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Chapter4 of

MechanisingtheMind BraveNewWorldofESB
ExcerptfromAsManbecomesMachine,TheEvolutionoftheCyborg byDavidRorvik,1973

Animalswithimplantedelectrodesintheirbrainshavebeenmadetoperformavarietyofresponseswithpredictablereliabilityas iftheywereelectronictoysunderhumancontrol. DrJosM.RDelgado YaleUniversitySchoolofMedicine Theoncehumanbeingthuscontrolledwouldbethecheapestofmachinestocreateandoperate. CurtissR.Schafer ElectricalEngineer Inthefieldofbrainphysiology,Ithinkit[ESB]isthemostexitingsinglediscovery....IamalmostfrightenedtosaywhatIthink mightcomeofthis.... DrRobertH.Felix TestifyingbeforetheSenate AppropriationsSubcommitteeonHealth Manispossessedbyanalmostoverwhelmingdesiresomeinsistthatitisactuallyaninstincttoexplore,topithimselfagainstthe unknown... p146: Wherearethenewfrontiers? Theoceans? Andso,perhaps,space? Aretherenootherpossibillities?Yesone.Anditcouldprovetobethemostsignificantwildernessofall,afrontierwhich,if 'conquered',couldobviatethe'need'forallotherfrontiers.Thisisthefrontiercalledthe'mind'someofthepioneeringexcursions intothis(untilrecently)almostentirelyunchartedworldaredescribedinthisandthesubsequentchapter. ExploratoryprogressinthisrealmhasbeensuchtodatethatDrCarlR.Rogers,professorofpsychologyattheuniversityof Wisconsin,hasbeenmovedtostatethat'wehaveinthemaking...ascienceofenormouspotentialimportance,aninstrumentality whosesocialpowerwillmakeatomicenergyseemfeeblebycomparison'.DrB.F.Skinnertakesasimilarview:'Science,'hesays,'is steadilyincreasingourpowertoinfluence,change,mouldinaword,controlhumanbehaviour.'SodoesDrRobertS.Morisonof theRockefellerFoundation:'Knowledgeofhumanbehaviour,'heobserves,'isbecomingorganisedandaccumulative...Itisbecoming scientific....Itisnottoearlytoprepareourselvesforthedaywhentherewillbeabehaviouralsciencewhichwillmakeitpossiblethe controlofhumanbehaviourwithahighdegreeofprecision.' Thatday,infact,appearstobedawning.Whatmanwillmakeofitremainstobeseen.Thisfrontier,morethananyother,hasa potentialforexploitationbytheselfservingandtheshortsighted.Ifwisely p147: managed,however,itcanprovidethegreatestreturnofall,somethingthatisoftenyearnedforbutseldomattained:peaceofmind, possiblyevenmindleachedofitsdestructiveurges.

ElectronicStimulationoftheBrain
Thoughtthe'battleformen'sminds'isbeingwagedonseveralfronts,attentionhereisfocusedontheapproachthatpromisesthe mostdramaticresults:electronicstimulationofthebrain.ESB,asitiscalled,providesameansof'mapping'themind,oflocating withinthebrainthespecificsitesatwhichvariouscategoriesofemotion,feeling,actionandthoughtoriginate.Morethanthis,ESB providesameansofexertingsomecontroloverthosefeelingsandactions.Itcanevenhelpreactivatepartsofthebrainthathave ceasedfunctioningbecauseofdiseaseortrauma,induceimmensepleasure,override'intractable'painand,forafiniteperiod,enable Page 1 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net onetoreleiveone'spast,eventhemostremote,'unremembered'past.

withinthebrainthespecificsitesatwhichvariouscategoriesofemotion,feeling,actionandthoughtoriginate.Morethanthis,ESB providesameansofexertingsomecontroloverthosefeelingsandactions.Itcanevenhelpreactivatepartsofthebrainthathave ceasedfunctioningbecauseofdiseaseortrauma,induceimmensepleasure,override'intractable'painand,forafiniteperiod,enable onetoreleiveone'spast,eventhemostremote,'unremembered'past. RecentrapiddevelopmentinESBtechniquefollowsuponwhatwasratheraslowstart.Directelectricalstimulationofthebrain,in fact,datesbacknearlytwocenturiestotheexperimentsofVolta,Galvani,duBoisReymondandothers,whodiscoveredthatthe brainismoresusceptibletoelectronicsthantoobscurechemicalforces('animalspirits',theywerecalled)thatwereinvogueupto thattime.DuringtheFrancoPrussianWarof1870,battlefieldbrainsurgeonsusedcrudeelectronicprobesthatwouldcurlthehair oftoday'sneurologistsinanattempttolocatedamagedbraintissue.Theywouldsimplystickwiresintothebrain,applytheelectrical voltageandwaitforsomeresponse,atwitchhere,akickthere,anerection,excessivesalivation,etc.ifnoresponsewasforthcoming, thesurgeonwouldassumebraindamageintheareaunderstimulation.Thenhewouldgenerallytakescalpelinhandandexcisethe affectedtissueusuallytoratherhorribleeffect. Thismedical'technology'laymercifullydormantfordecadesafterthewaruntilDrWalterR.Hess,abrilliantSwissneuro physiologist,devisedthemoderntechniqueofelectrodeimplantationin1932,demonstratingintheprocessthatnearlyallofman's functionsandemotionscanbeinfluencedbyelectricalstimulationofspecificcerebralareas.'Forthefirsttime,'observesDrJosM. R.Delgado,oneoftheforemostpractionersofESBresearch,'itwasrevealedthatpsychological' p148: manifestationslikeragedonotdependexclusivelyonsensoryinputsandphysiologicalstimulati,butcanbeinducedbyelectrical currentsapplieddirectlytothebrain.Althoughthesefindingsdidnotproduceasignificantimpactonphilosophicalthinking,in retrospecttheymaybeconsideredasimportantasthenineteenthcenturydemonstrationthatthecontractionofafrogmuscledid notdependoncirculatingspiritsandcouldbecontrolledbyphysicalinstrumentation.' EpochmakingasHess'workwas,itwasn'tuntilnearlytwentyyearslaterthathereceivedtheNobelPrizeforhisdiscoveries.Andit isonlynowthatESBiscomingintoitsownasaroutineprocedureinanimalstudies,onamuchsmallerscaleasyet,asaclinicaltool fortreatmentofhumandisorders.Asaresearchtoolalone,itisinvaluable,foritmakespossible,forthefirsttime ,physiological explorationoftheconsciousmind. PresentingtheannualJamesArthurlectureon'TheEvolutionoftheHumanBrain'in1965,DrDelgado,aprofessorofphysiologyat theYaleUniversitySchoolofMedicine,cautionedthatESBisnotapanaceaforallofman'swoes,'butIdobeleive',hedeclared,'that anunderstandingofthebiologicalbasesofsocialandantisocialbehaviourandofmentalactivities,whichforthefirsttimeinhistory cannowbeexploredintheconsciousbrain,maybeofdecisiveimportanceinthesearchforintelligentsolutionstosomeofour presentanxieties,frustrationsandconflicts.Also,itisessentialtointroduceabalanceintothefuturedevelopmentofthehuman brain,andIthinkthatwenowhavethemeanstoinvestigateandinfluenceourownintellect.'

WiringtheBrain
TounderstandfullytheimpactESBmayhaveintheverynearfuture,itisimportantfirsttounderstandsomethingoftheactual techniqueofimplantingelectrodesinthebrain.Thousandsoflaboratoryanimals,includingcats,rats,dogs,dolphins,bullsandeven crickets,havebeenwired,somewithmorethanonehundredelectrodes.Dozensofhumans,mostofthemsufferingfromserious diseasesormentaldisorders,havebeensimilarlywiredsomewithscoresofelectrodesandforperiodsinexcessofayear.Todate, electrodeshavebeenleftintactinlabanimalsformoretahnfiveyearswithoutanyvisibleilleffects. Theprocedureforimplantingelectrodesinhumans(basicallythesameasforanimals)goeslikethis:airorradiopaquematerialis p149: injectedintotheintracerebralspacesinsidetheskullsothatthevariouspartsofthebraincanbevisualisedbymeansofXrays.A metallicskullcapcalledastereotaxicmachineisattachedtotheheadwiththreeorfourlittlespikesthatpenetratethescalp.Then Xraysaretakenfromvariousangles.ESBexperimentsduringrecentyearshaveprovidedincreasinglydetailedmapsofthebrain, thusmakingitpossibletopinpointtheexactareastheywishtostimulate.Theymakegeometricalcalculations,usingtheXraysand thereferencepointgridsonthestereotaxicapparatus,togetthreedimensionalcoordinatesforpositioningofelectrodes. Whenthedesiredtargetisfixed,thesubjectisfurtheranaesthetisedandsmallburrholesaredrilledintohisskullattheappropriate points.Micromanipulatorsonthestereotaxicmachineareusedtoguidethehairlikestainlesssteelelectrodesthroughtheholes, sinkingthemtothedesireddepthinthebrain.Someoftheseelectrodesareonlyamillionthofaninchindiametersmallenoughto beplacedinsideanindividualnervecell.Eventhelargerelectrodes,however,leavethebrainfunctionunimpairedandareentirely painlessbecausethebrainitselfhasnosenseof'feel'.Oncetheelectrodesareinplace,theirexposedendsareattachedtosmall terminalsocketsthatarecementedtothescalp.Electricalcurrent,measuredinmilliampsinmostcasesanddischargedatthetipsof theelectrodes,providingthedesiredstimulationofthebrain. Originally,theelectricalwiresfeedingintothesocketswereconnectedtobulkyconsolesthatwereimmobileforallpractical purposes.Thishadobviousdisadvantagessinceitdidn'tpermitspontaneousmovementand,ofcourse,restrictedthesubjecttoa smallarea.Derangedindividualsandrambunctiouslabanimals,moreover,oftentriedtoriptheelectrodesoutoftheirskullswith lessthanfelicitousresults.Tocircumventtheseseriousproblemsandachieveamorenaturalmanmachinesymbiosis,technicians developedstimulatorspackagedincollars,smallbackpacksandlittleboxesthatfitsecurelyonthecrownofthehead.Thesecontain batteries,transistorsandtimingdevicestoregulateandcontrolthestimulation.Theyalsoserveasreceivers,tunedtopickupradio signalsfromremoteoperatorswhocanregulatethetempoandintensityofstimulationinwhateverwaytheydesireatanygiven moment. ResearchersattheYerkesPrimateCentreinAtlantahavedeveloped p150: aheadunitthatisevenequippedwithasolarcellsothatfreeswingingmonkeysneednevercomeinforarecharge.Emphasisisvery muchonminiaturisation,andYale'sDrDelgadoandhiscolleagueshavedevelopedportableinstrumantstinyenoughtofitinsidethe headbandagesoftheirhumanpatients.Someofthemconcealtheirelectronicheadgearunderwigsandhats.Verysoonresearchers hopetohaveterminaldevicesthatcanbewhollyimplantedunderthescalp.Butwhateverthegear,theresultismuchthesame. Page 2 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net Whencurrentisdischargedintothebrain,thepatientreacts.Hemaybeinducedtosleeportoworkhappily.Inmanycasesthe patientforgetsthatheisbeingartificiallystimulated.Atanyrateheneverfeelsthatheisdoingsomethingagainsthisownwill.

muchonminiaturisation,andYale'sDrDelgadoandhiscolleagueshavedevelopedportableinstrumantstinyenoughtofitinsidethe headbandagesoftheirhumanpatients.Someofthemconcealtheirelectronicheadgearunderwigsandhats.Verysoonresearchers hopetohaveterminaldevicesthatcanbewhollyimplantedunderthescalp.Butwhateverthegear,theresultismuchthesame. Whencurrentisdischargedintothebrain,thepatientreacts.Hemaybeinducedtosleeportoworkhappily.Inmanycasesthe patientforgetsthatheisbeingartificiallystimulated.Atanyrateheneverfeelsthatheisdoingsomethingagainsthisownwill. Stimulatedtomakeaspecificmotoraction,he'feels'thathehimselfcreatedthestimulation.

Governmentby'Electroligarchy'
Theincrediblepowerthatonecanexertoveranindividual'sactionsandemotionswithESBhasgivenrisetosomealarm.What worksforloweranimalsinthisrealmcanalsobemadetoworkforman.Mostscientistsassume,ofcourse,thatthistechnologywill remainin(their)benignhands,usheringinaneweraof'electronicnirvana'.Butifthetechnologyshouldfallintodecidedly unscrupuloushands(andthismustcertainlybeconsideredapossibility),thenastrangeandfearfulworldwouldresult. AnelectricalengineernamedCurtissR.SchaferalludedtothisverypossibilityinapaperhepresentedbeforetheNational ElectronicsConferenceinChicagosomeyearsago.Halfinjest,heproposedthatcomputercontrolledelectrodesbeimplantedinthe brainsofbabiesafewmonthsafterbirth,robotisingthemforlife.'Theoncehumanbeingthuscontrolledwouldbethecheapestof machinestocreateandoperate,'hepointedout.'Thecostofbuildingevenasimplerobot,liketheWestinghousmechanicalman,is probablytentimesthatofbairingandraisingachildtotheageofsixteen.Otherscientistshaveadmittedthepossibilitythat governmentscouldtrytocontrolcitizenbehaviourbytechniquesofESB. Thevisionofasocietycontrolledbysuchagovernmentisnotpleasanttocontemplateyetitiscertainlyas'realistic'asthat envisionedbyAldousHuxleyinhisfamousnovelBraveNewWorld ,in' p151: whichthemasseswerebiochemicallystratifiedviathesortofgeneticengineeringthatisalreadybecomingpossibleinlaboratories aroundtheworld.AnelectronicallycontrivedBraveNewWorld,however,mightactuallybeeasiertoachieve.Thestratificationhere, ofcourse,wouldbesomewhatdifferent,asthefollowingscenariowilldemonstrate: Tobeginwith,letusimagineaconspiracyparticipatedinbyasmallgroupofpowerfulmenwhoseekto'optimise'society.Notingthe fantasticpotentialofESB,theyenvisionthemselvesatthetopofanelectronicallysustainedsociostructurethatmightbecalledthe Electrohierarchy.Theconspirators,letussay,areleadingfiguresinthemilitaryindustrialcomplexwhowanttorunthesocietyin thesamewaythattheyruntheirfactoriesandarmies.Butnow,insteadofhavingtoworryaboutpersonnelincentiveprogrammes, waste,timeconsuminginterofficebickering,inhousepilferingandphilandering,insubordination,thecostlyritualofhiringandfiring andsoon,theyneedonlypunchbuttonsandtransmittheappropriatesignalstoachieveeverygeneral's,manager's,president's, premier'sdreamoftheefficientsociety.TheseElectrooligarchsmightcomprise,say,fortyorfiftyindividualswhosebrainswould remainentirelyuntouched.Ontheirorders,however,everyoneelsewouldhavevaryingnumbersofelectrodesimplantedinhisor herskull. TheElectrons,thesecondrankinsuchasociety,mightcomprise10percentofthepopulationwithfiftyimplantedelectrodeseach. RemotelyprogrammedandcontroledbytheElectroligarchy,theywouldexhibitunswervingallegiancetotheir'masters'.The Electrons,however,wouldbesociety'smostcreativecomponents.TheElectroligarchywouldbecleverenough,inacorporateway,to giveElectronstheirheadsatleasttotheextentthattheycouldstillcomeupwithinnovationsanddiscoverieswithwhichtoenrich society,suchasitwouldbe.TheElectronswouldbedrawnfromthesociety'sreserveofscientists,economistst,scholars,poetsand other'thinkers'.Theywouldnotbesocontrolledthattheycouldnolongerexperienceunhappinessorsomeoftheotheremotions thatoftengoadindividualsontodocreativethings.Buttheirpotentialforhostilityandrebellionwouldbeconsiderablyattenuated. Andofcourse,likeallthemembersoftheElectroligharchy,theywouldbeprogrammedto'forget'thattheyhadbeenpartially robotised. Positronsmightoccupythenextrungdowntheladder,possiblycomprising p152: 30percentofthepopulation.Eachwouldpossesssometwohundredembeddedelectrodes.Theseindividualswouldmakeupthe whitecollarsupportcontingent.Thepositronswouldhelpputthetheories,plansandprojectsoftheElectronsintopractice.They wouldbelessimaginativeandlessintelligentthantheElectrons,hencemorecloselycontrolledandregimented.Theywouldbe characterisedbydedication,drivenbythedesiretoimplementthegoalssetbytheElectrons.Emotionally,theywouldbewholly positivethinkers,enthusiasticcomponentsofthemachinethemoretheyaccomplished,themorepleasuretheywouldreceive electronically.TheywouldpossessnoneoftheElectrons'negativism,buttheywouldmaintainminimalpersonalities,ifonlytomake themmorepalatabletotheElectronswithwhomtheywouldhavetomakefrequentcontact. AtthelowestlevelmightcometheNeutrons,60percentofthepopulationwithfivehundredelectrodeseach.Thesewouldbethe bluecollarpeople,thefactoryworkers,thesoldiers,secretaries,busdrivers,allthoseengagedinrepetitive,oftenmenialtasks.They wouldbecheaperandmorereliablethanautomaticequipmentandmechanicalrobots.Theywould,infact,becompletelyrobotised sothattheycoulddigditchesalldayandloveeveryminuteofit,ifneedbe. Evenassumingthatacentralisedcomputerofsufficientcomplexityandsophisticationtoeffectsuchasystemispossible, implementationwouldstillremainamajorobstacle.Itwouldalmostcertainlybeamistake,however,toassumeautomaticallythatit wouldbeimpossibletoimplantelectrodesineveryone'sbrain.Itmightberelativelyeasyprovidedpeoplecouldbepersuadedto undergoimplantationvoluntarily.Inaworldrapidlygrowingaccustomedtoartificialexternalandinternalprostheses,sparepart surgeryandorgantransplants,theideaofimplantingmetalwiresinthebrainisboundtobecomelessandless'foreign'and repugnant.Andtopushthecampaignalong,ourElectrocratsmightofferanumberofincentives,perhapstaxdeductionsorevencash 'rewards'.Possiblytheimplantprogrammecouldbeballyhooedintoamatterof'nationalsecurity',sothatrefusaltoparticipatewould callone'spatriotismintoquestion.Instantaneouscommunicationsandelectronicallyaugmented'willtoresisttheenemy'couldbe someofthesellingpoints. Morelikely,however,isthepossibilitythatpeoplewilloptfortheimplantsinorderto'cashin'onanewformofelectronic entertainment.
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p153:

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Asweshallseelaterinthischapter,thesocalled'pleasurecentres'ofthebraincanbewiredinsuchawaythatonecancreate,with

entertainment. p153: Asweshallseelaterinthischapter,thesocalled'pleasurecentres'ofthebraincanbewiredinsuchawaythatonecancreate,with themerepushofabutton,analmostorgasmicstateofeuphoriaorcausetheindividualtohallucinateasvividlyasifonLSD.With computerprogrammingitmaybepossibletocreatewithinthemindsyntheticexperiencesofalmostanydescription.Inaddition,it mayprovepossibletotransmitelectronicallycodedinformationdirectlyintothebrainviatheimplantedelectrodes,creatingaradical newapproachtoeducation. DormanD.Israel,asFellowoftheInstituteofRadioEngineers,forexample,predictsthatbrainimplantswillbemuchsoughtafter aroundtheturnofthecenturytoimplementnewmeansofcommunication(directelectronicsthoughttransference)andenhance creativecapabilities.WritingintheProceedingsoftheIRE asiffromtheperspectiveoftheyear2012,DrIsraelnotesthatbybthe year2000peoplewillbeabletotransmittheirthoughtsoversubstantialdistances'butalwaysbyappointmentamostfortunate limitation.By2012,hegoeson,thingswillhaveadvancedtothepointthat'newborninfantscanbeoperateduponandthelatest submicroelectronicequipmentinstalledinthebrainandatcertaincriticalpointsinthespinalcolumnsothattheyarealmostcertainly assurednotonlyofthebenefitsoffullnonradiocommunicativepowersbutalsothereisreasontobeleivethattheirscientific creativeabilitywillbeenhanced.Logicallyenough,thisoperationmustbeperformedwithintwoweeksofbirthbecauseiftheinfant isonlyslightlyexposedtocontactwithitsfamilywhostillhavenotcompletedtheir"unlearning"'andreadjustment(tothenew technology),hemightneverbecomeagoodsubjectforthemodernsystemofcommunication.' Sizeablesegmentsofsocietymayalreadyhaveundergoneelectrodeimplantationbythetimethe'takeover'plotisfirsthatched.By simplycommandeeringthebythenexistingcomputercoordinatedsystem,theElectrocratswouldfindthatmostoftheirworkhad alreadybeendoneforthem.Whentheindividualdialsintothecentralcomputerfromhisownhomerequesting,say,pleasurable experiencenumber547Z,hemaythenreceiveinsteadacarefullycontrivedseriesofelectronicimpulsesthatinstilinhiman unswervingloyaltytohisunseenmasters.Orpossiblythestimulationhereceivesmightsimplyobliteratehiswilltoresistaphysical takeoverorfillhimwithacompletelydebilitating p154: fearofauthority.ThatdramaticbehavouralcontrolispossiblewithESBandhas,infact,beendemonstratedinseverallaboratoriesas weshallsee.

Electrosleep
Likenuclearenergy,ESBpossessesafantasticpotentialforgoodaswellasevil.Havingconcededthesubstantialpotentialforabuse ofthisnewtechnology,letusproceedtolookattheother,morehopefulsideofthecoin.InthecourseofESBexperimentation, scientistshavediscoveredthatallofthebrain'sfunctionstheautonomic,thesomaticandthepsychicaresusceptibletoelectronic control.AsDrDelgadoputsit,in'exploringintracerebralphysiology,wearereachingnotonlythesomabutalsoforthepsycheitself'. Considertheinfluencethatcannowbeexertedovertheautonomicsystemwhichresideslargelyinthehypothalamus,thatdeep, darkelementalareaofthebrainthatcontrolsourmostbasicandprimitiveneeds.Ithelpsregulatebloodpressure,heartrate, respiration,hunger,sleep,sexandmanyotherthings.Appropriatelyplacedelectrodescanalterallofthesefunctions.Catsthathave justeatenalargemealcanbestimulatedtogorgethemselvesevenfurther,completelyignoringtheiralreadydistendedstomachs. Others,literallystarving,canbeelectronicallyinducedtoignorefoodplaceddirectlyundertheirnoses.Thediameteroftheirpupils canbeelectricallycontrolledasiftheywerethediaphragmsofcameras.Thedoctorscanwillfullyaltertheanimals'bloodpressure andheartratewithprecision. Scientistsseemanybenefitsaccruingfromthissortofcontroloverbasicfunctions.Theycan,tobeginwith,getabetter understandingofhowthesefunctionsworkandwhatcangowrongwiththem,thusarrivingatmoreeffectivecuresfordiseasesof metabolism,theheart,circulationandsoon.Somethingcalled'electrosleep',forexample,hascometorescueofnumeroushuman insomniacs,thoughtodatemostclinicalworkhasbeenwithexternalelectrodesattachedtothescalp.Inlabwork,however,internal electrodeshavebeenusedonanimalswithencouragingresults. AttheYerkesPrimateCenterinAtlanta,DrAdrianPerachio,aneurophysiologist,isconductingaseriesofESBexperimentsfor NASAwhichmayresultinabetterunderstandingofwhathappenstosleeppatternsduringspacetravel.Variationsinacceleration andgravity p155: seemtoaffectandperhapsinhibitonecriticalphaseofsleepknownastherapideyemovement(REM)phase,duringwhichmostof ourdreamsoccur.HumansandlabanimalsdeprivedofREMsleepexhibitbizarreandoftenpsychoticbehaviourthisindicatesto somescientiststhatREMisasessentialtolifeasfoodandwater.SomeresearchersnowclaimtobeabletostimulateREMsleepat will.Thissuggeststhatwemayonedaybeabletocutdownsubstantiallyonourtotalsleeptime.Why?Becausemanybeleivethat othersleepphasesaremerelyincidentaltothecriticalREMstage(whichconstitutesonly24percentofhealthysleeptime).Thus,if REMcouldbeartificiallyinducedonaroutinebasis,perhapsthroughselfstimulationofimplantedelectrodesatthedesiredtime,one mightbeabletoreducetheperiodofslumberby50to75percent. Ontheotherhand,itmightbeusefultoprolongsleepelectronicallytoo.Ifatthesametimeheartrate,bodytemperatureandother lifefunctionsweresloweddownbytheproperstimulationofthehypothalamusandothercerebralstructures,astateofsuspended animationmightresult,thelikesofwhichcouldcomeinhandyonextendedspasejourneys.Thissortof'hibernation',atanyrate,now appearsfarmorefeasiblethanthatsortinvisionedbycryogenic(deepfreezing)suspension.

Electroprostheses
SomaticfunctionshaveyieldedevenmoredramaticallythantheautonomictoESB.Thesearethmotorfunctions,movementsofthe bodyanditsextremities,whichcanbecontrolledbystimulatingvariouspartsofthecerebralcortex.InDrDelgado'sexperiments animalswereinducedto'movethelegs,raiseorlowerthebody,openorclosethemouth,walkorliestill,ortirnaround'.Hefound thattheanimalstookallofthisverymuchinstride,seeminglyunawareoftheoutsideinterference.Catsstimulatedinsuchaway thattheywouldsuddenlyhavetoraiseahindlegwouldgorightonpurring.Norwouldtheystumbleorfall.'However',DrDelgado observes,'ifwetriedtopreventtheevocedeffectbyholdingthehindlegwithourhands,thecatstoppedpurring,struggledtoget Page 4 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net free,andshookitsleg,'indicatingthatthestimulatorycommandisapowerfulone.

animalswereinducedto'movethelegs,raiseorlowerthebody,openorclosethemouth,walkorliestill,ortirnaround'.Hefound thattheanimalstookallofthisverymuchinstride,seeminglyunawareoftheoutsideinterference.Catsstimulatedinsuchaway thattheywouldsuddenlyhavetoraiseahindlegwouldgorightonpurring.Norwouldtheystumbleorfall.'However',DrDelgado observes,'ifwetriedtopreventtheevocedeffectbyholdingthehindlegwithourhands,thecatstoppedpurring,struggledtoget free,andshookitsleg,'indicatingthatthestimulatorycommandisapowerfulone. Anumberofresearchersareworkingtoputthissortofmotorcontroltopracticaleffect.Perhapsthemostimpressiveresultstodate have p156: beenachievedbyDrLawrenceR.PinneoandhisassociatesattheStanfordResearchInstitute.DrPinneoisusingESBasan 'electrphrosthetic'devicewhichhehopeswillhelpparalysesstrokevictimsmoveagain.Workisstillconfinedtolabanimalsbutits applicabilitytohumansisapparent.Thebestthingaboutelectroprosthesisisthatitdoesnotrequireanysortofartificiallimbor externalattachment.Instead,partsofthebrainnotdamagedbythestrokearestimulatedtoproducepurposefulmovements. Computersareusedtocontrolthesequenceofstimulatoryeventsemanatingfromasmanyassixtyelectrodes,permittingthe animaltomoveaboutinacoordinatedandalmostnaturalfashion.'Withalittletraining,'DrPinneopointsout,'theanimalcanbe givenasetofswitchesthattellthecomputerwhatsetofmovementstoproducethushecanenterintocontrolofhisownbehaviour.' Forthoseinterestedinthespecificsoftheexperimentalelectroprosthetictechnique,DrPinneoandhiscolleagues(DrJ.N.Kaplan andE.AElpeloftheStanfordResearchInstitute,andP.C.ReynoldsandJ.H.GlickoftheStanfordUniversitySchoolofMedicine) havepreparedapaperentitled'ExperimentalBrainProstheses:MethodsandPossibilities'.Init,theywrite: Thistechniqueinvolvespermanentlyattachinganelectrodeguidanceplatformtotheparalysedmonkey'sskullwhilethemonkeyis anaesthetisedaninastereotaxicinstrument.Theplatformismadeofdentalacrylicandcontainsanarrayofholesthroughwhich electrodescanbeinsertedintothebrainwithstereotaxicaccuracy.Itisalignedabovethemonkey'sheadwiththestereotaxic apparatusandisattachedtotheskullwithscrewsandacrylicdentalplastic.Theskinbelowtheplatformisremovedsothat electrodescanbeinserteddirectlythroughtheskullwithoutpiercingtheskinfirst. ..Afterapplicationofalocalanaesthetic,asmallholeisdrilledthroughtheskullusingaholeintheplatformasaguide.Theholeinthe skullismadeonthesidecontalateraltothecorticallesion,i.e.,onthesamesideastheparalysedlimb,becausemostlimbmovements evokedbystimulationinthebrainstemoccuronthesamesideasthestimulation.Anelectrodeisloweredintothebrainin1mm stepsthroughttheholeintheskull.Motorresponsestostimulationareinitiallytestedateachstepastheelectrodeislowered. p157: Aftereachlocationisfoundthatproducesadistinctelementarymotorresponse,electrodesarepermanentlyfixedbybendingthe electrodeontopoftheplatformandattachingittotheplatformwithacrylic.TheelectrodeisthenconnectedtoanAmphenolplug thatishousedinaboxmadeofacrylic.Theboxisattachedtotheguidanceplatformwithscrewsandisremovedfromtheplatform onlywhenelectrodesareinsertedintothebrain.InBruno(oneofthelabmonkeys)thirteenlocationswerefounsdthatupon stimulationproducedmovementinhisparalysedrightarm.Movementsinthislimbincludedrotationofthewrist,armturningin towardsthebodyfromtheshoulder,armstraightoutfromthebody,rotationofforearmoutfromthebodyattheelbow,flexionof thethumbandseveralotherelementarymovenments.endofquotationfromPinneoetall TheStanfordteamusesaLINC8digitalcomputertoprogrammeandoperatetheimplantedelectrodes.Thetotalbiocybernetic systemconsistsof(1)atenchannelprogrammablebrainstimulator(morechannelsarepossibleforfutureexpansionto accommodateanynumberofelectrodes)(2)theLINC8computerwithappropriateinterfacingequipment(3)thesoftware programmescontrolingthesystemand(4)theanimalitself. Theinformationneededtoproduceagivensetofmovementsisencoded,ineachcase,inatableformatcalledTIMETABLE.Fedinto thecomputer,TIMETABLEspecifiesthepatternofstimulatoryeventsneededtoproducethedesiredmotions.TheTIMETABLE repertoirecanbealteredsimplybyaddressingthecomputerviateletype.Thesystemalsofeaturesamagnetictapeinputsothat TIMETABLEconfigurations,onceprovedeffectiveinevokingaspecificmovement,canbestoredforfutureuseandinstantaneous retrieval.Thisiswhatmakesitpossibletoputtogetherachainofmovementsthatcloselyapproximatesnatural,coordinatedbodily motion.Complexasthewholesystemsounds,ithasbeensimplifiedtothepointthat,asnoted,themonkeycanhimselfoperatea smallsetofswitches.Withpropertrainingthisenableshimtocontrolhisownmovwmwnt.Helearns,forexample,thatifhewantsto raisehisrightarmheistopushoneswitch,ifhewantstomoverapidlyforwardheistopushanotherswitch,andsoon. DrPinneoexpectstoimplantasmanyas240electrodesinthebrainstem,makingpossibleevenmoresophisticatedcyberntic organisms.Hepointsout,however,thatwiththismuchhardwareinthebrain p158: thereisboundtobesomesignificantdamagetobrainstructure.Henceheisnowlookingformeansofachievingdeepbrain stimulationwithoutimplantedelectrodes,ameansthatwould,inaddition,permitstimulationofdeepbrainsiteswithout simultaneousstimulationofinterveningbraintissue.'Inordertostimulateatonepoint,andonepointonlyandtoproducenodamage tointerveningtissue,'henotes,'itisevidentthattheintensityofthepenetratingenergymustbebelowthatnecessaryfortissue stimulationateverypointexceptthedesiredfocusofstimulation.Thisobviouslymeansthattwoormoresourcesofenergymustbe usedwhereeachcanbefocusedtoapoint,andwherethepointoffocusisthesiteofstimulation.Italsomeansthatatthepointof focus,thetwoormorebeamsofenergymustbeabletoadd,inphase,inordertoprovideatotalintensitysufficienttostimulatethe tissueatthatpoint.'Asingleenergysourcesufficienttostimulatethetargetsite,inotherwords,isnogoodbecauseitwouldalsobe sufficienttostimulateallinterveningsites.Externalstimulatorsofthefuturemaycombineavarietyofenergyforms,including electriccurrent,electromagneticradiation(especiallyatmicrowaveorhigherfrequencies),ultrasonicsandlaserbeams.

Electrovision
DrPinneoandothers,includingDrWendellJ.SKrieg,aNorthwesternUniversityanatomist,arehopefulthatsimilar electroprostheticprogrammescanbeestablishedfortheblind.Thoughactualexperimentationhasonlybegun,DrKrieghopesto helptheblindseethroughtheuseoflightsensitivephotoelectriccellswireddirectlytothebrain.
Page 5 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net thecellswouldbepermanentlyimplantedinytheportionofthebrainthatinterpretsvision.Asamodeststart,DrKriegproposesa

Theminiaturisedcells,hesays,couldbewornonthepatient'shead,perhapsevenincorporatedintohats.Electrodesfeedingoutof systemcapableofdetectingandtransmittingtheshapesofletterssothattheblindpersonwouldperceiveacontinuousseriesof

helptheblindseethroughtheuseoflightsensitivephotoelectriccellswireddirectlytothebrain. Theminiaturisedcells,hesays,couldbewornonthepatient'shead,perhapsevenincorporatedintohats.Electrodesfeedingoutof thecellswouldbepermanentlyimplantedinytheportionofthebrainthatinterpretsvision.Asamodeststart,DrKriegproposesa systemcapableofdetectingandtransmittingtheshapesofletterssothattheblindpersonwouldperceiveacontinuousseriesof lettersandwordsinthesamemannerthatthenormalpersonreadsthenewsthatisflashedinlightsatTimesSquare.Fromhere, hesays,morecomplexsystemscouldbedevisedsothatpicturesresemblinganimatedcartoonscouldbeviewed.Eventuallythe systemcouldberefinedtothepointwhereitwouldbepossiblefor p159: thesubjecttoperceivevariationsinlight,detectthepresenceofdoors,windows,approachinobjectsandsoon. 'Hewouldbeenabledtomoverapidlyandsafelyandtothrowawaythewhitecane,whichislittlemorethanatraditionorawarning,' saysDrKrieg.Headdsthatsuchsystemsarefeasiblesincetheprocessforstimulatingthevisualportionofthecortexiswellknown. Heobsevesthatelectrodeimplantscanalsobeusefulinovercominghearinglossesand,likeDrPinneo,notesthepossibilitiesforthe useofESBinrestoringmovementtoparalysedorinjuredlimbs.'Itisacomparablyeasymatterwithamyographtoanalysethe exacttimesequencesofallthemusclesofthelimbswhilewalking,'hesays.'Byplayingsucharecordonastimulatorconnectedtothe propermuscles,eachmusclecouldbemadetocontractattherighttimeandtheresultwouldbenormalwalking.' DrPinneoandassociayeshavebeenatworknowformorethantenyearsonanapproachtovisualprosthesisor'electrovison'.So haveanumberofBritishresearchers,notablyG.S.BrindleyandW.S.Lewin,whohaveactuallybegunworkingwiththehuman. BrindleyandLewin,inoneefforttoovercomeblindness,implantedeightyplatinumelectrodesintothebrainofafiftytwoyearold nursesufferingfromglaucomaandretinaldetachment.Thepatientwasableto'see'asmallspotoflight,andtheBritishinvestigators beleivethatproperprogrammingofthestimulativeeventswillenabletheblindtoavoidobstaclesandpossiblyreadprint. TheStanfordteamistryingforevenbetterresults:'toreproducenormalvisionbymakingthevisualsystemactasitwould physiologicallywithlightstimulationoftheretina'.DrPinneoandhisgrouphavenowformulatedatheoryof'brightness'visionand aremakingheadwayintheirefforttoreplicatesomeformsofitelectronically.Aspresentlyenvisioned,theprosthesissystem,once perfected,willbemuchlikethatforstroke.Withcomputercontrol,DrPinneosays,'weshouldbeabletopresentathreedimensional mosaicofstimulatedpointsrepresentingtheentirevisualfield....Forthepresent,wewillonlyconsiderblackandwhite representation.'Nobodyisyetrulingout,howeverthepossibilityofeventuallyachievingartificialcolourvision. Thecostandsizeofcomputersofsufficientcomplexitytocontroltheseelectrprosthesesare,atpresent,considerable.ButDrPinneo pointstotherapidprogressintheminiaturisationofelectroniccomponentryasawayaroundthesedifficulties.Thanks,inpart,to the p160: spaceprogramme,hethinkswewillultimatelyhave'practical,relativelylowcost,generalpurposecomputerssmallenoughtobe wornorcarriedbyahumanbeingaspartofhisclothing'.

Electrosex
Intriguingastheelectrosomaticdevicesare,itisthepsychicandbehaviouralfunctionsofthebrainthatarethemostspectacularly controlledbyESB.ThiswasdemonstratedbyDrJamesOlds,whowasthefirsttodiscoverthesocalled'pleasurecentres'ofthe brainwhileexperimentingwithratsatMcGillUniversityinCanada.Thenatureofthepleasureinducedbystimulatingthesecentres (locatedinavarietyofareas)seemstotranscendthatassociatedwithmerefood,drinkorsex.Thestimulationseemstoresultina sortofsupereuphoriaorhyperecstacythatcausestheanimalstoforgetmorjejeunepleasures. Rats,inoneexperiment,were'wiredforpleasure'andthenpermittedtopressthestimulatingleverthemselves.Andpressitthey didsomeattheastoundingrateof5000timesperhour!Someofthesesybariteskeptitupfortwentyfourhoursadayforperiods ofuptothreeweeks,takingonlythebriefestratnapsandscantsecondsforfoodanddrink.Conventionalsexualintercoursewas completelyforsaken:'Electrosex',itseems,combinesthebestofallpossiblepleasures. Itwasdiscovered,inthecourseofstimulatinghumanbrainstocontrolcertaindisorders,thatman,too,ispossessedofthesepleasure centres.DrRobertGHeathofTulaneUniversityandDrDelgadohavebothreportedthisphenomenoninman.DrDelgadonotesthat somepatientsundergoingstimulationsuddenlybegandiscussingsexualmatters.Severalengagedinflirtatiousactivitythatwasout ofcharacterwiththeirnormalbehaviour.Mostsurprising,severalofthestimulatedsubjectsexpressedtheirdesiretomarrythe doctor(regardlessofwhethertheywereoftheoppositesex). Thoughthesubjectswhoexperiencedchangesinthesexualideationapparentlyexperiencedpleasurablefeelings,theyarenot necessarilythesame,intensefeelingsthatkepttheratsupdayandnightpressingthepleasurepedal.Otherhumansubjects, however,haveexperiencedsimilarpleasures.Oneman,equippedwithoneofDrHeath'sintracranialselfstimulation(ICSS)devices, forexample,wasparticularlyfondofpressingoneofthebuttonsontheportabledevice.Accordingtothereportsonthispatient,'the feeling[thatresulted]wasgoodit p161: wasasifhewerebuildinguptoasexualorgasm'.DrHeathobservedthat,'regardlessofhisemotionalstateandthesubjectunder discussionintheroom',thepressingofthisparticularbutton'wasaccompaniedbythepatient'sintroductionofasexualsubject, usuallywithabroadgrin.Whenquestionedaboutthis,hewouldsay.'Idon'tknowwhythatcametomind,Ijusthappenedtothink ofit.'''Thestimulationwasahighlyeffectivesexualaphrodisiacandthepatientcalleduponitfrequently. ExperiencesofpossiblyevengreaterintensityhavebeenreportedbysomeofDrDelgado'ssubjects.Onewoman,whileundergoing stimulationofapleasurecentreinthebrain,founditimpossibletocontrolherself.Hermoodwouldabruptlyswitchfromitsusual serenitytooneofeuphoricgigglingandlaughing.Shecouldonlydescribewhatitwasthatshewasfeelingas'pleasanttingling sensationsofthebody'.Anotherpatient,whowasgenerallysilent,wouldspontaneouslyexclaimsuchthingsas'Hey!Youcankeep meherelongerwhenyougivemethese,'whenapparentpleasurecentreswerestimulated. Justasselfinvolvementandinwardlookingattitudeshavebeenfoundtocharacterisemanydruginduced'highs',selforientation seemstoaccompanytheelectricallyinducedpleasurestate,atleastinitially.Somehavenoted,however,thatthispreoccupationwith Page 6 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net internalpleasuresgiveswaywithsustainedstimulationandpleasurablefeelingsareexpressed,instead,inanincreasinglyoutward direction.Hence,DrDelgadosays,'ashiftfrompleasurablethinkingtofriendlinessandtosexualideashasbeenobservedinsome

Justasselfinvolvementandinwardlookingattitudeshavebeenfoundtocharacterisemanydruginduced'highs',selforientation seemstoaccompanytheelectricallyinducedpleasurestate,atleastinitially.Somehavenoted,however,thatthispreoccupationwith internalpleasuresgiveswaywithsustainedstimulationandpleasurablefeelingsareexpressed,instead,inanincreasinglyoutward direction.Hence,DrDelgadosays,'ashiftfrompleasurablethinkingtofriendlinessandtosexualideashasbeenobservedinsome cases'.

ElectroanalgesiaandElectroanaesthesia
JustaspleasurecanbeinducedbyESB,socanpainbesuppressed.'Electroanalgesia',however,generallyutilisestheimplantationof electrodesinthespinalcolumnratherthaninthebrainitself.DrC.NormanShealy,chiefofneurosurgeryattheGundersonClinicin LaCrosse,Wisconsin,andhiscolleagueshaveperfectedelectroanalgesictechniquestothepointthattheyarenowbeingappliedto humans.Electronicpainkillersareimportantbecausetheygivestrongpromiseofbeingusefuleveninoverwhelmingthe'intractable' painofincurablecancerandtheyfreethepatientsufferinganysortofintensivepainfromtheneedtotakemassivedosesof addictingnarcoticanalgesics. p162: DrShealyandhisassociateshavediscoveredthatstimulationofcertainareasofthespinalcordcanbehighlyeffectiveinblocking intensepain.Since'intractable'painhasbeenfoundtooriginateindiffusestructures,theyselectedthoseareasinthespinalcord wheresensorynervefibresarepackedtightlytogether.Thisenablesthemtoachievemaximumstimulationwithaminimumamount ofimpalntedhardware. Thebasicresearchthatprecededclinicalapplicationoftheelectroanalgesictechniquesinvolvedcats.Theywerewiredwith electrodesandthensubjectedtovaryingdegreesofpain.'Normally,'DrShealynotes,'pinchingthetailorpawoftheanimalsleadsto meowingandvigorouswithdrawal.Similarly,thecatsflickaneartoavoidahotsolderingiron.However,whenapulsedDC current...isappliedtoadorsalcolumnelectrodeoverthecervicalcord,theanimalsallowprolongedpinchingandintensiveheatto thepointoftissuedamagewithnoapparentdiscomfort.Theyremainalertduringthestimulusandsometimeswillsitcontentedly lickingthemselvesduringthedorsalcolumnstimulation.' DrShealy'sfirsthumanpatientwasaseventyyearoldmansufferingtheseverepainofaninoperablelungcancer.After implantationofasinglespinalelectrode(withintermittentstimulationat.8and1.2Volts),bothincisionalandoriginalpainwere innediatelyandcompletelyextinguished.Thiswasaccomplished,moreover,withoutparalysinganypartofthepatient'sbody.The patient,DrShealyreports,'maintainedgoodmovementofhislegs,andvibration,position,touchandpinpricksensationswereintact'. Painrecurredfromtimetotimebutcouldbeimmediatelyobliteratedagainsimplybyalteringthefrequencyoftheelectronic stimulation.Atnotimedidthepatientrequiretheaccustomednarcotics. Thepatientdiedtwodaysafterthestimulationwasinitiatedbutforreasonsentirelyunassociatedwiththeelectrodeimplant.'The initialresultsweresoencouraging,'DrShealyreportedwithregardtothisfirstcase,'thatitseemsreasonablethattechnicalproblems canovercometomakethisapotentiallypracticalmethodforreleifofpain.' Sincethemidsixtiesanumberofothershavebenefitedfromelectroanalgesia,somenowforperiodsmeasuredinyearsratherthan days.DrShealy'ssecondpatient,forexample,receivedrelieffortwoyears,eventhoughshewassufferingfromextensivepelvic cancer.Histhirdpatientwasafiftyfiveyearoldmanwhohadbeenalmostcompletelyconfinedtobedforsevenyearswhenseenfor treatment.Thispatient p163: sufferingcripplingpainsinhislegsduetoinfectionofaspinaldisc.Nowheisabletowalkandswimfreely,thankstoasingletiny electrodeimplantedinhisspinalcord.Wheneverhefeelsapaindeveloping,hejustpushesabuttononaminiaturetransmitterhe carrieswithhimandcurrentpulsesintothenervefibreviaatinyreceiverimplantedbeneaththeskin.Thecurrent'jams'thenerve fibresinmuchthesamewaythatradiofrequenciescanbe'jammed'topreventtransmissionofamessage.Inthiscase,however,the 'message'thatisbeinginterceptedispain. Amongotherswiredwithselfstimulatingunits,liketheonedescribedaboveareindividualssufferingfrommulltiplesclerosis,severe musclespasmsandvariouscarcinomas.Someusethestimulationconstantlysofarwithoutilleffect.Asbefore,DrShealyreports, 'lighttouchremainsintactasdoesvibrationandpositionsensation.Patientsareabletowalkwithoutdifficulty.Bladderandbowel functionsarenotaffected.Erectionsandejaculationsarepossibleduringstimulation.Thelackofanysignificantcomplicationsinthe patientswhohavebeentreated...shouldnowallowapplicationofthistreatmenttolargenumberofpatientswithchronicpainstates.' Electroanaesthesiathoughnotsofaradvanced,mayeventuallyprovetobeofequalvalue.Hundredsideeveryyearfromthetoxic effectsofchemicalanaestheticagentsmanyotherssufferseveresideeffectsfromtheirtoxicqualities.Formost,ofcourse,the chemicalanaestheticsareneitherfatalnorsignificantlydamaging,buttheyarehardonthesystemanddotakealongtimetobe eliminatedfromthebody.Electriccurrent,ontheotherhand,canproduceunconsciousnessalmostinstantaneouslywithoutany hangovereffectoncetheoperationiscomplete. DrJohnWaycott,oftheImperialChemicalResearchLaboratoryinGreatBritain,predictsthatelectroanaesthesiawillbearoutine hospitaltechniqueinthenottoodistantfuture.Whenthatdaycomesapatientrequiringgeneralanaesthesiawillbetakentothe operatingroomfullyconscious,wiredtherewithexternalscalpelectrodesandputtosleepwiththemereflickofaswitch.Oncethe operationisover,thepatientisjustasquicklyrevived,thistimebysimplyturningoffthecurrent.Thoughelectroanaesthesiahas beenusedmanytimes,afewcomplicationsremaintobesmoothedout.Foronething,carehastobetakentoavoidinductionof musclespasms,aconsequenceoftoomuchcurrent.Inotherinstances,lungssometimesceasefunctioningbecauseofthestimulation andhavetobeartificiallyventialtedduringtheoperation.DrWaycott,however,isconfidentthattheseproblemswill p164: beovercomewithmoreresearchintotheuseofvariouswaveformsandcurrentsandwithmoreprecisepositioninganduseofthe externalelectrodes. OthernotablemedicalapplicationsofESBincludesuppressionofepilepticseizuresandnarcolepsy.DrHeathhasequippedpatients sufferingfromthesemaladieswith'wireless'selfstimulatingtransmitterswithwhichthey'fire'atwilltheirimplantedbrain Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net electrodes.Whentheyfeelaseizurecomingonor(inthecaseofnarcolepsy)feelthattheycannolongerremainconsciousthey merelypushbuttonsontheirpockettransmittersandthusquicklycorrecttheimbalanceinquestion.DrPinneoisalsoatworkon
Page 7 / 10

OthernotablemedicalapplicationsofESBincludesuppressionofepilepticseizuresandnarcolepsy.DrHeathhasequippedpatients sufferingfromthesemaladieswith'wireless'selfstimulatingtransmitterswithwhichthey'fire'atwilltheirimplantedbrain electrodes.Whentheyfeelaseizurecomingonor(inthecaseofnarcolepsy)feelthattheycannolongerremainconsciousthey merelypushbuttonsontheirpockettransmittersandthusquicklycorrecttheimbalanceinquestion.DrPinneoisalsoatworkon ESBapproachestoproblemsofconsciousnessandthinksthatevencertainformsofmentalretardationmightbevulnerableto electronictherapy. 'Ourapproachtobothofthesedeficitsisbasedontheconceptofthereticularsactvatingsystemofthebrainstem,'heexplains,'by whichefficientnormalbehaviourisafunctionofthelevelofconsciousness,or"arousal".Byelectricalstimulationofvariousareasof thebrain,suchasthenucleusreticularis,theinferiorthalamusandthecaudatenucleus,sleeplikestatesmaybeproducedwhichin manywaysmimicthelevelofalertnessofmentallyretardedchildrenoranimals.Conversely,electricalstimulationofthe mesencephalicreticularformationproducesarousal,eveninananaesthesisedanimal,whiledestructionofthisareaproducescoma likebehaviour.Todate,ourexperimentsusingprogrammedbrainstimulationhavebeenminimallysuccessfulincontrollinglevelof arousalbothupwardanddownward.Itstillremainstobeseenwhetherthistypeofstimulationwillaffectlearningrateinaretarded animal,orreturntoconsciousnessananimalsufferingfromexperimentalcoma.'

Electrosociology
Violenceandaffection,likepleasureandpain,areprovingsusceptibletoelectronicmanipulation.Indeed,evensomeofthemost deepseatedpatternsofsocialinteractioncanberadicallyalteredwithESB. SomeinklingthatESBmighthavean'electrosociological'valuecameasearlyas1928whenthepioneeringDrHessdiscoveredthat normallygentlsecatscouldbeinstantaneouslydriventostatesofintensehostilitybystimulatingcertainpartsoftheirbrains.The momentthestimulation,ceased,soddthehostility.Theninthemid1950s,DrDelgado p165: demonstratedthatoneanimalcanbeelectricallydriventoattackanotheranimalwithoutancillaryprovocation.Inoneofthefirst experimentsinthisarea,DrDelgadoutilisedtwocatsthathadalwaysbeenonfriendlyterms.Thesmallercatwasequippedwith brainelectrodesimplantedinacerebralstructureknownas'tectalarea'.Whenelectricallystimulated,thesmallercatwould immediatelylaunchafierceattackonitslargercompanion.Evenwhenthelargecatbegantoretaliatewithpowerful,slashingblows, thesmallcatpersisted.Notuntilthestimulationwasstoppedwoulditwithdraw.Normallyacatbeateninabattlewillgoto considerablelengthstoavoidthevictor.Butherethesmallcat,eventhoughitalwayslost,fearlesslylaunchednewbattleseverytime itwasstimulatedinthetectalareaofthebrain. Initiallyfriendlyrelationswerereestablishedaftereachbattle,butgraduallythelargercatbegantoregardtheotherwithconstant hostility. Subsequentexperimentswithcatsprovedthatthesortofragethatiselectronicallyprovokedisnotanallpervasive,blindsortof hostilitybut,asDRDelgadoputsit,'selectiveandintelligentlydirected'.Wheretherewereonlytwocats,thesmallerwouldventits rageontheothercat,evenifitwerelarger,butiftherewereanumberofcatsavailableitwouldcarefullyselectasitsopponentaless forbiddingfoe.And,rathertahnjusttearintoitstarget,thestimulatedcatwouldintelligentlychoosethebestmomentforattack, approachingthe'enemy'withcare,adaptingitsmotionstothoseoftheothercat.Inotherwords,brainstimulationofthissortdoes notobliteratenormalpatternsofbehaviouralhostileperformanceit'simply'evokesthoseresponsepatternswheretheywouldnot normallyexistatall. ThesortradicalsocietalchangesthatcanbeaffectedbyESBhasbestbeendemonstratedinexperimentswithmonkeys,animalsthat maintainveryrigid'rules'withregardtotheirsocialinteractions. Theirsisahighlyautocraticsociety,inwhichdomainsandterritoriesarefirmlyfixed.Ineach,thestrongestmonkeysetshimselfup asthe'boss'orthedictator,reservingforhimselffirstchoiceofthefemales,thebestfoodandthemostspace,whiledemandingfrom theotherstotalsubservienceandsubmissiveness.Couldthebossmonkey'swellestablisheddominancebeattenuatedelectronically? And,ifso,howwouldtheothermonkeysinthisgroupreact? Researchersfoundthatstimulationofvariouspartsofthebrain,notablytherostralpartofcaudatenucleus,seemedtonullify p166: threatening,dominantbehaviour.Theystrappednormallyviciousrhesusmonkeysintorestrainingchairsandstimulatedthispartof theirbrains.Themomenttheydidso,themonkeysstoppedtheiraggressivebehaviour.Theybecamesodocilethatthe experimenterswereevenabletoputtheirfingersinthemonkeys'mouths.Hostilitieswereresumedassoonasthestimulation ceased. BossMonkeyswerethenreturnedtotheirdomainsandstimulatedbyremotecontrolforfivesecondseveryminute.Thechangein the'dictator'wasimmediatelyapparenttotheothermonkeys,whoslowlybutsurelybeganmovingintoterritorygenerallyreserved exclusivelyfortheboss.Evenaftertheothermonkeyshadtakenallofhisterritory,thebossinitiatednoattacks.Ingeneral,hewas contenttositbackandplayasubordinaterole.Shortlyafterstimulationceased,however,hereassertedhisabsoluteauthority. Inoneofthemostintriguingvariationsofthisexperiment,DrDelgadoagainwiredoneofthebossmonkeyssothatelectronic stimulationcouldoveridehisnormalaggressivenessandauthoritarianism.Butthistimeheplacedthestimulatingleverinthecage withthemonkeys.Curiouscreatures,theynaturallybeganpressingit.Afteranumberoftrialstheybegantonoticethattheycould literallyswitchoffthemonkey'saggressivebehavioursimplybypressingtheleverandtheydidsofrequently!Humansmight sometimeswishthattheirownleaderscouldbecontrolledaseffectively.Indeed,wehavehereacompletereversalofthesituation envisionedearlierinthischapter,inwhichtheautocrats'wire'asubjectpopulationinorderto'optimise'itspproductivity.Ifthe powerobsessedminoritycouldbewiredfirst ,it'sconceivablethatthemajoritycouldgetalongtogetherinaworldfreeofnuclear brinkmanship,organisedmilitaryaggressionandthreatsofaggression.Conceivable. DrDelgadohasdemonstratedthatevensnortingbullscanbe'tamed'withthepushofabutton.Inwhathastobeoneofthemost flamboyantexperimentstodate,DrDelgadowiredabullwithelectrodesand,afterithadrecoveredfromthesurgery,challengedit inthebullringwitharedcape.Concealedbehindthecapewasasmallradiotransmitter.DrDelgadowaiteduntilthebullwasinfull Page 8 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net chargeandonlyacoupleofyardsawaythenhepushedabuttononthetransmitterandinstantlyreducedElTorotoabenign Ferdinand.Thebullthrewoutitsfrontlegsandcametoagrindinghaltjustinchesfromitstarget.

DrDelgadohasdemonstratedthatevensnortingbullscanbe'tamed'withthepushofabutton.Inwhathastobeoneofthemost flamboyantexperimentstodate,DrDelgadowiredabullwithelectrodesand,afterithadrecoveredfromthesurgery,challengedit inthebullringwitharedcape.Concealedbehindthecapewasasmallradiotransmitter.DrDelgadowaiteduntilthebullwasinfull chargeandonlyacoupleofyardsawaythenhepushedabuttononthetransmitterandinstantlyreducedElTorotoabenign Ferdinand.Thebullthrewoutitsfrontlegsandcametoagrindinghaltjustinchesfromitstarget. p167: InstillotherexperimentstheseattheYerkesPrimateCentrethemeekhavebeenmadetheaggressors.Threemonkeyswere placedtogether:aboss,afemaleandasubordinatemale.Asalways,thefemaleimmediatelysidedwiththeboss,completelyignoring thesmaller,weakermale.Thelatterstoodmeeklybyuntilresearchersremotelystimulatedanareaofitshypothalamusknownto exciteaggressivebehaviour.Immediatelyitsprangintoaction,advancingontheastonishedbosswithincreasingferocity.Ultimately itforcedtheautocratintoacornerandapositionofsubservience.Withanalacritythatmusthavefurtherhumiliatedthedeposed boss,thefemaleimmediatelyswitchedherallegiencetothemaleshehadpreviouslyspurned.'Obviously,thisstudyalsoshowed somethingaboutthenatureofthefemale,'wasthewryobservationofoneoftheYerkesresearchers.Surprisingly,thenewboss remaineddominantevenafterstimulationceased,theoldbosshavingapparentlylostfacepermanently . InanotheroftheseexperimentsatYerkes,thebosswasstimulatedintoastateofrage.Onemomenthewasbeinggroomedinthe armsofhisbelovedthenextmomenthewaschasingherwithmurderousratherthanamorousintent. Becauseofthedramaticresultsthatwereobtainedintheanimalexperiments,doctorsdecidedtoapplyESBtocertainhuman subjectswhoweregiventoattacksofunreasoningrage.Somewhoyieldedtothetreatmenthadtenyearhistoriesofrageattacksin whichtheywouldassaultacquaintancesorchancepassersbywithdeadlyweaponsandwreckwhateverhappenedtobewithineasy reach.AteamofdoctorsinBostonhavetreatedanumberofsuchpatientsatMassachusettsGeneralHospitalandBostonGeneral Hospital.Themedicalteam,consistingofDrVernonMark,DrWilliamSweet,DrFrankErvin,DrGeorgeBachyRita,DrRioji Hagiiwara,electricalengineerGerhardWeissandDrDelgado,describesthesecasesintheJournalofNervousandMentalDiseases : 1. L.K. Thisthirtyfiveyearoldmaledesignengineerhad...frequentepisodesofrageduringwhichheassaultedandinjuredhis wifeandchildren.Hisdrivingwasprecariousbecausehebecameenragedifothercarscutinfrontofhimandhewouldgomiles outofhiswaytoforcethemofftheroad. 2. M.R. Thistwentyfiveyearoldmale...hadapolicerecordforvagrancyandviolence.Hebeganassaultinghismedical attendants p.168: 2. ontheneurologyserviceofalocalveterans'hospitalandhadtobeconfinedinamentalinstitutionwhileawaitingsurgical evaluation. 3. J.P. Thistwentyyearoldfemalehad...frequentrageattackswhichonmorethanadozenoccasionsresultedinanassaulton anotherperson.Ononeoccasionsheinsertedaknifeintoastranger'smyocardium,andanothertimesheinsertedscissorsinto thepleuralcavityofanurse. 4. G.C.Thisfourteenyearoldgirlwasbroughtupinafosterhomeandwasofborderlineintelligence.Ontwoseparateoccasions herviolentbehaviourresultedinthedeathofayoungfostersibling,andshesubsequentlyassaultedasevenyearoldchildat thestatehospitalwhereshewasconfined. Yetanotherbraindamagedpatient,awoman,attackedherhusbandmorethanfivehundredtimesinaperiodofsixyears,battering himwithchairs,dishesandavarietyofbluntinstrumants.YetevensuchviolentcasesprovedtreatablewithESB,whichcouldoften beusedtowardofftheserageattacksorreversethemcompletelyaftertheironsetonanygivenoccasion.

Electromemoryand'TheDreamMachine'
ItwasinthecourseoftreatingbraindamagedindividualsthatDrWilderPenfieldhitupononeofthemostastoundingpropertiesof ESB.HewasprobingthebrainofawomanwithepilepsyattheMontrealNeurologicalInstitute,tryingtodiscoverwhichareaswere affected,whenhenoticedthatstimulationincertainregionscausedthewomanto'relive'variouseventsinherlife.Attimesshe thoughtshewasgivingbirthtooneofherchildrenalloveragain.Thedetailedaccuracywithwhichthispatient,andothersonwhom DrPenfieldsubsequentlyoperated,recalledexperiences,somedatingbacktoearlychildhood,stunnedthesurgeon.'Nomancan,by voluntaryeffort,'hedeclared,'callthisamazingdetailbacktomemory.'DrDelgado,whohasalsoobservedthisphenomenonina varietyofcases,callswhatoccurs'experimentialhallucinations'.Theelectronicallyinducedexperiencesqualifyashallucinations because,asDrDelgadodescribesthem,theyoften'appearmorerealandvividthanwhenthe p.169: eventsactuallyhappened.Itisasifthepatienthadadoublelife,oneinthepastrecalledbytheelectricalstimulation,andanotherin thepresent'.Thepatientsnotonlyseeandfeelthingsoutoftheirpastbutevenhearandsmellthem.Ithasbeensuggestedthat 'electromemory'maybecomeavaluabletoolinpsychoanalysis,faroutdistancinghypnosisasameansofbringingforgotten experiencestothesurface. Thehallucinationsarecalled'experiential'becausetheyusuallyhavesomebasisinpastexperience.Onsomeoccasions,however, subjectshavetakenbizarreESB'trips',experiencingthingstheycouldn'tpossiblyhavelivedthroughinthepast.This,coupledwith thefactthatitispossibletostimulateselectedpartsofthebrainsequentiallytocreatevariousstatesofmind,suggeststhatartificial experiencemighteventuallybecomeavailabletotheconsumer.Itispossibletovisualise'dreammachines'thatwouldreplace televisionandcinema.Eventheaveragehouseholdmightonedaybeequippedwithsuchadevice:asmallconsolelinkedtoacentral computerisedmemoryorexperiencebankthatcouldbeconnectedtotheconsumer'selectrodeterminalsforthepriceofafewcents inelectricity.Thenthetunedinconsumerwouldhaveonlytodialthecodenuberofhisdesiredexperiencewhetheritmightbe nightinbedwithhisfavouriteactress(guaranteedtobesuccessful)oraprecariousclimbupMountEverest(alsoguaranteedtobe successful).Itdoesn'ttakemuchimaginationtoseehowthephrase'LiveBetterElectrically'couldceasetobeamereadvertising slogan. ItwasthissortofarrangementthatDanielE.Noble,vicechairmanoftheboardofMotorola,Inc.,hadinmindwhenhecoinedthe phrase'electronicnirvana'.Thesamesortof'libraryofvicariouslivingexperiences'thathevisualisedfortheturnofthecenturyhas beenimaginedbyArthurC.Clarke.WithanodtoESBprogress,attheendofhisbookProfilesoftheFuture ,Clarkestatesthat 'artificialmemories,iftheycouldbecomposed,tapedandthenfedintothebrainelectronically...wouldbeaformofvicarious experiencefarmorevivid(becauseaffectingallofthesenses)thananythingthatcouldbeproducedbythemassedresourcesof Hollywood.Theywould,indeed,betheultimateformofentertainmentafictitiousexperiencemorerealthanreality.' Page 9 / 10 Generated with www.html-to-pdf.net Whenthatdaycomes,the'frontier'manseemstorequirewillbeonlyafewburstsofelectricityaway.

beenimaginedbyArthurC.Clarke.WithanodtoESBprogress,attheendofhisbookProfilesoftheFuture ,Clarkestatesthat 'artificialmemories,iftheycouldbecomposed,tapedandthenfedintothebrainelectronically...wouldbeaformofvicarious experiencefarmorevivid(becauseaffectingallofthesenses)thananythingthatcouldbeproducedbythemassedresourcesof Hollywood.Theywould,indeed,betheultimateformofentertainmentafictitiousexperiencemorerealthanreality.' Whenthatdaycomes,the'frontier'manseemstorequirewillbeonlyafewburstsofelectricityaway.

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