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( ) ( ) ( ) ) (The Noble Quran, 21:30

Course Title: Irrigation and Drainage Practices Course No.: ID-102 Credit hrs.: 2(1-1)

Sikandar Ali
Lecturer, Department of Irrigation and drainage, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.


Irrigation Water Resources: Irrigation, importance of irrigation, sources of irrigation water, Indus Basin Irrigation System, components of irrigation system, irrigation system management, warabandi, hill torrents. Measurement of Irrigation Waters: Importance, units, methods. Irrigation Methods: Surface, subsurface, sprinkler, drip, selection of irrigation method. Irrigation Scheduling: Components, soil water plant relationship, water requirements of crops, efficiencies. Irrigation Pumping Systems: Definition, types of pumps -Reciprocating, centrifugal, deep well turbine, jet pump-Power requirements for pumping, efficiency, pump characteristics, tubewell components Drainage of Agricultural Lands: Concept, type and purpose of drainage, sources of excess water, classification of drainage systems.


Practical Flow measurement by velocity area method. Flow measurement by Volumetric method Flow measurement by weighing method Flow measurement by Current meter method Flow measurement using a weir. Flow measurement using a cutthroat Flume. Field exercise on soil moisture determination. Practical exercises on irrigation scheduling. Practical exercises on pumping systems

Basic Terminologies and Concepts

Artificial application of water to the soil through manually or mechanically managed system for the purpose to

Supply moisture essential for plant growth

Encourage plant root development Cool the soil and atmosphere

Create favorable condition for plant growth

Transport nutrients from soil to plant

Necessity of Irrigation
In areas with unreliable rainfall, watering of crops is essential. Irrigation is necessary where rainfall amount is not sufficient to meet crop water requirement.

In Pakistan Average Annual Rainfall 10-14 inch Potential demand of water for Agriculture is about 70 inch

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and subsurface water from an area.

An agricultural drainage system is a system by which the water level on or in the soil is controlled to enhance agricultural crop production.

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapour that falls under gravity. Generally, any form of moisture received on earth is called as precipitation.
It includes,
Rain (liquid form of precipitation) Snow (Crystalline water ice form) Hail (Irregular lumps of ice called hailstone) Sleet (Rain and partially melted Snow)

Arial distribution of rainfall zones in Pakistan

Sr. No. Rainfall Zone Percent area Average annual rainfall

2 3 4

Semi-arid Humid Para Humid

24 5.5 3.5

<10 inch
10-20 inch 20-30 inch >30 inch

Rainfall and Effective Rainfall in Agriculture

Total amount of water received on earth from atmosphere is called as rainfall.
Effective rainfall is that portion of rainfall which is utilizable by crop. Losses may be due to evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff. ER=TR-losses

Infiltration Entrance of water into the soil surface from atmosphere is called as infiltration
Percolation Movement of water through porous medium due to gravity and capillary forces. When water after infiltration seeps down called as percolation. Deep percolation Downward movement of infiltrated water below the root zone and mixing in the groundwater

Evapotranspiration (ET)
Evaporation Loss of water from soil surface to the atmosphere is called as evaporation Transpiration Loss of water from plant surface to atmosphere is called as transpiration.
Evapotranspiration Combine loss of water from soil and plant surface to atmosphere is called as evapotranspiration.

Consumptive Use (CU) and ET

CU= Et + water used by plant in 1. Metabolic process 2. Structural growth of the plant

3. Tissue building process of the plant

GCA and CCA of Pakistan

Total Area = 196 million acre (ma) Cultivated area= 26% of Total Area

196 ma * 0.26 = 51.8 ma or 21 mha ( million hactare) Irrigated area = 77 % of Cultivated area Irrigated area = 0.77 * 51.8 ma = 40 ma OR 16.2 mha