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Ff McGraw-Hill’s PAYSICS ==" Tata McGraw-Hill Published by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, 7 West Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110 008 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE 2012 Copyright © 2011, by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. First reprint 2011 RQALCRAGDABDB No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publishers. The program listings (if any) may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. This edition can be exported from India only by the publishers, ‘Teta McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. Price: & 625.00 ISBN (13):978-0-07-132929.3 ISBN (10): 0-07-132929-3, Vice President and Managing Director—McCraw-Hill Education: Asia Pacific Region: Ajay Shukla Head-—Test Prep and School: ¥. Bite Kumar Publishing Manager—Test Prep: KN Prakash Manager (Sponsoring): Abhishek Sharma Editorial Executive: Pratibha Singh ‘Asst Manager (Developmental Editing): Anubka Srivasava Junior Manager—Production: Medha Arora Dy Marketing, Manager: Niu Sreedharan General Manager Production: Rajender P. Ghansela Asst General Manager—Produetion: B. 1. Dogra Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use Of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. ‘Typeset at Script Makers, 19, A1-B, DDA Market, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110 063, and text and cover printed at Gopsons, A-2 & 3, Sector-64, Noida, U.P. 201301 Cover Designer: K Anoop Contents A Word to the Reader Syllabus 11, Hydrostatics (Fluid Pressure and Buoyancy) 12. A ics (Bernoulli's Theorem and Viscosity) 13. Simple Harmonic Motion 14, Waves and Doppler’s Effect 15. Thermal Expansion 16. Measurement of Heat 17, Thermodynamics (Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes) 18. Kinetic Theory of Gases 19. Transmission of Heat 20. Electrostatic Field and Potential 21. Capacitance and Capacitors 22. Electric Current and D.C. Circuits 23. Heating Effect of Current 24. Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism 25. Electromagnetic Induction and A.C. Circuits 26. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments 27. Wave Optics 28. Atomic Physics 29._Nuclear Physics Annexure I—Important Formulae and Tips Annexure Il—Model Solutions of IIT-JEE Physics Papers 2007, 2008 and 2009 ‘Annexure IIl—Model Solutions of IIT-JEE Physics Papers 2010 UNITs AND DIMENSIONS REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS 1.1 The SI System of Units ‘The internationally accepted standard units of the fundamental physical quantities are given in Table 1.1 Table 1.1 Physical Quantity Length | Mass Time Blectric current Temperature Luminous intensity Amount of substance ‘Angle in a plane Solid Fundamental SI Units ‘Name of the Unis Symbol ‘metre ™ kilogram kg second s ampere A kelvin K candela ed ‘mole mol radian rad steradian se Physical quantities which can be defined in terms of the above nine fundamental quantities are called derived quantities. Table 1.2 below gives the SI units of some derived physical quantities. Table 12. SI Units of Some Derived Physical ‘Quantities Physical Quantity ‘Name of the Unii____ Symbol Length ‘metre ™ Force ‘newton N Work, Energy Joule J Power ‘watt w Frequency hertz He Electric charge coulomb c Electric potential volt v Electric capacitance farad F Electric resistance ohm a Magnetic flux weber wo Magnetic flux density tesla T Inductance henry H lumination ux ik Luminous flux Jumen Im Quantity of heat joule J (Contd...) (Contd) Velocity ‘metre per second ms! Acceleration ‘metre per second square ms Pressure newton per square metre Nm or pascal or Pa Moment of inertia Kilogram metre square kg m? Momentum kilogram metre per second kg ms ‘Surface tension newton per metre Nm! Elastic moduli newton per square metre Nm“? Specific heat capacity joule per (kilogram-kelvin) J kg"!K Specific latent heat joule per kilogram Jkt ‘Thermal conductivity watt per (metre-kelvin) — Wm"K"* ‘Quantity of light Jumen second Ims Luminance ccandela per square metre cd m= ‘Sound intensity watt per square mee = Wm Absolute permeability henry per metre Magnetic field strength ampere per metre Magnetic vector potential weber per metre Intensity of magnetisation ampere per metre Magnetic energy density joule per cubic metre Reluctance ampere per weber Absolute permittivity farad per metre Electric dipole moment coulomb metre Electric field intensity volt per metre Electric polarisation coulomb per square metre Cm Electrochemical kilogram per coulomb kg C ‘equivalent Poynting vector ‘watt per metre squared Wm? Viscosity poiseville PL Planck's constant joule second Js Wien's constant metre kelvin mk Boltzmann constant joule per kelvin aK Gas constant joule per (mole kelvin) — Jmol”'K~! 1.2 Dimensions of Physical Quantities ‘The dimensions of a physical quantity are the powers to which the fundamental units of mass (M), length (L) and time (T) must be raised to represent the unit of that ‘quantity. The dimensional formula of a physical quantity is an expression that tells us how and which of the fundamental quantities enter into the unit of that quantity. In mechanics, the dimensional formula is written in terms of the dimensions of mass, length and time (M, L and 7). In heat and thermodynamics, in addition to M, L 1.2. Course in Physies for IIT-JEE and T, we need to mention the dimension of temperature in kelvin (K). In electricity and magnetism, in addition to M, L and T, we need to mention the dimension of current or charge per unit time (I or QT"). Table 1.3 below gives the dimensional formulae of some important derived physical quantities. Table 1.3 Dimensional Formulae of some Physical Quantities Physical Quanity Dimensional Formal Physical Quartiy Dimensional Formula ‘Arca wT? Heat encrey MOT? Volume wr? Estropy MET! Density Mur? Specific beat MOLT Velocity Mur! Latent heat wer? Acceleration weLr? Molar specific heat MUT#K" mot! Momentum MLT* ‘Thermal conductivity, MLT?K “Angular momentum Mor! Wien's constant MLT'K Force MLT? ‘Stefan's constant MLOToK+ Energy, work MOT? Boltzmann's constant MUT?K! Power Mur Molar gas constant MULT ?K* mol “Torque, couple MT? Electric charge TA Impulse MLT* Electric current A Frequency wr BBectric potential MLT? A" ‘Angular frequency Mur! hectic field MLTS At ‘Angular acceleration Mer? ‘Capacitance ML?TA? Pressure Mit? Inductance MLT?A? Elastic moduli Resistance MUTA? Stress ‘Magnetic flux MUTA Moment of inertia Magnetic flux density or = ML°T2A~! Magnetic induction fiekd ‘Surface tension Permeability MLT*A7 Viscosity Permitivity ML Tia? Gravitational constant Phanck's constant MT! 1.3. Principle of Homogeneity of Dimensions Consider a simple equation, A+B=C If this is an equation of physics, ic. if A, B and C are physical quantities, then this equation says that one physi- ‘cal quantity A, when added to another physical quantity B, gives a third physical quantity C. This equation wi have no meaning in physics if the nature (i.e. the dimen- sions) of the quantities on the left-hand side of the equa- tion is not the same as the nature of the quantity on the right-hand side. For example, if A is a length, B must also bbe a length and the result of addition of A and B must express a length. In other words, the dimensions of both sides of a physical equation must be identical. This is called the principle of homogeneity of dimensions. 14. Uses of Dimensional Analysis Dimensional equations provide a very simple method of deriving relations between physical quantities involved in any physical phenomenon. The analysis of any pheno ‘enon carried out by using the method of dimensions is called dimensional analysis. This analysis is based on the principle of homogeneity of dimensions explained above. ‘There are four important uses of dimensional equations: 1. Checking the correctness of an equation. 2. Derivation of the relationship between the physical quantities involved in any phenomenon. 3. Finding the dimensions of constants or variables in an equation. 4. Conversion of units from one system to another. 1.5 Limitations of Dimensional Analysis ‘Though the dimensional method is a simple and a very convenient way of finding the dependence of a physical ‘quantity on other quantities of a given system, it has its ‘own limitations, some of which are listed as follows: 1, In more complicated situations, it is often not easy to find out the factors on which a physical quantity will depend. In such cases, one has to make a guess which may or may not work. 2. This method gives no information about the dimen- sionless constant which has to be determined either by experiment or by a complete mathematical deri- vation. 3. This method is used only if a physical quantity var- ies as the product of other physical quantities. It fails if a physical quantity depends on the sum or difference of two quantities. Try, for instance, to tain the relation $= ut + a using the method of dimensions. 4, This method will not work if a quantity depends on another quantity as sin or cos of an angle, i.. if the dependence is by a trigonometric function, The method works only if the dependence is by power functions only. 5. This method does not give a complete information in cases where a physical quantity depends on more than three quantities, because by equating the pow- ers of M, L and T, we can obtain only three equa- tions for the exponents, 1.6 Significant Figures The number significant figure in any measurement indicates the degree of precision of that measurement. ‘The degree of precision is determined by the least count of the measuring instrument. Suppose a length measured bya metre scale (of least count = 0.1 em) is 1-5 em, then it has two significant figures, namely 1 and 5. Measured with a vernier callipers (of least count = 0.01 cm) the same length is 1.53 cm and it then has three significant figures. Measured with a screw gauge (of least count = 0.001 cm) the same length may be 1.536 cm which has four significant figures. It must be clearly understood that we cannot increase the accuracy of a measurement of changing the unit. For example, suppose a measurement of mass yields a value 39.4 kg. It is understood that the measuring instrument has a least count of 0.1 kg. In this measurement, three figures 3, 9 and 4 are significant. If we change 39.4 kg to 39400 g or 39400000 mg. we cannot change the accuracy of measurement. Hence 39400 g or 39400000 mg still have three significant figures; the zeros only serve to indicate only the magnitude of measurement. Estimation of Appropriate Significant Figures in Calculations ‘The importance of significant figures lies in calculation to find the result of addition or multiplication of measured quantities having a different number of significant figures. The least accurate quantity determines the accuracy of the sum or product. The result must be rounded off to the appropriate digit. Rules for Rounding off ‘The following rules are used for dropping figures that are not significamts Units and Dimensions 1.3 1. If the digit to be dropped is less than 5, the next (preceding) digit to be retained is left unchanged. For example, if a number 5.34 is to be rounded off to two significant figures, the digit to be dropped is 4 which is less than 5. 2. Ifthe digit to be dropped is more than 5, the preced- ing digit to be retained is increased by 1. For ex- amples 7.536 is rounded off as 7.54 to three signifi- cant figures. 3. If the digit to be dropped happens to be 5, then (a) the preceding digit to be retained is increased by 1 if it odd, or (b) the preceding digit is retained unchanged if it is even. 4, Hence the next digit, namely 3, is not changed, The result of the indicated rounding-off is therefore, 5.3. For example, 6.75 is rounded off to 6.8 to two significant figures and 4.95 is rounded off to 5.0 but 3.45 is rounded off to 3.4, Significant Figures in Addition and Subtraction Suppose there are four objects of mass 2.5 kg, 1.54 kg, 3.668 kg and 5.1278 kg. The total mass (M) = 2.5 + 1.54 + 3.668 + 5.1278 = 12.8358 kg. There are two significant figures in the first mass, three in the second, four in the third and five in the fourth. There are 6 digits in the value of the sum. The final result cannot be more accurate that the least accurate quantity, which in this example of 2.5 kg. This mass is accurate only up to the first decimal place in kg. Hence the result must be rounded off to the first decimal placed in kg. The correct result up to appropriate significant figures is M = 12.8 kg. ‘Thus for addition and subtraction is the rule is as follows: Round off the final result such that it has the same number of digits after the decimal place as in the least accurate measurement. Significant Figures in Multiplication and Division We use the following rule to determine the number of significant figures in the result of multiplication and division of various physical quantities. Do not worry about the number of digits after the decimal place. Round off the result so that it has the same number of significant figures as in the least accurate quantity. Example: A man runs 100.5 m in 10.3 s. Find his average speed up to appropriate significant figure. 1002 «9.708737 ms The distance 100.5 m has four significant figures but the time 10.3 s has only three. Hence the value of the result ‘must be round off to three significant figures. The correct result is 7 = 9.71 ms"! 1.4 Course in Physies for ITT-JEE 1.7. Least Counts of Some Measuring Instruments 1, Least count of metre seale = 1 mm = 0.1 em 2. Vernier constant (or least count) of vernier callipers = value of | main scale division ~ value of 1 vernier scale division = 1 M.S.D.~1 V.S.D Let the value of 1 M.S.D =a unit If n vernier scale divisions coincide with m main scale divisions, then value of LV.S.D= of 1MS.D n ma = unit ” Least count =~" = ( - 2) unit n n 3. Least count of a micrometer screw is found by the formula Least count = Pitch of screw Total number of divisions on circular scale where pitch = lateral distance moved in one com- plete rotation of the screw. Aa = Ar + Ay We take the worst case in which errors add up. Aa _ Ar+ Ay a (x~)) . Error in product and division: Suppose we de- termine the value of a physical quantity u by mea- suring three quantities x, y and z whose true values are related to u by the eq) uate z Let the expected small errors in the measurement of quantities x, y and z be respectively * dx, + dy and + 3: so that the error in u by using these ob- served quantities is + du. The numerical values of &x, dy and & are given by the least count of the instruments used to measure them. Taking logarithm of both sides we have log w= alog x + Blog y~ ylog Partial differentiation of the above equation gives Bg gE gh yh y z y . J ‘The proportional of relative error in u is du/u. The values of Sx, 5y and d: may be positive or negative and in some uses the terms on the right hand side 1.8 Order of Accuracy: Proportionate Error ‘may counteract each other. This effect cannot be ‘The order of accuracy of the result of measurements is relied upon and itis necessary to consider the worst determined by the least counts of the measuring case which is the case when all errors add up giv- instruments used to make those measurements. Suppose a ing an error du given by the equation: length xis measured with a metre scale, then the error in.x ‘Su is + Ar, where Ax= least count of metre scale = 0.1 em. If (*). the same length is measured with vernier callipers of least count 0.01 cm, then Ax = 0.01 em, ox ey u eye ‘Thus to find the maximum proportional error in u, multiply the proportional errors in each factor (x, y and z) by the numerical value of the power to which each factor is raised and then add all the terms so obtained. The sum thus obtained will give the maximum propor-tional error in the result of u. When the pro- aaxty portional error of a quantity is multiplied by 1 ‘Then Sa = Ax + Ay is the maximum error and ‘we get the percentage error of that quantity. It is Aa Ax+Ay evident that a small error in the measurement of the a Gin quantity having the highest rower will connie maximum percentage error in the value of u. Hence 2. Error in Difference: If a =x — y, then the maxi- the panty hag the highest power should be iti eta measured with as great a precision as possible. Fractional or proportionate error is defined as =. Maximum percentage error= 4 x 100. z 1. Error in sum: Suppose a quantity is given by SECTION I Multiple Choice Questions with Only One Choice Correct 1. The pressure P is related to distance x, Boltzmann avike constant k and temperature 6 as e a po 6 The dimensional formula of b is @ MET (>) [MLT?} (c) (M°L? T°) (@) [M°L°T) . The magnitude of induced emf e in a conductor of length £ rotating in magnetic field B is given by 1 (BR) ‘The dimensional formula of a is (a) (M°L°T] (>) [ML?°T=) (ce) [M7LT™) (@) M°L'T| Two resistors R, = {3.0 + 0.1] 9 and R, = (6.0 0.3) Q are connected in parallel. The resistance of the combination is (a) (2.0 £04) 2 ——_(b) (2.00 + 0.08) Q (©) 20202) — (d) 2.00 + 0.04) 2 If the resistances in Q.3 above were connected in series, the maximum percentage error in the resis- tance of the combination will be (a) 1.1% (b) 2.2% (c) 33% (@) 44% 5. Which of the following pairs of physical quantities do not have the same dimensions? (a) Pressure and Young's modulus (b) Emf and electric potential (©) Heat and work (@) Electric dipole moment and electric flux. .. Which of the following pairs of physical quantities have different dimensions? (a) Impulse and linear momentum (b) Planck’s constant and angular momentum (©) Moment of inertia and moment of force (@) Torque and energy . In the expression A = Ay e “7, k is Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature. The dimensions of a are the same as those of (a) energy (b) time (©) acceleration (@) velocity ‘A cube has a side of 1.2 cm. The volume of the ‘cube up to appropriate significant figures is (a) 1.728 em* (b) 1.73 em? (c) 1.7 cm* (@) 17.3 em* . In the determination of the acceleration due to gravity (g) using the formula rear [E ® the errors in the measurements of L and T are 1% and 2% respectively. The maximum percentage ‘error in the value of g is (a) 5% (c) 3% (b) 4% @) 1.5% 10. i. 12. 3B. 4. 15. 16. 7. 18, Units and Dimensions 1.5 ‘The quantities L/R and RC (where L, C and R stand for inductance, capacitance and resistance respectively) have the same dimensions as those of (a) velocity (b) acceleration (c) time (d) force ‘The dimensions of entropy are (a) MLK (>) MOL? 79K? (©) MLT?K (@) MUT?KT What is the physical quantity whose dimensions are ML?T*? (a) kinetic energy (b) pressure (c) momentum (d) power Which one of the following has the dimensions of ML"T?? (a) torque (b) surface tension (©) viscosity (d) stress ‘The dimensions of angular momentum are (a) MLT* >) ML (c) ML'T (d) ML°T? The gravitational force F between two masses m, ‘and my separated by a distance r is given by Fe San ‘where G is the universal gravitational constant. What are the dimensions of G? (@) M"LT? (b) ML'T? () MLT* @ MIT? ‘The equation of state of a real gas can be expressed (ret lu — b) = cT where P is the pressure, Vithe volume, T the absolute temperature and a, b and c are constants. What are the dimensions of a? (@ MT (b) MUST? (©) ML (d) ML°T* ‘The equation of state for n moles of an ideal gas is PV= nkT where R is the universal gas constant and P, Vand T have the usual meanings. What are the dimen- sions of R? (a) M®LT?K"! mo? (b) ML? T? K! mot! (©) M°L? T? Kt mor! (@) ML? T? Kt mor! ‘The SI unit of the universal gas constant R is (a) erg K! mort (b) watt Kt mot (c) newton K™! mol (@) joule K" mor! 1,6 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE 19. a. 22, According to the quantum theory, the energy E of fa photon of frequency vis given by E=hv where A is Planck's constant. What is the dimen sional formula for h? @ MULT? (b) ML? T! (©) MULT @ MULT What is the SI unit of Planck’s constant? (a) watt second () watt per second (©) joule second (@) joule per second The dimensions of Planck’s constant are the same as those of (a) energy (b) power (6) angular frequency (@) angular momentum ‘Time period T of a simple pendulum may depend ‘on m, the mass of the bob, [, the length of the string and g, the acceleration due to gravity. ie. Tx ml ge What are the values of a, b and c? @ 0, 5-4 () 0, - 1 2 a @to-4, (a) ~ 2 2 The volume V of water passing any point of a uniform tube during # seconds is related to the cross-sectional area A of the tube and velocity u of water by the relation VaeAtuer? which one of the following will be true? (a) a= Bay (bo) azBzy (c) a= Bey dd) aepey ‘Which one of the following relations is dimension- ally consistent where f is height to which a liquid of density prises ina capillary tube of radius, r, T is the surface tension of the liquid, @ the angle of contact and g the acceleration due to gravity? (a) b= PESO wy p= EE Px 008 @ 2pg cos @ 2Tr px = E88 gy pe (o) h = 20S @ fe The frequency n of vibrations of uniform string of length J and stretched with a force F is given by nak fE 2Vm where p is the number of segments of the vibrating string and m is a constant of the string, What are the dimensions of m? 2. a. 32. @ ML'T! (by) ML T° (©) ML? T° (@ ML'T° ‘When a wave traverses a medium, the displace- ment of a particle located at x at time 1 is given by y=asin (bt ex) where a, b and ¢ are constants of the wave. The dimensions of b are the same as those of (a) wave velocity (b) amplitude (©) wavelength (d) wave frequency 126, the dimensions of © are the same a those of (a) wave velocity (b) wavelength (©) wave amplitude (d) wave frequency The Van der Waal equation for n moles of a real gas is RT (P+) u-» where P is the pressure, V is the volume, Tis the absolute temperature, R is the molar gas constant and a, b are Van der Waal constants. The dimen- sions of a are the same as those of (a) PV (b) PY? (©) PV (@) PIV In Q.28. the dimensions of b are the same as those of (a) P ob) v () PV (@) nT In Q.28, the dimensions of nR7 are the same as those of (a) energy (b) force (c) pressure (d) specific heat In Q. 28, the dimensional formula for ab is. (a) ML°T? (b) ML*T? (c) ML°T> (a) ML“T? If velocity (V), acceleration (A) and force (F) are taken as fundamental quantities instead of mass (M), length (L) and time (7), the dimensions of Young's modulus would be (a) FAV? (b) FAV (c) FAV (@) Fav ‘The dimensions of permittivity (&) of vacuum are @ MTL? TA? (b) ML? T? A? (©) MEL Tt AP (@ ML’ T? A* (L1T.1998) What are the dimensions of permeability (tq) of vacuum? (a) MLT™ A* (b) MLT? A? (c) ML" T? a? (@) MUTT? A* (LLT,1998) 3s. a7. 39, The dimensions of 1//fip&p are the same as those of (a) velocity (b) acceleration (©) force (@) energy The dimensions of specific heat are (a) MLT? K* (b) ML? T? K (©) MT? Kt @) MLT? KT ‘What are the dimensions of latent heat? (@) ML? T? (b) ML? T? (c) M°LT? (@) M° LT? What are the dimensions of Boltzmann's constant? (a) MLT? K" (b) ML°T? Kt (©) M°LT? Kk (@) MT? Kt The dimensions of potential difference are (@) ML>T~3 Av! (b) MLT? At (©) MOT-7 A (d) MLT?7A |. What are the dimensions of electrical resistance? (a) MLIT? A? (©) ML? Ta? (b) ML? T? A? (a) ML? T? A? 41. The dimensions of electric field are (a) MLT? At (b) MLT? At (©) MLT“! At (@) MLT° At 42. The dimensions of magnetic induction field are (@) ML°T! At (b) M°L T"' At (©) MLT? At (@) ML°T? At 43. What are the dimensions of magnetic flux? (@) MU? T? a" (b) ML? T? A? © ML? T? At (@) ML? T? A 44, The dimensions of self inductance are (a) ML>T? at (b) ML? T? A? (©) ML* T? At (@) ML? T? A? 45, The dimensions of capacitance are 47. (@) MTL? Ta? () MTL? TA? © MLE A @ ML? Ta If velocity (V), force (F) and energy (E) are taken as fundamental units, then dimensional formula for mass will be @) V7RE (b) V°FE? (©) VF7E° @) VORE Frequency (n) of a tuning fork depends upon length (D of its prongs, density (p) and Young’s modulus (Y) of its material. Then frequency and Young's modulus will be related as (@) ne VV (b) n= ¥ i ne 0 (© n= T @ ney Units and Dimensions 1.7 48. The dimensions of + E (€y = permittivity of free space and E = electric field) are (a) MLT“" (b) MULT? (c) ML"T? (@) MULT (LL-T. 2000) 49. Of the following quantities, which one has dimen- sions different from the remaining three (a) Energy per unit volume (b) Force per unit area (c) Product of voltage and charge per unit volume (d) Angular momentum ‘50. If the time period 1 of a drop of liquid of density d, radius r, vibrating under surface tension s is given by the formula r= Jd*r°s* and ifa=1,c=-1, then bis @ 1 (b) 2 3 @4 S1. A pair of physical quantities having the same dimensional formula is (a) angular momentum and torque (b) torque and energy (c) entropy and power (@) power and angular momentum 52. In the measurement of a physical quantity X = 2 oe 5... -The percentage errors introduced in the measurements of the quantities A, B, C and D are 2%, 2%, 4% and 5% respectively. Then the mini- mum amount of percentage of error in the mea- surement of X is contributed by: @A (b) B Cc @ D 53. Which of the following has the dimensions ML'T!? (a) Surface tension (b) Coefficient of viscosity (c) Bulk modulus (c) Angular momentum Pressure gradient dp/de is the rate of change of pressure with distance. What are the dimensions of dpvdx? @ ML! Tt (b) ML? T? (ce) ML" T? (@) ML? T" SS. If E, M, J and G respectively denote energy, mass, angular momentum and gravitational constant, then 2 =). has the dimensions of (a) length (b) angle (©) mass (@) time (LT, 1990) 1.8 Course in Physics for IITJEE 56. If e, & h and c respectively represent electronic charge, permittivity of free space, Planck’s con- 2 stant and speed of light, then ae has the dimen- sions of (a) current (b) pressure (©) angular momentum —(d) angle 57. If L, R, C and V respectively represent inductance, resistance, capacitance and potential difference, then the dimensions of are the same as those RCV of 1 ‘current 1 (c) charge @ ange $8. If E and B respectively represent electric field and magnetic induction field, then the ratio £ has the dimensions of (a) displacement (b) velocity (c) acceleration (4) angle 59. If C and V respectively represent the capacitance ‘of a capacitor and the potential difference between its plates, then the dimensions of CV’ are (a) MPT? (bo) MUTA () MUT'At @ ML 60, If h and ¢ respectively represent Planck's constant (@) current ro) and electronic charge, then the dimensions o(*) are the same as those of (a) magnetic field (b) electric field (©) magnetic flux (@) electric flux 61. If energy E, velocity V and time T are chosen as the fundamental units, the dimensional formula for surface tension will be @) BVT? (&) EV'T? (©) BV?r? @) EBV 'T? 62. The number of particles crossing a unit area per- is in a unit time is given by where n, and n, are the number of particles per unit volume at x =x, and x = x, respectively and D is the diffusion constant. The dimensions of D are (@) MLT? (b) M°L*T* (©) M°LT* @ MT! 63. A gas bubble from an explosion under water ‘oscillates with a period proportional to P* d? ES where P is the static pressure, d is the density of water and E is the energy of explosion. Then a, b and c respectively are S11 1-51 @ >, Pa OTF 11 - OPPs @ uit (LT, 1981) 64, In a system of units in which the unit of mass is ‘akg, unit of length is b metre and the unit of time is second, the magnitude of a calorie 42c 42c* @ ©) abe 42 oF @ 65. The error in the measurement of the radius of a sphere is 1%. The error in the measurement of the volume is (a) 1% (b) 3% © 5% (a) 8% 66. If the error in the measurement of the volume of a sphere is 6%, then the error in the measurement of its surface area will be (a) 2% (b) 3% () 4% @) 715% 67. A physical quantity X is represented by X = (M'L'T*), The maximum percentage errors in the measurement of M, L and T respectively are a%, 6% and c%. The maximum percentage error in the measurement of X will be (a) (ax + by ~ cz) percent (b) (ax + by + cz) percent (©) (ax ~ by + cz) percent (d) (ax ~ by ~ €2) percent 68, The percentage errors in the measurements of the length of a simple pendulum and its time period are 2% and 3% respectively. The maximum error in the value of the acceleration due to gravity obtained from these measurements is (a) 5% (b) 1% (©) 8% (@) 10% 69. The moment of inertia of a body rotating about a given axis is 6.0 kg m* in the SI system. What is the value of the moment of inertia in a system of units in which the unit of length is 5 cm and the unit of mass is 10 g? 0. nm. 72. 7. 4. 18. (a) 24 x 10° (b) 24 x 10° (c) 6.0 x 10° (d) 6.0 x 10° A quantity X is given by att where &) is the permittivity of free space, L is a length, AV is a potential difference and Af is a time interval. ‘The dimensional formula for X is the same as that of (a) resistance (b) charge (©) voltage (d) current (LLT. 2001) ‘The coefficient of viscosity (7) of a liquid by the ‘method of flow through a capillary tube is given by the formula arr 81g where = radius of the capillary tube, 1 = length of the tube, P = pressure difference between its ends, and Q = volume of liquid flowing per second. Which quantity must be measured most accu- rately? @R (byt wP @o The mass m of the heaviest stone that can be moved by the water flowing in a river depends on », the speed of water, density (d) of water and the acceleration due to gravity (g). Then m is propor- tional to (@ o (b) of ov @o The speed (v) of ripples debpends upon their wavelenth (A), density (p) and surface tension (0) ‘of water. Then is proportional to @) va (b) a 1 1 (c) > (d) Og OF ‘The period of revolution (7) of a planet moving round the sun in a circular orbit depends upon the radius (r) of the orbit, mass (M) of the sun and the gravitation constant (G). Then T is propartional to (a) 7? (b) r ee @? If energy (£), momentum (p) and force (F) are chosen as fundamental units, the dimensions of mass in the new system will be Units and Dimensions 1.9 @ E'y Fo (b) Elp*F° (©) E'pr> (@) E%p'F? 76. If the velocity of light (c), gravitational constant (G) and planck’s constant (4) are chosen as fun- damental units, the dimensions of time in the new system will be @ “ene (o) GH? (©) Gh? (a) GH? 77. The amplitude of a damped oscillator of mass m varies with time t as Az Age ‘The dimensions of a are @ MU! (b) M°LT" (c) MLT" (@) ML“T 78. A student measures the value of g with the help of ‘a simple pendulum using the formula 4eL se ‘The errors in the measurements of L and T are AL and AT respectively. In which of the following ccases is the error in the value of g the minimum? (a) AL = 05 cm, AT = 05 s (b) AL = 02 em, AT = 02s (©) AL = 0.1 cm, AT = 1.0 (@) AL = 0.1 em, AT = 0.1 s 79. A student performs an experiment to determine the ‘Young's modulus of a wire, exactly 2 m long, by Searle's method. In a particular reading, the stu- dent measures the extension in the length of the wire to be 0.8 mm with an uncertainty of +£0.05 mm at a load of exactly 1.0 kg. The student also measures the diameter of the wire to be 0.4 mm with a uncertainty of ¢ 0.01 mm. Take g = 9.8 m/s? (exact). The Young's modulus obtained from the reading is (a) (2.0 + 0.3) x 10"! Nim? (b) (2.0 = 0.2) x 10" Nim? (©) 2.0 # 0.1) x 10" Nim? (@) (2.0 + 0.05) x 10" N/m? (LT. 2007) 80. In a vernier callipers, one main scale division is x cm and n divisions of the vernier scale coincide with (n ~ 1) divisions of the main scale. The least ‘count (in cm) of the callipers is (b) @ x x © 7 @ G-»p (LT. 2007) » 1.10 Course in Physics for IT-JEE ANSWERS L © 2. (a) 7. (@) 8. () 13. (d) 14. () 19. () 20. (c) 25. (@) 26. @) 3. @) 32. (c) 37. (@) 38. (b) 8. @ 44, () 49. (d) 50. (c) 58. (b) 56. (d) 61. ©) 62. (d) 67. (b) 68. (c) 73, (@) 74, (c) 79, (b) 80. (c) SOLUTIONS 1, The exponent is dimensionless. Hence ke JK K w- [2] x m =Jm' = [MLT*] x (L“] = MLT* {al pj = Wel ‘Ato TP) (bl fal _ [MUT? (1 Fras So the correct choice is (c). BL _ (M°L’T} x [MUTA] x (7) € (MET? A7] = (MT! = [l= | = (M’LT?) Ras v1 6R=0.019 x R’ = 0.019 x (2)? = 0.076 = 0.08 2 Hence the correct choice is (b). 4. R=R, +R, =3.04+6.0=9.02 OR = 5R, + OR, = 0.1 +03 = 04 4. d) 10. (c) 16. (b) 22, (a) 28. (b) 34. () 40. (b) 46. (d) 52. (c) 58. (b) A. (b) 70. (4) 76. (a) see 10. uu. Paae (2) 6. (ce) 12, (a) 18. (d) 24. (a) 30. (a) 36. (c) 42. (d) 48. (c) 54. (b) 60. (c) 66. (c) 72. (©) 78. (d) 2+ Maximum percentage error = of x 100 So the correct choice is (d). . The correct choice is (d). The correct choice is (c).. Since &T has dimensions of energy, the correct choice is (a). = Ls 12cmx 1.2emx 12cm = 1.728 em? Since there are two significant figures in L = 1.2 cm, the volume is accurate only up to two significant figure. Hence the correct choice is (c). _ 4k ee », A s L/R is the time constant of an L-R circuit and CR is the time constant of a C-R circuit. The dimen- sion of the time constant is the same as that of time. Hence the correct choice is (c). Entropy $ is defined through the relation = 40 T where dS is the change in entropy, dQ the change Is het comgy end T ste sbocke txperatae BE AAT 218 42x28 25% MU T-? MEK Hence the correct choice is (4). 12. The dimensions of energy are ML?T~?. The dimen- sions of pressure, momentum and power are ML'T?, MLT™! and ML?T™ respectively. Thus the correct choice is (a). 13. ML-'T~* are the dimensions of force per unit area. Out of the four choices, stress is the only quantity that is force per unit area, Hence the correct choice is (@). 14. The angular momentum L of a particle with respect to point whose position vector is r is given by L=rxp where p is the linear momentum of the moving particle. =. Dimensions of L = dimension of rx dimensions ofp =LxMLT!=MLT! ‘Thus the correct choice is (b). 18, su FP ince G= mm; = dimensions of F x dimensions of r# dimensions of mm, MLT? x?

LE" =MLT-7A~? ‘Therefore, the correct choice is (b). Dimensions of 1s 1 —— hoe (MLT? A? x M"L*Ta*} = H (L?T?)z which are the dimensions of velocity. Hence the correct choice is (a). ‘The heat energy content H of a body of mass m at temperature is given by H = ms@ where s is the specific heat. Therefore =LT-! md Dimensions of s dimensions of heat energy ‘dimension of mass x dimension of temperature MUT? your ?K-! MxK Thus the correct choice is (c). Latent heat L is the amount of heat energy H re- ‘quired to change the state of a unit mass without producing any change in temperature. Thus te MULT? oo Dimensions of L = eutte ‘Thus the correct choice is (d). According to the law of equipartition of energy, the energy per degree of freedom of a gas atom or molecule at a temperature @ kelvin is given by i 2E Es 2 kO ork= @ where & is the Boltzmann's constant. MT? 39. ‘The potential difference V between two points is the amount of work done in moving a unit charge from one point to the other. work done __W Th v= —Work done __ WW = charge moved — q 2p Dimensions of ¥= MET” Given X= ae ‘Taking logarithm of both sides, we have logX = 2 log A + og B- > log C - 3 log D Partially differentiating, we have ar )8A AB 1 aC _ x A B Percentage eror in A = 2 “4 race enor 8 = 22 28 1 Ac Percentage error in C= + 9S 2 1 x 4% ac i 3 ate 3 Percentage enor in D =3 92 = 3 x 5% = 15% We find that the minimum percentage error is contributed by C. Hence the correct choice is (c). Reo 61. 2B }. The correct choice is (% . The correct choice is (b) |. The correct choice is (b) }. Dimensions of J and G are ML°T™! and M“'L? T? respectively. |. Dimensions of &, and & are M'L~ T* A® and ML?T™ respectively. RC has the dimensions of time (T). V has the dimensions of emf which has the dimensions of a Le. at The force F on a particle of charge q moving with a velocity v in E and B fields is given by F=q(E+vxB) Hence the dimensions of E are the same as: those of vB. Energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance C hav- ing a potential difference V between its plates is given by Hence, the dimensions of CV’ limensions of en- exgy. Hence the correct choice is (a). apt Dimensions of () oT a Dimensions of B= MT? A“ Magnetic flux = B x area Let surface tension @= E* V’ T°. Using the dimen- sions of a, E, V and T and equating powers: of M, Land, find the values of a, b and c. The correct choice is (c). Dimensions of n (number of particles per unit area per unit time) = L*T~', Dimensions of m, or (number of particles per unit volume) = L~. Dimensions of x, or x = L. =ML?T? A Let m, be the magnitude (i.e. numerical value) of a physical quantity when the fundamental units are (M,, L,, T,) and n, the magnitude of the same physical quantity when the fundamental units are (My, Ly, T,), then, it is obvious that ny (MEL) TS) =m (M5373) @) where x, y and z are the dimensions of the j hysical quantity in mass, length and time respectively. Now, we know that 1 calorie = 4.2 joule == 4.2 kg m’s*. Therefore, in the first system of units ny =42,x= 1,y =2andz=-2. Henoe, in the second system of units in which M, = a kg, L, = b mand T; = cs, we have from (i) 65. V= 4m ‘Taking logarithm of both sides, we have log V= log 4 + log +3 log r— log 3 Differentiating, we get AV 540 ax im a3 7 r 66, BY 2388 or 66 = 34! of AF = 26, v r r r Now surface area s = 47 or log s= log 4x+2 log r 45 28? cox rma 48. sor 67. X=M'L’ T~* or log X= xlog M + ylog L~zlog 7. Differentiating, we have AX AM AL ‘The maximum error in X is (since all errors add up) AX _,4M AL, aT AP ight M L T = Ga + yb + ze)%. 6. Tete] org de a orlogg=log r+ & Jog !~ 2 log T. The maximum error in g is ats 28T 2m 42038 = 8% 69. The dimensions of moment of inertia are (ML). We have ny(u,) = ng) or m(MyLi) = m(M,L) y= MLD 2 y (#)(BY (M3) | (M,) (Ly Given m =6.0,M, = 1 kg, Ly =1m,M = 10g and L, = 5m. Therefore, 2 is) (1m sy=ton() (22) 0x (0008) x (oem 10g Sem = 6.0 x 100 x (20) = 2.4 x 10° Units and Dimensions 1.15 70. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by C = éyA/d. Hence the dimensions of él. are the same as those of capacitance. at av + Dit f Gh mension of GL dimension of C x dimensions of V time __ dimension of Q time Hence the correct choice is (d). TL. The correct choice is (a). The maximum permissible error in 17 is given by the relation An, gAR, Al AP Ag ” Rt’ PQ It is clear that the error in the measurement of R is ‘magnified four times on account of the occurrence of R* in the formula, Hence the radius (R) of the capillary tube must be measured most accurately. ‘Thus the quantity which is raised to the highest power needs the most accurate measurement. 72. Take m % v” d” g° and show that a = 6. 73. Take v & 2° p? a” and show that a = — and c= 0. 76. The correct choice is (d). 77. The exponent is a dimensionless number. Hence ‘tim is dimensionless. Therefore, dimension of m__M dimension of ¢ T =ML°T" 78. ‘The proportionate error in the measurement of g is Ag _ AL aT sot, es L T Hence Ag will be minimum if AL and AT are ‘minimum. Thus the correct choice is (4). FL _ 4Mgl . Yes 7. Al al? Dimension of a = a 0 kg (exact), g = 9.8 ms” (exact) m (exact), {= 0.8 mm = 0.8 x 10° m 0.05 mm, d= 0.4mm = 04x 10% m 0.01 mm Substituting the values of M, g, £,d and in Eq. (1) 1.16 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE we get ¥=2.0x 10" Nm? From Eg. (1) the proportionate uncertainty in Y is Since the value of Y is correct only up to the first decimal place, the value of AY must be rounded off to the first decimal place. Thus AY = 0.2 x 10!" given by Nm”. Therefore, the result of the experiment is AY _ AM AL | 2Ad | Al ¥ + AY = (2.0 + 0.2) x 10" Nm? YM 7 T Hence the correct choice is (b). Since the values of Mf, g and L are exact, AM=0, | 80. Vernier constant = value of 1 M.S.D ~ value of ‘Ag = O and AL = 0. Hence 1V.S.D. AY 2d AL 2x 001mm 005mm Now n V.S.D = (n- 1) M.D =(n~1) xem AY 2d , M2 x00imm | Onn = Yd "1" O4mm * 08mm tvs = (24) sem = 0.05 + 0.0625 # 125 nat Ls AY = 0.1125 x ¥= 0.1125 x 2.0 x 10" vec.=xom-(4=1 ) Fem 7 = 0.225 x 10"! Nm? Hence the correct choice is (c). SECTION II Multiple Choice Questions with One or More Choices Correct |. Which of the following are not a unit of time? (@) parsee (b) light year (c) micron (d) second ‘Choose the pair of physical quantities which have identical dimensions. (a) Impulse and linear momentum (b) Planck's constant and angular momentum, (c) Moment of inertia and moment of force (4) Young's modutus and pressure 3. The dimensions of energy per unit volume are the same as those of (@) work (b) stress (c) pressure _(d) modulus of elasticity |. When a wave traverses a medium, the displace- ment of a particle located atx at time s is given by ye asin (bt—cx) where a, b and c are constants of the wave. Which of the following are dimensionless quantities? () ya (b) or («x w+ 5. In Q.4, the dimensions of 6 are the same as those of (a) wave velocity (b) wave frequency (c) particle frequency (d) wavelength 6 In QA, the dimensions of & are the same as those of @ (@) wave velocity (b) angular frequency (c) particle velocity (d) wave frequency 7. The Van der Waal equation for n moles of a real gas is 10. 11 (P+) W—= ner where P is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the absolute temperature, R is the molar gas constant and a, b are Van der Waal constants. The dimen- sions of (a) @ are the same as those of PV” (b) are the same as those of V (©) are the same as those of RT (d) bP are the same as those of RT. « (b) v © Pb o In Q.7, the dimensions of nRT are the same as those of (a) pressure (b) energy (c) work (d) force Which of the following are dimensionless? (a) Boltzmann constant (b) Planck's constant (©) Poisson's ratio (4) relative density For a body in uniformly accelerated motion, the distance x of the body from a reference point at time ris given by xsartbr+c where a, b and c are constants of mation. (a) The dimensions of c are the same as those of x, at and br, (b) The dimensional formula of b is (M° LT”). © ; is dimensionless. (d) The acceleration of the body is 2b. 12. The side of a cube is L = (1.2 £ 0.1) cm. The volume of the cube is (a) (1,728 + 0.003) cm? (b) (1.73 + 0.02) cm? (©) (1.7 £04) em? @) (1.7 & 0.3) em? 13. Two resistances R, = (3.0 + 0.1) Q and R; = (6.0 + Units and Dimensions 1.17 14. A physical quantity P is given by ae Ponce ‘The percentage errors in the measurements of a, b, c, and d are 1%, 3%, 4%, and 3% respectvely. (a) The maximum percentage error in P is 14% (b) The maximum percentage error in P is 10% (c) The maximum error is contributed by the measurement of b. (d) The minimum error is contributed by the ‘measurement of c. 15. When a plane wave travels in a meduim, the ae aan tele ae obtainable is oo diplacement y of a particle located at x at time ris ; given by 0.3) Q (b) The maximum resistance obtainable is (9.0 = sin (bt — ex) 0.2) 2 where a, b, and c are constants. “ni (a) The unit a is the same as that of y. (c) The minimum resistance obtainable is (2.0 + (b) The SI unit of b is Hz. @ Ae net istance obtainable is (2.0 (©) The dimensional formule of ¢ is (M°L"'T) ‘minimum resistance obtainable is (2.0 02) 9 (8) The dimensions of © are the same those of velocity. © ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS 1. Choices (a), (b) and (¢) are units of length 2. ‘The dimensions of moment of inertia are ML?T® and of moment of force are ML*T~?. All other pairs in (a), (b) and (d) have identical dimensions. 3 Dimensions of energy per unit volume are = dimensions of energy/dimensions of volume = MLT“/L? = ML“'T~*. Stress, pressure and modulus of elasticity all have the dimensions of ML" 'T~. The dimensions of work are ML>T-?, Hence the correct choices are (b), (c) and (d), 4, Since the sine function is dimensionless, sin (br — 2) is dimensionless. Therefore, y and a must have the same dimensions, i.e. y/a is dimensionless. Since the argument of a sine function (or any ‘trigonometric function) must be dimensionless, bt and cx are also dimensionless. Hence the correct choice are (a), (b) and (c). S. Since bt is dimensionless, the dimensions of b = dimensions of 1/ = T~', which are the dimensions of angular frequency as well as wave frequency. ‘Hence the correct choices are (b) and (d). 6. Dimensions of bt = dimensions of cx. Therefore Dimensions of 2 = dimensions of = = LT. Hence the correct choices are (a) and (c). 7. Expanding Van der Waal equation we get PV-Ph+ 4-4 =nRT From the principle of homogeneity, it follows that all the four choices are correct. . The correct choices are (a), (b), (c) and (@). ). The dimensions of ni sions of PV = ML7 TL? = ML? T* which are dimensions of energy as well as work. Hence the correct choices are (b) and (c). ‘The correct choices are (c) and (d). |. From the principle of homogeneity of dimensions, the dimensions of c must be the same as those of x at and bi”. Therefore, choice (a) is correct. Also dimension of br = dimension of x. Hence [b]= {LT}. Hence choice (b) is also correct. Velocity of the body is S =F ars be + cl=a+2m and acceleration is do_d ie B ~ © (a+ 2b) = 2b, which is choice @) choice (c) is wrong since ; has dimension of time [T] 118 13. Course in Physics for IIT JEE .2emx L.2em x12 .728 em’. Now L = (1.2 + 0.1) em has two significant figures. Hence the value of V must be rounded to two segnificant figures. The correct value of V = 1.7 cm’, Now a D* 0.25 2. AV = 0.25 x V = 0.25 x 1.7 cm’ = 0.425 cm? ‘The error in V is in the first decimal place. Hence the value of AV should be rounded off as AV = 0.4 cm’. Thus the correct result is V+ AV = (1.7 + 0.4) cm’, which is choice (c). ‘The maximum value is obtained when the resis- tances are joined in series. Therefore, the maximum value is R= Rit R= 3.0 + 6.0 = 9.09 = AR\+ AR= 0.2 +0.1= 039 9.0 +03) 9 Thus choice (a) is correct and choice (b) is wrong. ‘The minimum value is obtained when the resis- tances are joined in parallel . 30x60 30 + 61 209 Now ++ Minimum value is (Ry * AR,) Hence choice (c) is wrong and choice (d) is is correct. 14. saeiwarnaeeate lca = 3% + 6% + 3% +2% = 14% Hence the correct choices are (a), (¢) and (4). 15. The value of any trignomatric function is a dimen- sionless number. Hence choice (a) is correct. The argument of a trignometric function is also dimen- sionless. Hence (bt ct) is dimensionless. Hence b has dimension (T'] the same as that of frequency and c has dimension of (L~]. Thus choices (b), (c) and (d) are all correct. SECTION II Multiple Choice Questions Based on Passage Questions 1 and 2 are based on the following passage. Passage-I ‘The dimensional method is a very convenient way of finding the dependence of a physical quantity on other physical quantities of a given system. This method has its ‘own limitations. In a complicated situation, itis often not ‘easy to guess the factors on which a physical quantity will depend, Secondly, this method gives no information about the dimensionless proportionality constant. Thirdly, this method is used only if a physical quantity depends on the product of other physical quantities. Fourthly, this method will not work if a physical quantity depends only ‘on another quantity as a trignometric or exponential function. Finally, this method does not give complete information in cases where a physical quantity depends ‘on more than three quantities in problems in mechanics. 1. The dimensional method cannot be used to obtain denpendence of (a) the height to which a liquid rises in a capil- lary tube on the angle of contact (b) speed of sound in an elastic medium on the modulus of elactricity. (©) height to which a body, projected upwards with a certain velocity, will rise on time 1. (d) the decrease in energy of a damped oscillator con time 1. 2. In dimensional method, the dimensionless propor- tionality constant is to be determined (a) experimentally (b) by a detailed mathematical derivation (c) by using the principle of dimensional homo- genet (@) by equating the powers of M, L and T. ‘(Questions 3 and 4 are based on the following passage. Passage-II In the study of physics, we often have to measure the physical quantities. The numerical value of a measured ‘quantity can only be approximate as it depends upon the ‘least count of the measuring instrument used. The number of significant figures in any measurement indicates the degree of precision of that measurement, The importance of significant figures lies in calculation. A mathematical calculation cannot increase the precision of a physical measurement. Therefore, the number of significant figures in the sum or product of a group of numbers cannot be greater than the number that has the Jeast umber of significant figures. A chain cannot be stronger than its weakest link. {ANSWERS AND SOLUTION 1, The correct choices are (a), (c) and (4). The height of a liquid in a capillary tube depends on cos 8, where Bis the angle of contact. The height § to which a body rises is given by S= ur + La which is a sum of two terms ut and far. The energy of a damped oscillator decreases exponen- tially with time, 2, The correct choices are (a) and (b) 3. Total mass = 0.000087 + 0.0123 = 0.012387 kg. ‘The mass of the bee is accurate upto sixth decimal place in kg, whereas the mass of the flower is accu- rate only upto the fourth decimal place. Hence the 4, The radius of a uniform wire is r 5. Average speed = Units and Dimensions 119 3. A bee of mass 0.000087 kg sits on a flower of mass 0.0123 kg. What is the total mass supported by the stem of the flower upto appropriate significant fig- ures? (a) 0.012387 kg, (b) 0.01239 kg (©) 0.0124 kg (@) 0.012 kg .021 cm. The value z is given to be 3.142. What is the area of ‘cross-section of the wire upto appropriate signifi- ‘cant figures? (a) 0.0014 cm? (b) 0.00139 cm? (©) 0.001386 em? (@) 0.0013856 cm? 5. A man runs 100.5 m in 10.3 s. Find his average speed upto appropriate significant figures. (@) 9.71 ms" (b) 9.708 ms“ (©) 9.7087 ms“ (@) 9.70874 mst sum must be rounded off to the fourth decimal place. Therefore the correct choice is (c). 4. A= mr? = 3.142 x (0.021)? = 0.00138562 cm?. Now, there are only two significant figures in 0.021 cm. Hence the result must be rounded off to two significant figure as A = 0.0014 cm*, which is choice (a). 100.5 m 103s ‘The distance has four significant figures but the time has only three. Hence the result must be rounded off to three signigicant figure to 9.71 ms“. Thus the correct choice is (a). 1.708737 ms“ SECTION IV Matching 1. Match the physical quantities in column I with their dimensions in column II. M, L, T, K and A denote the dimensions of mass, length, time, temperature and electric current respectively Column I (a) Viscosity (b) Thermal conductivity (©) Electric field (@) Magnetic induction field ANSWER L @> ©) © @) Column I (p) MLT*K" (q) MLT? A" @ MU'T! (s) MT?" ) > (p) (a) > (5) 1.20 Course in Physics for IT-JEE 2. Match the physical quantities in column I with their SI units in column It Column I ‘Column I (a) Stefan's constant (p) JK" mol (>) Universal gas constant @ Fm! (©) Electrical permittivity (2) Hm (d) Magnetic permeability (s) Wm? K* ANSWER 2. (@) > () (b) > (p) o7@ Moo 3. Match the measurements in column I with the number of significant figures in column I. Column I Column I (a) 62.028 3 (b) 0.034 @4 (©) 0.002504 (2 @) 1.25 x 1.0" (s) 5 ANSWER 3. @>) wo 40 o7@ @>@ 4. Match the quantities in column I with their order of magnitude given in column II Column I ‘Column Il (a) 2.6 x 10% (p) 10° (b) 3.9.x 10% @ 10 (c) 2.8 x 107 (10% @) 42x10 (s) 10% ANSWER 4. Use the following method to find the order of magnitude. For example, if a quantity is x = 4.3 x 10°, take its logarithm to the base 10. Log x = 3.633 and round if off as log x = 4 . So the order of magnitnde of x is 10*. @ > 6) oO>® () > (p) (d@) > (@) SECTION V Assertion-Reason Type Questions In the following questions, Statement-1(Assertion) is followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has the following four options out of which only one choice is correct. (a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State- ‘ment-2 is the correct explanation for Statement-1. (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but State- ment-2 is not the correct explanation for State- ment-1. (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false. (d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true. 1. Statement-1 The order of accuracy of measnrement depends on the feast count of the measuaing instrument. Statement-2 The smaller the least count the greater is the num- ber of significant figures in the measured value. 2. Statement-1 ‘The dimensional method cannot be used to abtain the dependence of the work done by a force F on the angle @between force F and displacement x. Statement-2 All trignometric functions are dimensionless. SOLUTIONS 1. The corrent choice is (b). 2. Work done is W = Fx cos 8. since cos @ is dimen- sionless, the dependence of Won @ cannot be determined by the dimensional method. Hence the correct choice is (a) Units and Dimensions 1.21 3. Statement-1 ‘The mass of an object is 13.2 kg. In this measure- ment there are 3 significant figures. Statement-2 ‘The same mass when expressed in grams as 13200 g has five significant figures. 3. The correct choice is (c). The degree of accurany (and hence the number of significant figures) of a ‘measurement cannot be increased by changing the unit. MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS 21 Scalar and Vector Quantities A scalar quantity has only magnitude but no direction, such as distance, speed, mass, area, volume, time, work, energy, power, temperature, specific heat, charge, potential, etc A vector quantity has both magnitude and direction, such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, torque, electric field, magnetic field, etc. 22 Distance and Displacement ‘The distance is the total path travelled by a body in a certain interval of time and the displacement is the shortest distance (in a specified direction) between the initial and final positions of the body. This distinction between distance and displacement is true not only for a uniform motion but also for a non- uniform motion. Ifa ball is thrown vertically upward from position, say A, above the ground and after some time, it ‘comes back to the same point A, the displacement of the ball is zero but the distance travelled by it is not zero—it is twice the distance between the point A and the highest point up to which it rises. 23 Speed, Velocity and Acceleration ‘The speed of a body is the rate of change of distance. If a body travels a distance As is time Ar, its average spec given by _ As Ar If the body is in uniform motion, its speed is given by p= 5 = Lolal distance travelled t total time taken The instantaneous speed is the speed of a body at a given instant of time and is given by Beat armoar dt The velocity of a body is the rate of change of displacement and is given by ds pate dt Speed is a scalar quantity but velocity is a vector quantity. The magnitude of the velocity vector gives the speed of the body and its direction gives the direction of, motion of the body. The rate of change of the velocity vector is called acceleration. dv Thus a=7 dt 24 One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration A particle moving in a straight line has one-dimensional motion. If the acceleration of the particle does not change with time, it is said to have a constant acceleration. Equations of Motion ‘The equations of one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration as follows: vsutat 1 ssutt sar 2 ow =2as A body moving with a velocity u (which we call the initial velocity) in a straight line is given a constant acceleration a at time ¢ = 0. As a result of the acceleration, its velocity increases to v in time 1 (which we call the final velocity) during which the body suffers a displacement s. While solving numerical problems, we will consider only the magnitudes of u, 0, a and s and take care of their direction by assigning a positive or negative sign to the quantity. For example + a will mean an acceleration and ~a will mean retardation or deceleration. ‘The distance traversed in nth second is given by wee Lane 5, = u+ Fan 1) 2.2 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE 2.5 Motion Under Gravity Fora body thrown vertically upwards or falling vertically downwards, the following sign convention is used. 1. All quantities directed upwards are taken as posi- tive, 2. All quantities directed downwards are taken as negative. Under this sign convention, the acceleration due to gravity (g) which is directed downwards is always negative irrespective of the direction of motion of the body. On or near the surface of the earth, the average value of acceleration due to gravity is g =-9.8 ms? 2.6 Graphical Representation The displacement-time and velocity-time graphs of a motion give us a graphical representation of the motion of particle. The shape of these graphs tells us about the kind of motion a particle has (see Fig. 2.1) From these graphs, it follows that (i) the speed of the particle at any instant is given by the slope of the displacement-time graph, (ii) the magnitude of the acceleration of the particle at any instant is given by the slope of the velocity- time graph and (iii) the distance moved by the particle in a time inter- val from 1, tof, is given by the area under the ve- locity-time graph during that time interval. “ 5 : i © @ Fig. 21. Curves (a) and (©) represent motion with a constant speed 1, Curves (b) and (d) represent ‘motion with a uniform acceleration « starting with an initial speed 1. 27 Relative Velocity ‘When two objects move in the same straight line, we ‘compare their motions in terms of their relative velocity. If two objects A and B are moving in a straight line with velocities v, and yp respectively, the relative velocity of object A with respect to object B is given by Van = 4 Ya It follows that the relative velocity of object B with respect to object A will be Yea = ¥p SECTION I Multiple Choice Questions with Only One Choice Correct 1. From the top of a tower 60 m tall, a body is thrown vertically down with a velocity of 10 ms“, At the same time, another body is thrown vertically up- wards from the ground with a velocity of 20 ms“. ‘At what height above the ground do they meet? Take ¢ = 10 ms? (@) 10m (b) 20 m (©) 30m (@) 40m 2. A ball is dropped from the top of a tower. In the last second of its fall, the ball covers a distance 925 times the height of the tower. If g = 10 ms, the height of the tower (a) 75 m (©) 125 m (>) 100 m (@) 150. m 3. A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the foot of a tower. It crosses the top of the tower twice after an interval of 4 s and reaches the foot of the tower 8 s afler it was thrown. What is the height of the tower? Take g = 10 ms”, (a) 60m (b) 80 m (c) 100 m (d) 120 m ‘The displacement x (in metres) of a body varies with time 1 (in seconds) as 2p *e-5 + 161+ 2 How long does the body take to come to rest? fa) 3s (b) 6s fc) 9s (@) 12s 10. ‘Two cars travelling on a straight road cross meter stone A at the same time with velocities 20 ms”! and 10 ms“! with constant accelerations of | ms” and 2 ms™ respectively. If they cross another kilometer stone B at the same instant, the distance between A and B is (a) 600 m (b) 800 m (©) 1000 m (@) 1200 m . The acceleration a of a body moving with initial velocity w changes with distance x as a = fx, where k is a positive constant. The distance trav- elled by the body when its velocity becomes 2u is oar oR juy? au? Sai @ (24 © (3) o (i ‘A particle is moving along the x-axis. Its instanta- neous velocity when it is at a distance x from the origin is v= yp ~qx* , where p and g are positive constants. The acceleration of the particle at that instant is (a) zero 2px © ~G-o ‘The velocity of a particle moving along the x-axis is given by v = kx where kis a positive constant. The acceleration of the particle is ve k @ > o> B oF @ 2e |. The velocity of a particle at time 1 (in second) is related to its displacement x (in metre) as v = J3x-+4 . The initial velocity of the particle is (a) 1 ms (b) 2 ms" (©) 3 ms" (@) 4 ms" ‘Acar, starting from rest, has @ constant accelera- tion of 3 ms™ for some time and then has a con- stant retardation of 2 ms“ for some time and finally comes to rest. The total time taken is 15 s. ‘The maximum velocity of car during its motion is (a) 12 mst (b) 15 ms (c) 18 ms" (@) 21 ms" ML 12. 13. 14. 1s, 16. Motion in One Dimension 2.3 A freely falling body, falling from a tower of height hicovers adistance h/2 in the last second of its mo- tion, The height of the tower is (take g = 10 ms”) nearly (a) 38m (>) 50m (c) 60 m (@ 35 m Ball A is rolled in a straight line with a speed of 5 ms“! towards a bigger ball B lying 20 m away. Af- ter collision with ball B, ball A retraces the path and reaches its starting point with a speed of 4 ms". What is the average velocity of ball A dur- ing the time interval 0 to 6 s? (a) zero (>) 2 ms"! (c) 4 mst (a) 5 mst A trainis moving southwards at a speed of 30 ms". ‘A monkey is running northwards on the roof of the train with a speed of 5 ms~!, What is the velocity of the monkey as observed by a person standing on the ground? (a) 35 ms" in the southward direction (b) 35 ms“ in the northward direction (©) 25 ms" in the southward direction (d) 25 ms* in the northword direction A jet airplane travelling from east to west ata speed of 500 km h” ejects out gases of combustion at a ‘speed of 1500 km h™ with respect to the jet plane. ‘What is the velocity of the gases with respect fo an observer on the ground? (a) 1000 km h”" in the direction west to east (b) 1000 km h”" in the direction east to west (c) 2000 km h”! in the direction west to cast (@) 2000 km ht in the direction east to west A police van moving on a highway with a speed of 36 km bh fires a bullet at a thief's car speeding away in the same direction with a speed of 108 km h!. If the muzzle speed of the bullet is 140 ms”!, with what speed will the bullet hit the thief’s car? (a) 120 mst (b) 130 ms! (e) 140 ms (@) 150 ms Car A is moving with a speed of 36 km bh”! on a two-lane road. Two cars B and C, each moving with a speed of 54 km bh” in opposite directions on the other lane are approaching car A. At a certain instant when the distance AB = distance AC = 1 km, the driver of car B decides to overtake A before C does. What must be the minimum acceleration of car B so as to avoid an accident? (@ 1 ms? (b) 2 ms? (c) 3 ms? (@) 4 ms? 24° Course in Physics for IIT-JEE 17. The driver of a train A moving at a speed of 30 ms sights another train B moving on the same track at a speed of 10 ms” in the same direction. He imme- diately applies brakes and achieves a uniform retar- dation of 2 ms™. To avoid collision, what must be the minimum distance between the trains? (a) 80m (b) 100 m (©) 120m @) 140m 18. The driver of a train A moving at a speed of 30 ms” sights another train B moving on the same track towards his train at a speed of 10 ms’. He immediately applies brakes and achieves a uniform retardation of 4 ms™. To avoid head-on collision, what must be the minimum distance between the trains? (a) 100 m (b) 200 m (©) 300 m (@) 400 m 19, A bullet is fired vertically upwards. After 10seconds it returns to the point of firing. If g = 10 ms”, the location of the bullet after 7 seconds from the time of firing will be the same as that after @2s (b) 25s 3s @) 358 20, A body, starting from rest, moves in a straight line with a constant acceleration a for a time interval ¢ during which it travels a distance 5). It continues to move with the same acceleration for the next time interval ¢ during which it travels a distance s,. The relation between s, and 5 is @) 5, n (b) 5) = 2s, (c) 5, = 35, (@) 5) = 4s, 21. In Q.20, if v, is the velocity of the body at the end of first time interval and v, that at the end of the second time interval, the relation between v, and vis @) m= > (b) 0) = 2, (©) 0, = 30, (d) v, = 40, 22. A body dropped from the top of a tower hits the ground after 4 s. How much time does it take to cover the first half of the distance from the top of the tower? @ is (b) 28 ©) 22s @ 3s 23. Figure 2.3 shows the displacement-time (x-1) graph of a body moving in a straight line, Which one of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.4 represents the veloc- ity-time (v-1) graph of the motion of the body. ° ee) t— Fig. 23 ° ° 5 10 18 20 s 10 18) el ional @ © r . 5 1015 20 8 10 hs 20 t— — © @ Fig. 24 24, Which of the displacement-time (xt) graphs shown in Fig. 2.5 can possibly represent one- dimensional motion of a particle? D. 2 ° ?— 0 t= a @) 25. 26. 2, 3. 32, A stone is dropped from a height of 125 m. If g = 10 ms~, what js the ratio of the distances travelled by it during the first and the last second of its motion? (a) 1:9 (b) 2:9 (1:3 @ 4:9 A bullet is fired vertically upwards with an initial velocity of SO ms!. If g = 10 ms™, what is the ratio of the distances travelled by the bullet during the first and the last second of its upward motion? (a) 9:1 (b) 9:2 (e) 3:1 9:4 ‘A body moving in a straight line with constant acceleration of 10 ms covers a distance of 40 m in the 4" second. How much distance will it cover in the 6% second? (a) 50m (b) 60 m (c) 70m (d) 80m ‘A body, moving in a straight line with an initial velocity of 5 ms"! and a constant acceleration, cov- ers a distance of 30 m in the 3" second. How much distance will it cover in the next 2 seconds? (a) 70m (b) 80 m (c) 90 m (d) 100 m ‘A body, moving in a straight line, with an initial velocity w and a constant acceleration a, covers distance of 40 m in the 4" second and a distance of 60 m in the 6" second. The values of w and a respectively are (@) 10 ms*, 5 ms* (c) Sms", 5 ms* — @) Sms", 10 ms A body, starting from rest and moving with a con- stant acceleration, covers a distance s, in the 4" second and a distance s, in the 6" second, The ratio s/s, is 2 @ > 4 © > 6 7 © @ Ty ‘A car, starting from rest, has a constant accelera- tion a, for a time interval r, during which it covers a distance 5}. In the next time interval f, the ear hhas a constant retardation a, and comes to rest after coyering a distance s, in time f,, Which of the following relations is correct? a I 8B A OD Oa) b Sade. Stee Bi: © ah Oa In Q.31, the average speed of the car during its entire journey is given by 33. Motion in One Dimension 2.5 i (@) Fa pat (b) Flat tant) © Ha ta,\+h) (d) zero In Q.31, if the total distance covered by the car is s, the maximum speed attained by it will be 1 1 @ (2) ) (2 Sit } +0, a -0; 1 1 ‘sam VP ‘saa, YE ofa) oF) ‘A car, starting from rest, is accelerated at a ‘constant rate ct until it attains a speed v. It is then retarded at a constant rate until it comes to rest. The average speed of the car during its entire jour- ney is ao (a) zero © 35 po 2 om ws The displacement of a body from a reference point, is given by vr 2243 where x is in metres and 1 in seconds. This shows that the body is (@) at rest (b) accelerated (©) decelerated (@) in uniform motion In Q.35, what is the initial velocity of the body? (a) 2 ms" (b) 3 ms" (©) 6 ms" @) 12 ms In Q.35, what is the acceleration of the body? (a) 2 ms (b) 3 ms (c) 6 ms* (a) 8 ms* A car, starting from rest, at a constant acceleration covers a distance 5; in a time interval t.It covers a distance of s, in the next time interval ¢ at the same acceleration. Which of the following relations is true? (@) s= 5, (b) 5 = 2s, © 52 = 34 (@) 52 = 45, A car moving at a speed v is stopped in a certain distance when the brakes produce a deceleration a, If the speed of the car was nv, what must be the deceleration of the car to stop it in the same distance and in the same time? (a) Yna (b) ng ©) ra @ wa ‘Two balls are dropped from the same point after an interval of 1 second. What will be their separation 3 seconds after the release of the second ball? Take g=10ms?, (@) 25m (>) 30 m (c) 35 m (d) 40. m 2.6 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE aL. 42, ‘A bullet is fired vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 50 ms". It covers a distance h, during the first second and a distance hy during the last 3 seconds of its upward motion, If ¢ = 10 ms, A, and /y will be related as (a) hy = 3h (b) iy = hy (c) hy = hy @) he 4 A ball is thrown vertically downward with a veloc- ity w from the top of a tower. It strikes the ground with a velocity 3u, The time taken by the ball to reach the ground is given by u 2u Os, (b) ’ 3u 4u Oe Oe 43. In Q.42, the height of the tower is given by 2 » 2 @ ‘ (b) 8 2 4 oy oy A 150 m long through train having a constant acceleration crosses a 300 m long platform. It en- ters the platform at a speed of 40 ms“! and leaves it at a speed of $0 ms~', What is the acceleration of the train? (@) 0.6 ms? (b) 0.8 ms? (c) 1.0 ms* (a) 1.2 ms* 45. In Q.44, how long will the train take to cross the platform? (a 6s (b) 8s (c) 10s @ 2s 46. The motion of a body is given by the equation ') at time 7 (in sec~ 0, the magnitude (b) 6 ms® (@) 2210 47, In Q.46, the speed of the body varies with time as @ Vo ==) ) Vip =20-e%) (©) Vo = Bie 2 @ Vo = 3(-) 48. In Q.46, the speed of the body when the accelera- tion is half the initial value is (a) I ms! (b) 2 ms! (c) 3 mst (d@) 4 ms 49. A car starts from rest, accelerates uniformly for 4 seconds and then moves with uniform velocity. Which of the (x-1) graphs shown in Fig. 2.6 repre- sents the motion of the car upto t = 7 s? xs 1234567 — @) I a 0123458 67 i e : Straight Curved 01234567 (— © Straight Curved NS o1234567 ti @ Fig. 26 $0. Two stones are thrown up simultaneously with initial speeds of u; and 1, (4; > u,). They hit the ground after 6 s and 10 s respectively. Which graph in Fig. 2.7 correctly represents the time variation of Ax = (x) ~ x,), the relative position of the second stone with respect to the first upto += 10s? Assume that the stones do not rebound afier hitting the ground. ‘an acceleration as shown in Fig. 2.8. ‘Motion in One Dimension 2.7 t ite, Fig. 28 Which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.9 represents the velocity-time (0-1) graph of the motion of the body from t= 0's to s? 52. In Q.51 above, what is the velocity of the body at time t= 2.5 8? (a) 2.5 ms (b) 3.5 mst ©) 45 mst (4) 5.5 ms" 53. In Q.51, how much distance does the body cover from 1= 0 tor=4 8? (@) 6m b) 9m (©) 12m (@) 15 m 54, In Q51, which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.10 represents the displacement-time (x-t) graph of the motion of the body from r=0stot=4s? (ns) 3 4 c o + 2 3 4 (8) — © t 6 8 > (os) 3 " © + 2 3 6 1) © 28 Course in Physics for ITE ts A ms") : 4 c : t(s) @ Fig. 29 t? £ ™ 5 : B fm) ‘4 ‘ (8) —> 18) —— b) t" & & alls F ; t(8) —> 1) — ©) @ fig 230 55. A body, moving in a straight line, covers half the distance with a speed V, the remaining part of the distance was covered with a speed V’ for half the time and with a speed V” for the other half of the time. What is the average speed of the body? v's Vv") vv'+v") © ovevey © Queer av've vv" i ) © Wve © Tw 56. A particle moving in a straight line covers half the distance with a speed of 3 mis. The other half of the distance is covered in two equal time intervals with speeds of 4.5 m/s and 7.5 m/s respectively. The average speed of the particle during this ‘motion is, 57. (a) 4.0 mis (b) 5.0 mis (©) 5.5 ms (@) 48 ms (LT. 1992) Figure 2.11 shows the velocity-time (0 ~ 1) graphs for one dimensional motion. But only some of these can be realized in practice. These are (a) (@, (ii) and (iv) only (b) (i), Gi) and (ii) only (©) Gi) and (iv) only @ all 2 wl Fig. 211 |. A stone dropped from a building of height h reaches the ground after £ seconds. From the same building if two stones are thrown (one upwards and the other downwards) with the same velocity u and they reach the ground after ; and 1, seconds respectively, then the time interval ris nth @ t=h-% (b) t= (©) t= Vhh @ t= P-g ). Displacement (x) of a particle is related to time (1) as.x=ar+ br - cr where a, 6 and ¢ are constants of motion. The velocity of the particle when its acceleration is zero is given by 2 2 @ar ware c 2e 2 2 war @a+ aur. 1988) ae 4c }. A ball is dropped vertically from a height & above the ground. It hits the ground and bounces up vertically to a height h/2. Neglecting subsequent ‘motion and air resistance, its velocity v varies with the height # as (see Fig. 2.12) (LT. 2000) 61, 62. t { RY, / O) © ! ! vO n TT h © @ Fig. 212 A car, starting from rest, accelerates ata constant rate of 5 ms” for some time. It then retards at a constant rate of 10 ms” and finally comes to rest. If the total taken is 6 s, what is the maximum speed attained by the car? (@) 5 mst (b) 10 ms"! (©) 20 ms (d) 40 ms" In Q61, what is the total distance travelled by the caris 6 5? (a) 60 m (b) 80 m (©) 100 m (@) 120 m A car is moving at a certain speed. The minimum distance over which it can be stopped is x. If the speed of the car is doubled, what will be the mini- mum distance over which the car can be stopped during the same time? (@) 4x (b) 2 (©) 2 (6) ‘The distance x covered by a body moving in a straight line in time 1 is given by the relation Q+3x=t If v is the velocity of the body at a certain instant of time, its acceleration will be @-0 (b) ~ 20" (c) = 30° (a) - 40° The distance x covered by a body moving in a straight line in time ris given by ParsUs3 ‘The acceleration of the body will vary as @+t os (©) or @) Motion in One Dimension 2.9 66. A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity w. It passes three points A, 8 and C in its upward jour- ney with velocities ey and ; respectively. The io AB i ratio = is BC 20 = (b) 2 @ > (b) 10 © > @1 67. A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity w. It ‘passes a point at a height t above the ground at time f, while going up and at time ¢, while falling down. Then the relation between u, t, and t, is Qu @ nen On-4= “ nutans OM 68. In Q. 67 above, the relation between 4, fy and h is @ hh = 2 0b) nh = . 2h A Om +yeS WM +yrst (e) (4 + Hy 7 (@) (4 + OY z 69. A body dropped from a height H above the ground strikes an inclined plane at a height A above the ground. As a result of the impact, the velocity of the body becomes horizontal. The body will take the maximum time to reach the ground if H H =f b) he oe 4 (b) Wt H H (hes @) hee 70. A body of density p enters a tank of water of den- sity p’after falling through a height /. The maxi- mum depth to which it sinks in water is hy’ hp @ ®) (e-) (p-P) @ @ @ ? ? 71. A body, falling freely under gravity, covers half the total distance in the last second of its fall. If it falls for n seconds, then the value of 1 is (a) 2 (b) 3 (©) 2-2 (@) 242 210 2. 2B. 74. 5. 16. Course in Physics for ITT-JEE. In 1.05, a particle goes from point A Ar to point B, moving in a semicircle of radius 1.0 m as shown in Fig. 2.13. ‘The magnitude of the average veloc- ity of the particle is (a) 3.14 ms (©) 1.0 mst (b) 2.0 ms (@) zero 8 (LLT. 1999) A body of mass m,, projected verti- cally upwards with an i maximum height A. Another body of mass m, is projected along an inclined plane making an angle of 30° with the horizontal and with speed u. The ‘maximum distance travelled along the incline is (a) 2h (b) A h h © @ 4 The displacement x of a particle moving in one dimension is related to time r by the equation toe +3 where xis in metres and rin seconds. The displace- ment of the particle when its velocity is zero is (@) zero (b) 4m) Lm (4) OS m A particle initially (i.e, at ¢ = 0) moving with a velocity w is subjected to a retarding force, as a result of which it decelerates at a rate a=-kJo where © is the instantancous velocity and k is a positive constant. The time T taken by the particle 10 come to rest is given by vu mH @ r= 58 wr-F 2” a ©) Ts z @) T= r A particle starts from rest. Its acceleration at time 10 is 5 ms™ which varies with time as shown in Fig. 2.14. The maximum speed of the particle will Fig. 214 77. Figure 2.15 shows the variation of velocity (0) of a body with position (x) from the origin O. Which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.16 cor- rectly represents the variation of the accelera- tion (a) with position (x)? re 25 v. NK a (a) e) 7 + 2005) 78. The velocity (v) of a body moving along the postive x-direction varies with displacement (x) from the origin as v = k-Vx , where k is a constant. ‘Which of the graphas shown in Fig. 2.17 correctly represents the displacement-time (x — f) graph of ‘the motion? ANSWERS 1. (b) 2) 3. (a) 7. @) 8. (c) 9 (b) 13. (©) 14, (a) 15. (a) 19. (c) 20. (©) 21. (b) 25, (a) 26. (a) 27. (b) 3. (d) 32. (a) 33. (a) 37. @) 38. (c) 39. (c) 43. (d) 44, (c) 45. (c) 49. (0) 50, (a) 51. (d) 55. (a) 56. (a) $7. (c) 61. (c) 62. (a) 63. (a) 67. (a) 68, (a) 6. (©) 73. (a) 74. (a) 75, (a) SOLUTIONS 1. Relative velocity = 20 + 10 = 30 ms". The time at which they meet is 2s alg 1 Now haut = eP +38 =0x2+ 3 KCI xO? 2, Let ht be the height of the tower and s be the time taken by the ball to hit the ground. Then a) pee - @Q) From Eqs. (1) and (2), we get ¢ = 5 s. Therefore he bx 10x (57 = 125m Let h = AB be the height of the tower and P be the highest point reached (Fig. 2.18).The time taken by the ball to go from B to P = 4/2 = 2 s and the time taken to go from A to P = 8/2 = 4s, There- fore, time taken by the ball to go from A to B is 124-2225, If wis the velocity of projection, then O=u- 10x 4 =u = 40 mst @ (©) @) () fc) (@) (c) (b) (ec) () @) @) (b) RSPRRELER ASS Motion in One Dimension 2.11 5. (a) 1. (a) 17. (b) 23, (a) 29. (@) 35. (b) 41. (c) 47. (b) 53. (c) 59. (c) 65. (c) 71. (a) 71. (a) 1 heu+ + gf ute 40x24 2 19 QF = 60m =0=- $14 16 which gives r= 128 Let s be the distance between A and B. Then, for the first car se2retxixPsm+t? a) 2 2 For the second car, @ 20 s. Using this se lore 5 xQ) xe = lore e Equating (1) and (2), we get ¢ value of rin either (1) or (2) gi ade a, vdvsadx=KVx dx 242 1 % 10. ue (Course in Physics for IMT-JEE. » 2 fedvek fie ax au) > zs (#) + which is choice (b). 2k oa a OS Ode de dt de dv_d Pe Fp - gr) a de fe - 4") 1 > = 0 -a¥y" x 240) = =# fe v= @-¢ry) Hence a = — qx, which is choice (4). ‘The acceleration is do aw Zl a a= kv Sais) k = kx % wr So the correct choice is (c). Given v = 3x + 4. Comparing with v* we have w* = 4 which gives «= 2 ms". Let 1, be the time during which the car accelerates. ‘The velocity at the end oft, is veu+an=0434 = 34 ‘The time during which the car decelerates is f, = (t= t,) where # is the total time taken for the car to come to rest. During time 1,, the initial velocity is ‘v= 31, and the final velocity is zero. Hence O= 34, - 2t = 34-2 = St - 20 = ye re? xiss6s 5S ‘The car attains the maximum velocity at the end of 1, after which it decelerates. Hence Vag = 34 = 3X 6 = 18 ms, whiel choice (c), We have $ e@n-sotnann tf #1} 2-2 alg Hence h is given by wt oped lafay,)? hay em be{t(4e1) 13. 14. 18. 16. 2 =he(H tet) +m) seg Simplifying and putting g = 10 ms®, we get 1 ~60h + 100=0 ‘The positive root of this quadratic gives h = 58m, Hence the correct choice is ( The time taken by ball A toreach ball B= 22 = 4, During the time interval 0 to 6 s, ball A covers a distance of 20 m upto ball (which takes 4 5) and in the next 2s, it covers a distance of 4 ms x2.s= 8 m in the opposite direction. +. Net displacement = 20 m—8 m = 12m Average velocity = ge = 2 ms which is choice (b). Suppose we choose the direction from south to north as the positive direction. Then the velocity of the train moving southwards = — 30 ms“, Velocit of the monkey running northwards = + 5 ms, ‘Therefore, the velocity of the monkey as observed by a person in the groun 30 +5 =~ 25 ms". ‘The negative sign indicates that the direction of this velocity is southwards. Hence the correct choice is(e). Suppose we choose the positive direction to be from east to west. Then the velocity of the plane = + 500 km h”'. Since the gases are ejected in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of the plane, the relative velocity of the gases with respect to the plane = ~ 1500 km h”'. Therefore, the velocity of the gases with respect to an observer ‘on the ground = — 1500 + 500 = — 1000 km h!. ‘The negative sign indicates that the direction of the velocity is from west to east. Hence the correct choice is (a). Speed of the police van = 36 km bh! = 10 ms”. Since the gun is in motion with the van and the bullet is fired in the direction in which the van is moving, the net speed of the bullet = speed of the gun (ie. van) + the muzzle speed of the bullet = 10 + 140 = 150 ms“. Now, the speed of the thief’ car = 108 km h” = 30 ms“. The bullet is chasing the thief's car with a speed of 150 ms“ and the thief's car is speeding away at 30 ms', Hence the bullet will hit the car with a speed which is the relative speed of the bullet with respect to the car = 150 ~ 30 = 120 ms", Thus the correct choice is (a). Let us suppose that cars A and B are moving in the positive x-direction. Then car C is moving in the 17. 18. 19. negative x-direction. Therefore, v, = +36 kmh’ +10 ms", vp = + $4 kmh”! = + 15 ms and ve = ~~ $4.km hr! =~ 15ms"!, The relative velocity B with respect to A is Ugy = Uy — U4 =15~10=5 ms”, The relative velocity of C with respect t0 A is ¥¢4 = 0c = 0, = -15 — 10 = - 25 ms". At time ¢ = 0, the distance between A and B = distance between A and (C= 1 km = 1000 m. The car C will cover a distance AC = 1000 m and just reach car A at a time given by = AC 100m [Pea] 25 ms Car B will overtake car A just before car C does and avoid an accident, if it acquires a minimum accel- eration a such that it covers a distance s = AB = 1000 m in time # = 40, travelling at a relative speed = Dg, = S ms‘, Putting these values in relation watetot samt a 1000 = 5 x 40.4 1 x a x (40)? which gives a = 1 ms“ which in choice (a). ‘The relative speed of train A with respect to train B= 30-10 = 20 ms“, To avoid collision, let the ‘minimum distance between them be s. This means that the relative speed must reduce to zero when the distance covered is s. Using 0” —u* = 2as we have =40s We get 0-20 =2x2xs which gives s = 100 m. Hence the correct choice is (b). ‘The relative speed of train A with respect to train B = 30+ 10 = 40 ms". The minimum distance now is given by 0-40) =2x4xs5 which gives s = 200 m which is choice (b). ‘Since the bullet returns to its point of projection, its net displacement is zero.The bullet takes 5 5 to reach the maximum height. Therefore, initial speed (u) of the bullet is (-- final velocity = 0) u = gt = 10x 5 = 50 ms" directed upwards, The maximum beight (hk) attained by the bullet ish =f a? = $x 10(5)?= 125 m. Since the tout time taken by the bullet to return to the point of firing is 10 s, it takes 5 s to attain the maximum height. In the next 2 seconds, the bullet falls a dis- tance of 5, = $ ape 4 X10 x (2)? = 20 m. Also ‘the maximum height attained = 125 m. The loca- tion of the bullet after 7 s will be the same as that after t seconds, where 1 is the time taken by the a. Motion in One Dimension 2.13 bullet to rise to a height h = 125-20 = 105 m. This value of tis given by heut—1 gi? of 105=50-4x10x2 2 2 or = P~10r+21=0 of (1-3) (t-7) which gives r= 3 s or 7 s. Thus the correct choice is(o), the initial velocity is zero, the distance tray- elled in the first time interval tis s20+Lat=d at The velocity of the body at the end of this time in- terval is 0 = 0 + at = at. This is the initial velocity for the next time interval r during which the body travels a distance. seus aPeatst ated af (wea) 2 2 2 5, = 3.5). Thus the correct choice is (c). Here 0, = 0 + at = at and 0, = 0) + ar = at + at = 2at. Therefore, 0; = 20,. Hence the correct choice is) . Let h be the height of the tower. Then h= 5 g?= 1 ge 3 84) ‘The time # taken to fall through 4 = 4gis given by i gP or? =8orr=2V2 ‘Thus the correct choice is (c). |. It follows from Fig. 2.3 that from 0 to 5 s, displace- ‘ment x increases linearly with time ¢. Therefore, velocity 2 is a positive constant between t = 0 and 1=5's, Between = 5s and1= 15 s, displacement remains constant. Therefore, velocity (2) is zero between ¢= 5 s and r= 15s. Between t= 15 s and 1 = 20 5, displacement (x) decreases linearly with time (1). Therefore, velocity (0) is constant but negative between 1 = 15 s and r= 20s. Hence, the correct choice is graph (d) in Fig. 2.4. Draw a line (shown dotted in Fig. 2.19) perpen- dicular to the Faxis. This line cuts the graph at two points A and B which means that the particle has two different positions at x, and x, at the same time. This is not possible. Similarly graphs (b) and (c) in Fig. 2.3 are also not possible. But graph (4) is possible. Hence graphs (©) and (c) in Fig. 2.6 do not represent veloc- ity-time graphs of the motion of the body. 2.14 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE Fig. 219 25, Since the initial velocity of the stone is zero, the total time taken by the stone to hit the ground is given by 1 th _ [xs nar git or t= [2 = a 2a 0 ’ 10 During the first second, the stone falls a distance hy given by 1 apet n= guyp=£ a5 n> ws 5 Sm During the first four seconds, the stone falls a dis- tance h given by he (4) =e = 80m Distance hy through which the stone falls in the last (i.e. fifth) second = 125 -80.= 45 m. Now hyth, = 5/45 = 1/9. Hence the correct choice is (a 26. The maximum height h attained by the bullet is given by ww =-2gh orh=* (> 28 = 125 m. The total time taken by 50 x 50 2x10 the stone to attain this height is given by = 5s. During the first second (t= 1.5), the stone covers a distance h, given by hy=w > 9? =50 x1 + 10x (1)? = 45 m During the first four seconds (t = 45), the stone orh covers a height h given by ha soxd—4 x 10% (4)? = 120 m Distance travelled by the stone during the last .e. fifth) second of its upward motion is hy = 125 = 120 = $ m. Hence hy/h = 45/5 = 9. Hence the correct choice is (a). 27. The distance covered in the nth second is given by szuta (a » yeuea(sad or 40=u42 x 1oru= * w= 5+ 10 x (6-4) 54= 60 m. Thus the correct choice is (b). 28. Now, 5,=u+a (n-4). ‘Therefore, 2 30 = 540 (3-4) which gives a= 10 ms, 2 2 neset(-) «om and s,=5410(5-4) =50m ‘$= 5,4 55=40+4 50 = 90 m, Thus the cor- rect choice is (c). ‘Thus the correct choice is (A). 4 =0, we have 1 a 5204 ae and s,= oe a 4+ sls, = 7/11, which is choice (4). 31. Since the initial velocity of the car is zero, its ve- locity at the end of the first time interval f, is v= 0 +41, = ayf,. Ths is the initial velocity for the next time interval fy. Since the final velocity is zero, we have, from 0 = w+ at, 04, t-a,h usa,t) Now, the distance covered in the first time interval tis given by 2as, 20 sab (v v=a,t andu=0) 1 or yey aut @ ‘The distance covered in the next time interval 1 is given by ~testin- ah O and w= a; now) 2482 Co ansan) or aeitia o gs pad w@ 32, From (i) and (ii) we get “L & Thus we have 22 = 41 = 2 which is choice (a). H a total distance _ 5, +5; Average speed = ola! distance _ 51 + 52, me otal time tf) +f) As shown above, + s3= 5 a+ 4 ant () +6) Gh = yt) panies) a d= cae (4 +4) Hence the correct choice is (a). ‘The maximum speed v attained by the car = speed itattains at the end of time interval t, during which it is accelerated. As shown above, this speed is D=ayt, = ayy. 1 1 dat=t ay, zy ae date 2a, 2 Now 5; z ond 5 yatta 3 sa vn o v= [ae 2.8] ate, Hence the correct choice is (a). ‘The distance s, covered by the car during the time it is accelerated is given by 2@s, =v”, which gives s,='/2a. The distance s, covered during the time the car is decelerated is, similarly given by 5; = v'2f Therefore, the total distance covered is respons 2 (Led @ ROS Tae If , isthe time of acceleration and r, that of decel- cation, then 0 = at, = Bly of , = v/0. and t= v/B. Therefore, the total time taken is mivinol Lyd a tentgev(Lyt Gi) ptaeo(Lyt) From (i) and (ii), the average speed of the car is given by 35. 37. 41. Motion in One Dimension 2.15 total distances _ 0 totaltime of 2 Hence the correct choice is (d). Squaring both sides, we have welded +9 Since displacement x changes with time 1, the body ‘cannot be at rest. The velocity of the body is given by de va Ea 12 +8 Since the velocity v changes with time ¢, the body is not in uniform motion; it is accelerated because v increases with t. Hence the correct choice is (b). We have seen that v = 12 + 81. Comparing it with 0 = u+ at we find that w = 12 ms“. Hence the correct choice is (4). Now v= 12+ 81. Comparing it with v =u + at, we find that a= 8 ms~, Alternatively, acceleration a is given by dv anZ® dt ‘ora = 8 ms, Hence the correct choice is (d).. ce the initial velocity is zero, the velocity at the tend of the first time interval 1 is v = at. The dis- tance covered during this time interval is 5, a = (12 + 81) =8 a ) t at®, Velocity v= at is the initial velocity for the next time interval 1. Therefore, the distance trav- celled in the next time interval ris seated aPodar 2 2 ‘Thus s2 = 3 5). Hence the correct choice is (c). ‘The distance over which the car can be stopped is given by 2.as = 0° or a = v's. If v becomes nv, the value a” of a to stop the car in the same distance isa’ = (nv)?/2s = n*v*/2s. Thus a” = n"a. Hence the correct choice is (c). ‘The first ball falls for f, = 4 s. During this time it 1 1 falls a distance A, x10 x (4)? = 80m. st 2 2 ‘The second ball falls for 4, = 3 s. During this time it Lod P= n= 7 shay x 10x Gy 45 m. Their separation h, — hz = 80 ~ 45 = 35 m. Hence the correct choice is (¢). ‘The total time taken by the bullet to reach the high- est point (where its velocity becomes zero) is given by 0=u- gtort=ug = 50/10 = 5 s. The distance it covers in the first I second of its upward motion falls a distance 216 41, ‘Course in Physics for IT-JEE 1 is hy = ut gh =S0x1- > x 10x gt, andy ahs ut Se Suey & 288 Dividing the two equations, we have “Fee 4. Bee ya which gives 1= Jif . Hence the correct choice is ©. Velocity is sat+2bt-3cP (i) ax Accelerationis a = “TS =2b— bet Acceleration is zero at time # given by 0 = 2b 6ct ote 2 Putting this value of # in Eq. (i). b oe e Wehave v=a+2h 5--3ex Sy =a+ 5 Thus, the correct choice is (c). The velocity at a height A is given by v? =u? +2gh. For downward motion, « = 0 and the value of g is negative And h becomes more and more negative. Hence 0? increases with A. Since the velocity vector is directed downwards, v becomes more and more negative. Since 7? o A, the graph of v versus his parabolic, Hence graphs (c) and (d) are wrong. For upward motion, v? = u? + 2gh. Here g is directed downwards and h is positive. Conse- quently, v? decreases with h. Since the direction of the velocity vector is positive, v becomes less and less positive. Here also the variation of v with h is parabolic. Since 7 becomes less and less positive, ‘graph (b) is not correct. Hence the correct choice is (a). Let 1, be the time during which the car has an accel- eration a, = 5 ms™ and f, be the time during which the car has a deceleration a, = ~ 10 ms™. Since the car starts from rest, the maximum speed attained by the car v = 0+ ayf, = a;f;. For time interval, ty this vis the initial speed and the final speed is zero. Therefore, 0 = 0 aafy or Y= a ty, THUS a; f, = 03 fy or tlt = aya, = 1O/S = 2 oF ty = 2p. 62. The distance moved in 4) = 4s is s20xn+ dah The distance moved in t, = 2s is 1 aem-ted 63, The shortest stopping distance x is given by O-v=-2ax Frus fora given valve of x a Hence, if v is douobled, x becomes 4 times. 64, Differentiating 2x" + 3x = ¢ with respect to t we have orx. @ >. Therefore, 4x0 +30 = | or dx +3. = V/o. Differentiating Eq. (i) with respect to time 1, we have ay @x idx a(S) +4 p43 -0 or au" + dra +30 =0 : 2 ee geet’ area dx Now | wa 2 where a= °F isthe acceleration Butdr-+3= Ue. ‘Using this in Eq. (ii) we get a =~ 40". 65. Given, x” =? + 2¢ + 3. Differentiating, we have ds des ame? or xfbartl Differentiating again, we have (4 at w 2 Where a = & is the acceleration. Using (i) in (i) we have (+P +xresr or P+Utl+tase Gi) But it is given that x? = ? + 2s + 3. Using this in Eq. (iii) we get a = 2. uy (uP we wt Sut 66, - 2948) =(4) -(4) 2-2-4 2 i (3) (5) 9 3 oi) Divide (i) by (ii). 67. We know that or Pay hg & 8 The roots of this quadratic equation are f, and 1). . du ‘The sum of the roots is 1) +f) = —. & 68. Product of roots is f, 4, = — & (69, The time 1, taken by the body to strike the inclined plane is given by ‘The time f, taken by the body to reach the ground after striking the plane is ph 8 Toultime ret y= ae » ‘Time wil be maximum if =0, aE: a, $ Elbe py g dye or EI q- Ay + =A a 0 —— = h b= = “Ve Effective retardation in water is gay = For maximum depth, final velocity v = 0. Find the maximum depth x from the relatin Powe 2et 71. Ifhis the total distance travelled in n seconds, then 1 oe hed gn 38 In the last second, i.e. (n ~ I)th second, the distance fallen is A’ = gn’ Hence = gn? 72. 7. 4. 78. 16. Motion in One Dimension 2.19 or -4n+2=0 The positive root of this equation gives the required value of n. not displacement _ AB Average velocity = “EE 7 For the body of mass m,, we have 2 hee 28 For the body of mass m,, if S is the maximum. distance travelled along the incline then vw = ms Now, when $ is maximum, 7 in 8= ~ g sin 30° = ~4, sin @=~g sin ‘ = 0. Also a = Given ¢ = Vx + 3. Squaring, we have x=P-6r4+9 wo dx_d locity v= = (P6449) =21-6 Git velocity v= Th = TP -61+9)=21-6 Gi) Find 1 from Eq. (ii) when v = 0. Use this value of r is Bg. @). Given a= kfo or & = — ko. Ths vit de=—kdt Integrating, we get 21 given initial condition (v c= 2Vu. Thus, we have 1? = — kt + c. Using the wat = 0), we get 2o¥? — ul?) =~ kt Now, use t= Tand v = 0. ‘The slope of the line is m = & ms per second and its intercept is = 5 ms". Using y = mx +¢, the acceleration a (in ms™) as a function of time 1 is given by or or o=f, (-Sr+5)ar Sp or va-S P+ Stek 1 np a where k is the constant of integration. Since the particle starts from rest, = 0 at 1=0. Using this in (1) we ger k = 0. Hence 2.20 Course in Physics for IMT-JEE 5 vest P4st @ It follows from the graph that the deceleration becomes zero at 1 = 6 s. Hence, the speed of the particle will be maximum at 1 =6 s. Putting 1 = 6 s ‘Thus the graph of a versus x is a straight line 2 having a positive slope = (4) and negative % imeroept = — 2. Hence the correct choice is (d). in Eq. (2), we have 5 5 78. Given v = g Jy = 0" = kx, Differentiating, we pan =~ Fy XO + 86 have =~ 15+30=15 mst Hence the correct choice is (b). 1. The slope of the given v versus.x graph is m and intercept is ¢ = + vy. Hence varies = (2]xev @ X = where 0 y and x) are constants of motion. Differen- tiating with respest to time 1, we have = = or @ j = Using Eq. (1) in Eq. (2), we get 0%) (_ 2 Qe | (J v ‘Thus x « F. Hence the correct choice is (c) or a=) 2) ye xo) fo SECTION II Multiple Choice Questions with One or More Choices Correct |. At time ¢ = 0, a bullet is fired vertically upwards with a speed of 98 ms"!. At time t = 5 s (i.e. S seconds later) a second bullet is fired vertically ‘upwards with the same speed. If the air resistance is neglected, which of the following statements will be true? (a) The two bullets will be at the same height above the ground at 1 = 12.5 s. (b) The two bullets will reach back their starting points at the same time. (©) The two bullets will have the same speed at 1= 205. (@) The two bullets will attain the same maxi- ‘mum height. 2. The ratios of the distances covered by a freely falling particle, starting from rest, in the first, second, third, ...... n seconds of its motion (a) form an arithmetic progression (b) form the series corresponding to the squares of the first n natural numbers (©) do not form any well defined series (4) form a series corresponding to the differ- ences of the squares of the successive natural numbers 3. The displacement x of a particle varies with time according tothe relation x = $-(1-€™). Then (a) Att = 1/b, the displacement of the particle is nearly (2/3)(a/6) (b) The velocity and acceleration of the particle at = 0 are a and ~ ab respectively (c) The particle cannot reach a point at a dis- tance x‘from its starting position if x" > a/b (d) The particle will come back to its starting point as £9 © 4. A bullet is fired vertically upwards. After 10 seconds it returns to the point of firing. Which of the following statements are correct? Take 0 ms, (a) The net displacement of the bullet in 10 s is zero (b) The total distance travelled by the bullet in 10 s is 250 m (©) The rate of change of velocity with time is constant throughout the motion of the bullet (@) The bullet is fired at an initial velocity of 50 ms"! directed vertically upwards. 5. Two bodies of masses m, and m, are dropped from heights fh, and hy respectively. They reach the ‘ground after time f, and fy and strike the ground with speeds 0, and 0, respectively. Choose the correct relation from the following: fy mah @ ra Se 2 Vk my a. fly 2 _ [mah oe he fe @ Be jee on Ooi 6. Which of the velocity-time (0-1) graphs shown in Fig. 2.20 can possibly represent one-dimensional motion of a particle? { = — ) © ° ° ® = @ — © @ Fig. 220 7. ‘Two balls of different masses are dropped from the same point at the same time. If the air resistance is neglected and the value of g remains constant, which of the following statements are true? 10. 1. ). A particle initially Motion in One Dimension 2.21 (a) The heavier ball reaches the ground before the lighter one does. (b) Both balls reach the ground at the same time (©) The heavier ball hits the ground with a higher speed (d) Both balls reach the ground with the same speed . A body is dropped from the top of a tower of height Ah, Its covers a distance h/3 in the last second of its motion. If g = 10 ms, how long does it take to reach the ground? (a) (2 +y9)s © G +68 (b) (2 V3 )s ) GB -J6)s at ¢ = 0) located at x= 0 moves along the positive x-direction under the action of a force. The velocity of the particle varies with x as vakve where k is a constant, Then (a) the displacement x varies with time ¢ as x = ee 4 2 (b) the velocity v varies with time «as v = A. a (©) the acceleration ofthe pact is (d) the distance s travelled by the particle in time er Tiss= ‘The motion of a body is given by do o, 78-37 where v is the velocity (in ms“) at time # (in see- ‘onds). The body is at rest at ¢ = 0. Then (a) the velocity of the body when its accelevation is zero is 2 ms” (b) the initial acceleration of the body is 6 ms", (c) the velocity of body when the acceleration is half the initial value is 1 ms“. (d) the body has a uniform acceleraion. A stone falls freely from rest and the total distance covered by it in the last second of its motion is ‘equal to the total distance covered by it in the first three seconds of its motion. If ¢ = 10 ms, (a) the stone remains in air for 5 s. (b) the stone fell from a height of 125 m. (c) the stone hits the ground with a speed of 30 ms, 2.22 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE (d) the acceleration of the stone during the last 3 seconds of its motion is three times that during the first second. 12, From the top of a tower 40 m tall, a stone is pro- jected vertically upwards with a speed of 10 ms such that it falls in the sea below. If g = 10 ms™, (a) the stone passes the point from where it was projected after 2 s. (b) the speed with which it passes the point of projection is 10 ms“. (c) the stone falls in the sea 4 5 after it was projected. (@) the stone hits the water with a speed of 30 ms". 13. A balloon is rising vertically upwards at a velocity of 10 ms“. When it is at a height of 45 m from the ground, a parachutist bails out from it. After 3 she ‘opens his parachute and decelerates at a constant rate of 5 ms*, Take g = 10 ms. (a) He was 15 m above the ground when he ‘opened his parachute. (d) The velocity of the parachutist 3 s after he bails out is 5 ms“ vertically upwards, (c) He hits the ground with a speed of 10 ms“ (d) He hits the ground 5 s after his exit from the balloon. 14. A particle moving in a straight line is subjected to a ‘constant reterdation a which varies with instanta- neous velocity 0 as a=-k where & is a positive constant. If the initial velocity of the particle is w at time r= 0, then () the velocity at time #is given by 0 =u ~ at () the velocity decreases exponentially with time. . (6) the velocity wil decrease to in time be (4) the total distance covered by the particle before coming t0 rest is wk. 15. A body moves from point A to point B with a velocity #, and returns to point A with a velocity 3,. Then, over the entire journey (a) the average speed i FO +m) ig 2210 2mm (©) the average speed is “=O (©) the average velocity is zero. (@) the average velocity is ; 7) 16. A body projected vertial upwards from the top of a tower of height h with a speed u reaches the ground after time f. If the body is projeced vertically downwards from the top of the tower with the same speed, it reaches the ground after time f. Then (@ he pal? +2) (by he je tin 1 ath +h) us fae) @u ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS 1, The two bullets will attain the same height at time f= seconds if 98 n= 3 9.8 xn? = 98 (n—5)~ ; 9.8 (n ~ 5)? which gives n= 12.5 s, The time to teach the highest point is given by 0= 98 ~9.8 ror t= 10s. Thus the time of flight of the first bullet is 2x 10= 20 s while that of the second bullet is 20 + 25 s, Hence, the second builet will reach the starting point $ seconds later than the first bullet. At r= 20s, the speed of the first bullet is 98 ms“ while that of the second bullet is 98 - 9.8 x 5 = 49 ms"! The maximum height attained by each bullet is 490 m. Hence, height attained by each bul- let is 490 m. Therefore the correct choices are (a) and (d). 2, The distance covered in the nth second (with w = 0) is given by £ (= (@- 11 = Fen 1) ase dane de 52 ds etc. Hence choices (a) and (d) are correct. 3. Velocity of the particle is given by 1 Hence choice (a) is correct. At = 0, the values 2 and a respectively are » = ae“ =a and @=— abe” =~ ab, Hence choice (b) is also correct. The dis- placement x is maximum when f 9 ©, 1.0. Xa, = Glin - Hence choice (c) is also correct. ‘Thus the correct choices are (a), (b) and (c). Since the bullet returns to its point of projection, its net displacement is zero, which is choice (a). The bullet takes 5 s to reach the maximum height. Therefore, initial speed (u) of the bullet is inal velocity = 0) 10x $ = 50 ms“ directed upwards which is choice (d). The maximum height (A) attained by the bullet is h = t ge $x 10 x (5° = 125 m. Therefore, the total distance travelled by the bullet in 10s = 125 + 125 = 250 m, which is choice (b). For heights fi << radius of the earth, the magnitude of g is constant, ic. the rate of change of velocity is constant, which is choice (c). Thus, all four choices are correct. Since the initial velocity is zero, we have 1 hy =0x1,4 288 1 1+ 38 and y= OX +P ards Therefore 4s ccs which is choice (a). a Vb Also, we have v, = 0 + gt, = gh, and v2 = sty Therefore i sie Is. which is choice (e) no Hence the correct choices are (a) and (c). . Draw a line perpendicular to r-axis. You will find that in graphs (a) and (b) shown in Fig. 2.20, the particle can have two different velocities at the ‘same time, which is impossible. Hence the correct choices are graphs (c) and (d) in Fig. 2.20. Since the time taken to reach the ground and the speed with which a ball reaches the ground are in- dependent of mass, choices (b) and (c) are correct. The total time ¢ taken by the body to reach the sround is given by hy => gP = 3 x 10x? =F, ‘The body moves for (t - 1) second before the beginning of the last second. The velocity of the body at an instant (t~ 1) second is » = g(t— 1) = 10 10. Motion in One Dimension 2.23 (¢— 1). This is the initial velocity for the motion in the last one second. The distance covered in this ‘one second is y= 10G- Dx 1+ 5 x 10% (1)? = 100-1) +5 = 10r-5. Iti given that hy = “ ‘Therefore St lor-5 = 50 3 or P-614+3=0 The two roots of this quadratic equation are ¢ = (34V6) s. Hence the correct choices are (c) and (4). }. All four choices are correct. Given v= kVx or Bets! or xl? dr = kde. Integrating, we have 2x!” = kr+c where ¢ is a constant of integration. Given that x= 0 at f= 0. This gives c= 0. which gives s = Givena= @ =6-30 (1) dt (a) Velocity vp when acceleration a = 0 is obt- ained from Eq(1) by putting a = 0, we get 6 — 30% = 0 or m% = 2 mst. (b) At t= 0, the body is at rest, ic. v = 0 at 1= 0. Putting » = 0 in Eq.(1), initial accelera- tion (a)) = 6 ms. (©) Putting a= > = 3 ms” in Eq, (1), we have 3=6 Hence choices (a), (b) and (c) are correct. Choice (@) is wrong because acceleration a change with time because 0 changes with time. -30 = v=lmst 2.24 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE 11. Let h, be the distance covered during the first Let 1 be the time of flight. Then the velocity at (t= 1) is g(t 1) and the distance covered in the last one second is - pena Dx d= bx? y= gt- + = g@-% => neat D+ > = a- Fo Given hy= hy, ic. Sena 1e5s ‘The héight H from which the stone falls is 1 x 10x (5) 1 Hans ae 2 125 m=9 H = 125m ‘The speed with which the stone hits the groun -v=-gt=-10x5=-S0ms! => v=50ms! Hence choices (a), (b) and (c) are correct. Choice (@) is wrong because for bodies not too far away from the earth, the acceleration due to gravity is contant = 9.8 ms~. 12. Let us assign a positive sign to quantities directed in th upward directon and a negative sign to those directed downwards. Now, the net displacement of the stone = final position — initial position = 40 m directed downwards, Thus 5 = ~ 40 m. The initial velocity is directed upwards. Therefore, w +10 ms"!, The acceleration due to gravity is directed downwards. Hence g = — 10 ms~*, Using these values in the relation s = ur +g, we get = 40 10r+ 5 (10)? = 10r— 5? or P-21-8=0 or (1+ 2Kr-4)= which gives t=—2s ord s. Since the negative sign of fis not possible, the correct answer is 4 5. Its clear that the net displacement of the stone in coming back to the pointfrom where it was pro- jected is zero, i.e. s = 0. Thus we have O= 100+ 5 (10)? which gives t= 0 or 2 the correct answer is 2 5, ince t= O is not possible ‘The final velocity of the stone is given by -v=utg = 10+ (-10)x4=~ 30 ms* = p= 30ms! Hence all four choices are correct. 13. When the parachutist bails out, he shares the velo- city of the balloon and has an upward velocity of 10 ms w= +10 ms, Also g = -10 ms (acting downwards). The displacement in t= 3 sis given by 1 sutt — gh 5 78 £1034 5 x10) (37 =-15 m Since the displacement is negative, it is directed downwards. So the height from the ground when he opened his parachute = 45 ~ 15 = 30 m. In time 3 s, the balloon has risen through 30 m (as the velocity of the balloon is 10 ms“ upwards). Hence the parachutist is now 30 + 15 = 45 m away from the balloon. The velocity of the parachutist 3 s after he bails out is veutg 0 + (-10) x 3 = -20 ms"! (Girected downwards) At t= 3s, his initial velocity is u = -20 ms" and to hit the ground, his displacement s = -30 m (see solution of Q.18). Now a = +5 ms™ (directed upwards). The time taken to hit the ground is given by ae ze or -30=-208+ he or P-81+12=0 or (r-6\t-2)=0 which gives ¢= 6s or 2s. If t= 6s, then the velo- city with which he hits the ground is v = w+ ar = 20 +5 x 6= 10 ms“, This is positive, ic, v is directed upwards, which is not possible. Thus the correct answer is = 2 s, in which case, the velo- city with which he hits the ground is v= -20+5x2=-10 ms! which is negative as it should be. ‘The total time the parachutist takes (after his exit from the balloon) to hit the ground is = 3 s+ 2s =Ss. Hence the correct choices are (c) and (d). 14. © oko a = we,(2) =-k = veue™ wo ‘Thus choice (a) is wrong and choice (b) is correct. It follows from Eq. (1) that by 5 imtime r given 8 ane 2 = pret => 2s" = logd2)=kt = ra PED) , 0668 Hence choice (c) is wrong. From Eg.(1) we have Swe" ar = fave fact ar » 0 = renee te = xexy- fet Now x = 0 at r= 0 which gives x = Hence x= fu-e% (2) It follows from Eq.(1) that » = 0 at 1 = 2, Hence distance travelled by the particle before coming to Motion in One Dimension 2.25 rest is obtained from Eq.(2) by putting r = =, which gives x = wk. Hence the correct choices are (b) and (4). 15. Let s = distance between points A and B. It isthe time taken to go from A to B and f, the time taken to return from B to A, then qvtge 2 Total distance travelled. ‘Total time taken _ tts 2p Lyf M+) my Since the net displacement is zero as the body re- turns to the strating point, the average velocity = 0. Hence the correct choices are (b) and (c). 16, The net displacement in both cases is ~h (verti- cally) downwards. For the body projected upwards, initial velocity is +u and for the body projected +. Average speed = downwards, the initial velocity is -u. Hence, we have (since a = ~ g in both cases) L wheut- an aw and wha Fath 2) Equations (1) and (2) give w= fee = 1) and hh= 5 et Thus the correct choices ae (b) and (). SI ECTION III Multiple Choice Question Based on Passage ‘Questions 1 to 4 are based on the following passage Passage I It must be clearly understood that distance is not the same as displacement. Distance is a scalar quantity and is ‘given by the total length of the path travelled by the body in a certain interval of of time. Displacement is a vector quantity and is given by the shortest distance (in a specified direction) between the initial and the final positions of the body. The direction of the displacement vector is from the initial position (starting point) to the final position (end point) of the motion. Speed is a scalar quantity. The average speed is defined as pax {otal distance travelled ‘otal time taken Velocity is a vector quantity. The average velocity is defind as 5 = Ret displacement time taken ‘The direction of the velocity vector is the same as that of the displacement vector. Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity and it is a vector quantity. 2.26 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE 1. A cyclist starts from centre O of a circular track of radius r= | km, reaches edge P of the track and then cycles along the circumference and stops at point Q as shown in Fig. 2.21. the displacement of the cyclist is Q wf'-4) Z., (b) r c ()r (1 + oe fg 2 SOLUTION 1, Net displacement is OQ = shortest distance be- tween the starting point O and end point Q = 1 km =r. Therefore, the correct choice (b). sty = isPlacement _1km 4 2. Average velocity = = 7 6km 6 Hence the correct choice is (4). 3. Distance travelled = OP + PQ (along the arc) Question 5 to 7 are based on the following passage. Passage I Ball A is rolled along the positive x-direction with a speed of 5 ms"! towards a bigger ball B 20 m away. After collision with ball B, ball A retraces the path and reaches its starting point with a speed of 4 ms". 5. The average velocity of ball A during the time interval from 0 t0 4 s is (a) 5 ms“ along positive x-direction. (b) 5 ms“ along negative x-direction. (©) ms” along negative x-direction. 2 9 14 o> ms" along positive x-direction, SOLUTIONS 5. Time taken by ball A to reach ball B is 20 eZ a4s Daring the time interval 0 to 4s, the net displace- ‘ment of ball A = 20 m along positive x-direction Therefore, the velocity of ball A during 0 to 4s = 5 ms" along positive x- direction, which is choice (a). 2. In QI above the magnitude of the velocity in km bof the cyclist is (a) 123 (b) 120 ©) 30 @ 60 3. In Q.1 the distance travelled by the cyclist is ap- proximately (@) 2 km (b) 2.01 km (©) 2.05 kn () km 4. In Q.1, the average speed (in km h”) of the cyclist is (a) 12.3 (b) 6.15 ©) 60 (@) 120 2m _f{1+7)- #4) 22H r+ Fetal t+ 3 +205 km Hence the correct choice is (c). 4, Average speed = distance Thus the correct choice is (a) 6. The average valocity of ball A during the time interval 0 10 9 s is {a) 4.5 ms” along positive x-direction. (b) 4.5 ms" along negative x-direction. 0 (©) sy ms" along negative x-direction, (@) zero 7. The average velocity of ball A during the time in- terval 0 t0 6 s is (a) 2 ms" along positive x-direction. (b) 2 ms" along negative x-direction. 4 (©) J ms" along positive x-direction 4 OF ms" along negative x-direction. 6. Time taken by ball A to retrace its path and reach the starting point after collision with ball B is 20 he Pass Therefore, the net displacement in time interval 0 to 9 s = 0 Hence velocity = 0, which is choice (d). 7. During the time interval 0 to 6 s, ball A covers a distance of 20 m along positive x-direction up to ball B (which takes 4 8) and in the next 2 s, it cov- ers a distance of 4 ms” x 2 s = 8 m along the negative x-direction. Therefore, Net displacement of A from 0 to 6s = 20-8 = Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following passage Passage II ‘The speed-time graph of the motion of a body is shown in Fig. 2.22. 2 ‘Speed (ms) c 67 ‘Tune (8) ——~ Fig. 222 SOLUTION 8. Acceleration during last 2 second = slope of line Be o- “7-5 ‘Thus the correct choice is (c). 9. Distance travelled in last two seconds = area of triangle BCD x BD x DC 1 = 3x 20x2=20m Total distance travelled = area of trapesium OABC ‘Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following passage Passage (IV) A particle initially (ie. at time t = 0) moving with a velocity u is subjected to a retarding force, as a result of which it decelerates at a rate a=-kvo where D is the instantaneous velocity and k is a positive constant. 11. The particle comes to rest in a time 10. 10. 12. Motion in One Dimension 2.27 12 m along positive x-direction. Hence, average velocity of A during 0 and 6 s is 2 s Thus the correct choice is (a). 2 ms" along positive x-direction The accelerations of the body during the last 2 second is @ 2 ms? (b) 2 ms (c) -10 ms* (d) zero . The ratio of distance travelled by the body during the last 2 seconds to the total distance travelled by itis 1 2 @ 5 ®) 5 1 4 ©3 WM The average speed of the car during the whole journey is (a) 10 mst (b) 20 ms a 2st ©) Fas (a) jms 1 (AB + OC) x AE 1 = 72+7)x%0=9m Hence the correct choice is (b). total distance travelled Avera SPeed = ca ime taken Le 187 vu © » (©) 2kvw @) ku ‘The distance covered by the particle before coming to rest is on ay @ () 24 a 2 © w 2k 3k 2.28 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE SOLUTION 11. Given a=—ko'? or | Squaring, we have Thus = y-idv=-kdt | Integrating,we have fede =~ kf de or 2? =-k+e “ where c is the constant of integration. Given that at 1=0, D=u. Using this in (i) we get 2u'= c, Using this value of c in (i), z « Ble Therefore, au -teu’? BE * dt 4 wehave 2(0¥2 — y!2) =r w Integrating from = 0 tor = we have Let rbe the time taken by the particle to come to ke? AlE rest. Then, v = 0 at ¢= r. Using this in (ii), we get #3 +] a yl 20-0 ki = i x Foor t= AP Gi) or Lyte yep Pa Hence the correct choice is (a). hd on 12, To find the distance s covered in this time, we use ‘Substituting the value of ¢ from (ii) in iv), we get Eq. (i) to get a tu? 4p? gy? uw? ya. wa kt + or se vit = wn -F z 12k 3k SECTION IV Matching 1. Match the graphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) shown in Fig. 2.23 with the types of motions (p), (q), (F) and (s) that they represent. Tm Time — Time Time > @ © © o Fig. 2.23 (p) Motion with non-uniform acceleration (+) Motion having a constant retardation (q) Motion of a body covering equal distances (8) Uniformly accelerated motion, in equal intervals of time ANSWER 1 @>@ O70 () > (s) @ >) ‘Motion in One Dimension 2.29 2. Figure 2.24 shows the displacement-time (x ~f) graph of the motion of a body. E ¢ >. a —= Fig. 224 Column I Column It (a) AB (p) The body is a rest (b) BC (q) The body is not accelerating (©) @ (t) The velocioty is decreasing with time (@) DE (s) The velocity is increasing with time. ANSWER 2@>@ ©>@) (b) + (s) Mo Explanation: The slope of x ~ 1 graph gives the velocity of the body. In AB, the slope is constant. In BC, the slope is increasing with time. In CD, the slope is zero and in DE the slope is decreasing with time. 3. The displacement x of a particle moving along the x-direction varies with time ¢ according to the relation. xeath—cF where a, b and ¢ are constants of motion. Column Cotumn It (a) Displacement when velocity = 0 (p) ( = Te) (b) Acceleration when velocity = 0 (q) 2c (c) Initial displacement a 2 (d) Average velocity during the 4th second (s) a+ SOLUTION Displacement x = a + bt ~ ct” xat@= Velocity vedare 2 2e Acceleration = 2 = -2c (which is constant) @) > 6) () > @) 2.30 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE SECTION V Assertion-Reason Type Questions In the following questions, Statement-I (Assertion) is followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has the A body moving along a curve with a constant speed following four options out of which only ONE choice is may have a zero acceleration. correct. 3. Statement-1 Statement-2 (a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-? is true and State- ment-2 is the correct explanation for Statement-1 (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but State- ment-2 is NOT the correct explanation for State- ment (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is flase. (A) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true. 1, Statement-1 ‘A body moving in a straight line may have non- zero acceleration at an instant when its speed is zero. Statement-2 If a body is thrown vertically upwards, its speed at the instant when it reaches the highest point is zero but its acceleration is 9.8 ms. 2. Statement-1 ‘A body moving in a straight line with a constant speed must have a zero acceleration. SOLUTIONS 1. The correct choice is (b). 2. The correct choice is (c). The velocity of a body moving along a curve continuously changes because its direction of motion is changing. Hence a body moving along a curve with a constant speed has acceleration called centripetal acceleration. The correct choice is (a). The effective accelera- tion due to gravity in a meduim is given by wntlnd) 4 ‘A wooden ball and a stee! ball of the same mass, released from the same height in air, do not reach the ground at the same time. Statement-2 ‘The apparent weight of a body in a meduim depends on the density of the body relative to that of the meduim. Statement-1 If the displacement-time graph of the motion of a body is a straight line parallel to the time axis, then it follows that the body is at rest. Statement-2 Velocity is equal to the rate of change of displace- ment. Statement-1 If the voelocity-time graph of the motion of a body is a curve, then the body is either uniformly accel- erated or uniformly retarded. Statement-2 The slope of the velocity-time graph gives the acceleration. where p = density of the medium and o= density of the body. ‘The correct choice is (a). If the displacement-time graph is paralfel to the time axis, then, rate of change of displacement is zero. ‘The correct choice is (d). If the velocity-time graph isa curve, the slope of the graph is not constant. ENCES PS and QR are equal and parallel) tor B could be WA=B (@) AB=1 (a) i+j ) ai 41. What is the torque of a force F = (21 - 3] + 4k) © j+ (@) - 7k newton acting at a point r = (31 + 2) + 3k) metre 38. A body, initially at rest, is acted upon by four about the origin? forces F, = 7 +k. F)= 2] + 3h, Fy = 3j and F,= (a) 61 ~ 6) + 12% (b) 171 - 6] - 13k 3 - 4]. In which plane will the body move? (c) — 61 + 6) ~ 12k (d) -17i + 6) + 13% ANSWERS 1. @) 2. @) 3) 4. (a) 5. (©) 6. (©) 1. ©) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10. (b) 1. (b) 12. () 13. (©) 14. (d) 15. (a) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. @) 20. (b) 21. (b) 22. (b) 2. @) 2. (c) 25. (a) 26. (a) 27. (©) 28. (a) 29. (@) 30. (©) 31. (@) 32. (c) 33. (@) 3. (a) 38. @) 36. (d) 37. (@) 38. (©) 39. (a) 40. (c) 41. (b) SOLUTIONS 1. F=10N, F,=5 N. We know that (i+nj-B)-Qi43}+28) <0 Pefi+Fi= i= /P-F => 8+3n-2=0 = n=-2 = (to?-@ 4. B=2(i-5j)=2A. Hence the magnitude of B is twice that of A and the direction of B is the same =5V3.N as that of A. So the correct choice is (a). 2. The resultant of A and B is ‘ R=A+B= (+2]-3k)+ 2i-j+h) = Gi+j-2k) 2. Magnitude of RisR = J3? +1 +(-2)" = Vid ae 6. R2=A?+ B+ 2AB cos 6 Itis given that R= A = B. Reo = 7 oiti-2h) ‘Thus, we have R via Abs A? + A? + 2A? cos 6 > cos Oe b on Be ta 10. u. 12 13. 14, 15. . If Bis the angle between A and B, the magnitudes of P and Q are given by P= YA'+B? +2ABcos@ and Q= VA? +B -2ABcos 0 Given P = Q. If follows that cos 6= 0 or @= 90°. =C+A+B=C+ Gi-5j+k +(2i+3j-4k) = C+ 5i-2j-3k > C= -5i+3]+3k |. Given A + B = A ~B which gives B = ~ B. This is possible only if B is a null vector. Hence the correct choice is (b). Since A’B = 0, it follows that A is perpendicular to B. Also A x C = 0. Therefore A is parallel to C. Hence B is perpendicular to C. Therefore, the cor- rect choice is (b). ‘As shown in Fig. 3.8, the angle @between vectors ‘A and B is 90°. Also A = B. Therefore, the magni- tude of the resultant is given by R= A+ B+2AB cos 6 = A? + A? +24? cos 90° =247 o RENT Fig. 38 Hence the correct choice is (b). Since C is perpendicular to both A and B, the sum of any two cannot yield the third vector. Hence choices (a) and (b) are not possible. Choice (d) is also not possible because B is not perpendicular to A. Choice (c) is possible. Vector € lies in the plane containing vectors A and B, and vector D is perpendicular to both A and B. Hence D must be perpendicular to C. Hence the correct choice is (c). Since A x B=-Bx A,C =—D, i.e. vectors C and D are in opposite directions. Hence the correct choice is (d). Let @ be the angle between the two vectors. The resultant is given R= A+ B+ 2AB cos 0 16, 17. 18, 19. a. Vectors 3.7 Putting the values of R, A and B we get (OP =) + (4) +2%3 x4 x cos or cos O=~ 1 or O= 180° Now — AB=AB cos 8= 3 x 4 x cos 180° =-12 Hence the correct choice is (a). ‘The magnitude of A x B = AB sin @=3x 4x sin 180° = 0. Hence the correct choice is (d). Since A + C= B, vector B is the resultant of vec- tors A and C. Using the triangle law of vector addi- tion (see Fig. 3.9), we have O= 45° (" A=C) tl & zx Fig. 39 ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). ‘The resultant R of vectors (A +B) and (A ~ B) is R=(A+B)+(A-B)=2A + The magnitude of the resultant = 2A. Hence the correct choice is (a) Since R = 2A, Ris parallel to A, Hence the correct, choice is (a). B ). It follows from Fig. 355 that B? = RP + A? = + A? or A= Biv. Thus A. Hence @= 45°. There- is (b). Let i and j represent the magnitudes of vectors i and j respectively. Since i and j are unit vectors, = Land j = 1. Therefore, the magnitude of vector / + je vP47 = Morea? = v2. Thus the correct choice is (b). ‘The angle subtended by vector i + j with the acaxis is given by tan = 4 d or @ = 45° which is choice (b). cone (etbtit Gas jisid (2+ 748)” (14141) xr 140401 3 WB 3.8 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE chi Oandi-i=1) Hence the correct choice is (a). 24, Here (0.2) + (0.6)? + a? = 1 or a? = 1 -0.04-0.36, = 0.6 or a = YOG. So the correct choice is (c). 25. A-De(i+J)(i+i)-iisikedis ie 29, AXB =14+04+0+0=1 ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). i+ j) x(i +k) sixit+ixksjxi+jxk = 0 ~j-k +i which is choice (@). . The component of vector A along vector B = (AB)B where B = 3 where B is the magnitude of vector B. Now (AB) = (21+3))(i+}) = 24-4+25-[+3}-1+3)5 +0404+3=5 i i+] gly -jer a) ‘Thus the answers F-(i+ 3) whichis choice . Since (i + j)-(i - j) = 0, vector (i - j) is perpen- dicular to vector (i + j). Let i - j = C. Now (AC) =(21+3i}{i-3) The required component is ao £=Ri+3}i- IS =-(i-9- 0-3) i-j=Jitl = v2 and Qi+3p-G-D ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). ‘We use the triangle law of vector addition. For triangle OPR, we have ¢+PR=b and for triangle ORQ, we have b+RQ=a8 Since 2PR = RQ, we get 2b ~ 2c = = 3b. Hence the correct choice is (4). Sine A +B = C, vector C is the resultant of vectors A and B. If the angle between A and B is 6 the 1 bora+2e ‘magnitude of the resultant is given by Ch= A? + B+ 248 cos 0 or (137 = (129 + (SP +2 x 12 x S x cos O which gives cos @= 0 or @= a/2. Hence the correct choice is (¢). 31, As shown in the figure, F is the resultant of F and F, and F; is the smaller force. Now Fl + FP = FU + y @ and F, + F,= 16 or Fy = 16 - Fy @ . fh F Fig. 310 Using (ii) in (i) we have (16 - F\)? = F3 + 64, which gives F, = 6 N. Therefore F; 6 — 6 = 10 N, Hence the correct choice is (a). 32. Let i and j be the unit vectors along positive x and yeaxes respectively. Then 4i and B= 3 cos 30° i +3 sin 30°] Hence the correct choice is (a). 34. Angle @between vectors A and B is given by A. B=(i+2)+3%)-@-2) +38) yP+2x-24+0)7 =1-44+9=6 A= {0+ + GF? =(1+449)? = Id galore +e2r +0] =via 6 6 3 Vix 147 Since C and D are at right angles to each other, C-D=0o0r(A+B)-(A-B)=0 orA?~A-B+B-A-B=0 oA=B (2 A-B=B-A) Displacement r = ry ~ 1; | = Gi - 4] + 5k) - (21 - 3] - 4%) (i - 1+ 98) metre Work done W =F -r =(4i4)+ = J+ 9%) newton metre | (4 — 1 + 54) = 57 newton metre or 57 J. | cos 6= Bs Vectors 3.9 Given A + (2i —3j+ 4k) + (i +5] +2k)=1) The angle «which the resultant R makes with A is given by 37. The vector product of two non-zero. vectors fag is zero if they are in the same direction. Hence, | yy 7 pals 4 vector B must be parallel to vector A, ie. along | “I Tortue=rXE=)) 7 4 + zaxis, | 38. Resultant force = F, + F; +F, + Fy ifs- 9] -ja2-6+k ©9-4) 2 +8) +2] +38) +31 +6) -4i) e1i-6j-ne =Sj+4k SECTION II Multiple Choice Questions with One or More Choices Correct 1. Two vectors of the same physical quantity are un- (©) Position vector of the origin of a rectangular equal if coordinate system (a) they have the same magnitude and the same (d) Displacement vector of a stationary object direction 4. The magnitudes of four pairs of displacement (b) they have different magnitudes but the same vectors are given. Which pairs of displacement direction vectors cannot be added to give a resultant vector (©) they have the same magnitude but different of magnitude 4 cm? directions (@) Lem, 1 em (b) 1 cm, 3 cm (@) they have different magnitudes and different (©) Tem, 5 cm (@) 1 cm, 7 em directions, 5. The dot product of two vectors A and B is zero if 2, Given A =~ B. This means that vectors A and B (a) A is a null vector and B a proper vector (a) have equal magnitudes (b) A is a proper vector and B is a null vector : A and B are both null vectors (b) have unequal magnitudes ©) (e) are in opposite di (2) & ad B ar proper vectors pependicati 10 (@) are in the same direction. . ie vero j 3. Which of the following is a null vector? 6. The cross product of two vectors A and B is zero if (a) Velocity vector of a body moving in a circle with a uniform speed (b) Velocity vector of a body moving in a straight line with a uniform speed (a) A is a null vector and B a proper vector (b) A is a proper vector and B is a null vector (c) A and B are both null vectors (d) A and B are proper vectors parallel to each other. 3.10 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE 7. IfAxB = C, which of the following statements is/ are correct? (a) C is perpendicular to A (b) C is perpendicualr to B (©) C is perpendicular to both A and B (@) C is parallel to both A and B 8 Which of the following vector identities is/are false? (@ A-B=B-A (b) A-B=-B-A (AXB=BxA (d) AXB=-BxA 9. A and B are two perpendicular vectors in a plane. Cis another vector perpendicular to the plane con- taining vectors A and B, Which of the following relations is/are possible? @) A+B=C (b) A+C=B (©) AXxB WAxC ANSWERS AND SOLUTION 1. The correct choices are (b), (c) and (4). 2. Given A =—B, ie. A +B =0. Two vectors add up to zero only if they have equal magnitudes and opposite directions. Hence the correct choices are (a) and (©). ‘The correct choices are (c) and (d) The magnitude R of the resultant of two vectors A and B depends upon the magnitudes of A and B and the angle @between them and is given by R? =A? +B? + 2AB cos 6 When 8= 0, R is maximum given by Rag = A? + B+ 2AB oF Ray =A +B ‘When @= 180°, R is minimum given by Roig = A? + BP 2AB Be ‘Thus, the magnitude of resultant will lie between A~B and A + B. Hence the correct choices are (a) and (4). 5. A+B=AB cos 6=0if A= 0 or B= 0 or 6= 90°. 6 Hence all the four choices are correct. AxB=ABsin 0=0 if A =0 or B=0 or 0= 0°. Hence all the four choices are correct. The correct choices are (a), (b) and (c). ‘The scalar product is commulative, i. A+B=B-A. ‘Vector product is anti-commutative, ie. A x B =~ Bx A. Hence choices (b) and (c) are false. 9, Since C is perpendicular to both A and B, the sum of any two cannot yield the third vector. Hence choices (a) and (b) are not possible. Since A is perpendicular to B, the three vectors are mutually perpendicular. Hence choices (c) and (d) are possible. am or Rain =A -B SECTION II Matching 1. Match the following. Column Column (@) AsB=B-A. (p) False (bt) AXB=BxA (q) A and B are perpendicular to each other (©) A-B=0 (®) A and B are parallel to each other (d) AXB=0 (s) True ANSWER L @>) ©) >) ©7-@ @>@0 2. Match the following. Column Column IT (a) Work (p) Scalar (b) Torque (q) Scalar (©) Dipole moment (r) Vector (@) Electric potential (s) Vector ANSWER 2 @(p) >a) ©O>6) @>@ MOTION IN Two DIMENSIONS REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4.1 Projectile Motion ‘An important practical example of motion with uniform acceleration in two dimensions is the motion of projectiles on the earth's surface. Projectile is the name given to a body which, after having been given an initial velocity, is allowed 10 move under the influence of gravity alone. A few examples of projectiles are: a stone thrown from the top of building, a bullet fired from a rifle, a bomb released from a plane, a javelin thrown by an athlete, etc. The path of projectile is called its trajectory. A body can be projected in two ways: (i) It can be projected horizontally from a certain height, or (ii) It is thrown from the ground in a direction inclined to it. @ Body Projected Horizontally from a Certain Height If a body is projected horizontally at time 1 = 0 with a velocity vg from a point above the ‘ground, then the horizontal and vertical distances covered in time t are x= Up t and y = ge Eliminating ¢ from these equations, we get = 8 ae 2 20 where k= Thr: Since k x7, the trajectory ofthe % body projected horizontally from any height above the ground is parabolic. Resultant velocity: The magnitude of the resultant velocity of the body at time t is given by vm (0 + 4)!” ‘The angle a which the resultant velocity vector makes with the vertical direction is given by P% a (ii) Body Projected at an Angle with the Horizontal If a body is projected with a velocity tan @ Gi) pat an angle @ with the horizontal direction (Fig. 4.1), the horizontal and vertical distances covered in time ¢ are (t cos 8) ¢ and y= (% 1-3 9 y » Prax ° o x /+——— 8 —_+ Fig. 42 Eliminating ¢ from these equations, we get ye peg? where p = tan @ and q = gi(2 v4, cos* @) are constants of motion. This equation is an equation of a parabola. Hence the trajectory of the body is parabolic. Maximum Height Attained: The maximum height of a projectile is the height it attains when the vertical velocity component becomes zero and it is given by Horizontal Range It is the maximum horizontal distance between the point of projection and the point where it strikes the horizontal plane ‘containing the point of projection and it is given by vg sin 20 8 R is maximum when sin 26= | or @= 45°. Thus 2 Raa = “2 8 Re 42° Course in Physics for IIT-JEE For a given vp, the horizontal range R is the same for angles of projection @ and (90° ~ &. iv) Time of Flight It is the time taken by the projec- tile from the instant it is projected till it strikes a point on the same horizontal plane as the point of projection. It is given by 7, = 2msin8 8 (¥) Velocity and Direction of Motion of Projectile at any Height Let P be a point on the trajectory of a projectile at a height h and let v be the velocity of the projectile at that height. If cris the angle which the velocity vector makes with the horizontal, then the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity are given by v, = Up, = constant ov cos a= % cos 6 0 and w= vi, - 2gh or — (@ sin @)* = (0% sin @ = -2gh @ Squaring Eq, (i) and then adding to Eq, (ii), we get v= ul + of = vp gh or v= (05 - 2gh)!? This gives the speed of the projectile at height h. ‘The direction of the velocity vector (i.e. direction ‘of motion) is obtained by taking the square root of Eq. (ii) and then dividing by Eq. (i). We get (oj sin? 8 2,¢h)!? 1%) 608 8 4.2 Time of Flight and Range of a Projectile on an Inclined Plane Consider an inclined plane OAB making an angle @ with the horizontal (Fig. 4.2). Let a body be projected with a velocity vp at an angle @with the horizontal, Let us choose the x-axis along the plane OA and y-axis perpendicular to the plane OA. Let the body hit the inclined plane at point P so that R = OP is the range on the inclined plane. The x and y components of the velocity of the projectile are 2,5 Bp cos (~ a) and v, = v% sin (8 ~ a ‘The x and y components of acceleration due to gravity are —g sin cand — g cos crespectively, as shown in Fig. 4.2 Let T,be the time of flight on the inclined plane. Since the net vertical displacement in time 7, is zero (i.e. h= 0), we have sina _ cos @ tan @= O=0,T%;- 4 gos aT? or O =v, - } x cos aT, or O = sin (0 a ~ 3 g 008 aT oe j= 2msin = @ g cosa 9 goose Fig. 42 During this time, the horizontal component of velocity Up cos @ remains constant. Hence, horizontal distance OQis 00 = (vy cos 8 T; +. Range of the projectile on the inclined plane is © £08 Tuy cos @ 4.3 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration ‘The angular velocity (or angular frequency) of a body in a uniform circular motion is the angle swept out by the radius vector per second. If the radius vector sweeps out an angle A@ (measured in radians) in a time interval At, the angular velocity is given by © = Jim (22) ny aol Ar) dt where @ is expressed in rad s“', Linear velocity (v), angular velocity (a) and the radius (7) of the circular motion are related as vero Radian measure of an angle: If the arc of a circle equals the radius, then the angle subtended by that arc at the centre of the circle is called a radian; it is equal to about $7.3° (see Fig. 4.3). Angular Acceleration The angular acceleration a is given by do dt Fig. 43 Linear acceleration (a), angular acceleration (a) and radius (7) of the circular motion are related as a = rar Angular acceleration is expressed in rads. 44 Centripetal Acceleration Ifa body moves in a circle at a constant speed, itis said to be in uniform circular motion. In such a motion, the ‘magnitude of the velocity (i.e. speed) is constant but the direction of the velocity vector is continually changing. ‘Thus the velocity is changing with time. Hence the motion Of the body is accelerated (see Fig. 4.4). The acceleration is directed towards the centre of the circle and is called centripetal acceleration. The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is given by a, = a0 Pp Fig. 44 where @ is the angular velocity (or angular frequency) ‘and v is the speed along the circle. Since v = rev, we have e a= a= atr= = where r is the radius of the circular path. The angular frequency is related to time period T and frequency vas w= = = 2a ‘Therefore, centripetal acceleration is also given by (since v= 2a?) 4 an ws SE wae re Motion in Two Dimensions 4.3 ‘The centripetal force acting on the body is given by 2 Feo ma, = 2 = 4xmrv? where m is the mass of the body in uniform circular motion. 45 Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions ‘The relative velocity of a body B with respect to body A is defined as gy = Dp Py If vectors 0, and vp are inclined to each other at an angle as shown in Fig. 4.5, the relative veliocity dg, is found as follows. Fig. 45 Ppa = Vp ~ Va = Ve + (— D4) ‘Thus the magnitude and direction of vector vy, can be found by finding the resultant of vectors v, and v4 which is vector OC as shown in Fig. 4.5. Magnitude of vector Ug, is given by Wn tmy= (0% +0} #20409 00s) a = (04 +0} - 20404 0086) (va = 180° - The angle # which the resultant vector OC subtends with vector OD is given by a sind” sinB 5 sin p = CDsi0O _ vy sind oc Pea Special Case () If vector vy and vp are in the same direction, @= O°, then Ug, = 04 + Oy — 2040, =O ii) If vector vy and vp are in opposite direction, @= 180°, then Dg, = Up + Uy. Ue 4.4 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE. SECTION I Multiple Choice Questions with Only One Choice Correct |. The maximum height attained by a projectile is V3 /4 times its horizontal range. The angle of projection of the projectile with the horizontal is (a) 30° (b) 45° A . ct (c) 60 (d) tan ( 7 . A body is projected with a speed u at an angle 8 with the horizontal. The speed of the body when it is at the highest point on its trajectory is 2/5 times its speed at half the maximum height. The value of Bis (@) 30° (c) 60° (by 45° @ wn" (3) A body of mass m is projected from the ground with linear momentum p such that it has the maxi ‘mum horizontal range. The minimum kinetic en- ergy of the body during its flight is 2 (a) zero &) 2 m 2 2 z eo (©) Im (@) an |. Two bodies are projected simultaneously from the same point on the ground with speeds 10 ms”! and 10/V3 ms"! at angles 30° and 60° respectively with the horizontal. The separation between them when they hit the ground is (take g = 10 ms“) 10 3 (b) = (a) 10V3 m (b) B m © 5 (8 +%) m @s (8- m . A projectile is given an initial velocity +) ms. The cartesian equation of its trajectory is (ake g = 10 ms“) (a) y = 2x - 5x7 (b) 2y = 2x Sx? (©) 4y = 2x - 5? (d) 4y =x - 52 5. A body is projected from the ground with a speed wat an angle @ with the horizontal. The magnitude of the average velocity of the body between the point of projection and the highest point of its tra- Jectory is 10. i. (@) © (sin 6 + cos 6) (b) = (1 + 2cos? 6)! ©) < + 300s? )!” BIE WIE WIE RIE @ 1. A body P is projected vertically upwards. Another body Q of the same mass is projected at an angle of 60° with the horizontal. If both attain the same ‘maximum height, the ratio of the initial kinetic en- ergy of P to that of Q is a 4 ws oF 1 1 Oe OR @ 5 . With what minimum speed must a body be pro- jected from the origin in the x-y plane so that it can pass through a point whose x and y coordinates are 30 m and 40 m respectively? Take g = 10 ms™. (@) 10 ms* (b) 20 ms"! (©) 30 mst (a) 40 mst . Itis possible to project a particle with a given ve- locity in two possible ways so as to make it pass through a point P at a distant r from the point of projection. The product of the times taken to reach this point in the two possible ways is then propor- tional to (a) Ur (by r or ® + ‘A projectile has a maximum range of 200 m. What is the maximum height attained by it? (a) 25m (b) 50 m (c) 75m (d) 100 m A body thrown along a frictionless inclined plane of angle of inclination 30° covers a distance of 40 m along the plane. If the body is projected with the same speed at angle of 30° with the ground, it will have a range of (take g = 10 ms) (@) 20m (b) 20V2 m (©) 20V3 m @) 40m 12, Which of the following remains constant during the motion of a projectile fired from a planet? (a) kinetic energy (6) momentum (c) vertical component of velocity (@) horizontal component of velocity A body is projected with kinetic energy at an angle of 60° with the horizontal. Its kinetic energy ‘at the highest point of its trajectory will be @ 2K (b) K ©) KR @ Kis 14. A body, projected with a certain kinetic energy, has a horizontal range R. The kinetic energy will be minimum at a position of the projectile when its horizontal range is (@) Rk (b) 3/4 {c) R/2 (d) R44 15. Four projectiles are projected with the same speed at angles 20°, 35°, 60° and 75° with the horizontal. The range will be the longest for the projectile whose angle of projection is (a) 20° (b) 35° (c) 60° (@) 75° 16. A player throws a ball which reaches the other player in 4 seconds. If the height of each player is 1.8 m, what is the maximum height attained by the ball above the ground? @) 194 m (b) 204 m (©) 214m () 224 m 17. The maximum height attained by a projectile is increased by 10% by changing the angle of projec- tion, without changing the speed of projection. The percentage increase in the time of flight will be (a) 20% (b) 15% {c) 10% @) 5% 18. A projectile has a range R and time of flight 7. If the range is doubled (by increasing the speed of projection, without changing the angle of projec- tion), the time of flight will become oF () VET Tr @) T @)2T 19. A projectile has the same range R when the maxi- mum height attained by it is either hy or hy-Then R, +h, and hy will be related as (@) R= Vig (b) R = Why (e) R= 3Yhhy (@) R= 4Vighy 20. A body is projected at time 1 = 0 from a certain point on a planet's surface with a certain velocity a. Motion in Two Dimensions 4.5 at a certain angle with the planet’s surface (as- sumed horizontal). The horizontal and vertical displacements x and y (in metres) respectively vary with time 1 (in seconds) as x=10V3 ¢ =101-7 ‘What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity with which the body is projected? (a) 20 ms* at an angle of 30° with the horizontal (b) 20 ms” at an angle of 60° with the horizontal (c) 10 ms” at an angle of 30° with the horizontal (@) 10 ms” at an angle of 60° with the horizontal A particle reaches its highest point when it has cov- ered exactly one-half of its horizontal range. The corresponding point on the displacement-time graph is characterised by (a) negative slope and zero curvature (b) zero slope and negative curvature (€) zero slope and positive curvature (@) positive slope and zero curvature An aeroplane is flying horizontally with a velocity of 600 knv/h at a height of 1960 m. When it is ver- tically above a point A on the ground, a bomb is released from it. The bomb strikes the point B. The distance AB is {a) 1200 m (b) 0.33 km (©) 3.33 km (@) 33 km . A ball is projected vertically upwards with a certain initial speed. Another ball of the same mass is pro- jected at an angle of 60° with the vertical with the same initial speed. At the highest point, the ratio of their potential energies will be (@) 4:1 (b) 3:2 ©) 2:3 (@ 2:1 (LT, 1989) . A body of mass m,, projected vertically upwards with an initial velocity u reaches a maximum height +h. Another body of mass m is projected along an inclined plane making an angle of 30° with the hori- zontal and with speed u. The maximum distance travelled along the incline is (@) 2h (b) A A © 4 w+ A ball is thrown from a point with a speed u at an elevation angle of 8. From the same point and at the same instant, a person starts running with a constant speed = to catch the ball. Will he be able to catch the ball? If yes, what should be the value of @ 4.6 Course in Physics for ITJEE a. 32. (a) Yes, 60° (b) Yes, 30° (c) No (d) Yes, 45° A projectile attains a certain maximum height when projected from earth. If it is projected at the same angle and with the same initial speed from the moon, where the acceleration due to gravity is one-sixth that on earth, by what factor will the maximum height of the projectile increase? @ 3 (b) 3 (©) ¥6 (@) 6 Two balls A and B are projected from the same location simultaneously. Ball A is projected verti cally upwards and ball B at 30° to the vertical. They reach the ground simultaneously. The velocities of projection of A and B are in the ratio (a) W314 (b) 1: v3 ©) V3 :2 @ 2:3 A body is projected with a velocity v = (31 + 4j) ms“. The maximum height attained by the body is (take g = 10 ms) (a) 08 m {b) 8 m (©) 80 m (a) 800 m In Q. 28 above, the time of flight of the body is (a) 08 s (b) 10s ©) 40s (d) 80s ‘A body is projected with a velocity wat an angle @ with the horizontal. The velocity of the body will become perpendicular to the velocity of projection after a time r given by fa) Qu sind () usin® & du a é (sind (O esind A body is projected at an angle @ with the horozontal. When it is at the highest point, the ratio of the potential and kinetic energies of the body is () tan 6 (b) tan? (c) cor @ (d) cote At time # = 0 a body is projected horizontally from a certain height with a velocity w. The radius of curvature of its trajectory at time fis @) © 33. 37. 2» ‘A body is projected from the bottom of an inclined plane which has an inclination of 10° with the horizontal. At what angle @ from the horizontal should the body be projected so that its range on the inclined plane is maximum for a given velocity of projection? (a) 45° (b) 50° (©) 55° (d) 60° From the top of a tower, two balls are thrown horizontally with velocities u, and u, in opposite directions. If their velocities are perpendicular to each other just before they strike the ground, the height of the tower is (4 +m) (4-4) oS oF 2 4 a? (ui +a) sly oS @ 3 A body is projected at time 1=0 with a velocity w at an angle @ with the horizontal. It hits the ground at time 1 f, where f; is the time of flight. The average veloc- ity of the body during the time interval = 0 to = tis (a) 4 cosé (b) w sind (©) Ft eos 9! (a) SO + sin? 6! . A body is projected at time s=0 with a velocity w at an angle @ with the horizontal. The horizontal and vertical components of its velocity will become equal at time 1 # 0, «= x x ifosos= bit > sas % (@) foses 7 mint sess © ifosast (@) for no value of @ A boy whirls a stone in a horizontal circle 2 m above the ground by means of a string 1.25 m long. ‘The string breaks and the stone flies off horizon- tally, striking the ground 10 m away. What is the ‘magnitude of the centripetal acceleration during circular motion? Take g = 10 ms~. (a) 100 ms? (b) 200 ms* (©) 300 ms? (@) 400 ms J. A body is moving in a circle with a uniform speed +. What is the magnitude of the change in velocity when the radius vector describes an angle 8? (a) zero (b) v(1 + cos? e 8 (©) w cos(2) (@) 20 si 2) Which of the following statements is FALSE for a particle moving in a circle with a constant angular speed? 41. a2, 4s. (a) The velocity vector is along the tangent to the circle. (b) The acceleration vector is along the tangent to the circle. (©) The acceleration vector points towards the centre of the circle (4) The velocity and acceleration vectors are perpendicular to each other. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant ‘magnitude which is always perpendicular to the velocity of the particle, The motion of the particle takes place in a plane. It follow that (a) its velocity is constant (b) its acceleration is constant (c) its kinetic energy is constant (d) it moves in a straight line. A particle of mass M is moving in a horizontal circle ‘radius R with uniform speed V. When it moves from one point to a diametrically opposite point, its (a) kinetic energy changes by MV"/4 (b) momentum does not change (c) momentum changes by 2 MV (d) kinetic energy changes by MV* ‘A body moving in a circular path with a constant speed has a (a) constant velocity (b) constant acceleration (©) constant kinetic energy (a) constant displacement }.A plumb line is hanging from the ceiling of a train. If the train moves along a horizontal track with a uniform acceleration a, the plumb line gets inclined to the vertical at a angle (@) tan” (b) tan! (£) a © vn() (@) cos (2) 8 @ ‘A body moves along a circular track of radius 20 cm. It starts from one end of a diameter, moves along the circular track and reaches the other end of the diameter is 5 seconds. What is the angular speed of the body’? @ Faust () % rad st rad st ala eis © Fads @ Which one of the following statement is correct? (a) A body has constant velocity but varying (b) A body has constant speed but varying accel- eration 47, 49, Si. Motion in Two Dimensions 4.7 (c) A body having constant velocity cannot have an acceleration (d) A body having constant speed can have varying velocity A cyclist is moving with a speed of 6 ms~', As the approaches a circular turn on the road of radius 120 m, he applies brakes and reduces his speed at a constant rate of 0.4 ms”, The magnitude of the net acceleration of the cyclist on the circular turn is (@) 0.5 ms? (>) 1.0 ms? (©) 2.0 ms (@) 4.0 ms? A car is travelling at a velocity of 10 km/h on a straight road. The driver of the car throws a parcel with a velocity of 10/2 km/h when the car is passing by a man standing on the side of the road, If the parce! is to reach the man, the direction of throw makes the following angle with the direction of the car, (a) 135° (©) tao""(Y3) Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 4 ms". After some time, wind starts blowing with a speed of 3 ms" in the north to south direction. In order to protect himself from rain, a man standing on the ground should hold his umbrella at an angle @ given by (b) 45° (d) tan (a) @= tan (3) with the vertical towards south () 0= uw (3) with the vertical towards north 4 ©) a= coe'(2) with the vertical towards south @ a= ca 3) with the vertical towards north In Q.48 above, with what speed does the rain strike ‘the umbrella? (@) 3. mst (c) 5 ms* (b) 4 mst (a) 6 ms* |. A swimmer can swim in still water with a speed of 5 ms”', While crossing a rive his average speed is 3 ms". If he crosses the river in the shortest possible time, what is the speed of flow of water? (a) 2 mst (b) 4 ms" (©) 6 ms" (@) 8 mst Water is flowing in a river of width 36 m with a speed of 2 ms”, A person in a boat at a point P on the bank of the river wants to cross the river by the 4.8 Course in Physics for IT-JEE shortest path to reach a point Q directly opposite ‘on the other bank. If he can row his boat with a (c) tan”'(0.5) upstream with the line PQ (@) tan“(2) downstream with the line PQ. speed of 4 ms“ in still water, he show row his | 52, In Q.51 above, the time taken by him to cross the bboat at an angle of river by the shortest path is (2) 30° upstream with the line PQ @ fs 33s (b) 30° downstream with the line PQ (©) 63 8 @) 1843 8 ANSWERS L © 3.) 4. @) 5. (0) 6. (©) 7. (a) 9. (b) 10, (b) AL. () 12. (@) 13. (4) 15. (b) 16. (c) 17. @) 18. (b) 19. (@) 21. (©) 22. (0) 2. (a) 24, (a) 25. (a) 27. (c) 28. (a) 29. (a) 30. (@) 31. (b) 33. (©) 4. @) 35. (@) 36. (b) 37. (b) 39. (b) 40. (c) 41. (0) 42. (0) 43. (a) 45. (d) 46, (a) 47. (a) 48, (b) 49. (c) 51. (a) 52. (©) SOLUTIONS w@ sin? 6 w sin (20) 1. yas = and R= 8220) Faw = — . ' _ 2u? sin Acos 0 Ss = snd=3 = 0-60" GIVEN Fag R, Hence, 3. For maximum horizontal range, @ = 45°. Also 4 p= mu which gives u = pim. w sin? 0 3 2u? sin Bos 8 ‘The kinetic energy is minimum when the body is at Qe 4 : the highest point of its trajectory. At this point the = wn@=V3 = 0=60° velocity is u, =u cos 9= w cos 45° = 2. Maximum height attained is 2 2 22 2 sin? Wein? li . sya ge et yy Minion ks.= Sma = om pci dk wiz HeNGNCLG nw wc 4 ‘The vertea! composens of velocky ofthe two Speed v at H/2 is given by bodies are 10 sin 30° = 5 ms and (10/V3) sin 60° ‘” = 5 ms", Since their vertical velocity components. 2¢ (%) are equal, their times of flight are also equal. Hence > 2 the separation between them when they hit the =w- gH ground is Ikis given that u2 = 2 Pie. 2 cos? Ox 2 Woon’ Om S x= difference in their horizontal ranges =R-R (10)? sin 60° (10/3)? sin 120° 10 10 sv3 5 3 = 3(5-)m So the correct choice is (d). 5. Given u cos @=2 ms“ and u sin @= 1 ms". These ‘equations give w = V3 ms", tan @ = i and 2 2 oe 222, ee ‘The equation of the trajectory is 2 yextan o- £2 2u? cos @ 10x" = ax 3 2x5 x( ) OO, x38 2 4 = dy = 2x- 527, which is choice (c). 6. Average velocity is net displacement time Rye (3) TR gy = where H'= maximum height = R = horizontal range 2usii T= time of flight = Substituting in Bg. (1), we get gy = z (1+ 3 cos? 6)!” ‘The correct choice is (c). 7. For body P, uj = 2gh 2 sd sn? (607) _ Suh For body Q, h= ‘or body Q, h 7 cL 2. Sah > wet Loa , KEofP 2m ow 3 KEoO 1,2 a4 zm So the correct choice is (a). Motion in Two Dimensions 4.9 8. In projectile motion, the equation of the trajectory is ae 2u? cos? 6 yextan O~ 2 =xtan 0- £5 (1 + tan? @ Qu’ ‘Substituting the given values, we have 10x30)? 40 = 30 tan @- = (1 + tan? 2w or 900 tan? @~ (6u? tan ) + (900 + Bu’) = 0 ‘The value of tan @ will be real if (6u2)? = 4 x 900 x (900 + 84’) or ué > 100 (900 + 81’) or u ~ 800x* > 90000 or (w — 400)? - 160000 2 90000 or (a2 ~ 400)? = 250000 or w ~ 400 2 500 = uw? = 900 =u = 300 ms 9. The range of a projectile is r= 203 cos Asin O/g, the two possible angles of projection are @ and (90° — @). The times of flight corresponding to these two angles are 2% sin & ty = 22% Sin (90°- 4) _ 209 008 8 & & 405 sin @ cos @ _ 2r so that fy = 2 EEE = =P, s & ‘Thus ff, « r. Hence the correct choice is (b). 10. For maximum range @ = 45°. Hence Ray. = 06/8 and hiya, = O9/4g. THUS ings = 50 m. Hence the correct choice is (b). 11, Let « be the initial speed with which the body is thrown along the inclined plane. As shown in Fig. 4.6, the effective deceleration is given by a=gsin® = and = g sin 30 $=5ms? 4.10 12. 1B. 14. 15. 16. 17. Course in Physics for IT-JEE The body stops after covering # distance, say, s along the plane, which is given by ~ 2as = 0-1 or w= J2as=J2x5x40 = 20 ms“. A projectile projected at angle @= 30° with this speed will have a range of 2 u sin2@ _ 20 x 20 x sin 60° =20V3 m & 10 Hence the correct choice is (c). Since the velocity of the projectile changes continuously, both kinetic energy and momentum undergo a change with time. Only the vertical component of velocity changes due to gravity; the horizontal component always remains constant. Hence the correct choice is (4). At the highest point, the vel zontal component 2, = ¥ cos Re has only the hori- C08 60° = v2. Now kinetic energy : ‘mv? is proportional to v2. Since the velocity is reduced to half, the kinetic energy becomes one-fourth, i.e. K/4. Hence the correct choice is (4). Kinetic energy is minimum when the projectile is at the highest point of its trajectory. At the highest point, its range = half the horizontal range. Hence the correct choice is (c). Range R = v*, sin 24g. For the same Up, R & sin 28. Since sin 26s the largest for @= 35°, the correct choice is (b). ‘The time of flight r= 20, sin @g. Since #= 4 s, we have v sin @= 2¢. Now . Height above the ground = 19.6 + 1.8 = 21.4m Hence the correct choice is (c). vj sin? @ Given h= iven 7 . Differentiating partially we 2 get (- vy=constant) dh= = 2sin Bcos 858. Thus 7 oh 7 2cos050 ho sin@ c0s@50 sind = 0.1 (given). ‘Therefore, 0.05. We also have T = 209 sin @ 204 008050 4, & += 0.05, Therefore, which gives 57 = as 0s 058 sind ST _ c0s058 T sind - But a = 0.05 or ST = 0.05 T. Hence T increases by 5%, Thus te comect choice is (@). a5 2 ain? 18. Now R= 2asin Pees? ang 7 = Shoe? £ From these two equations we have T° = 2R tan 0 or T «YR. Hence the correct choice is (b). 19. The range of a projectile is the same for two angles of projection 8 and 90° - @. For these two angles of projection, the maximum heights are Which give B® = 16 h,hy or R= 4h « Hence the correct choice is (4). 20, We know that the position coordinates x and y are given by X= (Vp C08 O)t @ ond y= (oysin 0) 4 st @ ‘Comparing Eq. (i) with x = 10V3 1, we have, v9 cos @= 10V3 ms". Also, comparing Eq. (ii) with y = 10r~#, we have, vp sin @= 10 ms”. These ‘equations give 0} = 10? + 10? x 3 = 400 or v= 20 ms“! and tan = x which gives @= 30°. Hence the correct choice is (a 21. At the highest point A of its trajectory the velocity vector v is parallel to the ground. Hence the slope of the displacement-time graph is zero. Also at point A, the curvature is positive (Fig. 4.7). Hence the correct choice is (c). Sine mnenntsy ——_Rr Fig. 47 22, The time taken by bomb to reach the ground falling from a height h = 1960 m is given by haze v2 x orm PE -(PUBHOY a0 = sw bow Distance AB = vt = 600 ~~ = 333 km Hence the correct choice is (©). 23. The maximum height attained by the first ball is ote 2g where w is the initial speed of projection. The maxi- mum height attained by the second ball is (> @= 90° ~ 60° = 30°) w sin? BO) _ 28 Be Now, PE of ball 1 at height A, = mgh, and that of ball 2 at height Ay = mets Therefore, the ratio of 8 hy = potential energies = ne & x38 = 4, Hence the 8 correct choice is o 24, For the body of mass m,, we have 2 “5 For the body of mass m, if $ is the maximum distance travelled along the incline then vo — uP = 2a Now, when S is maximum, v = 0. Also a =—g sin @ =~ g sin 30 $- Hence ax( or S = “= 2h, which is choice (a). & 25. The person will be able to catch the ball if the horizontal range (R) of the ball = distance travelled by him during the time of flight (7) of the ball, ie. if uw Re ix, w sin(20) 8 ye 2usin @ g VIE Motion in Two Dimensions 4.11 or sin 2 0=sin @ 2 cos = 1, which gives = 60° Hence correct choice is (a). 26, Let h, and h, be the maximum heights attained by the projectile when projected from earth and moon respectively. Now h,= vpsin? 8 ‘and hy, = mean? @ which gives 28. 28m fn we Be 6, Hence the correct choice is (4). Bm 27. The correct choice is (c). Use 2utp sin 60° 8g 28. The correct choice is (a). The magnitude of velocity is = V@?+@? =5 mst ‘The angle subtended by the velocity vector with the horizontal (x-axis) is given by uy he and 4, We ta Now, which is choice (a). 30. Velocity of projection is vg = (u cos @)i + (usin 0}. At time t, the velocity of the body is v= (ucos Oi + (usin O~ gt)j ‘The dot product of vy and v is vy ¥= w cos? 6+ u sin @(u sin 6 gt) or vy: v= (usin Ogt @ Since v is perpendicular to Vp, ¥p- ¥ = 0. Using this in (i), we have O= a — (w sin Age or t= Hence the correct choice is (4). 31. The correct choice is (b). mic? sin? @ usin? @) mu? me Oe 2 KE = J miu cos 7. yand PE= mghnax 4.12 Course in Physics for INT-JEE 32. The horizontal and vertical distances travelled in time f are seu and y . ll yey ” a a (vox = ut) @y _ sg a ee The radius of curvature of the trajectory at time tis given by (Bay gay = fee s d’y a Hence the correct choice is (4). 33. Refer to Fig. 4.2 on page 4.2. The range along the inclined plane is given by 9 ry. = 22380 - @) cos 8 gos’ @ [sin(2@ — @ ~ sin @ 8 COS? Ris maximum when sin(26— @) = 1 or 20~ a= 90° or 1 = 090" + a) = 590" + 10) = 55° Hence the correct choice is (©). 34. Let h be the height of the tower, Let u, be along positive x-direction uw, along negative x-direction. The two balls hit after at time ¢ given by 1 Ph A= —et te 28 > ’ At time f the respective vertical velocities (along the negative y directions) are gt each. Hence the velocities ofthe two balls at time ¢ are oem f - G0) 0, 2-1 +60) and ~ 0) =~ ui - (gj > 2, = mi + (ej Since v, and v, are perpendicular to each other, vp = 0 = mi + @oj)- li + @njl=0 = uy, + PP = 0 sehen u 3 gx 2h # Ma She ae Hence the correct choice is (d). Displacement 38. Average velocity = time 1% ae where R= 2 SR OCO88 i the horizontal range 8 and t= 2458 i the time of flight. 8 The correct choice is (a). 36, Horizontal component of velocity at 0, =u cos 6 vertical component of velocity at that time tis v, =u sin O— gt ‘They will become equal at time t= r* if uw cos @= usin 0 grt which gives 1 = u(sin @- cos ® Now r must be positive. Hence sin @> cos @ or @> n/4, Hence the correct choice is (b). 37, Given, h= 2m, R= 1.25 mand horizontal distance = 10 m. When the string breaks, the stone is pro- Jected in the horizontal direction, which means that there is no initial vertical velocity. From s = ut + time tis A gt?, we have (> w= 0), 2 Lo . paler p 2 # @ The horizontal distance travelled in time ris seo wi) where v is the velocity of the stone in the horizon- tal direction which is the same as its velocity in circular motion. Eliminating ¢ from (i) and (ii) we get oes 2h Now, centripetal acceleration is 2 gg vg? 10x 100 a age op BE eg ONO _ ois eR UR Ix2x1B Thus, the correct choice is (b). 38, Refer to Fig. 4.8. AB and CD represent the two velocity vectors. The change in velocity Av = 0) ~ 0, which can written as Av = 0) + (~ 0,). Thus, to find Av, we reverse the direction of vector AB as shown in Fig. (b) and find the resultant of vectors 2, and ~ v, by triangle or parallelogram law. This is shown in Fig. (c). The magnitude of vector Av is given by Av = [(0, + of + 2(0,Xv)eos(180° - By!” = [2070 - cos ON"? =2osin 3} 2 Hence the correct choice is (4). y=%20) Fig. 48 39. This is the case of centripetal acceleration of a particle for which the velocity vector is tangential to the circle and the acceleration vector is directed towards the centre, Thus, statements (a), (c) and (@) are all correct. Statement (b) is false. If the acceleration vector were along the tangent, ‘would change the angular speed of the particle. 40. Since the force is always perpendicular to the velocity (i.e. the direction of motion) of the particle, no work is done by the force on the particle. Hence the kinetic energy of the particle remains constant. The particle will move in a circle in a plane. Thus the correct choice is (c). 41. As shown in Fig. 4.9, at diametrically opposite points A and B, the magnitude of the velocity is same (= V) but the directions of the velocity are ‘opposite. Hence the change in momentum is MV — (MV) = 2 MY. Thus the correct choice is (c). Motion in Two Dimensions 4.13 Fig. 49 42. The displacement, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. They are changing; but kinetic ‘energy remains constant because the speed is constant. Hence the correct choice is (c). 43. When the train is at rest or moving with a uniform velocity, the plumb line hangs vertically along OB (Fig. 4.10). If the train moves with an acceleration a, the plumb line gets inclined along OC, the direc- tion of the resultant of accelerations a and g. It is clear from the figure that tan @ = a/g. Hence the correct choice is (a). Fig. 4.10 44, If r is the radius of the track, then distance moved in Ss = ar= x 20 cm. Therefore, speed along the Now, angular speed circle (0) = 2% = 4 ems = 2 = 44 <% rads"! Hence the correct choice r 2 5 is (@). 45. A body moving along a circle with a constant speed hhas a varying velocity because the direction of mo- tion is continuously changing. The body also has acceleration called centripetal acceleration. Hence, ‘only statement (4) is correct. 46, Referring to Fig. 4.11, the cyclist is moving on a straight road from A to B with a velocity v = 6 ms. As he approaches the circular turn, he decelerates at rate a,, represented by vector BD. The magni- tude of deceleration is a, = 0.4 ms? At point B, two accelerations a, and a, the centripetal accel- eration directed towards the centre C act on the cyclist. 414 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE 0.3 ms. Using the law of parallelogram of vector addition, vector BE gives the resultant acceleration a whose magnitude is (: DE=a,) a= (a? +a3)'? = (0.4) + (0.3))'2 = 0.5 ms? Hence the correct choice is (a). 47. Fig. 4.11 In Fig. 4.12 v, represents the velocity of the car and B, that of the parcel. M is the position of the ‘man, From parallelogram law, the direction of the resultant velocity 0, must be along the direction along which the man is standing. It follows from the figure that angle @is given by sin Velocity of rain (v,) = 4 ms" vertically down- wards. Velocity of wind (v,,) = 3 ms“! from north to south direction. A rain drop is acted upon by two velocities v, and v,, as shown in Fig. 4.13. From the triangle law, the resultant velocity of the rain drop is v = OW. In order to protect himself from rain, he must hold his umbrella at an angle @ with the vertical (towards north) given by OR v, 4 ‘Thus the correct choice is (b). South <— North wow R Fig. 413 49. The magnitude v of the resultant velocity gives the speed with which the rain strikes the umbrella, which is given by velop +o)! = [16 +9)" Hence the correct choice is (c). 50, In order to cross the river in the shortest time, the resultant velocity v of the swimmer must be per- pendicular to the velocity 0, of water, as shown in Fig. 4.14. It follows from the figure that v2 = 0? + 2 =Smst P= 3s B= 5m oe Fig. 4.1 . 51. Refer to Fig. 4.15. Let PR be the direction along which he should row his boat. The boat is acted upon by two velocities - boat velocity (v4) and water velocity (v,). The angle @ should be such that that the resultant velocity (o) is along PQ, i. 2 =aros sin = 2= % => 6 = 30° (upstream). R_% 0 Direction of flow P Fig. 415 Hence the correct choice is (a). 52. ‘Time taken to cross the river by the shortest path PQis Motion in Two Dimensions 4.15 Po 6 = 6s me-o ay?-0F Hence the correct choice is (c). s. SECTION IL Multiple Choice Questions with One or More Choices Correct A projectile is fired with a constant speed at two different angles of projection, say, @ and fA, that give it the same range. Then, @ and fare such that (a) cosec a = sec (b) tan (a@ + PB) > & (c) sin? @ — cos* a = sin" — cos'B (d) cot @ = cos a@ sec B A ball is projected upwards at a certain angle with the horizontal. Which of the following statements are correct? At the highest point (a) the velocity of the projectile is zero (b) the acceleration of the projectile is zero (c) the velocity of the projectile is along the horizontal direction. (d) the acceleration of the projectile is vertically downwards. |. Choose the correct statements from the following. The range of a projectile depends upon (a) the angle of projection (b) the acceleration due to gravity (c) the magnitude of the velocity of projection (@) the mass of the projectile A particle is acted upon by a force of constant mag- nitude which is always perpendicular to the veloc ity of the particle. The motion of the particle takes place in a plane. It follows that: (a) its velocity is constant (b) its acceleration is constant (c) its kinetic energy is constant (@) it moves in a circular path A simple pendulum of length r and bob mass m swings in a vertical circle with angular frequency @, When the string makes an angle @ with the vertical, the speed of the bob is v. The radial acceleration of the bob at this instant is given by @ 28 ) z co) £ @) ror A body is moving in a circle of radius r with a uni- form speed v, angular frequency a, time period T and frequency v. The centripetal acceleration is given by 2 @ — (b) 42° r (©) a @ bad 7. Which of the following statements are true about body moving in a circle with a uniform speed? (a) The speed of the body is constant but its velocity is changing (b) The acceleration is directed towards the cen- tre (c) The velocity and acceleration vector are per- pendicular to each other. (d) Elastic, frictional, gravitation and magnetic forces can cause a uniform circular motion. 8 A missile is fired for maximum range at your town from a place in the enemy country at a distance x from your town. The missile is first detected at its half-way point. Then (a) the velocity with which the missile was pro- jected is ex (you hve a waming ine of 8 (©) the speed of the missile when it was detected ie [SE is [= 2 (A) the maximum height attained by the missible is } 9. An enemy plane is flying horizontally with a speed v. An armyman with an anti-aircraft gun on the ground sights the enemy plane when it is directly overhead and fires a shell with a muzzle speed u. ‘Then (a) the angle with the vertical at which the gun should be fired in order to hit the plane is o«(3) (b) the angle with the vertical at which the gun should be fired in order to hit the plane is =) 4.16 Course in Physics for INT-JEE (c) the maximum height at which the enemy (c) time of flight will be 2% I wt fy to avoid being thie (d) time of flight will be 0.5% plane must fly to avoid being hit is “> ~~ | 45, A body is projected at time 1 = 0 from a certain (@) the maximum height at which the enemy 2 plane must fly to avoid being hit is “= From the top of a tower of height 40 m, a ball is projected upwards with a speed of 20 ms”! at an angle of elevation of 30°. The total time taken by the ball to hit the ground is T and the time taken to come back to the same elevation) is ¢. The horizon- tal distance covered by the ball is x. If g = 10 ms, then @ta2 w t= 4 (©) x = 40V2 m (8) x = 40V3 m ‘The horizontal distance x and the vertical height y of a projectiole at time tare given by xeat and y=bP tet where, a, 6 and c are constants. Then (a) the speed of the projectile 1 second after it is fired is (a? + oe eye (b) the angle with the horizontal at which the projectile is fired is wx() a (©) the acceleration due to gravity is 2b. (d) the initial speed of the projectile is (a? + 2)', A projectle thrown at an angle of 30° with the horizontal has a range R, and attains a maximum: height A,. Another projectile, thrown with the same speed, at an angle of 30° with the vertical has a range R, and attains a maximum height 4. Then (a) Ry = 2K, (©) hy = 2h, ‘The maximum height attained by a projectile is increased by 1% by increasing its speed of projec- tion without changing the angle of projection. Then the percentage increase in the (a) horizontal range will be 2% (b) horizontal range will be 1% (c) time of flight will be 0.5% (4) time of flight will be 2% ‘The speed of projection of a projectile is increased by 1% without changing the angle of projection. Then, the percentage increase in the (a) horizontal range will be 1%. (b) maximum height attained will be 2% point on a planet's surface with a certain velocity at a certain angle with the planet's surface (assumed horizontal). The horizontal and vertical displacements x and y (in meters) respectively vary with time 1 (in seconds) as ovr y=lor-P (a) The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet is 10 ms”, (b) The maximum height attained by the body is 25 m. (©) The time of fight is 10 s. (@) ‘The horizontal range is 100 m. 16, For a particle moving in a circle with a constant speed, (a) the velocity vector is always along the tan- gent to the circle. (b) the acceleration vector points towards the centre of the circle. (e) the velocity and acceleration vectors are per- pendicular to each other. (@) the velocity and acceleration vectors are par- allel to each other. 17. A particle is acted upon by a constant force which is always perpendicular to its velocity. The motion of the particle takes place in a plane. It follows that (a) its speed is constant (b) its acceleration is constant (c) its kinetic energy is constant (@) its momentum is constant. 18. A stone of mass 250 g is tied to the end of a string of length 1.0 m. It is whirled in a horizontal circle with a frequency of 30 rev./mi (@) The tension in the string changes as the stone ‘moves in the circle. (b) The tension in the string is constant equal to wr =~ newton. 4 (c) The speed of the stone is # ms. (@) The maximum speed with which the stone can be whirled is 20 ms 19. A uniform disc of radius 2 is rotating about its axis with angular speed a It is gently placed on a horizontal surface which is perfectly frictionless (Fig. 4.16). If v4, vp and v are the linear speeds of points A, B and C respectively, then Fig. 416 (a) % = by = Me (b) m% = By > B% ©) % = %> % (@) 1% < ry < % 20. A uniform disc of radius R is rolling (without slipping) on a horizontal surface with an angular speed was shown in Fig. 4.17. O is the centre of the disc, points A and C are located on its rim and point B is at a distance 3 from 0. During rolling, Motion in Two Dimensions 4.17 the points A, B and C lie on the vertical diameter at a certain instant of time. If v4, By and v¢ are the linear speeds of points A, B and C respectively at that instant, then (a) 04 = Op = Ue (b) v4 > dy > Ve = 0, vg= 2R@ (gy Yee 3 ©) m=O m= 2 (a) The F ek = Fig. 4.17 (LL.T. 2004) ANSWERS AND SOLUTION 1. For the same range a+ f= 90° or B= 90° - a Choices (a) (b) and (d) satisfy this relation between Band abut choice (c) does not. 2, The correct choices are (c) and (4). w sin20 3. Range R= independent of the mass of the projectile. Hence choices (a), (b) and (c) are correct. ‘4. ‘The magnitudes of velocity and acceleration remain constant but their directions are changing continu- ously. In uniform circular motion the force is radial (centripetal) and is always perpendicular to the ve- locity which is tangential. Thus, choice (c) and (4) are correct. 5. The radial component of acceleration is a, = centripetal acceleration 2 enna (vera Hence, the correct choices are (c) and (4). 2ar 6. Since v= ra=2vr=—* all the four choices are correct. 7. All the four choices are correct. 8, For maximum range @= 45° for which Ry... = Uy Hence v= J/g X Roy = gx which is choice (a). The warning time is half the time of flight (since the missile is first detected at half-way point. Hence, warning time is ty _ rosin _Jexsinase _ [x 2 g & 28 t= Hence choice (b) is also correct. At half-way point, the missile is at its maximum. height. Therefore, the vertical component of ‘velocity is zero at this point. Hence the velocity is given only by the horizontal component which is 0, A + Which is choice (©). The maximum height attained is = 0,008 O= px cos 45° = he = Main? @ _ gexsin? 45° _ x 28 2g 4 Thus, all the four choices are correct. . Let G be the position of the gun and E that of the ‘enemy plane flying horizontally with speed v, when ‘the shell is fired with a speed uw in a direction @ with the horizontal (Fig. 4.18). The horizontal component of wis v, = ucos8 a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. In order to protect himself from rain, the man must hold his umbrella in the direction of the relative velocity v,,, which is given by ¥, + %q_) ‘Thus, we vector Yop is the resultant of vectors ¥, and ~ v,,. In Fig. 4.20, vector RM’ = ~ vj, from the parallelogram law of vector addition, the resultant velocity is given by vector OM’. If Bis the angle subtended by the resultant velocity ¥,q) with the vertical, then from triangle ORM’, we have Vem = %_~ ‘Questions 6, 7, 8 and 9 are based on the following Passage Passage IT “Two objects are projected from the same point with the same speed u at angles of projection a and f with the horizontal respectively. They strike the ground at the same point at a distance R from the point of projection. ‘The respective maximum heights attained by the objects ‘are ft, and hy and 1, and t, are the respective times of flight. 6. R, h, and hy are related as (a) R =yhh, (c) R = 22h, SOLUTIONS (b) R= Jikhy (d) R= 42h, Since the horizontal range in the same @ + 8 = 90° ‘Therefore f= 90° - and we have 2 hy= a sin? @ a) b= © sin? Bm Ecce! @ @ “2go "2g we R= x2sin cos @ i) 2g 1, = 2usin a o é y= EE cose © & & Questions 10, 11, 12 and 13 are based on the following passage Passage III ‘The vertical displacement y of a projectile varies with the horizontal displacement x as Motion in Two Dimensions 4.21 RM’ _ 2, tan 0= —— OR 2, Hence the correct choice is (b). ale 5. Since v, and ¥,, are perpendicular to each other, Pm = (02 +03)? = [4 +] =5 met Hence the correct choice is (c). 7. The ratio 4 is equal to a (a) sin @ (b) cos @ (©) tan @ (A) cot a 8, The ration hy/hy is equal to (a) sin? a (b) cos? @ (c) tan? @ @) cot a 9. The sum (h, + hp) is equal to 2 2 (@) sin? a () “cos? @ & g we a (c) — @ — & 2g 6. From Eqs. (1), (2) and (3), we have ; pet cae [i BR As Ji pe Hence the correct choice is (d) 7. From Eqs. (4) and (5) it follows that the correct choice is (c). 8. From Eqs. (1), (2), (4) and (5), we have htt a fy Hence the correct choice is (c). 9. From Eqs. (1) and (2), we find that 2 hy + hy = “, which is choice (4). 28 ysar— be where a and b are constants. 10. The trajectory of the projectile is a (a) straight line (b) circle (c) parabola (d) hyperbola. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. = +mg Hence the correct choice is (b). 28. At point D, the force towards the centre is F,=T,- mg cos 8 2 = ME = Ty~mg cos 8 => T= = + mg cos 8, which is choice (a). 26, In order to keep a body of mass m in a circular path, the centripetal force, at the highest point A, must at Teast be equal to the weight of the body. Thus 2 TA amg or o> VRE Questions 29 to 32 are based on the following Passage Passage VII ‘The kinetic energy of a particle moving along a circle of radius R depends on distance (s) as K = as’ where a is a constant, 29. The centripetal force is given by o# oe 2R R of we 30. ‘The speed of the particle around the circle is 2 2 « a(2) © 2) mm os SOLUTIONS 29. Given KE= jm =as?. Therefore, the centripetal force is = a which is choice (c). 30. The speed v of the particle around the circle is siven by tn dn? sas? or v (2) 2 m Hence the correct choice is (c). 31. 3. Motion in Two Dimensions 4.25 gives the minimum speed the body must have at the highest point so that it can complete the circle. Hence the correct choice is (b). ‘The minimum speed v¢ of the body must have at the lowest point C is given by vz = 0} +22 Re where we have used 0” = u? + 2gh, with h=2R. Thus ve = Re+4Re=SRe or ve = ¥5Rg , which is choice (d). . The tension at this point is given by 2 nan +4] mS g + )=6mg Hence the correct choice is (c). 1a © {# @ sf ‘The tangential force acting on the particle is (a) mas (b) 2mas (b) as (@) 2as . The net force acing on the particle is wa (@) aa(i+ 2) co) a(1+5) 2 va ©) 2m{1+-5] (@) zero ‘The tangential acceleration is -. Tangential force is f;= ma, =mx Pas. 2as, which is choice (4). 4.26 Course in Physics for IT-JEE 32. Net force acting on the particle is fe Gi+ fy? -[2e2f +200] Questions 33 to 35 are based on the following passage Passage VIII A conical pendulum consists of a string of length L. fixed at one end carrying a body of mass m atthe other end. The ‘mass is revolved in a circle in the horizontal plane about- a vertical axis passing through the fixed end of the string. ‘The angular frequency of revolution of the body is «2 The string makes an angle @ with the vertical axis. 33. The tension in the string is 2 2 (©) mor (d) mal? SOLUTIONS 33. Let T be tension in the string. Figure 4.22 shows the forces acting on the system, Tension T can be resolved into two mutually perpendicular compo- nents. The horizontal component T sin 6 provides the centripetal force for circular motion and the vertical component T cos @balances the weight mg. =2las +] ‘Thus the correct choice is (c). 34, The angle of inclination of the string with the verti- cal is given by (@) cos = 2 ©) sin o= 2 (©) cos a= © @ sin on SE 35. The linear speed of the body is (a) a (b) ab sin @ ©) ab cos @ (@) ab tan 6 Thus T cos O= mg a) and Tin 6= ™ mar r But r= L sin @ Therefore, T sin @=ma*L sin @ or T = mal @) Hence the correct choice is (c). 34, From (1), we have cos @= ° Using (2) in (3), we get mg £ . = —£__, which is choice (a). mab oh . * 35, Linear velocity is v = wr = al. sin @ which is choice (b). cos @ = SECTION IV Matching 1. For a body projected with velocity u at an angle 8 with the horizontal Column 1 (a) Horizontal displacement (b) Vertical displacement (©) Horizontal range (@) Time of flight Column It (p) is directly proportional to u (q) is directly proportional to u? (®) varies linearly with time (s) varies non-linearly with time. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. ‘Thus the answer is as follows: @>@) O->®) ‘Motion in Two Dimensions 4.29 (b) > (8) @—>@ 5, Match objects in circular motion listed in column I with the sources that provide the necessary centripetal force listed in column Il. Column I (a) A boy whirling a stone tied to a string in a circle (b) The moon revolving around the earth (©) The electron revolving around the proton in a hydrogen atom (d) A car negotiating a curved road ANSWER: @>@ ©) Column IT (p) Frictional force (q) Muscular force (r) Gravitational foree (s) Electrostatic force > © @> ® @ (b) ©) @ L SECTION V Assertion-Reason Type Questions {In the following questions, Statement-1 (Assertion) is followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each questions has the following four choices out of which only one choice is correct. Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State~ ment-2 is the correct explanation for Statement-1. Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but ‘Statement-2 is not the correct explanation for ‘Statement-1. ‘Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false. ‘Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true. Statement-1 A body is projected horizontally with a velocity u from the top of a building of height A. It hits the ground after atime t= /2h/; Statement-2 ‘The vertical and horizontal motions can be treated indenpendently. Statement-1 A body is projected from the ground with kinetic energy K at an angle of 60° with the horizontal. If air resistance is neglected, its kinetic energy when it is atthe highest point of its trajectory will be K/4. Statement-2 At the highest point of the trajectory, the directions of the velocity and acceleration of the body are perpendular to each other. 3. Statement-1 One end of a string of length R is tied to stone of mass m and the other end to a small pivot on a frictionless vertical board. The stone is whirled in a vertical circle with the pivot as the centre. The ‘minimum speed the stone must have, when it is at the topmost point on the circle, so that the string does not slack is fg . Statement-2 At the topmost point on the circle, the centripetal force is provided partly by tension in the string and partly by the weight of the stone, 4, Statement-1 ‘The maximum range on an inclined plane when a body is projected upwards from the base of the plane is less than that when it is projected down- ‘wards from the top of the same plane with the same speed. Statement-2 ‘The maximum range along an inclined plane is in- dependent of the angle of inclination of the plane. 5. Statement-1 In projectile motion, the velocity of the body at a point on it trajectory is equal to the slope at that point. Statement-2 The velocity vector at a point is always along the tangent to the trajectory at that point. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. 5.2 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE 54 Impulse Consider a collision between two bodies A and B moving in the same straight line. Let t be the duration of the collision, ie. the time for which the bodies were in contact during which time the transfer of momentum took place. We assume that the bodies continued moving in the same straight line after the collision with velocities different from their initial velocities. Impulse of a force is the product of the average force ‘and the time for which the force acts and itis equal to the change in momentum of the body during that time. Impulse is a vector and is measured in kg m s“' ot N s. IsF,,t= Ap ‘Total impulse = Area under the F — curve and the f-axis, 5.5 Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum ‘The law of conservation of linear momentum may be stated as follows. When no external force acts on a system consisting of several particles, the total linear momentum of the system remains constant. The total linear momentum is the vector sum of the linear momentum of each particle of the system. 5.6 Inertial and Non-inertial Frames Newton's first laws of motion is not applicable to all frames of reference. It is often called the law of inertia and the reference frames in which it holds good are called inertial frames. Such frames are either fixed with respect to distant stars or are moving at a uniform velocity with respect to them. Thus, non-accelerating frames are A frame of reference moving with a constant velocity with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. Non-inertial Frames Consider a frame of reference 5’ which is not moving with a constant velocity with respect to an inertial frame $ but is rotating with respect to it. Ifa body is at rest in frame S, it will appear to move in acircle in frame 5’, ic. its motion appears to be accelerated in S”. We know that a circular motion is an example of accelerated motion (centripetal acceleration). Thus no force acts on the body in frame S but an unreal or fictitious force (called centripetal force) acts on the body in frame S*. This implies that newton’ first two laws of motion do not hold in the reference frame S‘. Such frames of reference in which newton’s first two laws do not hold, are called non-inertial frames. A non-inertial frame may be defined as one which is accelerating with respect to an inertial frame. Notice that a rotating frame is also an accelerating frame, Thus we conclude that inertial frames are non-rotating and non-accelerating frames. A frame of reference is known as an inertial frame if all accelerations of any particle in it are caused by ‘real” forces. On the other hand, a frame of reference is called a non-inertial frame if the accelerations are caused by ‘fictitious’ or ‘pseudo’ forces. 5.7 Friction Friction is the force which comes into play when one body slides or rolls over the surface of another body and acts in a direction tangential to the surfaces in contact and ‘opposite to the direction of motion of the body. ‘The maximum (or limiting) force of friction when a body just begins to slide over the surface of another body is called the limiting friction. ‘The force of friction just before one body begins to slide over another is called the limiting static friction (f,). The coefficient of limiting static friction (1,) is defined as fi & Wee where R is the normal reaction, i.e. the normal force pressing the two surfaces together. ‘The force necessary to maintain a body in uniform motion over the surface of another body, after motion has started, is called the kinetic or sliding friction (f,). The coefficient of kinetic friction (14) is defined as =A M’R Note that m, is always less than /, Angle of Friction Angle of friction is the angle between the resultant of the force of limiting friction (f) and the normal reaction (R). In Fig. 5.1, @is the angle of friction, which is given by = Le an = F= @ = tan" (uy Fig. 51 Angle of Repose Suppose a body is placed on an inclined plane. The angle of inclination is gradually increased until the body just begins to slide along the plane. When this happens the angle of inclination arof the inclined surface with the horizontal is called the angle of repose (See Fig. 5.2). It follows from the figure that a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. 5.6 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE T T fe me Fig. 5.13, ‘Then, for m, and m, we have Tama and ma Adding, we get ae (rm +m) ‘The tension in the string is given by T=ma= Mme (m +m) ‘If the table top is frictionless, the blocks will move even if my < my. (9) Two blocks connected by a string passing over a frictionless pulley fixed at the top of an inclined plane Let T be the tension in the string. Since the pulley is frictionless, the tension is the same throughout the string (Fig. 5.14). There are the following two cases: (a) Mass m, moving up along the incline with acceleration a In this case, the balance of forces on the two blocks gives T mg sin 0= ma @ and =m (ii) Eliminating T between (i) and (ii) we get {raz =m sing (mm +m) Also T = mg ~ mza = m; (g - a) (b) Mass m, moves down the incline with acceleration a In this case, we get mg sin @~ T = ma and T—- mg = ma which give Fig. 5:14 (10) Two blocks connected by a string passing over a Srictionless pulley fixed at the rop of a double inclined plane Let the biock of mass m, move up along the inclined plane of angle of inclination 6,, and the block of mass m, move down the inclined plane of angle of inclination @, (Fig. 5.15). Let Tbe the tension inthe string. Then, for m, and m,, we have T- mg sin = ma and mag sin 8, - T= mya Eliminating 7, we get (im, sin 8, — m, sin ,)g (m +m) Also. T= my(a+ g sin 6) =m, (g sin 8, SECTION I Multiple Choice Questions with Only One Choice Correct 1, In order to raise a mass m a man ties it to a rope and passes the rope over a frictionless pulley. He climbs the rope with an acceleration 3/2 relative to the rope. If the mass of the man is m/2 and the ‘mass of the rope is negligible, the tension in the rope is (a) ) oe el (©) @ 2. In the arrangement shown in Fig. 5.16, the ends P and Q of a string move downwards with a uniform a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. 59, @ F () = 3F SF 3 (a) SE oF oF When a force F acts on a body of mass m, the acceleration produced in the body is a. If three equal forces F, = F, = F, = F act on the same body as shown in Fig. 5.29 the acceleration pro- duced is (a) (W2-I)a (o) (2 +1) @ (©) 2a @a An elastic spring has a length 1, when it is stretched with a force of 2 N and a length 1, when it is stretched with a force of 3 N. What will be the length of the spring if it is stretched with force of 5 N? @ +h (b) $ +h (©) 34-2, (@) 31, - 2h . A block of mass 4 kg is suspended through two light spring balances A and B as shown in the fig- ure. Then balances A and B will respectively read (a) 4 kg and zero kg —(b) zero kg and 4 kg (0) 4kg and 4 kg (d) 2 kg and 2 kg 419 Laws of Motion and Friction 5.13 61. A mass M = 100 kg is suspended with the use of in Fig. $31 Wis a Fig. 531 (@) 100 g newton (b) zero (©) 100¥2 g newton (4) 2 g newton . A bullet is fired from a gun, The force on the bullet is given by F=600-2% 104 where F is in newton and f in seconds. The force ‘on the bullet becomes zero as soon as it leaves the barrel. What is the average impulse imparted to the ‘bullet? (a) 9 Ns (©) 09 Ns (b) zero (@) 1.8 Ns . A long horizontal rod has a bead which can slide along its length, and initially placed at a distance L from one end A of the rod. The rod is set in angular motion about A with constant angular acceleration @ If the coefficient of friction between the rod and the bead is 4, and gravity is neglected, then the time after which the bead starts slipping is (e ue @ Ar o Fe 1 vnfinitess 4) infinitesimal © Tar @ (LUT. 2000) |. A force vector F = 61 — 8] + 10k newton applied to a body accelerates it by 1 ms“. What is the mass of the body’? (@) 10V2 kg (b) 2V10 kg (c) 10 kg (d) 20 kg . A block of weight 200 N is pulled along a rough horizontal surface at a constant speed by a force of a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. 7. (a) cot a= 3 (©) sec w= 3 (b) tan w= 3 (@) cosee a = 3 (LLT. 2001) ‘The pulleys and strings shown in Fig. 5.34 are smooth and of negligible mass. For the system to remain in equilibrium, the angle @should be (a) 0° (b) 30° © 45° (@) 60° (LT. 2001) Lah Fig. 5.34 . A string of negligible mass going over a clamped pulley of mass m supports a block of mass M as shown Fig, 5.35. The force on the pulley by the clamp is given by (a) V2 Mg (o) V2 mg (c) YM +m) +e @) {ttm +i? g (LT. 2001) ™ N me iM] nding Fig. 5.35 1. A boy of mass m stands on one end of a wooden plank of length L and mass M. The plank is float- ing on water. If the boy walks from one end of the plank to the other end at a constant speed, the re- sulting displacement of the plank is given by mk ML OF oo mL mL © (M+m) © (M-m) ‘A shell of mass 2m fired with a speed w at an angle to the horizontal explodes at the highest point of its trajectory into two fragments of mass m each. If 81. 82. 83. Laws of Motion and Friction $.15 cone fragment falls vertically, the distance at which the other fragment falls from the gun is given by (@ wsin2e (by Su sin2e 2g ( 2 sin26 qq 3 sin2e & & A shell explodes into three fragments of equal masses. Two fragments fly off at right angles to each other with speeds of 9 ms“! and 12 ms’, What is the speed of the third fragment? (@) 9 ms" (b) 12 mst (©) 15 ms (@) 18 mst A jet of water with a cross-sectional area a is strik- ing against a wall at an angle @to the normal and rebounds elastically. If the velocity of water in the jet is 0, the normal force acting on the wall is, (a) 2av* pcos @ — (b) av* pcos 6 (c) 2.av* psin 6 (@) av* p sin 6 A body is moving down a long inclined plane of angle of inclination @ The coefficient of friction between the body and the plane varies as = 0.5 x, where x is the distance moved down the plane. The body will have the maximum velocity when it has travelled a distance x given by @)x=2tn@ b) x= (©) x= V2 coro ‘A car moving at a speed v is stopped by a retard- ing force F in a distance s. If the speed of the car ‘were 3 0, the force needed to stop it within the same distance s will be (a) 3F ) 6F (OF @) 12F ‘A car moving at a speed 2 is stopped by a retard- ing force F in a distance s. If the retarding force ‘were 3F, the car will be stopped in a distance OE a tan 6 2 Ox 8 (a) ele wl s © OF A boy of mass 40 kg wants to climb up a rope hang- ing vertically. The rope can withstand a maximum, tension of $00 N. What is the maximum accelera- tion with which the boy can climb the rope? Take g=10ms?, (a) 1.5 ms? (©) 2.5 ms* (b) 2.0 ms® @) 3.0 ms? a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. 100. 101. (a) w= tan 6 (b) w= cor @ sz (@) u= cos @ In Q. 97 above, the minimum F is given by (a) MS (b) A™s ul za) (©) em (@ ~HME. vi-# Vie ‘The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a body and the surface are 0.75 and 0.5 respectively. A force is applied to the body to make it just slide with a constant acceleration which is & & w ww £ © 3 @s 4 ‘A block P of mass m is placed on a horizontal frictionless surface. Another block Q of the same mass is kept on P and connected to a rigid wall by means of a spring of spring constant k as shown in Fig. 5.37. The two blocks move together, without slipping, performing simple harmonic motion of amplitude A. If 1 is the coefficient of static fric- tion between blocks P and Q, the maximum value of the force of friction between P and Q is HA by 4 > (a) ymg (©) kA (@) zero (LT. 2004) ” i“ Fig. 5.37 ‘A block of mass m is held stationary against a wall by applying a horizontal force F on the block. ‘Which of the following statements is false? (a) The frictional force acting on the block is f= me (b) The normal resction force acting on the block isN=F (©) No net torque acts on the block (@) N does mot produce any torque. (LT. 2005) 102, 103. 104, 108. 106. 107. Laws of Motion and Friction $.17 Fig. 5.38 A car moves at a speed of 36 km h”' on a level road. The coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road is 0.8. The car negotiates a curve of radius R. If g = 10 ms, the car will skid (or slip) while negotiating the curve if the value of R is (@) 20m (b) 12m (c) 14m (d) 16m A train has to negotiate a curve of radius 200 m. By how much should the outer rails be raised with re~ spect to the inner rails for a speed of 36 km hv'? ‘The distance between the rails is 1.5 m. Take g= 10 ms, (a) 7.5 cm (b) 10 cm () 125 cm (d) 15 cm A train rounds an unbanked circular bend of radius 50 m at a speed of 54 km h™. If g = 10 ms“, the angle of banking required to prevent wearing out of rails is given by (a) @= tan” (0.15) (b) 6 = tan (0.25) (©) @= tan! 0.35) —(d) = tan’ (0.45) ‘A body is resting on top of a hemispherical mound of ice of radius R. If ice is frictionless, what mini- mum horizontal velocity must be imparted to the body so that it leaves the mound without sliding over it? @ ff () Jer (c) f2sk (a) Wer A car is negotiating a curved road of radius r. If the coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road is #1, the car will skid if its speed exceeds @) Sarg () 2g ©) Sue @) Que ‘The over-bridge of a river is in the form of a circu- lar arc of radius of curvature 10 m. If g = 10 ms“, what is the highest speed at which a motor cyclist ‘can cross the bridge without leaving the ground? (@) 10 mst () 10V2 mst (©) 10V3 mst (a) 20 ms

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