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Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

Temporary Overvoltages in Gas Insulated Substations Connected by long HV Cables


Kiran Kumar Munji and Ravikumar Bhimasingu
Crompton Greaves Ltd Global R&D Centre Mumbai, India Kiran.munji@cgglobal.com

Abstract Temporary overvoltages (TOV) are of importance when determining stresses on equipment related to powerfrequency withstand voltage, in particular for the energy capability of surge arrester (SA). The maximum continuous operating voltage rating (MCOV) of the selected arrester should be high enough so that neither the magnitude, nor the duration of the TOV exceeds the capability of the arrester. To ensure this, the maximum TOV at/nearby arrestor location has to be determined along with the maximum time that the system is operated in the abnormal voltage state for breaker opening, feeder energisation and single line to ground fault conditions. In this paper an attempt has been done to verify the withstand capability of surge arresters in gas insulated substation (GIS) during feeder energisation and single line to ground (SLG) fault conditions. It also provides the necessary separation distance between the arresters and protective equipment. KeywordsTemporary overvoltage; Gas insulated substation; Surge arrester; Maximum continious operating voltage;

maximum TOV at/nearby arrestor location has to be determined along with the maximum time that the system is operated in the abnormal voltage state for breaker opening, feeder energisation and single line to ground fault conditions. Many papers available in literature have explained about the equipment modeling and transient analysis. Bollen et. al. [2] provided the information regarding power system transients. Information regarding lightning transients in power system and the validation of surge arrester rating to mitigate them using coefficient of grounding (COG) was explained by Walsh et. al. [3]. whereas the information regarding high frequency modeling of various components such as transmission lines and cables, transformers, source equivalents, loads and circuit breaker (CB) in case of transients events along with necessary examples was provided by Durbak et. al. [4]. How cables with different lengths upon energization independently influence transients generated at point of common coupling was analyzed by Moore et. al. [5]. Information and necessity of high frequency modeling of components in case of transients was provided by [6-8]. In most cases, a single set of well qualified arresters installed as close as possible to the GIS entrance (i.e. within a few meters) and with short connection leads, will protect a comparatively long GIS bus. It is, therefore, not usually a question of choice between a metal-enclosed surge arrester within the GIS or a conventional porcelain type arrester at the GIS entrance but whether a GIS arrester is needed in addition. Provision of a single GIS arrester set only will provide good protection at its location, but any open disconnecting switch and breaker between the arrester and the GIS entrance could be left unprotected. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND EQUIPMENT MODELING

I.

INTRODUCTION

Overvoltages can be caused by a number of system events, such as switching surges, line-to-ground faults, load rejection and Ferro-resonance. Overvoltages in power system can be traditionally classified into 1) transient overvoltages 2) temporary overvoltages. Transient overvoltage is defined as short duration highly damped, oscillatory or non oscillatory overvoltage, having duration of a few milli seconds or less. It can be classified into lightning, very fast front and switching. Temporary overvoltage is an oscillatory overvoltage i.e. at a given location of relatively long duration (seconds, even minutes) and is undamped and weakly damped. Main reasons for temporary overvoltage are switching or fault clearing operations [1]. This voltage can be calculated using the computer program capable of modeling the distribution system. Overvoltages may also originate during switching on and off of capacitor banks into the network. These transients generated due to overvoltages on either the HV or LV side of the transformer can combine with cable capacitance which produces standing waves with frequencies ranging from fundamental to 10 kHz and amplitudes upto several times the original ones, leading to electric stress and failure of components. Hence, in order to analyze these transients and to account the wide range of overvoltages originating from these transients, precise modeling of components is required. To ensure that the arrester TOV capability is not exceeded, the

A. System Description The substation is a 220/33kV GIS connected through cables at both the voltage levels so, there is no provision for lighting overvoltages in the system. The incoming of 220kV side of substation is connected through 220kV cables of 30km length (4 incoming lines). These cables are connected to 220kV GIS and again the power is transformed from 220kV to 33kV voltage rating through a power transformer of 220/33/11kV, 100MVA rating. The 33kV side of transformer is connected to 33kV GIS and there after connected to 33kV distribution cables of 5km length (9 incoming lines).

Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

33kV GIS1
BUS220kV

BRK5A AIS SA AIS SA 33kV GIS2 TXBAY1 BRK4A BRK5C 33kV GIS4 220KVGIS BRK5B 33kV GIS3 220KVGIS

E4A E4B E4C E4D E4E E4F E4G E4H E4I

CABLE1 CABLE2 CABLE3 CABLE4 CABLE5 CABLE6 CABLE7 CABLE8 CABLE9

GIS SA CABLE220KV BRK1A CABLE220KV RL RRL BRK1B CABLE220KV BRK1C CABLE220KV BRK1D E1A E1B E1C E1D 220kV GIS BRK2A 220kV GIS BRK2B 220kV GIS BRK2C 220kV GIS BRK2D BRK3C BRK3B BRK3A

E2A

TX1

E3A

E2B

TX2

E3B

TXBAY2 BRK4B

BRK5D 33kV GIS5 BRK5E 33kV GIS6

220KVGIS

E2C

TX3

E3C

TXBAY3 BRK4C

BRK5F 33kV GIS7 BRK5G 33kV GIS8 BRK5H 33kV GIS9 BRK5I

Fig. 1. PSCAD implementation of the GIS substation

B. Source The source is modeled using a 3-phase and 1-phase short circuit MVA ratings. Based on these MVA ratings and respective X/R ratios the positive and zero-sequence impedances are calculated. Based on the above inputs positive sequence impedance Z1=0.316+j3.16 and zero sequence impedance Z0=0.6815+j6.815 are calculated for 220kV source. C. Cables The range of frequencies of primary interest in a switching transients study varies from the fundamental power frequency up to about 10 kHz. For transient overvoltage study it is required that the cable systems should be modeled accurately because a simple -section does not simulate reflections in cables, and it is thus usually used only for steady state studies. The surge, propagating in cable systems and impedances of the cable systems are highly frequency dependent. Therefore, for high frequency transient studies, frequency dependent model is used.
0.0 [m ] Cable # 1

accurate response of system may be obtained [9]. There are two types of cables in system, single core XLPE cable of 1000mm2 arranged in trefoil configuration are used for 220kV (30km length) and three core XLPE cable of 400mm2 shown in Fig. 3 are used for 33kV (5km length). Single core cables have conductor, insulation, shield, jacket and semi conductor (SC) shields as shown in Fig. 2. Frequency dependent phase model is used for modeling both single and three core cables in PSCAD. This Model uses curve fitting to duplicate the frequency response of a line or cable. It is the most advanced time domain model available as it represents the full frequency dependence of all line parameters [10] (including the effect of a frequency dependent transformation matrix).

2 3

1 4 5 9

1.0 [m]

6 7 8

SC Layer 1 SC Layer 2 Conductor Insulator 1 Sheath Insulator 2 0.01784 0.04365 0.04815 0.05245

1. Conductor Stranded Circular Aluminium Conductor 2. Screen- Extruded Semi Conducting Compound 3. Insulation XLPE Compound 4. Insulation screen - Extruded Semi Conducting Compound 5. Insulation Screen (Metallic part)-Copper Tape 6. Inner sheath Extruded PVC Type ST-2 Compound 7. Galvanized Steel Strip Armoured 8. Outer sheath Extruded FR PVC Type ST-2 Compound 9. FILLER PVC Fig. 3. Arrangement of 33kV 400mm2 cables

Fig. 2. Representation of single core cable

Cables behave differently for different frequencies. For example, the resistance of the cable increases at higher frequencies due to the skin effect and provide some damping effect to system response compared to normal power system frequencies. As switching frequencies involve wide range of frequencies it necessary to model frequency dependent model of cables which includes travelling wave phenomena thereby

D. Transformers For switching surge transient studies, the transformer model used is a reduced order representation with less detail, in comparison with a model used for insulation coordination studies. Usually a lumped parameter coupled-winding model with a sufficient number of R-L-C elements gives the appropriate impedance characteristics at the terminal within the frequency range of interest. The nonlinear characteristic of the

Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

core should usually be included, although, the frequency characteristic of the core is often ignored. The transformer is represented by its short circuit impedance, magnetizing inductance and losses [11]. E. Surge arrester ZnO surge arrester is composed of non-linear resistors where overvoltage impulses can be diverted into current surges while the energy of the wave is discharged. In this way, surge arresters limit the amplitude of the TOVs. Surge arresters are preferably located close to the equipment to protect, in our case, at the terminal of the power transformer and at feeder ends. The location of surge arresters is shown in TABLE II. The protection level of the ZnO arrester is set with sufficient margin to the TOVs depending on the system grounding and operating conditions [12]. Metal-oxide surge arresters are capable of operating for limited periods of time at power-frequency voltages above their MCOV rating. The amount of overvoltage that a metal-oxide arrester can successfully withstand depends on the length of time that the overvoltage exists [13]. Manufacturers can describe the arrester overvoltage capability in the form of a curve that shows temporary power-frequency overvoltage versus allowable time shown in Fig. 4. Surge arrester is usually represented by non linear V-I characteristics as shown in TABLE I. for TOV study.
TABLE I. V-I CHARACTERISTICS FOR SURGE ARRESTERS 216kV 245 178 560 605 670 30kV 36 25.5 80 84 94

breaker, Earth switch (ES) and PT are represented by their equivalent capacitance as shown in TABLE III.
220kV BUS-1 220kV BUS-2
FROM 33kV SIDE OF TX
30kV SA

ISO

ISO

ISO

ISO

CT CB

CB ES CT ISO HES

ES

CB ES CT ISO ES

ES
ISO

ES ISO 33kV BUS-1 33kV BUS-1 33kV BUS-2 33kV BUS-2 TRAFO ISO ISO

PT

TO BUS DUCT
CB ES

TO 220kV SIDE OF TX
216kV SA
CT

TO 220kV XLPE CABLE (30km)

PT
30kV SA

Fig. 5. Single line diagram showing various components of GIS TABLE III. SHUNT CAPACITANCE OF GIS COMPONENTS Capacitance (pF) 50 20 45 45 75

GIS component Circuit breaker spacer Elbow Earth switch PT

Rated voltage (kV) Highest system voltage (kV) MCOV (kV) Voltage at 5 kA (kV) Voltage at 10 kA (kV) Voltage at 20 kA (kV) TABLE II.

G. Switchgear Switchgear includes circuit breakers and vacuum switches, which make or break circuits. In switching surge studies, the switch is often modeled as an ideal conductor (zero impedance) when closed, and an open circuit ( impedance) when open. III. SIMULATION DETAILS & CASE STUDIES

LOCATION OF SURGE ARRESTERS 30kV SA 33kv side of power transformer (GIS) Incoming of 33kv line (GIS)

216kV SA 220kV side of power transformer (AIS) Incoming of 220kV line (GIS)

460 440
Voltage per unit MCOV

62 216kV 30kV 60 58 56 54

For the GIS substation, the following 8 cases have been simulated. The simulated single line diagram modeled in PSCAD is shown in Fig. 1. It assumed that the voltage measurement is available at the surge arrester locations, namely E1A, E1B, E1C, E1D, E2A, E2B, E2C, E2D, E3A, E3B, E3C, E4A, E4B, E4C, E4D, E4E, E4F, E4G, E4H and E4I. Also, at these locations, surge arrestor currents and energy levels are available. The locations are shown in Fig. 1. 1) Case: 1 BRK1A is closed with remaining breakers in open condition. The case is run to check the overvoltage seen by the SA (216kV) located at the incoming of 220kv line of substation when energisation of a single 220kV cable. The case is run for 500ms with energisation of BRK1A at 400ms and 405ms. 2) Case: 2 BRK1A is closed with breakers BRK1B to BRK1D already in ON condition. The case is run for 500ms with energisation of BRK1A at 400ms and 405ms. 3) Case: 3 BRK3A is closed with breakers (BRK1A to BRK1D) and (BRK2A to BRK2D) already in ON condition. The case is run for 500ms with energisation of BRK3A at 400ms and 405ms.

420 400 380 360 340 320 0.1

52 50 48 46 100

10

Maximum time duration in seconds

Fig. 4. Temporary overvoltage capability curve

F. Gas insulated substation Fig. 5 shows the internal single line diagram of 220kV and 33kV GIS. The GIS components like spacer, Elbow, circuit

Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

4) Case: 4 BRK3A is closed with breakers BRK3B to BRK3D already in ON condition. The case is run for 500ms with energisation of BRK3A at 400ms and 405ms.
Voltage (kV)

300

Phase-A

Phase-B

Phase-C

200

5) Case: 5 BRK5A is closed with breakers BRK5B to BRK5I in OFF condition. The case is run for 500ms with energisation of BRK5A at 400ms and 405ms. 6) Case: 6 BRK5A is closed with breakers BRK5B to BRK5I already in ON condition. The case is run for 500ms with energisation of BRK5A at 400ms and 405ms. 7) Case: 7 SLG fault is created at the end of 33kV cable. Fault is created at 405ms which exists for 140ms and BRK5A clear this fault at 545ms. The fault exists till 200ms. 8) Case: 8 SLG fault is created at 220kv side of power transformer no 3. Fault is created at 405ms which exists for 140ms and BRK3C clear this fault at 545ms. The fault exists till 200ms. The simulation is carried out for 500ms to let the transients settle down to steady state condition. After 400ms breaker operations are initiated at voltage zero (Vz= 400ms) and voltage peak (Vp= 405ms). The time step has to be coherent with the highest frequency phenomenon appearing in the system during the transient under consideration. A value of one-tenth of the period corresponding to the highest frequency is advised. The time step has to be lower than the travel time of any of the propagation elements of the network [14]. A value of half of this travel time is advised. Fig. 6 & Fig. 7 show the voltage waveform at E1A for case: 1, when BRK1A is closed at Vz and Vp respectively. In these cases we have observed a voltage peak of -271.5kV and 292.88kV. Fig. 8 to Fig. 11shows the voltage waveforms for the case: 2. we have observed a voltage peak of 292.2kV at E1A, which is 16% higher than the MCOV rating of SA. The voltage rise is less than the MCOV rating at other locations. In case of SLG faults at 33kV and 220kV (Fig. 14 to Fig. 16) the overvoltage occur during breaker opening but persist for short duration and they are below surge arresters TOV capability curve (Fig. 4).
300 PHASE-A PHASE-B PHASE-C

100

-100

-200 350 Electrotek Concepts

400 Time (ms)

450

500 TOP, The Output Processor

Fig. 7. Voltage wave form at E1A (energized at Vp) for Case 1


300 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

200

100 Voltage (kV)

-100

-200

-300 350 Electrotek Concepts

400 Time (ms)

450

500 TOP, The Output Processor

Fig. 8. Voltage wave form at E1A for Case2, energized at Vz


200 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

100

Voltage (kV)

-100

-200

-300 300

350

400 Time (ms)

450

500

Fig. 9. Voltage wave form at E1B for Case2, energized at Vz


300 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

200

200

100 Voltage (kV)


Voltage (kV)

100

-100

-100

-200

-200

-300 380

400

420

440 Time (ms)

460

480

500

-300 350 Electrotek Concepts

400 Time (ms)

450

500 TOP, The Output Processor

Fig. 6. Voltage wave form at E1A (energized at Vz) for Case 1

Fig. 10. Voltage wave form at E1A for Case2, energized at Vp

Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

300

Phase-A

Phase-B

Phase-C

Phase-A

Phase-B

Phase-C

200

Voltage (kV)

Current (kA)
400 Time (ms) 450 500 TOP, The Output Processor

100

-100

-200 350 Electrotek Concepts

-2 538

540

542

544 546 Time (ms)

548

550

552

Electrotek Concepts

TOP, The Output Processor

Fig. 11. Voltage wave form at E1B for Case2, energized at Vp


40 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

Fig. 15. Current through surge arrestor at 4A (SA4A) for Case 7


400 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

20

200

Voltage (kV)

Voltage (kV)

-20

-200

-40 350 Electrotek Concepts

-400

400 Time (ms)

450

500 TOP, The Output Processor

0 Electrotek Concepts

200

400 Time (ms)

600

800

TOP, The Output Processor

Fig. 12. Voltage wave form at E4A for Case5, energized at Vz


0.00010 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

Fig. 16. Voltage wave form at E2C for Case8 TABLE IV. Case Location E1A E1A E1A E1B E1A E1B E3A E4A E3A E4A E4A E4A E4A E4A E2C E2C SUMMARY OF RESULTS Voltage peak (kV) -271.55 292.88 -287.59 -234.91 292.2 224.3 -39.17 -39.17 -39.17 -39.17 -29.20 29.62 -32.48 -54.12 -235.25 -340.94 %rise ( MCOV) 107.8 116.3 114.2 93.3 116.1 89.1 108.6 108.6 108.6 108.6 81.06 82.13 90.0 150.0 93.4 135.4 COG 0.696 0.755 -

0.00005

Current (kA)

Case 1 (Vz) Case 1 (Vp) Case 2 (Vz) Case 2 (Vp)

0.00000

-0.00005

Case 5 (Vz) Case 5 (Vp)

-0.00010 350

400 Time (ms)

450

500

Fig. 13. Current through surge arrestor at 4A (SA4A) for Case 5 when cable is energized at Vz
40 Phase-A Phase-B Phase-C

20

Case 6 (Vz) Case 6 (Vp) Case 7 (when fault occurs) Case 7 (when BKR opens) Case 8 (when fault occurs) Case 8 (when BKR opens)

Voltage (kV)

-20

IV.

OBSERVATIONS FROM THE SIMULATIONS

-40

It is observed that the values of peak over voltages are more in the cases of breaker opening during fault clearance.
500 550 Time (ms) 600 650

-60 450

Fig. 14. Voltage wave form at E4A for Case7

Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

The value of COG is within the IEEE standard limits (IEEE Standard C62.92.1-2000) which are less than 0.80 For the Case 7, voltages of the other 2 phases are clamped to certain value. This situation occurred because of the unloaded cable is de-energized. In such cases, grounding of the two ends of the cable is mandatory while re-energizing. The minimum distance between 220kV side of transformer and 216kV surge arrester is found to be 10.2m. The protective margin of transformer and surge arrester is found to be 20.3% and 42% respectively. As the distance between transformer and surge arrester is 6m, the surge arrester can be placed anywhere in the 6m distance. The safety margins are applicable only for the connecting leads of surge arrester not exceeding 7m. The minimum distance between 33kV side of transformer and 30kV surge arrester is found to be 5.6m. The protective margin of transformer and surge arrester is found to be 20.7% and 30% respectively. As the distance between transformer and surge arrester is 20m, connected through cable, the surge arrester has to be placed near the transformer terminals. The safety margins are applicable only for the connecting leads of surge arrester not exceeding 2m. The arrester spark over voltage indicates a definite and adequate margin of protection as compared to chopped wave (CWW) value of transformer. There is almost absolute assurance that the front of wave (FOW) withstand value provide adequate margin of protection with the above mention lead lengths and separation distances. V. 216KV SURGE ARRESTER SEPARATION DISTANCE FROM 220/33KV TRANSFORMER

Our objective is to find the distance D between surge arrester and transformer Input parameters: System voltage: 220kV Maximum system voltage: 245kV (rms) Lightning impulse level (BIL): 1050kVp Surge propagation time (): 300m/us Surge impedance of transmission line: 450 Surge arrester rated voltage: 216kV Maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV): 178kV Max. Residual Voltage at steep front Impulse (1/20us) at 10kA peak (Va): 660kVp Chopped wave withstand of transformer (CWW): 1.1*BIL=1.1*1050=1155kV Rate of rise of surge current (di/dt): 2S/Z Conductor length between junction J and surge arrester terminals (d): 4m Conductor length between surge arrester ground (d): 3m Rate of rise of incoming surge at junction J (S): 11kV per kV MCOV (max of 2000kV/us) Calculation: Rate of rise of incoming surge at junction J (S): 11kV*178kV=1958kV/us Rate of rise of surge current (di/dt): 2S/Z= (2*1958)/450= 8.7kA/us Inductance of surge arrester leads (uH): 1.3uH/m Total length d= d+d= 4+3= 7m Total lead inductance: 1.3*7= 9.1uH Voltage across surge arrester from junction J to ground (Vsa): Va+ L*di/dt = 660+ (9.1*8.7) =739.17kV (This does not necessarily appear simultaneously at the peak value of arrester residual voltage. However this value of L*di/dt (79.2kV) demonstrates the order of magnitude of possible inductive voltage drop which can superimpose the arrester residual voltage. Maximum stress allowable at the transformer (Vt) Vt = CWW/1.15 (if time to crest value is less than 2us) Vt = BIL/1.15 (if time to crest value is greater than 2us) Time to crest value: Va/S= 660/1958 = 0.3us (less than 2us. So, use Vt= CWW/1.15) Vt = 1155/1.15= 1004.3kV
Vt = 1004.3/739.17= 1.36 Vsa

The most effective location for any surge arrester is at the terminals of the equipment to be protected. Locating a surge arrester remote from the equipment to be protected reduces the protective margin. Depending on a number of factors, the transient voltage at the equipment can easily be more than twice the surge arrester protective level. An analysis has to be made to determine how far a surge arrester can be located away from the transformer and still provide adequate protection.
S D J From bus duct d' 220kV/33kV Transformer Vt

Vsa

216kV Surge Arrester

From Fig. 18 the x-axis represents represents

D*S

*V sa

and y-axis

Vt V . Based on the ratio obtained above t = 1.36 Vsa Vsa

the corresponding x value is 0.09.

Fig. 17. Location of surge arrester on 220kV side

Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal | 28 - 30 October, 2013

The curve shown in Fig. 18, was generated from studies using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP).
D*S = 0.09 (Solving this equation for distance D gives) * Vsa

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Mr. Srinivas and Mr. Kondala Rao Bandaru of Crompton Greaves Ltd. for their valuable support. REFERENCES
[1] IEEE Std C62.92.4-1991, IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems, Part IVDistribution, IEEE Power & Energy Society. Math H. J. Bollen, Emmanouil Styvaktakis, Irene Yu-Hua Gu, Categorization and Analysis of Power System Transients, IEEE Trans. on Power Del., Vol. 20, No. 3, July 2005. George W. Walsh, A Review of Lightning Protection and Grounding Practices, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., Vol. Ia-9, No. 2, Mar./Apr. 1973. D.W. Durbak, A.M. Gole, E.H. Camm, M.Marz, R.C. Degeneff, R.P. OLeary, R. Natarajan, J.A. Martinez-Velasco, Kai-Chung Lee, A. Morched, R. Shanahan, E.R. Pratico, G.C. Thomann, B. Shperling, A. J. F. Keri, D.A. Woodford, L. Rugeles, V. Rashkes, A. Sarshar, Guidelines for Switching Transients Report Prepared by the Switching Modeling Transients Task Force of the IEEE Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Working Group, Special publication modeling and simulation working group 15.08. D.W. Durbak, A.M. Gole, E.H. Camm, M.Marz, R.C. Degeneff, R.P. OLeary, R. Natarajan, J.A. Martinez-Velasco, Kai-Chung Lee, A. Morched, R. Shanahan, E.R. Pratico, G.C. Thomann, B. Shperling, A. J. F. Keri, D.A. Woodford, L. Rugeles, V. Rashkes, A. Sarshar, Guidelines for Switching Transients Report Prepared by the Switching Modeling Transients Task Force of the IEEE Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Working Group, Special publication modeling and simulation working group 15.08. Babak Badrzadeh, Martin Hgdahl, Emir Isabegovic, Transients in Wind Power Plants - Part I: Modeling Methodology and Validation, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., Vol. 48, Issue 2, Oct. 2011. Babak Badrzadeh, Martin Hgdahl, Nand Singh, Henrik Breder, Kailash Srivastava, Transients in Wind Power Plants - Part II: Case Studies, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., Oct. 2011. Abey D., Samson G., Analysis of Transients in Wind Parks: Modeling of System Components and Experimental Verification, MSc thesis Chalmers University R. H. Harner, Rodriguez, Transient Recovery Voltages Associated With Power-System, Three-Phase Transformer Secondary Faults, IEEE Power Engineering Society, Vol PAS-91 Issue 5 Jan. 30-Feb. 4, 1972. A. Morched, B. Gustavsen, M. Tartibi, A Universal Model for Accurate Calculation of Electromagnetic Transients on Overhead Lines and Underground Cables, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 1032-1038, July 1999. IEC 60071-4 (2004), Computational guide to insulation co-ordination and modelling of electrical networks, IEEE Std C62.22-1997, IEEE Guide for the Application of MetalOxide Surge Arresters for Alternating-Current Systems, IEEE Power Engineering Society Chennamadhavuni, A, Munji, K.K, Bhimasingu, R, Investigation of transient and temporary overvoltages in a wind farm, IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON), Oct 2012. N. R. Watson, J. Arrillaga, Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulation, Institution of Electrical Engineers.

D=10.2m Next step is to calculate the protective margin of transformer and surge arrester Protective margin of surge arrester= ((BIL-Vsa)/ Vsa)*100 = 42% Protective margin of transformer= ((BIL-Vt)/ Vt)*100 For this we have to calculate the actual voltage available at transformer terminals
Vt = Vsa + ( * S ) * 2 * D /

[2]

[3] [4]

is reflection coefficient at transformer terminals (assumed as 1) factor of 2 arises from the return length from arrester to transformer
Vt = 739.17 + (1958 * 2 *10.2) / 300 = 872.3kV

This gives the protective margin of transformer as 20.3% Similar methodology is adopted for 33kV side of surge arrester.
2.6 2.4 2.2 2
Vt /Vsa

[5]

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.01 0.1


D*S/*Vsa

[6]

[7]
1

[8]

Fig. 18. Curve for separation distance of surge arrester from transformer [9]

VI.

CONCLUSION
[10]

In this paper temporary overvoltages arising due to switching and fault conditions are studied. Distributed capacitance of cables plays a major role in overvoltages and is observed while energizing the unloaded cables. The better understanding of magnitude of overvoltages can be observed by analyzing the system without surge arresters. Care has to be taken while placing the arrester near transformer terminals and length of connecting leads of surge arrester has to be taken into consideration.

[11] [12]

[13]

[14]