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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Decembe OF TRAINING r3 AND DEVELOPMEN 2013 T SUBMITTED TO: SIR KHAN KASHIF & SIR

RAZI NIZAR
SUBMITTED BY: FARHAN ALI KHAN REGISTRATION # 54252

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:

With the recent turning around of the local economy, more corporations are considering having more corporate training for their staff. The issue receives equal attention of the management of both locally and the Mainland as they all appreciates the importance of investment into their most costly overhead, human resource. They also realize that training and development of their staff is the only alternative for the long-term survival and enhancement of their corporation. Despite their intention and subsequent implementation, many found their corporate training programmes fail to meet with their expectation. Apart from the huge of amount of money spent (since quality corporate training programmes are costly, locally and in the Mainland), the efforts, the time and the expectation all meaningless wasted. With my experience in the field, I concluded the followings are the major causes of failure for your corporate training:

TRAINING ISSUES RESULTING FROM THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

Managing Work Force Diversity Welfare-to-Work Programs Cross-Cultural Preparation

School-to-Work Transition

Legal Issues ISSUES OF TRAINING

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


1. TRAINING SITUATIONS THAT MAY RESULT IN LEGAL ACTION: Employee injury during a training activity Employees or others injured outside the training session Breach of confidentiality or defamation Reproducing and using copyrighted material in training classes without permission Excluding women, minorities, and older Americans from training programs Not ensuring equal treatment while in training Requiring employees to attend training programs they find offensive Revealing discriminatory information during a training session Not accommodating trainees with disabilities

2. CROSS-CULTURAL PREPARATION Cross-cultural preparation involves educating employees and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country. To successfully conduct business in the global market place, employees must understand the business practices and the cultural norms of different countries. Employees need to receive language training and an orientation in the new countrys culture and customs the family should be included in the orientation. Expatriates and their families need information about housing, schools, recreation, shopping, and health care facilities in the area where they will live. Experiential training methods are most effective in assignments that require significant interpersonal interaction with host nationals.

3. SCHOOL-TO-WORK TRANSITION School-to-work transition programs combine classroom experiences with work experiences to prepare high school students for employment. School-to-Work Opportunities Act encourages partnerships between educational institutions, employers, and labor unions. Every school-to-work system required to include work-based learning, school-based learning, and activities that match students with employers.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


4. DIVERSITY TRAINING PROGRAMS Diversity training refers to training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or developing skills needed to work with a diverse work force. Focus on increasing employees awareness of differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, ph ysical characteristics, and personal characteristics that influence behavior toward others. The assumption is that by increasing their awareness of stereotypes and beliefs, employees will be able to avoid negative stereotypes.

5. Behavior-Based Programs Behavior-Based Programs focus on changing the organizational policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees personal growth and productivity. One approach is to identify incidents that discourage employees from working up to their potential. Another approach is to teach managers and employees basic rules of behavior in the workplace. Cultural immersion is also used during behavior-based training programs. Diversity training programs differ whether attitude change or behavior change is emphasized.

6. WELFARE-TO-WORK PROGRAMS There are two methods for training welfare recipients. 1. The first model involves government agencies referring welfare recipients to a company-sponsored training program subsidized with money and tax credits from the government. 2. The second method is for state and local governments to provide life and skills training directly to welfare recipients

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TRAINING ISSUES RESULTING FROM THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT


1. LACKING OF SUPPORT FROM THE MANAGEMENT: Genuine support the 'support' referring to is the genuine support by all levels of the management. In most of the cases; the top management has great intention for performance enhancement through corporate training programmes. But their wish often receives pseudo-support from their managerial associates. Their support is merely for the sake of pleasing their boss. I. Role modelling: Instead of rendering support for the training programme, worse still, managers fail to be a role model towards the training programmes introduced by their management. They consider the programmes are some form of trendy things having no substantiated and significant effects. Strictly speaking, the programmes are causing disruption to their operation. They tend to see more bids than goods. This is particularly prominent amongst managers, with narrow-minded and those climbing up the ladder through their own hard work during their days (and in absence of any backing of formal education what we call 'red pants').

Instead of supporting, these managers 'indirectly' turn against by practicing negative remarks in one way or the other to show their dislike or to discourage his staff to subscribe to such training programmes. II. Training the 'inappropriate': For others, they take their 'easy way out' by sending someone whom they consider having less contribution to their operation --- like those going to retire; those not in the key posts, to attend the training programmes. By doing so, they feel that the disruption caused to them will be greatly minimized. Some managers consider training is some form of merit (for not requiring for work on those days --- particularly for the prolonged overseas training programmes), they tend to assign their staff whom they

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


pleased to attend training programmes as an 'award' with no consideration to their training needs. III. Related post-training supports: As one of the primary reasons for corporate training programmes aims for the development of the competence of their staff for long-term performance enhancement, thus, it becomes meaningless should there be absence of any form of recognition of their acquired skill and the ultimate provision of opportunities for application of their learned skills to their work.

This is highly demoralized not only to the staff himself/herself; but may give out a bad signal to the majority remainders. It is no strange that the latter group may develop negative feeling to any corporate training programmes as they carry no weight to their future career development.

2. MERELY FOR THE SAKE OF TRAINING: I. Not to satisfy the training needs: Certain corporations conduct corporate training programmes to satisfy needs of other nature, such as to fulfil the requirements for certification, for potential buyers (especially overseas buyers), to spend the surplus money with the assigned vote before closure of their financial year (otherwise, they will have less for the coming year since it is based on the sp common for government bodies and large corporations). II. A minority of corporate leaders consider training is something of trendy to raising their personal goodwill as well as for their corporations. In this connection, these leaders have a tendency of hiring reputed training providers to conduct their corporate training programmes because of their good fame and not because of their training effect. They erroneously consider that the goodwill of these reputed training providers may assist to raise their own one if they associate with them in one way or the other.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


III. For more but not for good For the sake of publicizing their 'dedication' on corporate training for whatever purposes, certain management tends to emphasize the number of training programmes and number of attendants (attending these training programmes) conducted by them. They use to ignore the quantity rather than the effectiveness of their training programmes because they believe that "more is good".

3. LACKING OF SPECIFIC TRAINING OBJECTIVES AND PLAN: Specific training objectives:

I.

Any job without SMART (SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Related, Timely) objectives is more prone to eventual failure, so are corporate training programmes. Apparently managers of these corporations fail having detail plan before any corporation training programmes are considered.

Certain managers consider the training subjects basing on their own perception and needs rather than the actual needs of their staff. To a certain extent, this may be correct. However, in absence of any pre-course study to identify the needs to best suit the requirement of the corporation before its implementation should be one of the primary considerations for training managers.

II.

Lacking of programme evaluation: Evaluating the effectiveness of a corporate training programme through post-course study is the key to assess

Post-course study or studies are the key to effectively evaluate the effectiveness of their corporate training programmes conducted for their staff. Though in most cases, these studies are conducted by the training providers. However, managers often ignore the result of these studies. Perhaps they are possessed with the misconception that once the training programme is finished, the whole job is completed.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Lacking of sustention:

III.

I maintain the physiology that "if a trainee has not learned, the trainer has not taught", and "if a training is not sustained, there is no training." Strictly speaking, sustention is the most difficult part as a follow-up for any corporate training programme. This is also the critical part of the whole training programme.

4. CORPORATE LEARNING CULTURE: I. Crafting a corporate learning culture: Learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire ......It is in fact the dream of every corporate manager for continuous, even life-long enhancement through learning for their corporation. However, most corporations fail to achieve that in absence of a supporting corporate culture. Bearing in mind that corporate leaders are the most influential persons to craft a corporate culture, they have to demonstrate their full support not by words but have to "walk their talk". By doing so, a better culture may build up, including mutual support to one another for continuous learning; appreciate opportunities for corporate training; and value their learned skills through corporate training programmes. Strictly speaking, a supporting corporate culture is a major contributor and is indispensable to the success of corporate training.

5. THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE TRAINER:


I.

Practical experiences of the trainer: For trainers of certain training providers, they are highly qualified academically. They came from prestigious universities and possess high-sounded principles and backings. Superficially, they are the ideal person for corporate training programmes. However, they lack practical experience in the related-field. For example, they have minimal or negative experience as a practical manager and yet they are lecturing on management.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Understand the needs of the corporation: Corporate training programmes are having great differences from that for public training. Though there may minimal difference with the subjects and even their contents, the significant features for corporate training programmes have to be considered. Corporate training emphasize on practicability and applicability. Participants are mostly not required to sit for the course-end assessment (by examination or similar). On the other hand, it has the constraint of time limitation as most managers expect to cover everything within one or a few days.

II.

Certain trainers merely taking their set or pre-set of notes for delivery of their corporate training programmes instead of tailor-made the training materials to suit the needs of the corporation. Even worse, no pre-course study was made before preparing the training materials by certain trainers. Understand the macro environment: Other trainers fail to keep pace with the flow of the macro environment. They do not understand what the market needs for that particular business within that community. Their shared knowledge merely comes from the book. For example, Hong Kong trainers talking on how to better run a business in the Mainland without even had been working in the latter place.

III.

IV.

Lacking of related professional knowledge: Trainers talking on discipline and healthcare management not even possess any background with the field. It is never wrong for a general trainer talking on any management subjects in any field but never on the application side. It is thus imperative having trainers in the field talking the 'same language' to the trainees.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


6. ACCEPTANCE OF THE TRAINER:
I.

The attitude of the trainer: Whether or not a trainer is conducting a corporate training programme with his/her 'heart' is of vital importance to the success of a training programme. The fact that most of the trainers for corporate training programmes are highly competent in never denied. However, do they really carrying out their training assignment as a job or as a sharing with mission and dedication? Should a trainer adopts the former attitude; there is no way that a corporate training programme will be well conducted as it is 'heartness'.

On the other hand, certain training providers are having separate marketing and training consultants. Training managers of corporations are initially dealt with by highly experienced (and even with remarkable fame) marketer. The former will be influenced under the impressive presentation with 'yes' to all requests. However, when the training programme is conducted, a different picture will present with a different trainer from that of the marketer. It is never strange having a less qualified and experienced trainer conducting the programme. This is not uncommon amongst major training providers having a comprehensive organization structure and division of work. Training methodology:

II.

There are numerous effective methods of imparting knowledge from a trainer to his/her trainees. Of course, we cannot rule out that certain trainer still adopts the traditional simple way of conducting his/her corporate training programmes, like reading out his/her word by word without considering what is happening on the floor.

A trainer with absence of 'sensitivity' and 'attention' to every trainee is never an effective trainer. Training methodology adopted by a trainer should be flexible and suit the actual on-site responses of the trainees --- including the pre-set training programme rundown.

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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


A trainer has to satisfy the needs of the trainees and not for his/her personal preference or likeness. 7. TRAINING VERSUS AWARENESS CREATION The evaluations reviewed indicate a frequent confusion between the concepts of training and awareness creation in the design of training programmes. The evaluation report of a project in demographic training in Honduras stressed this difference and explained its causes. This explanation, which referred specifically can be generalised to other substantive fields. According to this report, awareness creation aims at promoting understanding and acceptance of the significance of various training problems. It brings facts and issues to the attention of large audiences or specific groups, such as decision-makers and opinion leaders. On the other hand, training aims at developing skills and in-depth knowledge in a structured and systematic way. While awareness creation can include among its targets a diverse audience with various profiles, training is aimed at specific categories that meet a number of conditions. In addition, training takes place during a limited and pre-determined time period, follows rigorous methodological and pedagogical rules and aims at achieving a welldefined amount of competence. Failure to recognise this difference had resulted in projects that were overburdened with an assortment of objectives aiming at both technical training and awareness-raising. Being two disparate categories, as explained above, these can generate opposing dynamics and the steps taken to achieve one can lead away from the other. The confusion between training and awareness creation in formulating project objectives weakens the focus of project strategy and finally diminishes project effectiveness.

8. NEEDS ASSESSMENT An important factor in designing training programmes is the magnitude of the demand for the skills to be developed by the training. It was often observed that the objectives of training activities, in terms of people to be trained, were not determined on the basis of the requirements for specific skills or projections of jobs to be created, especially in the public sector. This can have a deleterious effect on the sustainability of training imparted because,

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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


if trainees are not given ample opportunity to practice their skills, eventually such skills will be lost. An assessment of the capacity of national institutions to absorb trained personnel is therefore critical to ensure the effectiveness of training. Persistent and rapid turnover of staff is a recurrent problem in developing countries. Population programmes often suffer because of the departure of qualified personnel for better job opportunities elsewhere. In some regions, such as Latin America, the private sector is a significant pole of attraction, in part because of the large salary differentials. To address this problem, several evaluations stressed the necessity of a national or sectoral personnel training plan based on sound needs assessment. This plan would co-ordinate complementary in-country and external training activities to produce the needed pool of skilled labour in a specific time period. In addition, it could offer alternative solutions to the turnover problem, through, for example, the establishment of career development schemes with incentives that would help retain trained professionals in the country programme. The level of knowledge within the target group (s) is an additional factor to be considered in designing and implementing training programmes. This is important for formulating relevant curricula and appropriate materials and for determining the length of a course. In this connection, it was also noted that prospective trainees were often aware of their own shortcomings and could articulate rather well the specific areas where they require training.

9. SELECTION OF TRAINEES: A major concern observed in many training projects relates to the selection of trainees. Evaluation findings pointed out that trainees for long term training in specific technical topics such as demography, statistics or family planning were generally well selected, probably because selection requirements were usually clearly defined by the training institutions. On the other hand, the selection of participants for short-term training or workshops was much less systematic. Evaluations showed that people sent to courses, especially when these were located abroad, often did not have the necessary substantive background. Trainees were, in many cases, not carefully identified in terms of anticipated use of the

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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


training. This problem became more prevalent at interregional workshops where the reward of trip tended to overshadow the practical reason for participation. 10. CONTENT OF TRAINING Many reports criticised the widespread tendency to train personnel without reference to their job description. This had led to irrelevant curricula and therefore, to insufficient preparation of trainees for their future tasks. Frequently, there were no clear guidelines to link training content to the specific tasks that the trainees should be prepared to perform on the job. For example, in many projects evaluated, family welfare educators usually received very little information on family planning during their basic training. These professionals acquired their knowledge of family planning mostly through their work experience. They were, however, the first point of contact for potential family planning clients at the clinic. Their performance was, therefore, critical to the clients decision to adopt family planning. This important role in enhancing contraceptive acceptance had, however, been overlooked in the content of their basic training.

11. TRAINING OF TRAINERS

The lack of qualified trainers is a major problem facing population programmes. Many reports emphasised the need for preparing a cadre of master trainers to ensure the sustainability of training efforts (TOT) to optimise the use of scarce human and financial resources. At the same time, the widely applied strategy of successive training of trainers, or training in cascade, which usually starts with a pool of instructors trained abroad, was criticised in many evaluations. It was observed that this approach had led to a loss in quality of training as one got further from the starting point. The evaluation of IEC in support of MCH/FP advocated the replacement of the training in cascade approach with an itinerant team of permanent, highly competent trainers.

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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


It is therefore essential that the competence and qualification of trainers be ascertained beforehand. In this connection, attention should be paid to both the substantive as well as methodological aspects of training.

12. TRAINING METHODS


The evaluations reviewed emphasised the importance of effective and innovative training methods that are culture sensitive and appropriate to the subject matter. Along with traditional teaching methods, such as formal lectures, seminars and workshops, all evaluation reports advocated the introduction of techniques that facilitate the sharing of ideas and thoughts among participants. Participatory learning by doing and group-dynamic approaches were found to be particularly effective in this regard.

The training provided by this project emphasised behavioural change through interpersonal communication by stressing listening skills. Numerous trainees interviewed by the evaluators commented that this approach to counselling had radically changed their views from a process of didactic instruction to one of assisting people in reaching their own decisions regarding behaviour. The two-way communication aspect was apparently both eye-opening and welcomed as a tool for improving services

13. IMPACT OF TRAINING Impact evaluation is important for assessing the effectiveness of training. Such evaluations should examine, inter alia, the appropriateness of both training curriculum and teaching methodology. Various reports stressed that the quality of an impact evaluation depends greatly on its being planned for in the original design of the project or programme. Thus, evaluations of impact should not be viewed as periodic events: continuous, in built evaluation mechanisms should form part of the strategies for project execution to gather data for eventual impact assessment. In most training programmes, no follow up system was implemented that would allow trainers to collaborate with and help the trainees in their undertakings after the training. A general conclusion of the reports reviewed was that evaluation findings infrequently

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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


entered the decision making process and that they were not used systematically for reorienting or designing training programmes.

CONCLUSIONS
Some common issues in training programmes it does not pretend to present the whole array of factors that affect the implementation and effectiveness of training activities. At the same time, however, some general lessons could be derived, as follows:

The different objectives of training and awareness creation should be recognised in project design;

Proper needs assessments are required for designing effective training;

Criteria for selection of trainees should be clearly defined and applied consistently;

Training content should be relevant to the job descriptions, when applicable;

The strategy of training a permanent cadre of trainers is more effective than the training in cascade approach;

The appropriateness of the training methodology and the quality of teaching materials are critical to the effectiveness of training;

Impact evaluation should be included in the project design at the outset and implemented more frequently to benefits subsequent training; and managers of training programmes cannot always control external factors that influence the capacity of training institutions.

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