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PLANT DESIGN OF DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) BIOMASS BASED

Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas matakuliah : Perancangan Pabrik Kimia

Dosen Pembimbing : Ir. Bambang Poerwadi, MS Rama Oktavian, ST., M.Sc

Oleh: Alfonsina Abat Amelenan Torimtubun (115061100111002)

JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN BIDANG MINAT TEKNIK KIMIA FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2014

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The LPG demand in Indonesia has reached more than 3.8 million tons in 2011 in which the government could only supply 2 million tons and imported the remaining to fulfill the demand. The needs of LPG will increase to 11 million tons by 2030 due to economic growth of 7.6% per year. Although the domestic production of LPG will increase by 4.2 million tons/year, Indonesia still needs to import LPG by 55% in 2030. Indonesia and other countries are required to find a replacement for LPG to be able to meet domestic energy needs and to be environmentally friendly. Dimethyl Ether which has some properties in common with LPG LPG can be used as a substitute for or as a mixture of LPG. DME will be able to increase the productivity of LPG in Indonesia. DME has a simple chemical monostruktur (CH3-O-CH3), are gaseous at ambient temperature. DME can be availed, such properties also owned by LPG, so the needs of LPG can be replaced with DME. The use of 5% volume of DME in LPG is able to improve the combustion efficiency of up to 18% and lowers fuel consumption rate to 22%. DME is a multi-fuel source (can be obtained from many sources), including natural gas, fuel oil, coal, waste plastics, waste paper, sugar mill waste, and Biomass. One of the most biomass produced in Indonesia is rice straw. According to BPS Jakarta (2011), the rice crop in 2010 covers an area of 13,244,184 ha with a production of 66,411,469 tons of rice, and produces 90 million tons / year of rice straw. Thus, it can be considered as a potential raw material for producing dimethyl ether. Rice straw usually has lower water content than woody biomass, so it does not require special treatment when drying gasification process (Haygreen & Bowyer 1996). The establishment of DME plant in Indonesia will contribute to an increase in the ASEAN economy, especially to increase the added value of waste such as rice straw. The need of a clean and environmental friendly fuel in Indonesia is expected to be resolved so that it can be used as a new revenue source for Indonesia from oil and gas sector that can replace revenue source from oil and coal sector which reserves more and more reduced.

1.2 Dimethyl Ether Dimethyl ether (DME) is known as a propellant in aerosol form which is widely used as one of the driving ingredient in the perfume industry, medicine mosquito repellent, foam (soap shaving mustache for men), room fragrances, colognes, hairsprays, mousses personal care, antiperspirants , room air fresheners, automotive and industrial coatings. DME is now being projected to be one of the sources of environmentally friendly alternative fuels that will replace LPG and diesel fuel. DME has a simple chemical monostruktur (CH3-O-CH3), are gaseous at ambient temperature. DME can be availed as well as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), so the infrastructure for LPG can also be used for DME. DME is a multi-fuel source (can be obtained from many sources), including natural gas, fuel oil, coal, waste plastics, waste paper, sugar mill waste, and biomass (Majari Magazine, 2009). Percentage use of DME can be seen in the following table:

Table 1.1 The use of DME (Dupont Company, 2008) The use of DME Percentage Hairsprays 48% Spray Paints/Venturi Sprays 6% Inspect Repellants/Insecticides 6% Adhesives 5% Industrial Feedstocks 31% Miscellaneous 4% Dimethyl ether also serves as diesel fuel engines, petrol engines (30% DME / 70% LPG), gas turbine. Dimethyl Ether is widely used as fuel, which produces environmental friendly combustion, with very least NOx and CO content. Physical properties of Dimethyl Ether is listed in table. Table 1.2 Physical Properties of Dimethyl Ether Magnitude value Molecular C2H6O Formula CH3OCH3 Molar Mass, (g/mol) 46,07 Density, gas (kg/l) 1,59 Density, liquid (kg/m3) 668 Melting Point, (K) 134,6 Boiling Point, (K) 254 Solubility in Water at 20C, (mg/100ml) 328 Chemical properties of Dimethyl Ether is listed as follows: (Vakili Reza, 2012) a) Stable, Colorless b) Flammable c) At the time of dimethyl ether is oxidized, it can be a form of decomposition of methanol and formaldehyde. d) Dimethyl Ether reacts with carbon monoxide and water to form acetic acid CH3OCH3 + H2O + CO 2CH3COOH e) reacts with sulfur trioxide to form dimethyl sulfate CH3OCH3 + SO3 (CH3)2SO4 f) With hydrogen sulfate and tungsten sulfite catalyst (WS2) can form dimethyl sulfite CH3OCH3 + H2S CH3 S CH3 + H2 g) The oxidation reaction dimetyl ether will produce formaldehyde CH3OCH3 + O2 2CH2O + H2O

1.3 Raw Material In this plant design, DME is produced by direct process through the gasification process biomass feedstock. Biomass chosen over coal because it is a renewable energy source. The other reason is fossil fuel massive burning effect can be harmful to the environment and human survival. A kind of young coal is bituminous coal which used often for fuel than any kind of other coal. Availability of bituminous coal is now decreasing. It can be estimated that within a period of 100 years, bituminous coal only capable to produce 1 million per year dimethyl ether. In the 3

other hand, bituminous coals destroyed easily and its calories are also low flammable, so that it is uneconomical and difficult to be distributed (Kompas, 15 November 2013). Biomass is an organic material derived from plants or animals and it is categorized into renewable energy. Examples of biomass fuels are wood and some types of waste. When biomass is burned, the chemical energy contained in biomass is released as a heat. Organic waste for example, can also be burned to produce steam in producing electricity or heat that can be used in industrial and residential. Some of the strength and weakness of biomass energy sources compared to other renewable energy sources is described in Table 1.3 : Table 1.3 Strength and Weakness of Biomass Compared to Other Renewable Energy Sources (Japan Institute Energy, 2008) Biomass Other Renewable Energy Sources Strength 1. Can be stored in long-term 1. Depend on location, the stock is high 2. Can be used as a source of heat and power (CHP)W so that has a high effieciency 2. Its development is more towards in power generation 3. The technology is flexible, good for small, medium, or large. 4. More efficient if the distance between the source and utilization of energy near (reduced transportation cost). Weakness 1. For some processes, its technology still 1. Some are difficult to store for a produce odor long time (wind, water, solar) 2. Need cleaning gas 3. The resulting ash is high enough so that more frequent maintenance equipment. 4. Spare parts for the gasification process, pyrolysis, cogeneration is still limited. In general there are three types of biomass fuel sources, such as forest products, energy plants, and agricultural products. Indonesia as an agricultural country has the potential of biomass fuel from agricultural products for example rice straw. Production of rice straw per hectare is approximately 10-15 tons. Rice straw is generally used as animal feed, fertilizer and fungal media. Tabel 1.4 desribes the data of biomass in Indonesia : Table 1.4 Total Energy Production and Potential of Some Biomass (Japan Institute Energy,2008) Biomassa Rubber wood Logging res. Production mill ton/year 41 4.5 Energy Potential (GJ/year) 120 19 2. Low efficiency

Sawn timber res. Wood res. Sugar res. Rice res. Coconut res. Palm oil res

1.3 1.5 Bagasse; 10, Cane tree: 4, cane leaves: 9.6 Husk: 12, bran: 2.5, stalk: 2, straw: 49 Shell: 0.4, husk: 0.7 Emty bunches: 3.4, fibre: 3.6, shell: 1.2

13 16 78 150 7 67

Rice straw biomass have been choosen because straw is the most widely biomass produced in Indonesia. Indonesia has rice fields that can produce waste in the form of rice straw. According to BPS Jakarta (2011), the rice crop in 2010 at area of 13,244,184 ha with a production of 66,411,469 tons produce 90 million tons rice straw / year which leads rice straw as a potential raw material for producing dimethyl ether. Rice straw typically has a lower water content than woody biomass, so that when the drying process of gasification, it do not require special treatment. This is worth noting because the higher water content of the biomass, the lower the value of the biomass heat produced (Haygreen & Bowyer 1996). Carbon-containing compounds such as sugars, starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin on straw reaches 40% (as C) dry weigh (Sutanto, 2002). The greater the carbon produced, the greater the syngas formed. Heat value data and the composition of rice straw is shown in Table 1.5: Table 1.5 Data Value and Composition of Rice Straw Heat (Heldman, Dennis R., 1989) Value Description (Percentage) Typical Harvest Moisture(% wet basis) Moisture Free (dry) Higher Heating Value (Mj/kg) Moisture and Ash Free Wet Ash Proximate Analysis (% dry matter) Organic Fraction Volatiles Fixed Carbon Cellulose Structural Composition Hemicellulose (% dry matter) Lignin Ultimate Elemented Composition Carbon 9,00 41,78 28,00 14,00 15,09 18,55 12,97 18,67 81,33 65,47 15,56 34,00

(% moisture and ash free)

Hydrogen Oxygen (by difference) Nitrogen Sulfur Chloride SiO2 Al2O2 TiO2 Fe2O3 CaO MgO

4,63 36,57 0,7 0,08 0,34 74,67 1,04 0,09 0,85 3,01 1,75 0,96 12,3 1,41 1,24 0,00 0,00

Ash Analysis (% ash) Na2O K2O P2O5 SO2 Cl CO2

Besides being used as a dimethyl eter raw material, rice straw can also be used as listed in Table 1.6 below : Table 1.6 Use of Rice Straw (Ton) (Karim Makarim, 2007) The use of rice straw percentage Fodder 31-39% Burned / used as fertilizer industrial purposes 39-62% 7-16%

Rice harvesting will occur in four months after planting. During that time, rice straw will be produced. Straw can be supplied as a dimethyl eter raw materials continuously. The following are the properties of raw materials rice straw :

Tabel 1.7 Physical properties of Rice Straw Raw Materials (Suyitno, 2009) Parameter Description Calorific value 1. The calorific value of 15-20 MJ / kg 2. Medium temperature (800 - 1000 K). 3. The perceived temperature is not high enough for some processes 1. High content of volatile 2. Biomass has the advantage of relatively easily ignited. 3. Good experience overall co-firing technique with other types of fuel such as coal. 1. Biomass ash content has a lower melting point than the melting point of coal ash cause fouling. 2. Biomass combustion ash can be used as a building material, thermal insulation material, or as a fertilizer.

Volatile Content

Ash content

Chemical properties of rice straw are: 1. flammable 2. Containing nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur that can be used as fertilizer 3. Lignin-containing compounds that can react to syngas and biogas

1.4 Market Analysis From the market analysis and economy point of view DME plant has lower investment cost compared to LNG and has a wide range of potential markets such as : (1) DME can be supplied as fuel for the power plant (Power Plant) LNG, LPG and coal used to fuel power plants. Fuel oil and coal produces carbon dioxide emision very large compared to the DME. (2) DME can be considered as a Replacement of LPG LPG is commonly used by housing and industry. Its demand increases in Japan, China, India and Southeast Asia. LPG prices are expected to rise in accordance with the market growth in the future. DME is very competitive to compete with the price of LPG and serves as potential replacement of LPG. (3) Diesel fuel substitute Diesel fuel is a major cause of air pollution resulting from the combustion engine - engine trucks and buses in major cities. The potential market of diesel oil can be replaced with DME. DME is one of ideal fuel for diesel engines because DME has a rapid evaporation so it is easily react to run the engine. Vehicles using DME has been demonstrated in Japan, China and Korea. (4) Hydrogen for fuel cells and as a chemical

DME has the ability to decompose at lower temperatures when compared with methane and LPG which makes DME as source of hydrogen for fuel cells. In addition, the use of DME as a chemical into olefins is under development in Japan. (The Catalyst Group, 2007) By competiting in the global market, DME opportunities in Asia especially in southeastern Asia (ASEAN) to increase ASEANs economic growth is a big opportunity. ASEAN countries has abundant natural resources and so many human resources that can be used both as an economic driving force of ASEAN. One of the economic progress sector provider is a world fuel fulfillment. Fuel demand is not comparable to the higher availability of fuel that is now decrease. This is caused by mostly used fuel derived from fossil fuels. So, fossil fuels can be substituted with alternative energy sources by utilize existing natural resources, one of which is dimethyl ether. Dimethyl ether is an environmentally friendly renewable fuel that can be derived from biomass. Indonesia is ASEAN's largest biomass producers (around 60 million tons) and utilizing the second smallest after Vietnam with a capacity of 150 MW (Soerawidjaja, 2009). This large biomass potential biomass can be used as the main DME raw material. DME can be used as a fossil fuels substitute, which DME nature is similar with LPG and it has even more advantages. DME can be used as a fuel substitute for LPG or can also be mixed with LPG in order to decrease a selling price. DME world prices reached U.S. $ 241.5/Ton. Based on the assumption, the DME price could be 20-50 percent cheaper than the LPG price per kilogram (Aliefien, 2012). According to the Energy Planner BPPT, Ira Fitriana, with an energy assumption in 2035, Jakarta needs 2.203 million tons of DME with biomass requirement approximately 5.85 million tons at the price of U.S. $ 40 per ton, so it is equivalent to Rp 5,950 per kg. This price is competing with 12 kg LPG. Today, 3 kg LPG price (subsidies) is Rp 4,350 per kg, 12 kg is Rp 5,950 per kg and 50 kg is Rp 7,300 per kg. Refers to the assumption DME price with coal at the price of U.S. $ 40 per ton, it is competed with 12 kg LPG price, coal price of U.S. $75 per ton and LPG 50 kg price (Aliefien, 2012). Some competitors may come from Asian markets for example Japan, China, Korea and Iran, which is still leading in the production of DME. China which is currently known as dimethyl ether producer countries in Asia is the most progressive country in DME production. One of the existing DME plant in China was built by Lituanhua Group Incorporation with technology licensed from Japan's Toyo Engineering and it has being operated since August 2003 with a capacity of 30 tons per day (10,000 tons / year). Its capacity then enlarged to 110,000 tons / year and put into operation in late 2005. Currently, DME consumption in China is reaching 120,000 tons / year, it is intended to fulfill the needs of an aerosol propellant, chemical and industrial raw materials for household fraction (Ahsonul, 2009). In Japan, JFE (formerly NKK Corporation) developed a direct synthesis of DME since 1999. The catalyst developed in the slurry phase reactor at JFE mill give a high conversions and DME selectivity. DME consumption in Japan reached about 10,000 tons / year, mostly to the aerosol propellant in hair spray or deodorant (Asiachem, 2008). In Indonesia, Artu Mega Energie located in Indramayu, West Java is a factory that produces dimethyl ether. The factory is in collaboration with Lurgi, Germany produce dimethyl ether with a capacity of 2 x 400,000 TPA (tons per annum) (Soerawidjaja, 2010). With the existence of the company, the product still has prospect to be sold in the Indonesian market which is the most potential target market of the countries in ASEAN. This is because until 2011, according to the Dean of the Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia Professor. Firmanzah, Ph.D., ASEAN reach a population of 608 million people where out of that number, 39 percent are residents of Indonesia. In addition, with a government policy that wants to replace 8

fossil fuels for household (kerosene) with natural gas (LPG), the most Indonesian people already using LPG for household needs. Also supported the presence of 3 kg LPG sized, easily accessible by the lower middle class, this resulted in increased demand for LPG. But Indonesia itself has been unable to meet domestic demand so that DME required as a LPG fuel blender or even a substitute for LPG (Jati, 2010). DME compared with other types of fuel, such as diesel have the several advantages such as the combustion does not produce smoke, rapid evaporation so DME is easily react to run the engine. While the advantages compared to other similar products, such as DME from methanol through syngas, DME from rice straw is more environmentally friendly according to the raw materials used in the form of organic waste that is not reused (Boedioyo, 2008). Targeted companies are PT. Pertamina as the company's largest energy provider in Indonesia. With the cooperation between the factory with PT. Pertamina, the expected demand for LPG in the country will be met and can do export to many countries, especially in the ASEAN region.

1.5 Site Selection Selection of the right location will determine the survival and growth of a plant. Factors that must be considered including: supply of raw materials, transportation facilities, electricity, utilities and infrastructure, product marketing, and labor. Here is a map of the distribution of agricultural products (rice) in Indonesia:

Figure 1.1 : Map Of The Distribution Of Agricultural Products (Rice) In Indonesia Source : Wibisono, C.Y., 2009 The location we have chosen to manufacture plant of DME is Banyuwangi, East Java. This selection is based on several factors, include: 1. Avaibility of Raw Materials Availability of raw materials (rice straw) in Indonesia more than 90 million tons / year and spread across Indonesia. According to the BPS (Badan Pusat Statistic) 2013, East Java is the largest rice producer in Indonesia which more than 16 million tons / year, so East Java selected as the location to manufactured DME plant . 40% the availability of raw materials (rice straw) in East 9

Java will be used as raw material for manufacturing DME. Banyuwangi is the largest supplier of raw materials in East Java, so Banyuwangi is the right location to manufacturing DME. Supply of raw materials is also supported by several rice-producing areas in East Java like: Jember, Ngawi, Bojonegoro, and Lamongan. 2. Strategic Location and Transportation Facilities Banyuwangi is the largest district in East Java and on the island of Java, with an area of 5782.50 km2. Banyuwangi is located at the eastern of the Java Isnland, abut on Bali, Indian Ocean in the south, and Jember regency in the west (LAKIP Banyuwangi, 2012) so it is a very strategic location as the location for manufacturing DME plant. Ketapang port is the only port on the east Java Island which is connecting Java-Bali, and also there is the Port Meneng or Tanjungwangi (export import) for distribution in the region east of Java Island, Bali and Nusa Tenggara. Regulation of the Minister of Transportation No.KM.119/0/Phb.73 decide that Tanjungwangi port as a port for trade between countries, and categorized as class II port. Blimbingsari Airport in Banyuwangi also very supportive and provide ease of land and sea transportation. 3. Electricity Electricity capacity in Banyuwangi currently reaches 1.500.MVA installed and available, it is certainly a very big support for a factory. In Banyuwangi is also available PT. PLN (Persero) area Banyuwangi, which is the electricity distributor in East Java (BPPT Banyuwangi Regency, 2013). 4. Utilities and Infrastructure Banyuwangi most of the land area has fertile soil with uniform distribution in most regions. Hydrological is well characterized by great quantities of large springs and rivers in 35 Watershed (DAS) which continues flow throughout the year (BPPT Banyuwangi, 2012). The availability of clean water is the greatest need for the industry. Table 1.8: Availability Supporting Water District Banyuwangi (Source : BPPT Kabupaten Banyuwangi, 2013) No. Clarification Capacity Information Gedor Water Source 17 Liter/Second Taman Suruh Water Source 20 Liter/ Second Embung Lider 25 Liter/ Second Umbul Pule 20 Liter/ Second Embung 15 Liter/ Second Waduk Bajulmati 30 Liter/ Second Banyuwangi regency government plan on Year of 2009 - 2029 to prepare an Industrial Estate ehich located in the Regional District of Wongsorejo. DME plant in Banyuwangi also supported by infrastructure such as reservoirs Bajulmati, telecommunication facilities, and toll road plan Pasuruan- Probolinggo - Situbondo - Banyuwangi. 5. Marketing The target market for DME products are all parts of Indonesia, and priority to the Java Island and Bali. LPG consumer with the highest energy requirements located on the island of Java and Bali. Banyuwangi is a transit point that connects the Bali island with Java. Banyuwangi is also the flow of foreign tourists as well as the haven of ships from abroad (Port of Tanjung Wangi) so that mobilization is quite high and makes Banyuwangi as a city that has a very good business potential and a good marketing strategy (NAC Banyuwangi Regency, 2012). 6. Labor DME plant requires numerous labor, so it can be obtained from the people in Banyuwangi, with a population of 1,537,257, and the proportion of 49.33% is reproductive age who have high 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

mobility (NAC Banyuwangi Regency, 2012). In 2011 the number of job seekers who have not been distributed, there were 21 864 people (Dinas Sosial, Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Kabupaten Banyuwangi, 2011), with the number of job seekers, the presence of DME plant in Banyuwangi can reduce the level of unemployment. 7. Resources Natural resources in Banyuwangi highly available and adequate, whereas for human resources can be supplied from the University as the University of Jember, Udayana University, Brawijaya University, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) and the Airlangga University.

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA Aliefien. 2012. Energi Terbarukan DME Pemanfaatannya Belum Optimal (Online). (http://www.technology-indonesia.com/component/content/article/1-bahan-bakar/387energi-terbarukan-dme-pemanfaatannya-belum-optimal.html, diakses 3 Februari 2014). Asiachem (The Coal Chemical Consultancy). 2008. China DME Market Outlook. China : 3rd International DME Conference & 5th Asian DME Conference Badan Pusat Statistik . 2013. BPS 2013. BPPT Kabupaten Banyuwangi. 2012. Potensi Unggulan da Peluang Investasi di Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Dinas Sosial, Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Kabupaten Banyuwangi. 2011. Jati, Pandu Prabowo,. Riza Ajie Nugroho. 2010. Tugas Prarancangan Pabrik Dimethyl Ether dari Methanol Kapasitas 77000 Ton/Tahun. Yogyakarta : Teknik Kima Universitas Gadjah Mada KPA Kabupaten Banyuwangi. 2012. Laporan Triwulan VII SSR Banyuwangi Periode April- Juni 2012. Laporan Akuntabilitas Kinerja Instansi Pemerintah (LAKIP) Kabupaten Banyuwangi. 2012. The Catalyst Group. 2007. Global Dimethyl Ether Emerging Markets. New York : Spring House Soerawidjaja, Tatang H. 2010. Peran Bioenergi dan Arah-arah Utama Libangrap di Indonesia. Bandung : Insitut Teknologi Bandung

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