Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

# Determining Motor Torque is Easy...Right?

measuring. So, whats the difference? Simply put, the electromagnetic torque is related to theairgap power of the machine. This is the power that jumps the airgap and is used to move the rotor. But not all of this power makes it out to become shaft power, which is the product of the shaft speed times the shaft torque. So where does this leakage power go? There are several effects within the motor which syphon off part of the airgap power:

Friction losses: In most cases, the coulomb friction losses on an AC motor are caused by the bearings and the bearing seals, which are usually a small percentage of the total airgap power. However, DC motors and universal motors can have a much larger coulomb friction loss from the brush contact force on the commutator. Drag losses: This is a speed dependent loss which is caused by the drag force on the rotor. This could be air displacement around the rotor, the torque required to drive a cooling fan on the motor shaft , bearing grease at low temperatures, or even magnetic drag. Rotor Inertia: Part of the airgap power is used to accelerate the rotor. This torque can be calculated as the product of the rotor acceleration times the rotational inertia of the rotor. While friction losses and drag losses are usually pretty small, the torque required to accelerate the rotor can be a large percentage of your total torque during fast transients.

The mathematical relationship between Tem and shaft torque for a rigid rotor structure can be written as follows:

Equ. 1 The reactive torque represents energy that is stored outside of the electrical domain, but it can be fully recovered at a later moment. In most cases, for a rigid rotor structure, the reactive torque is due to acceleration of the effective rotor inertia. The dissipative torque corresponds to the energy that is converted into heat. In practice the dissipative torque is a very non-linear function of speed and bearing temperature. In the case where the load has separate bearings and is not aligned perfectly with the motor, the lost torque can also be a function of the shaft-angle.

From the above discussion (and also assuming core losses are zero), we can rewrite Equ. 1 to be the following:

Equ. 2 Where

wr Tem qr

is the rotor speed is the electromechanical torque estimated by FAST is the mechanical shaft angle is the total torque lost to dissipation (as a function of speed

and angle)

Tdiss

## Jr is the rotors rotational inertia

All of the torques caused by friction, drag and inertia that are part of the load (i.e., on the load side of the torque sensor) will show up in both the Tem estimation and the torque sensor reading. But all of the torque losses in the above equation which are associated with the motor will show up in the Tem estimate, but they are invisible to the torque sensor! And therein lies my dilemma. What should be my gold standard for measuring the performance of FASTs torque estimator? Either I must extrapolate from the shaft torque, or I must find another way to directly measure electromagnetic torque. Without going into a lot of gory details, I have chosen the latter path. Time will tell how effective this approach will be. But the next time you run across a reference to motor torque, make sure you know whichtorque is being referred to! :-) Keep Those Motors Spinning,