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Compressor Service Procedures

All You Ever Wanted To Know About Servicing Compressors, But Did Not Know Where To Find.
American Standard 1998 1

Compressors
Subject Page Compressor Fails to Start Control Circuit All ................................................................................................ 3 Single Phase Compressors Fails to Start Motor Hums All ....................................................................... 3 Single Phase Compressors Fails to Start Motor Doesnt Hum All ........................................................... 3 3 Phase Compressor Fails to Start Motor Hums All ............................................................................. ......4 3 Phase Compressor Fails to Start Motor Doesnt Hum ...............................................................................4 Compressor Cycles on Internal Overload (I.O.L.) after Starting ........................................................................... 5 Compressor Runs Little or No Pumping ............................................................................................................6 Noisy compressor Running .............................................................................................................................................................6 Starting And/Or Stopping .................................................................................................................................6 Scroll Functional Check ...........................................................................................................................................6 Compressor Power Supply All ............................................................................................................................6 Scroll Power Interruptions ......................................................................................................................................7 Three Phase Power Supplies ..................................................................................................................................7 Run Capacitor(s) Ohmmeter Test ..................................................................................................................................................7 Power Test .........................................................................................................................................................7 Metal-Cased Round Dual Capacitors ......................................................................................................................8 Start Capacitor Checking a Start Capacitor Using the Ohmmeter .....................................................................8 Start Capacitor Relay ...............................................................................................................................................8 Motor Windings Continuity Test Reciprocating Ground Test .......................................................................................................................................................9 Single Phase with Internal Overload Protectors (I.O.L.) ............................................................................... 10 3 Phase with Internal Overload Protectors (I.O.L.) ........................................................................................ 10 Single Phase with Internal Pilot Duty Thermostats (T.M.) ............................................................................11 3 Phase with Internal Pilot Duty Thermostats (T.M.) ..................................................................................... 11 Hi Pot Testing (Scrolls) ...........................................................................................................................................12 Motor Windings Continuity Test Reciprocating 3 Phase Compressors with Solid State Motor Protection System (M.P.M.) ....................................................................................................12 Motor Protection Module Test Robert Shaw Reciprocating ....................................................................... 12 Motor Protection Module Test Texas Instruments Reciprocating ..............................................................13 Terminal Location Protection Module ..............................................................................................................13 Checking Electrical Circuits All .........................................................................................................................13 Important Start Up Procedure Reciprocating .................................................................................................. 14 Crankcase Heat Reciprocating ..........................................................................................................................14
Compressor Serv 1

Crankcase Heat Scroll ........................................................................................................................................14 Trickle Circuit Test Used on Reciprocating Only .............................................................................................. 14 Trickle Circuit Test ..................................................................................................................................................15 Compressor Replacement Procedure ...................................................................................................................15 Acid Formation in Compressors ........................................................................................................................... 16 Acid Test Kits ..........................................................................................................................................................16 Liquid Line Driers ...................................................................................................................................................16
continued

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Compressors
Subject continued Page

Suction Line Driers ................................................................................................................................................. 17 Discharging Refrigerant Systems ......................................................................................................................... 17 Recovering the Charge .......................................................................................................................................... 17 Evacuation Reason and Procedure ................................................................................................................... 17 Refrigerant System Leaks Equipment Necessary for Leak Testing ......................................................................................................... 18 To Check for Leaks .......................................................................................................................................... 18 System Checkout After Leak Repair or Compressor Replacement .................................................................... 19 Notes of Interest ..................................................................................................................................................... 19 Compressor Servicing Notes to Remember ........................................................................................................ 19 Quick Troubleshooting List .................................................................................................................................... 20

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Compressor Serv 2

Compressors
Compressor Fails to Start
Control Circuit All
Check compressor contactor for energized position. If compressor contactor is not energized, check voltage across contactor coil. If voltage is present, check contactor. If no coil voltage is present, check control transformer and control fuse. If transformer and fuse check good, jumper R to Y low voltage terminals or wires in the outdoor unit. If the contactor energizes, the problem is in the room thermostat or connecting wiring. If the contactor fails to energize when R to Y is jumpered, check all components connected in series with the compressor contactor coil. Identify components from the schematic diagram. If the equipment does not use a start capacitor and relay, temporarily connect a start capacitor (CPT0091) in parallel with the run capacitor. Manually engage the compressor contactor momentarily.

Scroll
Due to the inherent nature of the Alliance Scroll, the internal pressures are always equalized even if system pressures are not. This allows excellent low voltage startability. Start component may be required for special situations. CAUTION Do not apply power for more than 5 seconds. Start capacitors are designed for intermittent duty only and could rupture if power is applied for extended time periods. If the compressor starts, remove power immediately. Disconnect the start capacitor. Try to restart the compressor. If the compressor starts, restore equipment to operating condition. Operate the equipment until normal operating pressures are reached. Measure the compressor current draw in the compressor common line. If the current draw is equal to or less than equipment nameplate amps, the servicer must use his experience and judgment to determine whether the equipment will continue to start or a start kit is required. If the compressor draws excessive current at operating conditions, condemn the compressor. If the compressor failed to start with the start capacitor connected, condemn the compressor.

Single Phase Compressors


Fails to Start Motor Hums All
Turn room thermostat to off position. Disconnect outdoor fan motor(s). Measure supply voltage at the line side of the compressor contactor. Supply voltage should be within 10% of equipment nameplate rating. Connect a voltmeter to the load side of the contactor. Observe the voltmeter. Manually engage the contactor momentarily. Voltage should not drop more than 10% below no-load voltage. If the voltage drops more than 10%, check circuit wire size, length, and terminals for loose connections. If the motor hums but fails to start, check run capacitor(s). Check start capacitor(s) if used. Check start winding fuse if used.
Compressor Serv 3

Single Phase Compressors


Fails to Start Motor Doesnt Hum All
Turn room thermostat to off position. Disconnect outdoor fan motor(s). Connect a voltmeter to the load side of the compressor contactor. Manually engage the contactor momentarily. If adequate supply voltage is present and the compressor motor does not hum when power is applied, disconnect all power. Determine from the wiring diagram what type of overload protection system is used.

Reciprocating
If the equipment does not use a start capacitor and relay, be sure head and suction pressures are equalized. Equipment utilizing expansion valves may require a long time period to equalize. Single-phase compressors without start capacitors will not start against a pressure differential.

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Compressors
If the compressor utilizes an internal line break protector, it will be identified on the wiring diagram as I.O.L. Check I.O.L. If the compressor utilizes and internal pilot duty protector, it will be identified on the wiring diagram as T.M. Check T.M. If the compressor utilizes external line break protector(s), they will be identified on the wiring diagram as XOL and XOLS. Check XOL and XOLS. Compressors utilizing T.M. also utilize XOL and XOLS. If protectors check good, measure compressor resistance at the compressor terminals.

3 Phase Compressors
Fails to Start Motor Hums All
Turn room thermostat to off position. Disconnect outdoor fan motor(s). Measure phase to phase voltage at the line side of the compressor contactor. Supply voltage should be within 10% of equipment nameplate rating. Connect a voltmeter across 1 phase on the load side of the contactor. Observe the voltmeter. Manually engage the contactor momentarily. Voltage should not drop more than 10% below no-load voltage. If the voltage drops more than 10% below no-load voltage, check circuit wire size and length and check terminals for loose connections. Check each phase. Determine from the wiring diagram what type overload protection system is used. If the compressor utilizes external protectors, they will be identified on the wiring diagram as XOL. Check XOL. If the compressor motor hums when power is applied, line voltage on all 3 phases check good, all XOL protectors check good and voltage is present at all 3 compressor winding terminals, then condemn the compressor.

Reciprocating
If compressor has 5 terminals, check for continuity between the 3 top terminals. An open reading between any of these terminals indicates an open winding. Condemn the compressor. The 2 lower terminals are connected to the internal pilot duty overload (TM) and will not measure continuity to the top 3 terminals. Check all top 3 terminals to the suction line or discharge line for grounds. If the ohmmeter indicates less than 50,000 ohms, condemn the compressor.

Reciprocating and Scroll


If compressor has 3 terminals, check for continuity between the 2 bottom terminals (start to run). If an open circuit is measured, an open winding is indicated. Condemn the compressor. If continuity is measured between the start and run terminals, check from the start terminal to the top terminal (common), and from the run terminal to common. If both start and run terminals are open to the common terminal, the internal overload (I.O.L.) is open. Allow adequate time for the I.O.L. to reset before condemning the compressor. If either run to common or start to common measures an open circuit and the other winding measures continuity, condemn the compressor for open winding. Check all 3 terminals to the suction line or discharge line for grounds. If the ohmmeter indicates less than 50,000 ohms, condemn the compressor.

3 Phase Compressors
Fails to Start Motor Doesnt Hum
Turn room thermostat to off position. Disconnect outdoor fan(s). Manually engage the compressor contactor and measure phase to phase voltage at the load side of the compressor contactor. Phase to phase voltage should be within 10% of equipment nameplate rating. If the supply voltage checks good and the compressor does not hum when power is applied, determine from the wiring diagram what type overload protection system is used.

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Compressor Serv 4

Compressors
Reciprocating
If the compressor has 5 terminals and the protectors are identified as XOL, check the XOL protectors. If the XOL protectors check good, phase to phase voltage checks good, supply voltage is present at the top 3 compressor terminals and the compressor fails to hum, an open winding is indicated. Disconnect power and remove wiring from compressor terminals. Verify open winding by measuring continuity between the top 3 compressor terminals. If an open circuit is measured between any of the top 3 compressor terminals, condemn the compressor. The lower 2 terminals are connected to the internal pilot duty protector and will not measure continuity to the top 3 terminals.

Compressor Cycles on Internal Overload (I.O.L.) After Starting


Listed below are various conditions or problems which may cause a compressor to cycle on the internal overload. 1. HIGH HEAD AND HIGH SUCTION PRESSURE (a) Dirty Condensor Coils (b) Overcharge (c) Restricted Air to Condenser (d) Filter Dirty (Heating Mode) (e) Lack of ID Airflow (Heating Mode) (f) Defective Condenser Fan Motor/Capacitor 1. Outdoor (Cooling Mode) 2. Indoor (Heating Mode) (g) Recirculation of Condenser Air (h) Excessive Airflow through Evaporator (Cooling Mode) (i) Heating Operation Above 65F OD Ambient. 2. 3. 4. 5. DEFECTIVE RUN/START CAPACITORS IMPROPER OR DEFECTIVE START RELAY (CSR) HIGH LINE VOLTAGE (TOLERANCE IS VOLTAGE RATING PLUS OR MINUS 10%) HIGH SUPERHEAT (a) Low Refrigerant Charge (b) Liquid Side Restriction Drier, TXV, Quick Attach Fittings (c) Leaking Switch-Over Valve (d) Leaking Internal Pressure Relief Valve (IPR) (e) Low Side Restriction - Metering Device, Distributor Tubes, Coils, Quick Attach Fittings (f) Excessive Airflow through Evaporator (Cooling Mode) (g) High Superheat During Defrost 6. 7. 8. 9. TIGHT BEARINGS (I.O.L. WILL TRIP AFTER COMPRESSOR STARTS) LOW LINE VOLTAGE (TOLERANCE IS VOLTAGE RATING PLUS OR MINUS 10%) OPEN START WINDINGS SHORTED WINDINGS

Reciprocating and Scroll


If the compressor has 3 terminals and the overload protector is identified as I.O.L. on the wiring diagram, the protection system is an internal line break system. If the compressor fails to hum when power is applied to an I.O.L. protected compressor, the I.O.L. is open. Allow adequate time for the I.O.L. to reset before condemning the compressor. To verify an open winding or defective I.O.L., permit at least one hour for the compressor to cool. If the I.O.L. is open, an open circuit between all three compressor terminals will be measured with an ohmmeter. An open circuit measurement with an ohmmeter between any 2 or the 3 compressor terminals indicates an open winding. Condemn the compressor.

Reciprocating
If the compressor has 3 power terminals and 3 protector terminals, the compressor is protected by a solid state protection system. When power is applied by manually engaging the contactor, and the compressor fails to hum, an open winding is indicated. Remove the leads from the upper 3 compressor terminals and verify open windings. An open circuit measured with an ohmmeter between any 2 of the 3 upper terminals verifies an open winding. Condemn the compressor.

Compressor Serv 5

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10. Defective internal overload (I.O.L.)

Compressors
Scrolls
All of the above conditions apply in addition to: High Discharge temperatures (a) Loss of charge (b) Extremely high compression ratio caused by an evap fan failure. CAUTION During these conditions, compressor dome temperatures can exceed 400F. ent nature of the scroll, excessive noise indicates reverse operation. Compressor damage will occur if operation is continued in reverse rotation.

Noisy Compressor
Starting And/Or Stopping All
Check equipment for level installation. Check compressor for level installation in equipment base pan. Check compressor mounting grommets and bolts. Check refrigerant tubing clearance to equipment cabinet, to adjacent tubing, fan motor(s). Check operating pressures per charts attached to the equipment. Excessive head pressure can cause stopping noise. Be sure the noise is in the compressor. Noise caused by reversing valve operation or rapid pressure balancing expansion valve can appear as compressor noise. If noise level is unacceptable, change the compressor.

Compressor Runs
Little Or No Pumping
High suction pressure and low head pressure are symptoms of a poor pumping compressor, but can also be symptoms of other system component failure. Heat Pump Check Check Valves Heat Pump Check Reversing Valve Check Expansion Valve(s) Check Internal Pressure Relief Valve (IPR) If equipment has service valves, perform pump down test. If system components check good and compressor will not pull suction pressure down, condemn the compressor.

Scroll Functional Check


Alliance Scrolls do not have internal suction valves or discharge valves that can be damaged. Do not close off the suction service valve to check how low the suction pressure will drop. This type of testing could damage the compressor. To troubleshoot the compressor: 1. 2. 3. Check for proper voltage to the unit. If compressor will not run, check for an open safety device and allow time to reset if open. Remove terminal wire plug for compressor and measure winding resistance. If open, allow up to 24 hours to reset, with power removed. Check for proper refrigerant charge. Check for system restriction.
Compressor Serv 6 10664 9/21/98

Scroll
All Symptoms above plus: 3 phase compressors, when wired incorrectly, will run in reverse. Due to the inherent nature of the Scroll, no pumping will occur. Compressor damage will occur if operation is continued in reverse rotation.

Noisy Compressor Running


Check equipment for level installation. Disable outdoor fan(s); observe compressor noise without fan(s) to be sure noise is in the compressor. Check operating pressures per charts attached to the equipment - (fans operating). Excessive pressures will increase running noise. If noise is isolated to the compressor, change the compressor. 4. 5.

Compressor Power Supply All


Supply voltage to air conditioning and heating equipment should be measured at the load side of the contactor, relay or switch that supplies power to the equipment not at a main or auxiliary disconnect. Equipment should be operating at normal load conditions, or attempting to start, when making voltage measurements.

Scroll
All symptoms above plus 3 phase compressor, when wired incorrectly, will run in reverse. Due to the inher-

Compressors
Supply voltage should be within 10% of the equipment nameplate rating. Equipment is not generally limited to 10% of nameplate rating, but may require special consideration or application limitations. Consult your local Field Service Representative for limits. 2. If capacitor has a discharge resistor connected between terminals, disconnect resistor from one terminal. Set ohmmeter to RX1000 or high scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Observe meter scale and touch meter leads to capacitor terminals. Good Capacitor Meter pointer will deflect upscale toward zero ohms reading and slowly return downscale to infinity ohms reading. Open Capacitor Meter pointer does not move from infinity ohms reading. Shorted Capacitor Meter pointer will indicate a definite ohm reading less than infinity.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Scroll Power Interruptions


Brief power interruption (less than 12 second) can result in powered reverse rotation of single phase Alliance Scroll compressors. This occurs as a result of high pressure discharge gas expanding backward through the scrolls at power interruption. This causes the scroll to orbit in reverse rotation. If power is reapplied while the reverse rotation is occurring, the compressor may continue to run in reverse rotation until the internal protector trips. The symptoms of reverse rotation are lack of pressure differential and the compressor will be unusually noisy. Once the internal protector trips and resets, the compressor will start and run normally.

7. 8.

Run Capacitor(s)
Power Test Continuous Duty Oil Filled Capacitors
CAUTION DO NOT PERFORM THIS TEST ON START CAPACITORS

Three Phase Power Supplies


Phase to phase voltages should be within 2.5% of the average phase to phase voltage. Example: Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Total Average = 485 Volts = 477 Volts = 487 Volts = 1449 Volts = 1449/3 = 483 Volts

Run Capacitor(s)
Ohmmeter Test Continuous Duty Oil Filled Capacitors
1. 2. 3.
Compressor Serv 7

Connect capacitor to A.C. supply that does not exceed the capacitor voltage rating. Measure and record the applied A.C. voltage. Measure and record amp. Draw of the capacitor. = = Amp. Draw X 2650 Applied A.C. Volts Amp. Draw X 3185 Applied voltage

4. On 60 HZ MFD. On 50 HZ MFD.

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1.

Disconnect capacitor from power circuits.

5. Example: Capacitor draws 3 amps at 230 volts. (60HZ) Indicated capacitor value is 33 MFD. Calculated value should be within 10% of value stamped on capacitor.

Compressors
Metal-Cased Round Dual Capacitors Start Capacitor
Checking a Start Capacitor Using the Ohmmeter
HER

The round metal-cased dual capacitors with stamped marking of C, HERM and FAN on the top surface are generally used in an air conditioner in a conventional circuit using C to HERM in the compressor circuit with C to FAN in the fan motor circuit. The fan portion of the capacitor is usually not larger than 15 MFD in capacity. Some of these capacitors may have much larger ratings on the terminal labeled FAN and are applied in the Trickle circuit of the compressor to warm the compressor windings during the off cycle. The diagram illustrates this use. The capacitors may be rated 20/20 MFD or 30/30 MFD instead of the more common 20/4 MFD, for example. The presence of a bleed resistor, when used, is an indication of the HERM portion of the capacitor. This resistor is there for your protection. Do not remove it!

BR/RD

OR

BLACK

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Start relay (RLY 02227) must be used as a replacement for the Alliance Scroll Compressor.

Compressor Serv 8

PANEL COPPER TAB SECTION

FA N

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Disconnect capacitor from power circuits. Set ohmmeter to RX10 or RX 100 scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Observe meter scale and touch meter leads to capacitor terminals Good Capacitor Meter pointer will deflect upscale toward zero ohms reading. Pointer will indicate ohm value of the discharge resistor. Open Capacitor Meter pointer will not swing upscale near zero ohms reading. Pointer will indicate ohm value of the discharge resistor. Shorted Capacitor Pointer will indicate a definite ohm reading between zero ohms and less than the ohm value of the discharge resistor.

6.

7.

MS-1

CAUTION DO NOT PERFORM POWER TEST ON START CAPACITORS.


RD S OR R YL/BR H F C BR/RD BROWN PURPLE S C FAN MOTOR R BL/WH C BK/BL

Start Capacitor Relay


CPR IOL MS-2

CAPACITOR DFC

This relay may be mounted in any position. However, the relay is calibrated in the position shown. The pick up and drop out voltage will be slightly different when mounted in other positions. Start relay (RLY 1097) should be used as a replacement for all American Standard single-phase reciprocating compressors that require start components. Relays with a different pick up voltage rating should not be used.

Compressors
Reciprocating (Part No. RLY 1097) Relay Contacts Checkout
Disconnect power to unit. Remove wires from terminals #1 and #2. Check for continuity between terminals #1 and #2. If open circuit, replace relay. If closed circuit, check relay visually.

Visual Checkout
MAX. ST WINDING AMPS. @ 230 V 35 A HOT (40C) PICK UP VOLTS 260 280 COLD PICK UP VOLTS 239 268 DROP OUT VOLTS 60 135 CONTINOUS COIL RATING (40C) 502

VOLTAGE RATING 230 V 60 1 0

If coil and contacts check out OK, remove relay cover and visually inspect contacts and coil for signs of pitted or burned contacts and for burned or charred wiring. If any of these are found, replace relay.

Motor Winding Ground Test


Reciprocating Dual Compressor Model Units (Part No. RLY 1869)
MAX. ST WINDING AMPS. @ 230 V 50 A VOLTAGE RATING 230 V 60 1 0 HOT (40C) PICK UP VOLTS 260 280 COLD PICK UP VOLTS 239 268 DROP OUT VOLTS 60 135 CONTINOUS COIL RATING (40C) 502

Mounting shown below.

1. 2.

Disconnect all electrical leads from compressor terminals. Set an ohmmeter to the highest scale (R X 10,000 or R X 100,000). Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Check from each compressor terminal to the compressor case or equipment ground. Be sure the ohmmeter probe is touching a bare metal ground. Any definite resistance measurement of less than 50,000 ohms between any compressor terminal and ground indicates a grounded motor. A grounded motor normally has operated at extremely high temperatures prior to failure. It is absolutely necessary to conduct an acid test on the failed compressor oil before the replacement compressor is installed.

Scroll Compressor (Part No. RLY 0227)


MAX. ST WINDING AMPS. @ 230 V 50 A VOLTAGE RATING 230 V 60 1 0 HOT (40C) PICK UP VOLTS 190 200 COLD PICK UP VOLTS 150 175 DROP OUT VOLTS 60 110 CONTINOUS COIL RATING (40C) 420

3. 4.

Mounting shown above.

5.

Relay Coil Checkout


Compressor Serv 9

Disconnect power to unit. Remove wires from terminals #2 and #5. Check for continuity between terminals #2 and #5. If open circuit, replace relay. If closed circuit, check contacts.

6.

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Compressors
Motor Windings Continuity Test
Single Phase Compressors with Internal Overload Protectors (I.O.L.)

Motor Windings Continuity Test All


3 Phase Compressors with Internal Overload Protectors (I.O.L.)

1. 2. 3.

Disconnect all electrical leads from the compressor terminals. Set an ohmmeter to the RX1 scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Measure for continuity between the start and run terminals. (a) A continuity reading indicates that the motor windings are intact. Proceed to step 4. (b) An infinite reading indicates an open winding. The compressor must be replaced.

1. 2. 3.

Disconnect all electrical leads from the compressor terminals. Set an ohmmeter to the RX1 Scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Measure for continuity between compressor terminals. Resistance should be the same ohm value between all terminals. If continuity is measured between any two terminals and an infinite resistance (open) to the remaining terminal, the motor is open and the compressor must be replaced. If an open circuit is measured between all terminals, the I.O.L. is tripped or open. Allow adequate time for the I.O.L. to reset before condemning the compressor. Up to two hours may be required if the compressor is extremely hot. Internal overload protectors are identified by I.O.L. designation on the equipment wiring diagram.

4.

4.

If continuity is measured between start and run terminals, then measure between start and common, then measure between run and common. An infinite resistance (open) measurement between common and both start and run terminals indicates a tripped or open I.O.L. Allow adequate time for I.O.L. to reset before condemning the compressor. Up to two hours may be required if the compressor is extremely hot. Internal overload protectors are identified by I.O.L. designation on the equipment wiring diagram.

5.

6.

5.

10

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Compressor Serv 10

Compressors
Motor Windings Continuity Test Reciprocating
Single Phase Compressors with Internal Pilot Duty Thermostats (T.M.)

Motor Windings Continuity Test Reciprocating


3 Phase Compressors With Internal Pilot Duty Thermostats (T.M.)

1. 2. 3.

Disconnect all electrical leads from the compressor terminals. Set an ohmmeter to the RX1 scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Measure for continuity between the common and start terminals. Measure for continuity between the common and run terminals. An infinite reading (open) between either common and start or common and run indicates an open winding. The compressor must be replaced. Measure for internal thermostat (T.M.) continuity between the two lower compressor terminals. T.M. should read continuity (zero ohms). An infinite reading (open) is measured across T.M.; the thermostat is tripped or open. Allow adequate time for T.M. to reset before condemning the compressor. Up to two hours may be required if the compressor is extremely hot. Internal thermostats are identified by T.M. designation on the equipment wiring diagram.

1. 2. 3.

Disconnect all electrical leads from the compressor terminals. Set an ohmmeter to the RX1 scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Measure for continuity between the upper three compressor terminals. (a) An infinite (open) reading between any two terminals or all terminals indicated an open winding. Replace the compressor. (b) 3 phase compressors with good windings should measure the same resistance between terminals.

4.

4.

5.

Measure for internal thermostat (T.M.) continuity between the two lower compressor terminals. T.M. should measure continuity (zero ohms). An infinite (open) reading across T.M. indicates that T.M. is tripped or open. Allow adequate time for T.M. to reset. Up to two hours may be required to T.M. to reset if the compressor is extremely hot. Internal thermostats are identified by T.M. designation on the equipment wiring diagram.

5.

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Compressor Serv 11

11

Compressors
Hi Pot Testing
Scrolls
Alliance Scrolls are configured with the motor down and the pumping components at the top of the shell. As a result, the motor can be immersed in refrigerant to a greater extent than the reciprocating compressor when liquid refrigerant is in the shell. When the Alliance Scroll compressors are hi pot tested with liquid refrigerant in the shell, higher levels of leaks could be observed. The level of current leakage does not represent any safety issues. Brief operation of the compressor will redistribute the refrigerant and should give normal hi pot readings. (b) If (MS) picks up but compressor does not run, de-energize immediately. 1. Check all terminals in power and control circuits. Repair loose connections and re-energize (5 sec. Max.). If compressor fails to run, de-energize. 2. Remove and isolate power leads at compressor. Energize and check 3 phase voltage. If voltage is correct on all phases, compressor has internal problem and must be replaced. 2. If compressor operates with jumper, check each component of solid state protection system for possible malfunction as follows:

Motor Windings Continuity Test Reciprocating


3 Phase Compressors with Solid State Motor Protection System (M.P.M.)
1. 2. 3. Disconnect electrical leads from compressor motor only (upper 3 terminals). Set an ohmmeter to the RX1 scale. Short meter leads and adjust ohmmeter to Zero. Check for continuity between the compressor terminals. (a) An infinite (open) reading between any two or all compressor motor terminals indicates an open winding. Replace the compressor. (b) 3 phase compressor motors should read the same resistance between all terminals. 4. If motor windings check good, proceed with motor protection module system checkout described below.

Transformer (MPT)
(a) Primary side must be connected to line side of contactor. (b) Remove secondary leads (S, CT, S) from module and measure voltage between each X and CT. The two voltages should be the same, approximately 12 volts. If not, MT is defective and must be replaced.

Motor Protection Module Test Robert Shaw Type Reciprocating


If compressor does not operate, proceed as follows: 1. Jumper control circuit contacts and energize unit for a maximum of five seconds.

Sensors Remove sensor leads (C, Sensor 1, Sensor 2) from module. Measure resistance between C and each sensor using a battery powered volt-ohm meter.*
Compressor Serv 12 10664 9/21/98

MPM

C S CT S

CONTROL

CIRCUIT

SEN 1 SEN 2

*WARNING: DO NOT USE A VOLT-OHM METER WHICH APPLIES MORE THAN 3 V DC TO CHECK SENSORS OR SENSOR FUSES. BOTH ARE EASILY DAMAGED AND NO ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO CHECK CONTINUITY BY ANY OTHER MEANS. (a) Resistance should measure between 60 and 150 ohms. If resistance is greater than 90 ohms, motor is too hot to permit operation. Allow to cool until sensor resistance is less than 90 ohms.

(a) If contactor (MS) does not pick up, problem is in the controls external to compressor terminal box.

12

Compressors
(b) If sensor resistance is greater than 150 ohms: 1. Check sensor fuses. Spare fuses are taped in terminal box. Use only MKB 1/16 amp fuses. 2. If fuses are okay, remove terminal block from small terminal and check sensors according to diagram below. If either sensor has a resistance greater than 150 ohms, compressor must be replaced. Module (MPM) If sensor fuses, sensors and transformer are not defective, module must be replaced. If the compressor contactor fails to energize, jumper terminals M1 and M2 of the module. Do not jumper for more than 5 seconds. If compressor contactor still fails to energize, the problem is in the controls external to the compressor terminal box. If the compressor contactor energizes when module terminals M1 and M2 are jumpered, check voltage at terminals T1 and T2 on the module. Voltage should be between 21 and 30 volts A.C. If T1 and T2 voltage is present, disconnect the motor sensor leads from module terminals S and S1. Measure resistance of the motor sensors with a battery powered ohmmeter. Sensors will be damaged if exposed to high voltage. Resistance should be between 2,000 and 45,000 ohms. If resistance is above 10,000 ohms the motor is too hot to permit operation. Allow motor to cool until sensor resistance is below 10,500 ohms before operating the compressor. If sensor resistance is above 45,000 ohms sensors are damaged and the compressor must be replaced. If sensor resistance and supply voltage are correct and the motor contactor will not energize, the module is defective. Compressor motor overheating can be caused by: (a) Shorted or grounded motor windings (b) Defective run capacitors (c) Defective start capacitors or start relay (d) Low line voltage (e) Low refrigerant charge (f) Dirty condenser or excessive head pressure due to refrigerant overcharge.

Motor Protection Module Test Texas Instrument Type Reciprocating


This compressor overload system consists of a solid state module located in the compressor terminal box and solid state sensors buried in the compressor motor windings. The sensors are connected to the two small terminals located at the lower part of the compressor terminal box. If the sensors in the motor windings sense a motor temperature that is too high for safe motor operation, they will cause the electronic protection module to open a normally closed switch circuit between terminal M1 and M2 of the module. When this switch circuit opens, power to the compressor motor starter coil is interrupted, de-energizing the motor starter.

Terminal Location Protection Module

Checking Electrical Circuits All


Checking compressor electrical circuits requires the use of the equipment wiring diagram to locate and troubleshoot components in the circuits.
Compressor Serv 13

Wiring diagrams are attached to control box covers or power panel covers on all equipment. The wiring diagram shows physical location of components, terminal connections, and physical wiring layout. The schematic portion of the diagram shows electrical connections to components necessary to operate each electrical circuit in the system.

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13

Compressors
When a component fails to operate, the schematic should be used to identify all other components that complete the circuit. The wiring diagram should be used to physically locate the components. Wire color codes are shown on wiring diagrams and schematics to assist in circuit tracing. The wiring diagram identifies compressor terminals and internal overload protector terminals. Before condemning a compressor for internal electrical failure, measure resistance between all terminals and measure each terminal to ground. ined to determine whether a system fault contributed to the compressor failure, and may cause the replacement compressor to fail.

Crankcase Heat Scroll


Due to the Alliance Scrolls inherent ability to handle liquid refrigerant in flooded conditions, crankcase heat is only used in high system charge and other unique situations.

Trickle Circuits Used on Reciprocating Only


The trickle circuit serves the same purpose as a crankcase heater, preventing accumulation of refrigerant in the compressor crankcase during the compressor off cycle. The trickle circuit permits a small amount of current to flow through the compressor run capacitor and the compressor start winding when the compressor contactor is de-energized. The contactor interrupts power to the compressor run winding. The capacitor used in the trickle circuit has a resistor connected across its terminals. The only purpose of the resistor is to serve as a capacitor discharge path when power to the unit is turned off.

Important Start Up Procedure Reciprocating


The procedure listed below should be followed at initial start-up and at any time the power has been removed for 12 hours or more. To prevent compressor damage which may result from the presence of liquid refrigerant in the crankcase: 1. 2. Make certain the room thermostat is on off position. (The compressor is not to operate.) Apply power by closing the system disconnect switch. This energizes the compressor heater which evaporates the liquid refrigerant in the crankcase. Allow 30 minutes for each pound of refrigerant in the system as noted on the unit nameplate. After proper elapsed time, the thermostat may be set to operate the compressor. Except as required for safety while servicing DO NOT OPEN SYSTEM DISCONNECT SWITCH.

3. 4.

Crankcase Heat Reciprocating


A major cause for stuck bearings is failure of the compressor crankcase heater. Without a crankcase heater in operation, liquid refrigerant will accumulate in the crankcase, reducing the lubricating qualities of the oil by dilution and cause the oil to foam and leave the compressor at start-up. The crankcase heater should always be checked when replacing a compressor. Compressor mechanical failures are caused by broken valves, stuck bearings, broken springs or broken internal tubing. Each type of failure can usually be attributed to specific system faults that caused the failure. When a compressor fails, the system should be exam-

Replacement capacitors in units utilizing trickle circuits must be the same microfarad rating or circuit malfunction may occur. Nuisance tripping of compressor overload protectors is likely.

14

10664 9/21/98

Compressor Serv 14

Compressors
Only factory supplied start kits should be used with trickle circuit units. Field wired start kits might cause start circuit malfunctions.

Compressor Replacement Procedure


If the following replacement procedure is performed, step by step, minimum time will be required for change-out: 1. Recover Refrigerant charge using an approved recovery system. NOTE: SCROLL ONLY If the refrigerant charge is removed from the high side only, it is possible for the scrolls to seal preventing pressure equalization through the compressor. This may leave the low side shell and suction line tubing pressurized. To prevent this occurrence, remove refrigerant from both high and low sides of the unit. 2. While charge is being recovered, remove panels and components necessary for compressor access. Remove compressor cover (if used) and compressor hold down bolts. Remove wiring from compressor terminals. Uncrate replacement compressor. Set up and start vacuum pump on self pull down. Check indoor unit air filters. When high and low side pressures reach 0 psig, loosen compressor rotolock fittings. Remove the failed compressor from the equipment. Take oil sample from failed compressor and perform acid test. Install rotolock caps from replacement compressor on failed compressor. Remove existing liquid line drier(s). Replace with new drier(s). Set replacement compressor in place. Tighten rotolocks. Install permanent suction line drier if acid test indicates acid system. Connect vacuum pump to equipment and begin evacuation. While evacuating system, install compressor hold down bolts. Connect wiring to compressor terminals. Replace compressor cover (if used). Replace components and panels removed for compressor access. Pack failed compressor in replacement compressor shipping box. Locate charging chart attached to equipment. When acceptable vacuum is reached, shut off charging manifold valves. Do not apply power to compressor under vacuum. Damage could occur. Remove vacuum pump. Connect the center manifold hose to a charging cylinder. Purge the hose with refrigerant. Open the high side manifold valve and charge liquid refrigerant into the high side. Do not charge liquid into the low side. Leave low side

Trickle Circuit Test


Turn the unit off at the room thermostat. Leave power supply to outdoor unit energized. Connect a clamp on ammeter to one of the lines supplying the outdoor unit. The ammeter should indicate 2 to 4 amps with the outdoor unit off. The current draw of the trickle circuit is not indicative of power consumed or dissipated by the circuit. Actual power consumed by the circuit is 45 to 65 watts. CAUTION Always disconnect power to the unit before removing unit power panel covers. The compressor contactor on trickle circuit units interrupts only one line from the power supply. If trickle circuit units nuisance-trip compressor internal motor protector during the off cycle, check the microfarad rating of the trickle capacitor against proper rating shown on the unit wiring diagram. The microfarad rating shown on the wiring diagram must be used. Check for mis-wiring if field wired start kit has been installed.

3.

4.

Compressor Serv 15

5.
MS-1

CR-A
BR/RD RD
BR/RD

S OR R

C BK/BL

10664 9/21/98

CR-B
F S RD

CPR

IOL

MS-2

BROWN

CF
PURPLE

FAN MOTOR
R BLACK

15

Compressors
manifold valve closed. Permit liquid refrigerant to charge into the high side for 2 to 3 minutes. Close the high side manifold valve. Allow time for high and low side gauges to indicate equalized pressure. Start the equipment and observe pressure readings for proper system operation; balance the refrigerant charge by charging refrigerant vapor into the system low side. Do not charge liquid into the low side compressor damage will result. 6. Use the correct charge balancing method for the type flow control used in the system.

Oil Samples
Oil is a scavenger for acids. If acids are present in the system, they can be detected by testing the compressor oil. CAUTION Highly acid oil can cause chemical burns to eyes and skin. Obtain an oil sample from the suction port of the failed compressor. Use a clean glass or plastic container for the oil sample. If the oil sample is badly discolored or contains solid particles, clean up the system without further tests. Conduct acid test on oil immediately upon removal from the compressor. Acids may be neutralized by chemical reaction with the container (including glass containers).

Acid Formation in Compressors


Acids in hermetic refrigeration systems are formed when refrigerant is exposed to high temperature and moisture. All refrigerant systems contain small amounts of moisture, since refrigerant cannot be manufactured totally moisture-free. The purpose of refrigerant driers is to trap and hold normal amounts of moisture in the system. The most common cause of excessive acid build-up is the introduction of moisture in the system when the system is opened for service and proper evacuation is not done. A shorted or grounded hermetic compressor motor that results in a motor burnout causes the most severe acid condition. Extremely high motor temperature during the burnout results in excessive acid build-up in the system. The severity of the acid build-up depends upon the length of time that refrigerant is exposed to the high temperature conditions before motor failure occurs. Excessive acids must be detected and removed from the system when compressor is replaced or the replacement compressor will fail prematurely when exposed to the acid system.

Acid Test Kits


Acid Test Kit (KIT 1021) is a one-time-use kit for conducting a single test. The kit contains explicit instructions and precautions for conducting the acid test. If the test indicates excessive acid, a permanent suction line drier must be installed. Reciprocating Also add Acid Away (CHM0077) per the package instructions. If the test indicated a safe acid level, it is not necessary or recommended to install a permanent suction line drier. A new liquid line drier should always be installed when replacing a compressor or refrigerant system component.

Liquid Line Driers


Compressor Serv 16 10664 9/21/98

Liquid line driers are vitally important to the life expectancy of air conditioning equipment. Their purpose is to remove moisture and neutralize acid build-up in the refrigerant system. Liquid line driers should be replaced if the refrigerant charge is lost due to leaks, when a compressor is replaced, or when the refrigerant must be recovered for repairs.

16

Compressors
Liquid line driers should never be oversized, since system refrigerant charge will be increased to accommodate the drier. Excessive refrigerant charge can cause compressor liquid slugging at start-up. Heat pump equipment may contain one or two liquid line driers. A check valve arrangement ensures that liquid flow through the driers is in the same direction regardless of flow direction in the liquid line. Replacement driers in heat pump equipment must be located in the same physical location as the original equipment drier. Do not use commercially available 2-way driers advertised for use in the liquid line outside the heat pump equipment cabinet. Replacement driers in straight cooling equipment may be installed in the liquid line outside the equipment cabinet only if the existing defective drier is removed from the refrigerant circuit and replaced by refrigerant pipe. Note the flow direction arrow or in out marking on the original equipment driers. Replacement drier(s) must be installed in the same flow direction. 2. 3.

Recovering the Charge


Connect the charging manifold center fitting to a hose or pipe that is attached to a certified recovery device. Follow the instructions for the device you are using to recover and store the refrigerant.

Evacuation
1. Proper evacuation of a refrigerant system after compressor replacement, leak repair or any other reason for recovering the refrigerant is absolutely necessary if the system is expected to maintain a long life expectancy with good reliability. Purging a system with refrigerant is not adequate to maintain good reliability and not permitted. Replacement of liquid line driers after compressor replacement or leak repair is imperative for good reliability. The presence of air, moisture or other foreign materials in a refrigerant system will result in poor system performance and reduced life expectancy. High vacuum measurements require the use of a vacuum micron gauge. Manifold pressure gauges are not capable of measuring high vacuum.

4.

5.

Suction Line Driers


The suction line drier must be installed in any system that has been established as a burn-out. The suction line drier must be permanently installed in the suction line as near to the compressor as is possible. On heat pump units, the suction line drier must be installed between the switchover valve and compressor.

Evacuation Procedure
The purpose of evacuating a refrigerant system is to remove moisture and foreign gases from the system. Moisture in an operating refrigerant system chemically combines with refrigerants, forming acids that damage or destroy refrigerant system components, particularly hermetic compressor motors. Foreign gases such as air, hydrogen or nitrogen in the refrigerant system are non-condensable at operating pressures and will cause elevated head pressures and erratic operation of flow controls. To adequately evacuate a system, a high vacuum pump capable of 50 micron pull down is required. (Robinair No. 15001, 15021 or equiv.). To properly measure a high vacuum, a thermocouple vacuum gauge is required. (Robinair No. 14010 or equiv.). Manifold gauges are not adequate for high vacuum measurements.

Discharging Refrigerant Systems


Refrigerant should never be discharged into the atmosphere. Proper recovery techniques must be followed in all service procedures.
Compressor Serv 17

Refrigerant may contain acids harmful to eyes, skin, clothing, pets, shrubs, and flowers and has been proven harmful to the ozone layer. Always wear protective clothing, glasses or face mask when recovering refrigerant.

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17

Compressors
Charging manifold used for evacuation must be in good condition. Hoses must be leak-proof and no longer than 48 inches. Long hoses with small internal diameter will not permit adequate vacuum pull down. CAUTION Close vacuum pump shut-off valve and manifold valves before stopping the vacuum pump, or oil from the pump may flow back into the refrigerant system, unless an oil trap is used. Remove the manifold center hose from the vacuum pump and connect the hose to a refrigerant cylinder. Loosen the center hose fitting at the manifold end and purge the hose with refrigerant. Release only the amount of charge necessary to purge the hose. Charge system with refrigerant.

Refrigerant System Leaks


Equipment Necessary for Leak Testing
Electronic type leak detectors Halide torch leak detector Soap solution Connect a charging manifold to the pressure taps located on the equipment cabinet, refrigerant lines or service valve ports. Install a shut-off valve at the vacuum pump inlet. Connect a thermocouple vacuum gauge at the shut-off valve outlet side with a tee that permits the gauge to measure system pressure with the shut-off valve closed. Connect the manifold center hose to the tee. Close the vacuum pump shut-off valve. Fully open the manifold valves. Start the vacuum pump. Permit pump to pull down for a few minutes before opening the shut-off valve. Slowly open the shut-off valve. Rapid evacuation starts may foam the compressor oil or vacuum pump oil. Evacuate until the vacuum gauge indicates 350 microns or less. Close the shut-off valve for one minute. If system pressure does not increase to more than 500 microns in one minute, evacuation is adequate. If system pressure increases to 500 microns in less than one minute, continue evacuation. Continue evacuation until system pressure rise from 350 to 500 microns takes one minute or longer. NOTE: Since both florescent leak detectors and dyes are considered additives to the refrigerant and oils, they are not recommended for use.

To Check for Leaks


Connect a pressure gauge to the low side Schrader valve on unit cabinet, or pressure taps on refrigerant lines. If the gauge registers a positive pressure, proceed with the test. If the gauge indicates the system is out of refrigerant, add sufficient charge to pressurize the system, then proceed with the test. Using an electronic leak detector (follow the directions furnished with the detector), check all joints, pressure switch capillaries, etc., for leaks, or: Using soap solution, dab solution on joints, etc., telltale bubbles pinpoint the leak. When using Refrigerant 22, you may also use a halide torch. Check all joints, etc. A leak will show up as a change in the torch flame a green flame indicates a small leak a rising brilliant blue flame indicates larger leak. Remember the alternative refrigerants, such as R410A, will not cause an indication with a halide torch, as they do not contain chlorine.
Compressor Serv 18 10664 9/21/98

18

Compressors
Dry nitrogen may be used to pressurize the system in locating small leaks. Do not pressurize the system above 300 psig. Rupture of system components can result. Never pressurize a refrigerant system with compressed oxygen. Oil and oxygen under pressure will explode. 7. After system charging has been completed, check head and suction pressures. Compare pressures to normal operating characteristics charts attached to the equipment. COOLING EQUIPMENT Check thermostat for: (a) Fan only operation (b) Cooling operation 9. HEAT PUMP EQUIPMENT Check thermostat for: (a) Fan only operation (b) Cooling operation (c) Heating first stage (heat pump only) (d) Heating second stage (heat pump plus resistance heat) (e) Emergency Heat Resistance heaters only

8.

System Checkout After Leak Repair or Compressor Replacement


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Evacuate the system to the pressure outlined under evacuation procedures. Pressurize the system with Refrigerant vapor. Leak check repaired joints, rotolock couplings, quick attach couplings, etc. Check air filters, fans, blower wheels, and coil surfaces for cleanliness prior to system charging. Check air registers and grilles to be sure that they are open and unobstructed. Start the equipment and charge with refrigerant per the charging instructions attached to the equipment. An accurate refrigerant charge is an absolute must for good system reliability and efficient operation.

Notes of Interest
1. 2. 3. 4. Bleed Resistor is always across CR-A. Normally the Fan Terminal (if it is actually for fan) will not exceed 15 MFD. Normally the Fan Rating will be lowest MFD. There are capacitors rated at 20/20 and 30/30 MFD.

Compressor Servicing Notes to Remember:

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Compressor Serv 19

19

Compressors

Quick Troubleshooting List


(DETAILS IN PROCEDURE)

COMPRESSOR WONT RUN CONTACTOR CLOSED


Possible Causes: Confirmation Of Cause:

1. Open I.O.L. ............................................................................ Check resistance C to S and C to R Allow compr. to cool and re-test 2. Open Windings .................................................................... Check resistance Start to Run 3. Grounded Compressor ........................................................ Check resistance of terminals to ground 4. Locked Rotor (stuck) ............................................................ Voltage Present @ C to S and C to R Locked Rotor Amps on C (Start capacitor may be required for starting) 5. Defective Run Capacitor/St. Cap. ........................................ Check with Ohmmeter 6. Open Start Leg Fuse ............................................................ Check for continuity 7. Shorted Windings ................................................................ Compare winding resistance to valves from Service Manual

COMPRESSOR RUNS BUT TRIPS I.O.L.


Possible Causes: Confirmation Of Cause:

1. Insufficient Refrigerant ........................................................ Compare System press to Performance Charge/Restriction Charts 2. Defective Run Cap./St. Cap .................................................. Check with Ohmmeter 3. Defective Start Relay ........................................................... Current on St. Cap should drop off within 5 sec.

COMPRESSOR RUNS BUT DOESNT PUMP


Possible Causes: Confirmation Of Cause:
Compressor Serv 20 10664 9/21/98

1. Compr. Valves Defective ...................................................... Little or no difference between head and suction 2. Internal Mechanical Failure ................................................. Suction press rises sharply during off cycle 3. SOV not seated .................................................................... Check temp rise of suction line across SOV

20

Section 608, paragraph C of the Clean Air Act of 1990 states:


Effective July 1, 1992, it shall be unlawful for any person, in the course of maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of an air conditioning system, to knowingly vent or release any CFC or HCFC refrigerant. Minimal releases (air purges or refrigerant hoses) associated with good faith attempts to recapture or recycle are exempt from the ban on venting. The Clean Air Act has provisions for significant fines and/or imprisonment for non-compliance. These fines could range from $5,000 to $25,000 per day.

Note: This publication is general in nature and is intended for INSTRUCTIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. It is not to be used for equipment selection, application, installation, or specific service procedures.

Pub. No. 34-4012-02 2

P.I. (L)