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Published by the DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR - New Zealand


Important Note: All the publications in the Publications Archive contain the best guidance available at the time of publishing. However, you should consider the effect of any changes to the law since then. You should also check that the Standards referred to are still current.

Published by Explosives and Dangerous Goods Occupational Safety & Health Service Department of Labour Wellington New Zealand www.osh.dol.govt.nz ISBN 0-477-03462-4 Second Edition:1989


Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4

Introduction Legislative Requirement Approval Procedures Modifications

4 6 7 9

Appendix I Appendix II Section III Section IV Section V

Maintenance Requirements Hazardous Zone Classification T Temperature Rating Testing List of Approved Units Related Documents

12 13 14 16 18



1.1 The mistaken belief that diesel engines, having no electrical spark ignition system, could be safely used in areas where flammable vapours might be present, provided that suitable spark arrestors were fitted to the exhaust system, has been firmly dispelled by various incidents which have occurred in the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries. For instance, an explosion which occurred in recent times in the United Kingdom was directly attributable to cyclohexane being ingested by a diesel engine resulting in wild over-revving, disintegration of the engine and ignition of the surrounding inflammable gas cloud, which caused millions of pounds worth of damage. This, plus a number of similar incidents elsewhere in the world, has provided some valuable lessons on the behaviour of diesel engines operating in hazardous zones. 1.2 By drawing in flammable gas through its air intake, a diesel engine can continue to run even with its normal fuel supply cut off. Should such a diesel engine take in sufficient combustible gas to supplement the normal fuel supply, overspeed can occur to a point where the engine disintegrates. 1.3 Another risk is that entrained flammable gas in the induction system can be ignited by a flash over from one or more cylinders at the moment the inlet valve opens. Also, after-burning in the exhaust system can cause spark or flame emission from the exhaust tail pipe, as well as surface temperature rise. 1.4 Diesel exhaust systems frequently operate with surface temperatures of 300C or higher, depending on engine loads. Temperatures of that order can ignite many inflammable liquids or vapours (auto-ignition temperature). Standard electrical equipment must also be regarded as a potential ignition source. Should any form of electrical equipment be required, it must be of a properly certified flame-proof nature. 1.5 The recommendations in this guide are related to the modifications and equipment fitted to the vehicle only and are supplementary to existing

safety practices. Training in the use of diesel-powered forklifts in hazardous zones is outside the scope of this guide. While it is considered that the implementation of these requirements will help to reduce to a minimum the risk of accidents associated with the use of such machines in defined hazardous zones, the modifications as listed must be regarded as the minimum required to eliminate all possible sources of ignition associated with standard machines. Consideration must be given that apart from design aspects, safety in use is dependent upon the machinery being in a good state of maintenance. Recommendations relating to maintenance requirements are given in Appendix I.



2.1 The Dangerous Goods Act and associated Regulations prohibit the introduction of sources of ignition into certain areas where dangerous goods may be present, or within certain specified distances associated with such areas. 2.2 Where in the relevant regulations there is any requirement limiting the presence of sources of ignition, that requirement may be modified in respect of electrical equipment or machinery liable to be an ignition source by applying the principle of zoning into regions of differing degrees of hazard in accordance with such standard specification or code as may be approved by the Chief Inspector of Explosives, and using within any such zone equipment, such as modified fork lifts, as may be approved by the Chief Inspector as being acceptable for the particular zone. Refer to Appendix II for details relating to hazardous zone classification. 2.3 All suitably modified diesel-powered forklifts intended to be used within defined hazardous zones are to be approved for such use by the Chief Inspector of Explosives. Additionally, the user of any such machine must ensure that it has a formal T temperature rating relevant to the auto-ignition temperature of any flammable agents that it is likely to come into contact with within a defined hazardous zone.



3.1 If it is determined by the user that it may be necessary to operate a dieselpowered forklift unit in a suspected hazardous zone, the first course of action is to correctly determine the class and extent of the hazardous zone. The body responsible for determining such an area is the relevant Dangerous Goods licencing authority for the particular locality. 3.2 Upon confirmation of the existence of an hazardous zone, action may be taken to modify an existing forklift or to acquire a suitably modified approved unit for use in such an area. A list of approved units to date can be found in Appendix IV. 3.3 Any supplier or agent conducting the modification of an existing unit must comply with the list of minimum requirements as detailed in section 4. 3.4 A further requirement is that such forklifts must have a formal T temperature rating equal to or less than the auto-ignition temperature of any dangerous goods that are located within the defined hazardous zone and which the forklift unit may possibly come into contact with. 3.5 It will be necessary for any such machine to be suitably tested and certified as to its formal T temperature rating. Such testing is to be carried out by an approved independent test authority. The rating relates to the maximum surface temperature during the course of normal operation of any component subject to heating. Appendix III details information relating to such testing. 3.6 Upon completion of the relevant testing, a copy of the test report is to be made available to the Technical Services Officer, Department of Labour, Dangerous Goods Division. An inspection of the relevant machine will be conducted for confirmation that the necessary modifications have been satisfactorily completed. 3.7 Upon the satisfactory completion of the relevant testing and inspection of the unit concerned, a letter of approval will be issued by the Chief Inspector of Dangerous Goods. 3.8 Such a letter of approval will detail the particular hazardous zone classification that the particular machine may operate within. Furthermore, it will detail the specific T temperature rating of the unit and any associated operating restrictions that may be imposed upon it.

3.9 It has been determined that any similarly modified units of the same make, model and type, will not require a temperature rating test to be carried out, on the specific condition that any such similar units are identical in every respect and in particular have identical modifications and components fitted as the previously tested and approved unit. An inspection of such a unit is carried out prior to the issue of a letter of approval to ensure compliance with the required modifications. 3.10 Should such a unit have any material changes or modifications incorporated which are a departure from the originally approved unit, then it may be necessary for a temperature test to be conducted. This aspect will be determined by the actual changes involved, in particular any changes which may involve the exhaust system.



4.1 Various modifications are incorporated into approved flame-proof diesel forklifts to eliminate potential sources of ignition which exist on standard units. 4.2 The various hazards which such modifications are designed to control are listed below: (1) Discharge of sparks from electrical equipment. (2) Discharge of sparks from mechanical causes. (3) Generation and discharge of static from belt drives. (4) Discharge of sparks or flames from the exhaust system. (5) Flash back through the induction system. (6) Excessive temperature of exhaust gases and excessive surface temperature of engine and exhaust systems. (7) Overspeeding and possible destruction of the engine due to induction of flammable gas or vapour. (8) Explosion in engine crank case; discharge from crank case and cylinder head relief valves and breathers. (9) Explosions in intake or exhaust systems. (10) Flame transmission to atmosphere by opening of decompression ports. (11) Reverse running of engine. 4.3 The following list of modifications is considered as the minimum required to allow use in hazardous zones. Explanatory notes are included. 1. All electrical equipment and apparatus must be removed. See note 3(a). The starter system shall be a non-electric type, either pneumatic. hydraulic, spring recoil, inertia or manual. All electrically actuated gauges are removed. They may be replaced by alternative mechanical types such as mechanical load indicators, capillary tube dash board gauges etc.



(a) Note that if any electrical equipment is required though operational necessity, than such equipment is to be of a suitably certified flameproof type approved for use in the relevant hazardous zone.

4. The unit shall comply with the maximum surface temperature requirements as laid down in Australian Standard 1915:1976. The temperature class of the unit shall be at or below the ignition temperature of the gases or vapours to which the unit is liable to be exposed in actual operation. See Appendix III for further information. 5. Light alloy metals, and paints based on light alloy powders, shall not be used unless the components concerned are suitably protected against possible mechanical impact or rubbing that could produce incendive sparking. Blades of the cooling fan shall be made from non-metallic materials. All driving belts shall be of anti-static type. Static discharge. All wheels shall be tyred with rubber or non-metallic material. At least two tyres and wheels shall be constructed of antistatic material in accordance with B.S. 2050, or some other approved effective static discharge device shall be provided. Adequate flame paths to be provided on all inlet and exhaust connections. All such joints, including the attachment of the inlet and exhaust manifold to the block, shall have a flame path of not less than 13 mm through or across the joint. This may require spiggotting into the block and manifold to obtain the required distance. In any case, all such joints shall generally comply with the requirements for appropriate group enclosures in accordance with A.S. C98.

6. 7. 8.


10. Suitable metal-clad or other acceptable jointing material gaskets shall be interposed between all joint faces to ensure that leakage does not occur. 11. Where valve spindles pass through the walls of any component of the induction system, the diametrical clearance shall not exceed 0.13 mm for an axial length of not less than 25 mm, unless end caps are fitted. No screw, stud or bolt hole shall pass through the wall of any component of the exhaust or induction system. 12. An approved flame arrestor is to be fitted on the air intake between the air cleaner and intake manifold. This is to counteract flashback through the induction system. It is preferable that such a unit is manufactured from stainless steel. 13. An overspeed shutdown device is to be fitted. This may take the form of (i) a strangler valve unit fitted to the induction system to close the air intake; or (ii) a system to inject an inert gas into the air intake. Such a device, which is designed to stop the engine in the event of flammable gas or vapour in the atmosphere causing the engine to overspeed, may be operated either manually or automatically. It is desirable that any


automatic system has, in addition, provision for manual operation. This manual facility must be readily accessible. 14 Relative to the pre-determined T temperature rating requirement of any particular machine, it may prove necessary to provide a water-cooled exhaust manifold. Many standard machines may meet the necessary limit, but may require additional cooling when operated under full load conditions. The relevant testing will determine this aspect. It is preferable that such manifolds are manufactured from stainless steel. Appendix III relates to T temperature rating requirements and testing. 15. A suitable exhaust flame trap and spark arrestor unit is to be fitted. This is to consist of a water scrubber unit, preferably fabricated from noncorrodible materials, in which the exhaust gases are passed through water. The unit is to be fitted with baffles to prevent water carry over and should be designed to minimise back pressure on the engine. The unit shall contain sufficient water to allow 8 hours of normal operation without refilling. Under certain conditions, consideration may possibly be given for the use of a suitably certified spark arrestor unit (Dry Cyclone Type) combined with a flame trap (Spaced Plate Type). Such an arrangement would probably require the use of an exhaust aftercooler unit. 16. An air-operated (may be aerosol) horn unit to be fitted as an audible warning device. 17. The fuel tank shall be constructed of metal at least 1.6 mm thick and shall be fitted with a drain plug and a non-spill vent to maintain atmospheric internal pressure. 18. An engine having a crankcase volume of over 0.5m3 shall be provided with relief devices. Relief valves or breather units on engines shall be suitable explosion proof types or else fitted with flame traps. Alternatively, they may discharge into the induction system downstream of the flame trap and upstream of the shut off valve. Dipsticks and/or filler caps should be screwed or effectively secured by other means. 19. The fuel injection pump and governor where fitted shall be so designed that reverse running of the engine is not possible. 20. All fuel or lubricating oil lines are to be routed clear of any likely hot spots, in particular the exhaust system. All such lines are to be well supported and clear of any possible chafe points.



As indicated in Section 1, continued safety in use of an approved unit is dependent upon the unit being in a good state of maintenance at all times that it is utilised in a hazardous zone. In association with ongoing maintenance of such units, any replacement parts fitted to such units which may affect flame-proofing of the unit must be suitably approved items, manufactured in accordance with the requirements to which the machine has been originally approved. The following aspects should be checked at intervals of not longer than three months, or as indicated by the manufacturer, and a maintenance record kept covering these items. It should be noted that local conditions and operational requirements may require shorter intervals to be considered for such servicing. This servicing is required in addition to normal mechanical service checks. (1) Exhaust system including muffler unit and spark arrestor unit if fitted for carbon build-up, corrosion and damage. (2) Rotating mechanical equipment for security and freedom from contact with stationary parts. (3) Antistatic fan belts for condition and tightness. (4) Certified electrical equipment (if fitted) for damage or deterioration, correct operation. (5) Pressure/temperature alarms and other shutdown devices for operability at set conditions. (6) Overspeed shutdown devices for freedom of operation, correctly filled cylinder for inert gas system if fitted. (7) Relief valves and breathers or operability and cleanliness. (8) Fasteners and Joints for tightness and security particularly on induction, exhaust and fuel systems. It should be noted that specific maintenance schedules as specified by the relevant manufacturers should be adhered to. In particular, this will relate to the care and correct usage of water baffled exhaust scrubber systems, and spark arrestor elements.




Hazardous areas may be regarded as those areas where dangerous goods of a flammable nature are present, or may be expected to be present in quantities such as to require special precautions with respect to the use of items of equipment liable to be a source of ignition. Within such areas where by regulation there is any requirement limiting the presence of sources of ignition, that requirement may be modified in respect of mechanical equipment utilised in the area by applying the principle of zoning into regions of hazard in accordance with such standard specifications or codes as may be approved by the Chief Inspector of Explosives. The classification and delineation of hazardous areas requires, in each case, a careful review of all the relevant factors. The quantity of flammable substance that may possibly be liberated, its physical characteristics, the natural tendency of vapours to disperse into the atmosphere, the location and general ventilation of the area, and the standards of maintenance or housekeeping that may affect the nature and extent of the hazard, are factors that must be recognised in determining the degree and extent of danger. In all instances, the local dangerous goods licencing authority is responsible for determining the existence and extent of any hazardous zone.




The normal operating temperature of any vehicle component, either electrical or mechanical to which surrounding atmosphere has access shall not exceed that stated in Table 1, according to the temperature class for which the vehicle is intended. Compliance with the specified temperature limits shall be determined by the temperature test based upon the requirements of A.S. 1915-1976. The specific temperature class required for any particular machine is determined by the ignition temperature of the gas or vapour that the machine is liable to come into contact with, as determined by A.S. 1896.
TABLE 1 Operating Temperature Limits Class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Max. Surface Temp. oC 450 300 200 135 100 85

A distinction should be drawn between flashpoint and ignition temperature. The former is the lowest temperature at which an explosive gas/air mixture can exist under normal atmospheric conditions, whereas the latter is a higher temperature at which the most ignitable mixture will ignite spontaneously on account of the environmental temperature. Test Procedure (1) The test course shall be 60m long and shall include a gradient of 5 percent with a total rise of l m. (2) The test course shall be negotiated at a rate of not less than six complete cycles per hour and the test shall be conducted in such a manner that the vehicle is in operation for not less than 50 percent of the total time. (3) The vehicle shall be operated at normal speed over this course, hauling full-rated load. Mast tilt should be fully to the rear against the stops with the relief valve in full operation. (4) At the end of the course the vehicle shall be stopped and the load moved through the full lifting cycle.


(5) The vehicle with the load shall then return to the starting point where the load is again moved through the full lifting cycle and then deposited beside the test course. (6) The vehicle shall then be operated with no load over the same course, at the end of which the forks shall be raised to full height and lowered. (7) The vehicle shall then be returned to the starting point and the load picked up. (8) These runs shall be repeated, laden and unladen trips alternating. (9) The test shall be continued until constant surface temperatures have been reached. (10) During the test, the temperature of any surface exposed to the surrounding atmosphere shall not exceed the value specified in Table 1 for the temperature class assigned to the unit.

Brake Temperature Test (1) Immediately following the above temperature test, the unit, while carrying its rated load at maximum possible speed, shall be operated over the course and shall be brought to a complete stop every 15m by application of the brakes. (2) The test shall be continued until constant surface temperatures are reached on the brakes (3) During the test, the brake temperature shall not exceed the value specified in Table 1 for the temperature class assigned to the unit.

The relevant testing is to be carried out by an independent testing agency approved by the Chief Inspector of Explosives. A report of the test is to be provided to the dangerous goods division.




The list on the following page details the various diesel powered forklifts which have been approved to date as being suitably modified for use as flameproof units for use in designated hazardous zones.


APPROVED FLAMEPROOF DIESEL POWERED FORKLIFTS Serial No. ED 72/009 Testing Authority Exp. Div. NSW Temp. Class Hazard Zone C1.1 ZN 1 C1.1 ZN 1 1 T6 Wakefield Lab. Date Approved 10. 6.1910 0. 1.1984

Manufacturer Hyster/Baldwin

Belcher Equip./ Ford Special Tow Truck Clark C500-Y560 Materials & Testing Lab. Ltd T2 Materials & Testing Lab Ltd. S.G.S. NZ Ltd S.G.S. NZ Ltd DSIR CH.CH T3 T3 T3 T3 T3 T3 T4

Supplier Model Gough, Gough H50H & Hammer Belcher 2115E Equipment C1.1 ZN 1

Andrews & Beavan QF02A2FU QF02A25U QF02A25U QF02A2FU QF02A25U QF02A25U F025 11212-30 11213-30 11194-29 5345 25315 22815 22125 25325 25925 11993/19

24. 4.1981



Datsun Datsun Datsun Datsun Nissan Nissan Toyota

Load Lift Load Lift Load Lift Load Lift Load Lift Load Lift Andrews & Beavan

C1.1 ZN-l C1.1 ZN 1 C1.1 ZN 1 C1.1 ZN 1 C1.1 ZN 1 C1.1 ZN 1 C1.1 ZN 1

23. 1.1980 21.12.1983 17.10.1983 1. 5.1984 7. 1.1985 24. 9.1985 5.1984


Dangerous Goods Act 1974. The Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980 The Dangerous Goods (Class 3 - Flammable Liquids) Regulations 1985 Dangerous Goods (Labelling) Regulations 1978. M.P. 6105: 1976 Electrical Wiring in Hazardous Locations. Australian Standard 1896:1976 Method of Test for Ignition Temperature of Gases and Vapours. Australian Standard 1915:1976 Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres. Battery Operated Vehicles. Australian Standard C98:1970 Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres. Flameproof Enclosure. British Standard 2050:1978 Electrical Resistance of Conducting and Antistatic Products made from Flexible Polymeric Material. NFPA 505 Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks.

Exploded view of a typical modification of a diesel engine for use in defined hazardous zones. (not included)