()tinction episodes5 s-c8 as t8e ant8ropo1enic one c-rrentl2 -nder ?a25 res-lt in a pr-ned tree of life.J B-t t8e2 1o on to ar1-e t8at t8e 4ast maCorit2 of 1ro-ps s-r4i4e t8is pr-nin15 so t8at e4ol-tion 1oes on5 albeit alon1 a different pat8 if t8e en4ironment is c8an1ed. 3ndeed5 t8e fossil record 8as ta-18t -s to e)pect a 4i1oro-s e4ol-tionar2 response ?8en t8e ecos2stem c8an1es si1nificantl2 . T8is $ind of researc8 is more e4idence to s-pport t8e idea t8at e4ol-tion t8ri4es on c-llin1. T8e planet did reall2 ?ell from t8e Bi1 Qi4e mass7e)tinction e4ents. T8e 4ictimsJ

demise enabled ne? en4ironments to de4elop and more di4ersification too$ place in ot8er 1ro-ps of animals and plants. 'at-re ?as t8e ric8er for it. 3n C-st t8e same ?a2 t8e planet can ta$e ad4anta1e from t8e ab-se ?e are 1i4in1 it. T8e 8arder t8e ab-se5 t8e 1reater t8e c8an1e to t8e en4ironment. B-t it also follo?s t8at it brin1s for?ard t8e e)tinctions of a
?8ole selection of 4-lnerable or1anisms.

<atastrophes are good because they help simple systems become more comple# and resilient 9oulter 2002 (Mic8ael5 professor of paleobiolo12 at t8e :ni4ersit2 of (ast Iondon5 ()tinction< (4ol-tion and
t8e (nd of Man5 p &2 +8an1in1 en4ironments on a planet ?it8 ?ater5 atmosp8ere and carbon compo-nds can create life and e4ol-tion. Qor t8ese s2stems to s-r4i4e5 let alone de4elop5 catastrop8es become essential feat-res ?it8in t8e comple) processes. T8e2 initiate pro1ress on t8e planet from simplicit2 to comple)it2 and are dri4en for?ard b2 t8e reactions from inside t8e s2stem. T8e2 8a4e t8e abilit2 to c8an1e t8e noise from t8e borin1 -nstr-ct-red 8iss of ?8ite noise to t8e bea-t2 and orderl2 comple)it2 of a Bac8 concerto.

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MGW 2010 GT lab K lab

K of DA impacts

Kritik of En3ironment 'mpacts (5)


$ass&e#tinction is important to the cycle of life 0use 2002 (Mic8ael5 P8ilosop8er and A-t8or5 T8e Globe and Mail5 A-1-st 2"
Iet me sa2 strai18t o-t t8at t8is is t8e most e1re1io-sl2 mislabelled boo$ 3 8a4e e4er enco-ntered. T8e a-t8or follo?s in t8e footsteps of t8e late 6ac$ 9ep$os$i5 a +8ica1o paleontolo1ist (and incidentall2 a sometime st-dent of Go-ldEs 5 ?8o performed brilliant me1a7anal2ses of t8e fossil record5 1at8erin1 to1et8er 8-1e amo-nts of data abo-t past species (and 8i18er ta)a and -sin1 comp-ters to e)tract 8it8erto7-nseen trends and salient feat-res of lifeEs 8istor2. 9pecificall25 9ep$os$i fo-nd

t8at t8ere are times of e4ol-tionar2 brea$t8ro-185 rises in n-mbers of certain forms of life5 follo?ed b2 coolin17off periods and t8en rapid decline. To1et8er ?it8 8is collea1-e Da4id #a-p5 9ep$os$i also in4esti1ated t8e massi4e e)tinction episodes t8at
?e find in t8e fossil record 7 one of t8e most recent and famo-s bein1 t8e time &% million 2ears a1o5 ?8en a comet 8it t8e eart8 and finis8ed off t8e dinosa-rs. Bet fascinatin1l25 alt8o-18 9ep$os$i ar1-ed t8at e)tinction is incredibl2 important in lifeEs 8istor2 7 t8e

mammals ?o-ld 8ardl2 8a4e ta$en o4er t8e ?orld if t8e dinos ?ere still aro-nd 7 8e concl-ded t8at in t8e lon1 r-n5 t8e o4erall patterns seem imper4io-s to t8e e)tinctions. Iife 8as a tempo of its o?n5 apparentl25 and can contin-e despite disr-ptions..

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