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Young Social Entrepreneurs in Canada

Prepared for: Canadian Centre for Social Entrepreneurship School of Business University of Alberta Prepared By: Sherrill Johnson May !""#

$able of Contents
Ac%no&ledge'ents Preface Page: ()" *ntroduction !)" Bac%ground and Conte+t !)( Social Entrepreneurship !)! Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs !)# ,esistance to Social Entrepreneurship !). $he /e+us 0eneration and Social Entrepreneurship #)" Methodology .)" ,esearch 3indings .)( $esting the literature .)()() ,esearch Participant 5vervie& .)()! Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurship .)()# Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs .)! Synthesis of ,esults .)# Social Entrepreneurship as Co''unity Econo'ic 6evelop'ent -)" *'plications and Closure -)( 3ostering Social Entrepreneurship *n Canada -)! Closure Bibliography Appendi+ A: ,esearch 7uestions Appendi+ B: 8ist of ,esearch Participants ( ! ! # 1 2 4 4 4 (" (! (. (2 (4 (4 !" !( !. !1

The author and the Canadian Centre for Social Entrepreneurship (CCSE) would like to acknowledge the support of many individuals and organizations in the completion of this project. e would particularly like to thank all of the young social entrepreneurs who were generous with their time and insights for this research. e are also grateful to several individuals who were instrumental in directing us to these dynamic young social entrepreneurs and helping to shape our research ideas! "on #c$air% Saralyn &odgkin% 'vril (rloff% )aurent )educ and #ai 'nh )e*an. )ori &anson and #ary+,rances right provided valua-le feed-ack on the structure and content of this paper. The CCSE is very grateful for the financial support provided -y 'l-erta Economic "evelopment% without which this research would not have -een possi-le.

.n -road terms% this research is grounded in% as well as the result of% many conversations held -etween the author% /ary #c0herson% E1ecutive "irector of the Canadian Centre for Social Entrepreneurship (CCSE)% and various individuals involved in dual -ottom+line initiatives% i.e.% those which work towards meeting social and economic goals simultaneously. This is -oth an emerging and rapidly growing area of practice in Canada% and one that resonates particularly with young Canadians (23 and under). 's is common in areas of emerging and practitioner+driven su-ject matter% the research literature and documentation lags far -ehind. #ore specifically% this research was sparked -y a discussion with "on #c$air% pu-lisher of 4#aking aves! Canada5s Community Economic "evelopment (CE") #agazine.6 7esponding to the CCSE5s literature review% and its assertion that there were virtually no documented cases of social entrepreneurship in Canada% he commented that his recent e1perience with Canadian CE" projects had! 48satisfied me that the greater num-er of them em-ody the traits of social entrepreneurship as 9the literature review: descri-es% endeavouring as they do e1plicitly to -lend economic% social% and environmental goals within the mission and functions of -usinesses% nonprofits% development corporations% co+ operatives% and all manner of social enterprises.6 This paper is one attempt to address some of the gaps in the Canadian social entrepreneurship de-ate% and to e1plore the intersections -etween socially entrepreneurial initiatives and the well+esta-lished field of community economic development in Canada.

()" */$,56UC$*5/ Social entrepreneurship is characterized -y an emphasis on ;social innovation through entrepreneurial solutions.5 Socially entrepreneurial activities -lur the traditional -oundaries -etween the pu-lic% private and non+profit sectors% and emphasize hy-rid models of for+profit and non+profit activities. Cross+sectoral colla-orations are implicit within this model% as is the development of radical new approaches to address long+ standing and comple1 social<economic pro-lems. .n the last decade% -oth the concept and practice of social entrepreneurship have -een em-raced in the =.S. and >ritain. Su-se?uently% significant organizational and institutional resources have materialized in -oth these countries to encourage and support nascent social entrepreneurs and their activities. Canada faces many of the same social and economic challenges as >ritain and the =.S.% -ut here -oth the theory and practice of social entrepreneurship have -een met with far less enthusiasm overall. &owever% there is one very important e1ception! many young Canadians (aged @A+BC) appear very open to em-racing dual -ottom+line initiatives and there are an increasing num-er of young Canadian social entrepreneurs emerging in -oth the for+profit and not+for+profit sectors. This paper e1amines and analyzes the e1perience and practice of si1 young social entrepreneurs. The purpose of this research is threefold. ,irst% as the literature on Canadian social entrepreneurship is sparse% this research will compare the individual and organizational characteristics of young Canadian social entrepreneurs with those identified in the research literature% in order to esta-lish how representative the research is to the Canadian e1perience. Second% the goal is to focus on the accomplishments of% and identify challenges faced -y young Canadian social entrepreneurs in order to provide insight as to how future initiatives in this area can -e supported -y organizations such as the CCSE. Third% this research will e1amine the intersection(s) -etween socially entrepreneurial initiatives and CE" in Canada. .f there is% as e1pected% significant overlap -etween the two fields% the implications of this for the development of social entrepreneurship will -e discussed. .t should -e emphasized that -ecause social entrepreneurship is an under+researched area in general (and essentially an un+researched area in Canada) that the research this paper draws from was a pilot project. 's such% this paper and the research it is -ased on are not meant to provide definitive answers per se% -ut rather to provide some preliminary insights into this emerging area% and act as a starting point for future research and activities. 's the CCSE is located within the >usiness School at the =niversity of 'l-erta% the findings are particularly relevant for future CCSE initiatives aimed at engaging the ne1t generation of -usiness leaders in social enterprises. The first section of this paper provides -ackground and conte1t for this discussion. .n particular it looks at key de-ates within the social entrepreneurship literature and identifies primary characteristics of social entrepreneurs. .t also presents a -rief discussion of the ;ne1us generation5 (Canadians @A+2D years of age) and the potential for

this group to -ecome a vi-rant generation of social entrepreneurs. The second section provides details of the research methodology employed in this project. The third section synthesizes the e1perience of si1 young Canadian entrepreneurs working towards dual or even triple+-ottom lines. Each of these individuals is responsi-le for creating and implementing a for+profit or not+for+profit venture designed to align their social vision with their entrepreneurial drive. Specifically% this section presents the analytical findings of this research in three areas! testing practice against the literatureE highlighting key issues arising from this research and the implications of these for future initiatives in the area of social entrepreneurshipE and e1amining the intersection -etween social entrepreneurship and community economic development. !)" BAC90,5U/6 A/6 C5/$E:$ !)( Social Entrepreneurship "efining what social entrepreneurship is% and what its conceptual -oundaries are% is not an easy task. This is in part -ecause the concept is inherently comple1% and in part -ecause the literature in the area is so new that little consensus has emerged on the topic. hile the ideas fuelling social entrepreneurship are not new (*ictorian private hospitals and the hospice movement are -oth cited as e1amples of social entrepreneurship (Thompson et al.% BFFF)) the term as it is used in the academic and popular literature currently encompasses a rather -road range of activities and initiatives. 0eter "rucker argues that social entrepreneurs 4...change the performance capacity of society6 (/endron% @CCG% p. 2H) while &enton et al. (@CCH) speak of ;civic entrepreneurs5 as 4...a new generation of leaders who forge new% powerfully productive linkages at the intersection of -usiness% government% education and community6 (p.@). Schulyer (@CCA) descri-es social entrepreneurs as 4...individuals who have a vision for social change and who have the financial resources to support their ideas....who e1hi-it all the skills of successful -usiness people as well as a powerful desire for social change6 (p. @). >oschee (@CCA) presents social entrepreneurs as 4...non+profit e1ecutives who pay increased attention to market forces without losing sight of their underlying mission6 (p. @). Thompson et al. (BFFF) descri-e social entrepreneurs as 4...people who realize where there is an opportunity to satisfy some unmet need that the state welfare system will not or cannot meet% and who gather together the necessary resources (generally people% often volunteers% money and premises) and use these to ;make a difference56(p. 2BA). .n spite of the varying definitions of social entrepreneurship% one commonality emerges in almost every description! the ;pro-lem+solving nature5 of social entrepreneurship is prominent% and the corresponding emphasis on developing and implementing initiatives that produce measura-le results in the form of changed social outcomes and<or impacts. ,or e1ample% #c)eod (@CCG) ?uotes one social entrepreneur who criticized his own organization5s earlier ineffective approach% noting they originally asked 4...5how many people walked in the door5 rather than ;how many people are -etter off for having walked in the doorI6 (p. @F2).

The locus of social entrepreneurship is also a su-ject of de-ate in the research literature. Some authors argue that social entrepreneurship e1ists primarily in the not+for+profit sector with the goal of providing -usiness e1pertise and market+-ased skills to help this sector -ecome more efficient at providing and delivering services. (thers% including the CCSE% define social entrepreneurship more -roadly% arguing that social entrepreneurship can occur within the pu-lic% private or not+for+profit sectors% and is in essence a hy-rid model involving -oth for+profit and not+for+profit activities as well as cross+sectoral colla-oration. This latter definition puts more emphasis on the ;entrepreneurial5 nature of these activities and the creativity and innovation that entrepreneurs -ring to solving social pro-lems in uni?ue ways rather than focusing on the social -enefits such services can provide. This conceptualization suggests social entrepreneurship can take a variety of forms% including innovative not+for+profit ventures% social purpose -usiness ventures (e.g.% for+profit community development -anks% and hy-rid organizations mi1ing for+ profit and not+for+profit activities (e.g.% homeless shelters that start small -usinesses to train and employ their residents)) ("ees% @CCA). .n this spirit% &enton et al. (@CCH) comment that 4...(l)ike the -usiness entrepreneur% the civic entrepreneur operates in a time of dramatic change% sees opportunity and mo-ilizes others in the community to work toward their collective well+-eing6 (p. D)% essentially acting as catalysts for social change processes. .t is the innovativeness of the approach that essentially defines this conceptualization of social entrepreneurship. "ees (@CCA) comments that just as not every new -usiness venture ?ualifies as ;entrepreneurial%5 not every social venture ?ualifies as ;socially entrepreneurial.5 This isn5t to depreciate the impact of non+entrepreneurial social initiatives in any way% -ut merely to make the distinction clear given the -road use of terminology around social entrepreneurship. !)! Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs hile many definitions of social entrepreneurship emphasize the ;social5 rather than the entrepreneurial nature of the activity (e.g.% -y focussing on non+profit organizations and their activities)% much of the literature on social entrepreneurs emphasizes the ;entrepreneurial5 characteristics of such individuals. They are often compared to -usiness entrepreneurs with a social mission% or more colourfully as -eing 4...one species in the genus entrepreneur6 ("ees% @CCA% p. 2). James (BFF@) echoes this sentiment% noting that social entrepreneurs are 48like other entrepreneurs% only they are in it for the social improvement% not the money6 (p. 3A). #any authors note that social entrepreneurs (much like economic entrepreneurs) do not allow the lack of initial resources to limit their options% and that their reach often e1ceeds their grasp (e.g.% "ees% @CCAE &enton et al.% @CCH). .n addition% many social entrepreneurs share with their economic counterparts a strong desire to -e in control of their environment% the urge to e1periment% and a higher than average tolerance for uncertainty

(0ra-hu% @CCC). Catford (@CCA) notes that social and economic entrepreneurs share the same focus on vision and opportunity and the same a-ility to convince and empower others to help them turn these visions into a reality. .n social entrepreneurs% however% these characteristics are coupled with a strong desire for social justice. There are also other major differences -etween social and economic entrepreneurs. 0ra-hu (@CCC) argues that they are distinguished primarily -y ideology% which guides their choices of mission% means and ends% and that social entrepreneurs are 4...persons who create or manage innovative entrepreneurial organizations or ventures whose primary mission is the social change and development of their client group6 (p. @DF) rather than the pursuit of profit. Social entrepreneurs involved in for+profit activities see profit as a means to an end% while economic entrepreneurs see profit as an end in itself ("ees% @CCAE Thalhu-er% @CCA) .n addition% social entrepreneurs are generally operating in community environments that are dynamic and somewhat unpredicta-le6 ("e )eeuw% @CCC)% adding yet another layer of comple1ity to the process. >urnham (BFFB) highlights the importance of developing advisory -oards that are comforta-le with risk and possessing an entrepreneurial vision and to support non+profit organizations undertaking socially entrepreneurial initiatives. Somewhat unlike their economic counterparts% social entrepreneurs emerge not only as highly entrepreneurial individuals% -ut also highly colla-orative ones% providing 4....colla-orative leadership to -ring diverse parties to the ta-le% identify common ground and take joint action. They -uild -ridges6 (&enton et al.% @CCH% p. @32). The a-ility to develop a network of relationships and contacts is a hallmark of visionary social entrepreneurs% as is the a-ility to communicate an inspiring vision in order to recruit and inspire staff% partners% and volunteers (Thompson et al.% BFFF% p.22@). >ecause social entrepreneurship often demands esta-lishing credi-ility across multiple constituencies% and the a-ility to mo-ilize support within those constituencies% networking is a critical skill for social entrepreneurs (0ra-hu% @CCC). =nlike economic entrepreneurs% 0ra-hu argues that social entrepreneurs are often highly supportive of each other5s efforts% in some cases writing letters to one another to show this support. The social entrepreneur emerges as a rare individual with multiple talents% including no less than the a-ility 4...to analyse% to envision% to communicate% to empathize% to enthuse% to advocate% to mediate% to ena-le and to empower a wide range of disparate individuals and organizations6 ("e )eeuw% @CCC% p. BG@). Continuing along this theme% >ornstein (@CCA) characterizes a social entrepreneur as 4...a path-reaker with a powerful idea% who com-ines visionary and real world pro-lem+solving creativity% who has a strong ethical fi-re and who is totally possessed -y his or her vision for change6 (p.2G). "ees (@CCA) identifies five criteria that social entrepreneurs possess! adopting a mission to create and sustain social valueE recognizing and relentlessly pursuing new opportunities to serve that missionE engaging in a process of continuous innovation% adaptation and learningE acting -oldly without -eing limited -y resources currently in handE and e1hi-iting a heightened sense of accounta-ility to the constituencies served and to the outcomes created (p.D). "ees argues that the closer an individual gets to satisfying

these criteria% the more that individual fits the model of a social entrepreneur. >ut he also recognizes that in many ways% the literature on social entrepreneurship descri-es 4...a set of -ehaviours that are e1ceptional. These -ehaviours should -e encouraged and rewarded in those that have the capa-ilities and temperament for this kind of work....Should everyone aspire to -e a social entrepreneurI $o. $ot every social leader is well+suited to -eing entrepreneurial. The same is true in -usiness. $ot every -usiness leader is an entrepreneur in the sense that Say% Schumpeter% "rucker and Stevenson had in mind6 ("ees% @CCA% p.G). hile common sense dictates that not everyone will have the skills and talents re?uired to undertake entrepreneurial activity for social and<or economic purposes% Thompson et al. (BFFF) raise the issue of latent entrepreneurial a-ility. .t is possi-le that latent social entrepreneurship e1ists in individuals with 4...the potential to -e entrepreneurial -ut% for some reason or another% the talent is trapped and needs spotting and releasing6 (p. 22B). !)# ,esistance to Social Entrepreneurship 's mentioned in the introduction to this paper% the concept and practice of social entrepreneurship has -een widely em-raced in the =.S. and the =.K.% -ut has met with less enthusiasm in Canada% with the e1ception of young Canadians. 'doption (or non+ adoption) of a concept is comple1 and multi+faceted% -ut there are likely a few key reasons why Canadians have -een slow to em-race social entrepreneurship and its potential for addressing long+standing social pro-lems. ' recent literature review noted the dearth of documented Canadian e1amples of social entrepreneurship (Johnson% BFFB). >ased on our e1periences at the CCSE% we are starting to -elieve this reflects a discomfort with the terminology of social entrepreneurship (and a corresponding lack of research in this area) rather than a lack of socially entrepreneurial initiatives. .n particular% the language of social entrepreneurship% and in particular its application of -usiness terminology to the discussion of social change% has not resonated with Canadian organizations as it has in >ritain and the =nited States The first factor has to do with Canada5s political and economic history and the development% starting in the @CGFs% of a -road+-ased social safety net. This was accomplished through policy mechanisms such as medicare% and a commitment to ta1+ -ased mechanisms which provide a more e?uita-le distri-ution of income across the population than in either the =.S. or the =.K. This has -een eroded somewhat in recent years% due in part to a glo-alized economic system and the emergence of a glo-al neo+ li-eral philosophy which emphasizes market forces as the -est method for income redistri-ution. Let many Canadians still view the state (or state+funded non+profit organizations) as the ;provider of choice5 in the area of social services and are suspect of initiatives that -lur the -oundaries -etween the private sector and social service providers (either government or non+governmental organizations).

/lo-alization processes have also created an increasingly powerful market sector% one in which governments at all levels are finding they have less overt power to regulate or even influence. 7ecent grassroots opposition to glo-alization processes attest to a growing citizen unease with an increasingly powerful market sector% and some view this as an opportunity for the private sector to -alance corporate profit with a corresponding commitment to pu-lic responsi-ility (7eis% @CCC% p.B). &owever% many are also concerned a-out a perceived im-alance of power -etween the private and pu-lic sectors and view social entrepreneurship and similar initiatives as steps down a very slippery slope towards increased private sector control. The language of the private sector may also form -arriers to the acceptance of social entrepreneurship in Canada. Social entrepreneurship% rooted as it is in entrepreneurial approaches and ideology% uses the language of -usiness. ,or many individuals committed to improving social conditions% there is a discomfort with terminology such as ;revenue streams5 and ;return on investment5 in reference to social goals. 't one level this may -e the relatively simple discomfort that comes with encountering unfamiliar terms% and one that can -e alleviated as fluency with -usiness jargon increases. 't another level% there is a very deep discomfort reflecting -asic ideological differences. #any individuals and organizations are uncomforta-le with a model that appears to re?uire a demonstrated ;return on investment5 when that investment is centred around fulfilling -asic human needs. &owever% others argue that shifting the language% for e1ample from ;aid recipients5 to ;investees5 is an important mechanism for empowering individuals. !). $he /e+us 0eneration and Social Entrepreneurship The resistance noted a-ove applies primarily in the case of senior+level individuals and organizations with a long history of working towards social improvements. 's noted earlier in this paper% young Canadians (23 years and under) have -een much more open to adopting socially entrepreneurial approaches than older Canadians. .n BFF@ the CCSE initiated research on the topic of ;Engaging the $e1t /eneration of Social and Civic )eaders5 conducted via interviews with mem-ers of the $e1us generation (Canadians @A+ 2D years of age). This project asked socially engaged $e1us generation respondents how the voluntary% pu-lic and private sectors could attract and engage young Canadians in present and future civic and social initiatives. The majority of respondents indicated a strong desire to -e more socially and civically active% -ut felt frustrated -y constraints and -arriers in each of the sectors. 7espondents noted that they were searching for ways to effectively meld their social and civic concerns with their professional development% and ultimately wanted to find ways to make tangi-le% lasting contri-utions in this area. $ot surprisingly% $e1us generation respondents felt that currently the voluntary% pu-lic and private sectors could all -e more effective in engaging young Canadians in civic and social issues (the full report on 4Strengthening the /enerational Chain! Engaging the $e1t /eneration of Social and Civic )eaders in Canada6 is availa-le on the CCSE we-site at www.-us.ual-erta.ca<ccse<pu-lications).

This group responded favoura-ly to the idea of hy-rid models of social engagement that com-ined elements of for+profit and not+for+profit activities. 'ctivities falling into this category include social enterprise% in which not+for+profits create a for+profit enterprise and channel profits into social mission work% and venture philanthropy% which employs a venture capital model for supporting and fostering philanthropic work. 7espondents indicated strong interest in the creation and growth of socially responsi-le -usinesses% and strong support for a ;socially engaged5 private sector. They indicated that they felt the private sector had a responsi-ility to put something -ack into the communities that support their -usiness% and that they want to support companies that do so. These findings are supported -y the results of this research as well. #)" ME$;565850Y ' ?ualitative research methodology was chosen for this pilot project as this approach is useful in situations where 48 there is little known a-out a domain...or when the research ?uestion pertains to understanding or descri-ing a particular phenomenon or event a-out which little is known6 (,ield and #orse% @CA3% p. @@). Mualitative methods are used often in cases where a topic has not -een previously addressed in a research conte1t% and as such% 48the pro-lem itself may not -e clear8a ?ualitative researcher may enter a setting with a topic for study% rather than a clearly delineated ?uestion6 (,ield and #orse% @CA3% p. C). .n this case a research framework was developed drawing on various sources. ' sample of the research ?uestions in attached as 'ppendi1 ' of this paper. The first section of the research framework seeks general information a-out the characteristics of the firm% including organizational age% size% location% -udget<revenue. The second and third sections draw on the e1isting social entrepreneurship literature% asking ?uestions related to social entrepreneurship in general% and characteristics of the individual social entrepreneurs. This was intended to test the literature for its relevance and accuracy to the e1periences of a) Canadian social entrepreneurs% and -) young social entrepreneurs% two groups who have not -een the study of pu-lished research to date. These sections were supplemented -y ?uestions designed to draw out the community development aspect of various socially entrepreneurial initiatives. ' small sample size was selected% in part due to time and -udget constraints% and in part to do a test run of the research approach. .t is hoped that the findings of this project will -e used to inform a larger future study of young Canadian social entrepreneurs. 0ossi-le respondents were identified largely through personal contacts with individuals through the CCSE network. 0ossi-le respondents had to meet the following criteria! under the age of 2FE founders<principals of organizations working towards a dual+-ottom line (social and economic returns)

innovative% creative ventures (e.g.% not replicating something already in e1istence)E can -e -ased in the for+profit or not+for+profit sector% -ut some form of enterprise development must -e involved.

.n the words of one of the research participants% 7ahul 7aj% the organizations had 48to employ a -usiness+disciplined approach to achieving a social mandate.6 (f the initial individuals identified through the CCSE5s network and meeting the a-ove criteria% each of the first si1 individuals approached agreed to participate in the research project via the interview process. ' list of the participants and a -rief description of their organizational role and goals is provided in 'ppendi1 > of this document. .)" ,ESEA,C; 3*/6*/0S .)( $esting $he 8iterature The first purpose of this research was to test the e1periences and motivations of a group of young Canadian social entrepreneurs against the characteristics identified in the social entrepreneurship literature. This section provides a -rief introduction to (and overview of) the participants and discusses the overlap -etween the theory and the practice of this group of young social entrepreneurs. .)()( ,esearch Participant 5vervie& <organi=ed by organi=ation>co'pany age? ,ahul ,a@ 3ounder and E+ecutive 6irector Meal E+change o ' not+for+profit organization (founded @CC2% aterloo% ($). =nder this innovative programs% students are a-le to transform unused meal plan points into groceries% which they then deliver to local community organizations and food -anks. #eal E1change programs now e1ist at D3 post+secondary and 3 secondary educational institutions across Canada. The organization is run on a franchise concept% where each campus runs a #eal E1change Chapter. 7aj estimates that through this program% over NBGF%FFF worth of food will -e donated to community organizations this year. o 'ge at organization founding! @H o Education! >usiness<0hilosophy "egree o Current organizational staff! 2 full+time Chris 0odsall 3ounder and Advisor Santropol ,oulant o ' not+for+profit organization (founded @CCD in #ontreal% 0M) engaging youth in an innovative meals+on+wheels service. Since its inception% Santropol 7oulant has delivered over BFF%FFF meals to @%@FF seniors% engaged over @%BFF volunteers and created more than BFF temporary and

training jo-s for youth. The organization has also won numerous awards% including the 0eter ,. "rucker 'ward for non+profit innovation (@CCH). o 'ge at organization founding! BG o Education! 0olitical Science<English "egreeE >usiness #aster5s "egree o Current organization staff! B full+time Si'on Boone 3ounder and Principal 0eneration Solar o ' for+profit company (founded @CCA in 0eter-orough% ($) working in the area of sustaina-le energy technology% and working to meet a triple+-ottom line (meeting social% environmental and economic goals). o 'ge at company founding! B3 o Education! Engineering "egree o Current company staff! B full+time (partners) 0eordie 5uchterlony 3ounder and Principal ;o'e 0ro&n 5rganic 3oods o ' for+profit company (founded in @CCA in &alifa1% $S) dedicated to increasing consumer awareness a-out the -enefits of organic foods% increasing the organic foods market% and helping organic food producers generate sustaina-le long+term profits. o 'ge at company founding! B3 o Education! Environmental Engineering o Current company staff! @@ 8eo Aong 3ounder and Advisor Youth 5ne o ' not+for+profit organization (founded BFFF% in Edmonton% '>) to create an on+line community for youth and through this link youth and youth+at+ risk with information regarding resources availa-le in the -roader community. o 'ge at organization founding! B@ o Education! >usiness "egree% currently doing 0h" in #arketing o Current organization staff! @ /atalie Chinsa' 3ounder and 6irector ;u'anity8in% *nternational o ' not+for+profit organization (founded BFFB in Toronto% ($) focussed on creating links -etween Toronto and /uyana. $atalie was also responsi-le for the creation% development and implementation of 4Les Louth Can6 Entrepreneurial ,orums in Toronto and $ewfoundland% and has -een asked to coordinate similar events across Canada. o 'ge at organization founding! BG o Education! >usiness "egree o Current organization staff! F full time% 2 part+time

7espondents were asked a-out the size of their annual organizational -udget. 7esponses varied from categories of ;less than N3F%FFF<year5 to annual -udgets ;greater than NB3F%FFF<year.5

.)()! Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurship Imagine, some of the brightest people in the world are looking to develop stain-resistant, wrinkle-free pants. If you had taken that teams intellect and applied it towards addressing even one simple social problem, chances are wed make tremendous progress. (Rahul Raj, ounder and !"ecutive #irector, $eal !"change% ,rom a reading of the literature% there appear to -e three key characteristics of socially entrepreneurial ventures. The first is that each initiative emphasizes a pro-lem solving approach. Secondly% socially entrepreneurial approaches address identified pro-lems through the development of creative and innovative solutions% and -y finding new ways to harness e1isting resources to meet latent demand. Thirdly% these ventures employ some form of dual+-ottom line strategy% incorporating social goals with an enterprise approach. 's /odsall commented during the research interview 4 hat .5m really interested in is taking the same kind of energy and passion that the classic entrepreneur has and applying them to social pro-lems8.'n entrepreneur is always trying to find a way to connect some new thing% new approach% new capa-ility to latent demand for something.6 'll si1 of the entrepreneurs interviewed met these criteria. .n the for+profit sector% -oth /eneration Solar and &ome /rown (rganic ,oods are employing a -usiness model to meet a triple+-ottom line and have created ventures that attempt to meet economic% social and environmental goals simultaneously. /eneration Solar is attempting to meet growing demand for green environmental technologies and ultimately >oone would like to see his company 48.install enough renewa-le energy technology to offset its e1istence. So in other words% our company consumes energy just -eing here and . would like there to -e a net -enefit to the environment from this company.6 &ome /rown (rganic ,oods is a small -usiness creating local jo-s and supporting local organic producers. >ut founder (uchterlony5s vision for the company for the company is much larger% and includes 48making a rather significant impact on society at large -y providing a service that generates -enefits for all mem-ers of the community and therefore helps to sustain and promote a healthier society at large -y promoting healthy food grown in a way that is not just good for people -ut also good for the environment.6 .n the not+for+profit sector% #eal E1change identified a ;hidden5 resource (unused points from student meal plans) and found a way to direct these to community organizations to address local hunger% leveraging a small -ase of organizational funding to create a significantly larger community impact% and engaging what is currently estimated to -e around 2FF active volunteers nationally in the process. ,ounder 7aj identifies one of his organizational goals as increasing the size of the ;volunteer market5 rather than ;stealing market share5 in this area. &e notes that #eal E1change has a 48compounded annual growth rate over the past 3 years of greater than AF percent. e5ve taken it from two campuses in @CCA to D3 in BFF2.6

Santropol 7oulant employed unused kitchen space in a local restaurant to initiate an innovative ;meals on wheels5 program that has engaged over @BFF youth volunteers since the program -egan% and estimates that CFO of these volunteers are -etween the ages of @G and 23. .n addition% the program has created over 2FF temporary and<or training jo-s for local youth since its inception. The origins of Louth (ne lie in founder )eo ong5s frustration with the way many social services were marketed to youth. &is perception was that many of traditional marketing approaches were not working% with the result that youth were either unaware of e1isting services% or resented 4-eing told what to do -y the government.6 .n response% he created an internet+-ased community for youth% and ensured that youth services were availa-le on+line% -ut 48in the -ackground. .f they need it% it5s there.6 Louth (ne currently has a-out HF active volunteers% -etween the ages of @2 and 22. $atalie Chinsam -egan organizing the first 4Les Louth Can6 Entrepreneurial "evelopment ,orum in response to several friends who were unhappy in their current employment situations% -ut did not know where to starting looking for resources regarding self+employment and<or entrepreneurship. 'fter a successful first delivery in Toronto% she then took the forum to $ewfoundland for delivery. The two forums involved almost GF volunteers in total. hat is particularly nota-le in the a-ove e1amples is the amount off volunteer engagement in relation to the staffing levels of these not+for+profit organizations% and the impact these ventures are having on generating civic engagement in young Canadians. Some of these ventures specifically target the civically unengaged and make the creation of an entry point for youth volunteers a specific goal. 's 7aj notes a-out #eal E1change% 4what determines success is how engaged individuals are towards volunteerism.6 'lso nota-le among the not+for+profit organizations was a wariness of developing any type of dependency on government grants. This is in recognition% as ong notes% that 48in a not+for+profit environment% always going after funding is ta1ing and not e1actly sustaina-le. To start a program and have it die three years down the road is tragic for everyone involved.6 ong went on to say that while small grants may provide useful start+up funding% socially entrepreneurial organizations need to -egin searching for alternative revenue streams immediately. Louth (ne pu-lishes #oz #agazine% an off+ line version of Louth (ne% and funds pu-lication solely through the sale of advertising. The organization is also e1ploring other revenue generation alternatives% including training youth volunteers to provide afforda-le information technology (.T) training within the not+for+profit sector. /odsall echoed these sentiments% noting that from its inception% Santropol 7oulant didn5t want to 4create dependencies6 on pu-lic funding. 's such% it was important for the organization to start thinking a-out sustaina-ility (and the core funding re?uired to support this) 48from day one.6 /odsall felt that not only was this critical to ensuring an organization5s future% -ut it also helped to focus on efficient management of resources% and to get not+for+profit organizations into the mindset of 4diversifying their portfolio of financial sources.6

.)()# Characteristics of Social Entrepreneurs! &he thing about being a social entrepreneur is that its easy to do the organi'ational chart. (ou make a list of all the jobs, you draw one bo", put your name there and throw all the jobs in that bo". ()hris *odsall, ounder and +dvisor, ,antropol Roulant% The research literature descri-es social entrepreneurs as possessing a set of characteristics that are e1ceptional. 'lthough the age% size and scope of their operations vary% the young social entrepreneurs listed a-ove share many characteristics. .n addition to -eing an articulate and charismatic group% all were fluent in the language of -oth the social and -usiness worlds + an essential characteristic of those wanting to work in the hy-rid world of social entrepreneurship. ,our of the si1 participants have formal -usiness training (Chinsam% /odsall% 7aj% and ong)% supplemented in some cases (e.g. 7aj% Chinsam) with significant private sector e1perience. 'll -ut two indicated previous entrepreneurial e1perience% including two who had set up companies previously through their involvement with Junior 'chievement. (f the two who denied having previous entrepreneurial e1perience% one noted that he had taken a lead on several non+ entrepreneurial initiatives (e.g.% conference planning% fundraising) that provided him with the re?uisite skill set for undertaking an entrepreneurial venture. (f the respondents who had set up for+profit initiatives% -oth mentioned during the interview that ;ma1imizing profit5 was not the main goal% -ut rather that their entrepreneurial ventures were a means to other ends% including jo- fle1i-ility. This is in line with the social entrepreneurship literature% which also notes ;control over one5s environment5 and ;urge to e1periment5 as characteristics of social entrepreneurs. >oone noted that he wanted the fle1i-ility of running his own -usiness% and that he actually liked the idea of not knowing how much he would earn each month. &e also noted the importance of doing something he 48felt good a-out. The -usiness is far more to me than just earning a living. . didn5t want to -e e1ploiting people just to make money% or e1ploiting the environment.6 (uchterlony noted that creating an entrepreneurial venture was highly motivated -y 48my character and my desire to -e independent and -e in control over my work environment and to have more say than as an employee in terms of how things are -eing done8.. certainly like to have some say over how% when% where and why things are -eing done.6 >oth noted a desire to keep lifestyle needs relatively simple% thus minimizing economic re?uirements. ' lack of attention to profit ma1imization was also noted in the not+for+profit sector respondents. Chinsam commented that with the Entrepreneurship "evelopment ,orum% 4Everyone was telling me . should -e charging people% charging a participants fee. >ut that takes away from the reason why .5m doing the forum. 's long as e1penses are covered% and participants can come for a minimal fee% then .5m happy. 'nd for a lot of people% that5s stupid. >ut .5m a social entrepreneur% not an entrepreneur.6 'fter si1 years

in the private sector% 7aj passed up an offer of a lucrative promotion and left the private sector in order to work full+time as the E1ecutive "irector of #eal E1change. ' key characteristic of social entrepreneurs is not allowing a lack of initial resources to limit action% and this group decidedly possessed this characteristic. hen asked during the interviews if they had all their resources in place -efore taking action% all responded in the negative% and most just laughed -efore responding ;far from it5 or more colourfully% ;hell% no.5 Correspondingly% they e1hi-ited a high level of comfort with uncertainty% with all ranking themselves -etween somewhat or very comforta-le with uncertainty. The literature also notes that social entrepreneurs% like their economic counterparts% focus strongly on vision and opportunity and use this in turn to encourage others to help turn this vision into a reality. 'gain% this group of social entrepreneurs validated the e1isting research in this area. 's noted a-ove% they were all articulate and charismatic communicators% and each e1hi-ited a high degree of commitment to (and passion for) their ventures. 'll indicated they5d had good success in convincing others to share and participate in their vision. #ost respondents noted the importance of having a clear vision and communicating it effectively and recognizing that even good ideas need to -e ;sold5 effectively. 's Chinsam noted% 48people don5t just give you money. Lou have to go out there and sell your organization and sell yourself and your idea. >ut they5ll also want to know ;what5s in it for meI56 The literature and respondents -oth identified the importance of environments that encourage creativity and openness to risk. &owever% it was also noted that these types of environments also need to allow for mistakes% an inherent part of innovation. Several of the respondents credited the strength of the ventures for attracting the attention of others. ,or e1ample% /odsall commented! 4. think that Santropol 7oulant was like a wind+up toy. 'nd we wound it up and it started moving and people just couldn5t keep their eyes off it and they wanted to -e a part of it. . mean within the first year we were nominated for a 0eter ,. "rucker award for non+profit innovation8-ecause people were fascinated -y the relationships. So Keith and . were really lucky that we found something that interested us -ut also interested others% and that was relevant to our community% and pro-a-ly the whole country.6 'nother key factor in convincing others to participate in socially entrepreneurial ventures was the passion% enthusiasm and commitment of the social entrepreneur. (uchterlony attri-uted his success to -eing a-le to communicate effectively and 48going -eyond the economic return on investment and inspiring and motivating people to -ecome involved -ased on the ideology and the practicality and the mission more so than the economics.6 &e also noted that 4major enthusiasm6 helped in this goal. The commitment to a social mission% coupled with a willingness to take financial risks was demonstrated clearly -y these young social entrepreneurs. 7aj demonstrated his commitment to #eal E1change during a time when his organization was facing a severe funding challenge! 4,ortunately . had the lu1ury of having a day jo- so . secured on one day a N2F%FFF line of credit from T" and a N2F%FFF line of credit from Canada Trust and

away we went.6 Chinsam noted that while she eventually found the funding to offset the costs of the first Les Louth Can Entrepreneurial "evelopment ,orum via partnerships% if necessary she would have 48taken the funding out of my personal -ank account6 to hold the event. She also noted during the interview that 4&umanity)ink does not pay my -ills. .f anything% . work to pay my &umanity)ink -illsP6 ,inally% a defining characteristic of social entrepreneurs is their a-ility to complement their entrepreneurial skills with a high capacity for colla-oration. 'll respondents noted that networking with others sharing similar goals (linking social and economic goals) was something they did% although the responses on a 3+point scale were somewhat varied. ,our of the respondents rated it as ;somewhat or very important.5 (f the other two% one e1pected it to -ecome more important in the future as the organization grew% and the other noted that while it was something they did% their venture would have occurred with or without this networking. /odsall notes that 48when you5re a social entrepreneur you do a lot of reporting% -ut you don5t necessarily get a lot of support. So the networks -ecome a source of support.6 ith respect to mentorship the responses were similar. 'll respondents indicated some e1perience with mentorship over the course of their e1perience implementing socially entrepreneurial ventures% with respondents noting that this mentorship involved a variety of individuals and changed over time according to organizational and personal need(s) and re?uirements. 's one respondent noted% social entrepreneurs are characterized -y their interest in creating something that didn5t previously e1ist% and as such the traditional mentorship model (having a mentor who has already travelled the same path) doesn5t work. This factor likely contri-utes to the prevalence of multiple mentors noted -y respondents% rather than one or two key individuals. #ost respondents indicated that mentors played an important role in their initiative5s growth and development% -ut two noted that while mentorship was very helpful% they would have -egun their ventures with or without this assistance. 'gain% this echoes the findings of the literature on social entrepreneurs (and entrepreneurship in general). .)! Synthesis of ,esults hile the findings a-ove demonstrate a strong correlation -etween the research literature and the e1periences of young Canadian social entrepreneurs% it doesn5t capture the whole picture. This section attempts to complement the findings a-ove -y highlighting other aspects of the e1periences of the research respondents% including the challenges faced in undertaking dual+-ottom line initiatives% the e1isting and potential supports identified -y respondents% and the respondent5s commitment to community -uilding through socially entrepreneurial initiatives. hile the young social entrepreneurs interviewed for this paper were all successful in the sense that they were a-le to get their ventures off the ground (and the majority had -een in e1istence 3 years or longer)% respondents identified several challenges in trying to

simultaneously meet social and economic goals (and potentially environmental ones as well). (ne prominent concern was around human resource issues% and the challenges inherent in attracting and retaining talented individuals with limited -udgets% particularly within (-ut not limited to) organizations -ased in the not+for profit sector. (ne respondent noted the lack of afforda-le training availa-le% in spite of the organization5s desire to ;invest5 in training resources for the staff and volunteer -ase. 'nother respondent commented on having to ;fight tooth and nail5 to convince a funding organization that it was a good strategy to raise the salary of their e1ecutive director to N23%FFF<year. /odsall commented when trying to attract talented individuals to socially entrepreneurial ventures 48you should never have to ask them to make 9large: sacrifices.6 hile all of the not+ for+profit organizations have mo-ilized significant volunteer resources% three of the respondents made reference to the limitations of relying on volunteer la-our as volunteers often juggled multiple commitments. (ne respondent noted that while profit ma1imization wasn5t the overriding goal of his enterprise% working towards a dual+ or triple+-ottom line made it far more difficult to make money and thus sustain the organization and its employees. ' second issue raised -y social entrepreneurs in the not+for+profit sector was the need for funding that accommodates the risks inherent in employing innovative (and therefore untested) strategies for addressing social challenges. (ne respondent suggested that seed funding working on a venture capital model would -e helpful. .n other words% a fund that might invest N@%FFF each in @F innovative ideas% recognizing that majority might fail% -ut the ones that succeed will likely have a high social and<or economic payoff. .n addition to the lack of funding to support socially entrepreneurial approaches (compared to the resources and funding availa-le for small+-usiness start+ups) many of the young entrepreneurs noted the challenges either they or their organizations faced in -eing perceived as ;credi-le5 due to their youth. hile this is a challenge faced -y young entrepreneurs in general% it is yet another challenge for social entrepreneurs who are -reaking new ground harnessing social and economic goals. (n a related topic% several respondent commented directly or indirectly a-out the impacts of the structural -arriers that e1ist -etween the for+profit and not+for+profit sectors% and the challenges this presented for social entrepreneurs. ,or e1ample% in searching for seed funding to support the training of Louth (ne volunteers to deliver .T training within the not+for+profit sector% ong told the story of one funding organization that thought the idea had merit% -ut which provided funding to private sector initiatives only% and not those in the not+for+profit sector. 7elated to the youth factor is the challenge young social entrepreneurs identified with respect to lacking access to -oth capital and networks until their organizations had some proven degree of success. Chinsam noted the difficulty in finding partners for her Entrepreneurial "evelopment ,orums until she had proven their via-ility -y running two successfully. (ther respondents noted similar challenges in the early stages of their organization5s development.

,inally% a lack of evaluation mechanisms for gauging organizational effectiveness was a factor noted -y several respondents% who indicated that traditional mechanisms for evaluating return on investment (7(.) were often not relevant to their organizational goals and priorities. &owever% it was difficult to find measurement tools to evaluate social and<or environmental 7(.% and far too e1pensive and<or time consuming to attempt to develop these on their own. 'lthough these young social entrepreneurs identified several challenges encountered in their e1periences and practice% they also identified some supports Q either those that were in place and were helpful% or those that they wish would have -een in place when they were starting their ventures. .n particular% a-out half the respondents indicated they5d received some guidance and<or support from organizations set up to help support young entrepreneurs. Some of the respondents made reference to support (financial and otherwise) they5d received from the #cConnell foundation% while others had participated in various programs supporting the growth and development of entrepreneurial organizations (e.g.% the Community (pportunity and .nnovation $etwork in 0eter-orough% and the ;(pen for >usiness5 program run through the Centre for Education and Entrepreneurial "evelopment section of the 'tlantic Canada (pportunities 'gency ('C(')). (ne respondent also noted the importance of small organizations partnering with% or nesting within% larger organizations. 'lmost all indicated the difficulty of efficiently and effectively tracking ;performance indicators5 for their organizations% and would appreciate more support in this area% either in customizing e1isting tools or in the creation of performance measurement guides for dual+-ottom line initiatives. (n a related note% the issue of afforda-le training was also raised% including materials such as ;-est practice5 guides for socially entrepreneurial ventures. .n spite of the considera-le challenges faced% and the corresponding lack of supports for young social entrepreneurs in Canada% all of the respondents appears committed to com-ining social and economic goals in their initiatives. The following ?uotes highlight -oth the responsi-ility these young entrepreneurs feel towards their local communities and the depth of their commitment to meeting dual+-ottom lines through their enterprise development. 4. think every organization% every entity in our community has a responsi-ility for the community they take part in% and it would -e irresponsi-le for them $(T to have a socially+oriented position8..>ecause our mandate is to connect youth to resources% -uild their community. 'nd hopefully with a stronger and healthier community people are going to take more action to initiate their own ideas8. e want to e1pose youth to social goals% and have them start thinking a-out these goals. >ecause a lot of these young people will -ecome -usiness leaders.6 ()eo ong% Louth (ne) 4,rankly% the social world just needs it. . mean% .5m not that old% -ut even in my lifetime . haven5t seen significant progress made to address social issues. 'nd often we look

toward the government to address these things% and they5re just riddled with -ureaucracy. So when you need to get something done you just do it8. .ndividuals are -rilliant. They know what to do to help their own people. They just don5t have the resources to do it. .f you can help them% you will -e successful.6 (7ahul 7aj% #eal E1change) 4. just feel the two 9social and economic goals: go hand in hand and that people need to take responsi-ility for their actions.6 ($atalie Chinsam% &umanity)ink .nternational) 4. hope that we can show other people that its possi-le to integrate something that is good for the community and good for the environment and that you can make a living at it. 8 in a -roader sense% we understand the integration of community and the -usiness and the environment and how they5re all interdependent.6 (Simon >oone% /eneration Solar) 4.t only makes sense. .t5s a community we live in% we don5t live in a sterile world where everything is all -usiness and there is no return% there5s no cause to the effect. . think that -elieving that will only get the world in deeper trou-le than it5s already in.6 (/eordie (uchterlony% &ome /rown (rganic ,oods) 4&ow can this community consider itself safe and successful if young people don5t feel as hopeful as they should% or in some cases aren5t hopeful% and how can you define this community as safe and secure if older people don5t feel importantI e found it depressing% and at the same time% here was something we could do that was so easy% and that actually -egins the e1ploit the -est characteristics of young people % what young people -ring to the ta-le Q lots of energy% a desire to learn% these kinds of things.6 (Chris /odsall% Santropol 7oulant). .)# Social Entrepreneurship as Co''unity Econo'ic 6evelop'ent There is some irony in the resistance to social entrepreneurship in Canada% as there is significant conceptual overlap -etween social entrepreneurship and certain types of community economic development (CE")% a well esta-lished field with many active supporters. 's noted in the preface to this paper% this research was sparked -y a comment from one such supporter who noted that within the field of CE"% initiatives with an entrepreneurial component shared many characteristics of the CCSE5s definition of social entrepreneurship. .n particular% many CE" projects feature multi+functional community strategies (somewhat similar to the multi+sectoral approaches of social entrepreneurship)% and an emphasis on specifically integrating or merging social and economic goals (0erry% @CCC). There are many intersections -etween social entrepreneurship% with their emphasis on creating colla-orative cross+sectoral approaches and developing innovative local+level approaches for addressing entrenched social pro-lems. E1amining social entrepreneurship through the lens of community economic development further may help to provide some useful insights into the practical and theoretical development in this emerging area. .n addition% the community economic development literature may also

supplement the e1isting social entrepreneurship literature on the topic of ;constraints and challenges5 faced -y those employing entrepreneurial approaches to address social issues. hile CE" can include virtually any activity that can -e seen locally as contri-uting to community improvement% it always includes some form of -usiness development opportunity. The same holds true for socially entrepreneurial initiativesE while they contri-ute to community improvement in a wide variety of ways% each has some form of enterprise as a hallmark of its entrepreneurial roots. 0erry (@CCC) goes on to note that in the field of CE" 48-usiness development is e1pected to result not only in ownership opportunities and profits% but also in some wider social benefits6 (p. B@% italics added). 'gain% this very clearly overlaps with the hy-rid social<economic approach of social entrepreneurship. CE" practitioners recognize that successful -usiness enterprises depend on more than just financial capital. 4>usinesses are also -eholden to others% to their communities% not just to their financial investors. .ndeed% -usinesses have stakeholders as well as shareholders6 ($inacs% @CCA% p. @C). .n -oth CE" and social entrepreneurship% enterprises recognize the need to attempt to ensure a good return of stakeholder investment as well as shareholder investment. .t is also worth noting that small -usiness is the main (-ut not e1clusive) focus of -oth CE" and social entrepreneurship. .n addition to sharing some similar core characteristics% those venturing into the area of dual+-ottom line enterprises also face similar challenges. ,or e1ample% -usiness planning guides are not concerned with non+traditional -usiness issues such as ;stakeholder return on investment5 (7(.) and community -enefits ($inacs% @CCA). -)" *MP8*CA$*5/S A/6 C85SU,E -)( 3ostering Social Entrepreneurship *n Canada The mission of the CCSE is to support and foster social entrepreneurship in Canada. >ut supporting socially entrepreneurial initiatives at a national level will re?uire more than the leadership of one small organization. =ltimately% it is an area that will re?uire leadership from the pu-lic and private sector% as well as from -usiness schools across the country. ,or the purposes of this research there are essentially two groups of young social entrepreneurs! those who are already active in this area% and latent social entrepreneurs Q those with an interest in employing an entrepreneurial approach to meet social goals% -ut who have not taken concrete steps towards starting an initiative. The si1 young entrepreneurs interviewed during the course of this research e1emplify the active social entrepreneur. hile they identified many challenges to conducting socially entrepreneurial ventures in Canada% each found ways to overcome these -arriers and succeed in their chosen mission. 's noted earlier in this paper% practicing social entrepreneurs tend to possess a set of characteristics that are e1ceptional. hile it is likely these individuals would have succeeded no matter what supports were in place% all

noted challenges in their work% and identified supports that did (or could) have made it easier to accomplish a dual+-ottom line goal. .n addition% it stands to reason that there is a group of latent $e1us generation social entrepreneurs waiting to emerge if the conditions are right. These individuals have the potential to make significant economic and social contri-utions within Canada% -ut may need a little support and encouragement to start them on their social entrepreneurship journey. .t was also indicated that highlighting the work of e1isting young social entrepreneurs (e.g.% through the creation of case studies or via the media) would provide visi-le models of alternative approaches to the traditional division -etween economic and social goals. 7espondents interviewed for this research highlighted the need for supports in the area of human resources% including afforda-le training relevant to organizational growth and team+-uilding in general% as well as to specific aspects of socially entrepreneurial ventures (e.g.% accounting issues faced -y dual+ or triple+-ottom line initiatives). 'lso noted was the need to compensate those involved with socially entrepreneurial ventures in ways that do not re?uire significant sacrifice at the individual level. .n other words% to create an environment where individuals can ;do well -y doing good.5 Loung social entrepreneurs need many of the same supports that any young entrepreneur would need% -ut with a twist. ,or e1ample% all entrepreneurial ventures typically need evaluation tools and ways to measure performance. >ut social entrepreneurs face the additional challenges of attempting to measure effects such as social and<or environmental return on investment which are difficult to ?uantify. .n addition% the young entrepreneurs interviewed for this paper noted a lack of e1isting tools for measuring socially entrepreneurial performance and the lack of time and resources to customize e1isting measurement instruments. ithout these tools% it is difficult to evaluate the impact socially entrepreneurial organizations are making. (ne respondent noted that access to short and concise summaries of -est practices in social entrepreneurship would -e very useful. Loung social entrepreneurs face many of the other challenges that young entrepreneurs face in general! lack of access to networks providing social and economic capitalE lack of -usiness e1perienceE and difficulties -eing perceived as ;credi-le5 -y those older and more e1perienced. hile there are many programs in the pu-lic% private and not+for+ profit sector fostering the identification and support of young entrepreneurs% there are no similar programs in Canada dedicated to fostering young social entrepreneurs% in spite of the potentially significant impact this group could make. /iven the lack of e1isting research% -oth on Canadian social entrepreneurship and on young social entrepreneurs% this is a rich area for further research. This could include% -ut should not -e limited to! the development of social entrepreneurship case studies for use in Canadian -usiness schoolsE development of a ;tool+kit5 for Canadian social entrepreneurs% including relevant evaluation and performance measurement toolsE and

more -roadly% research on the general and specific issues affecting young social entrepreneurs (and the practice of social entrepreneurship) in Canada. -)! Closure 7esearch indicates that the $e1us generation (Canadians aged @A+23) are open to% and looking for% hy-rid models of development to com-ine social and economic goals. ,inding ways support and foster active and latent social entrepreneurship within this group is a significant and worthwhile task% as mem-ers of this generation are poised to -ecome the ne1t generation of Canadian social% economic and civic leaders. .t is hoped the findings of the pilot research project conducted for this paper provide a starting point for further discussion in the emerging and important area. The final words in this paper come from 7ahul 7aj% who at the age of BH has already has a decade5s worth of e1perience in social entrepreneurship. 'sked what advice he would give others wanting to undertake a socially entrepreneurial venture% he said! 4They have to -elieve in it to the nth degree and not only them% -ut also their support network Q their family% their spouse% their friends. Everyone has to -e in% -ecause it is really hard. 9Compared to working in the private sector: the same lu1uries aren5t there% it5s not a glamorous position. The pay is not high. 'nd you work the same amount if not more. So there just has to -e this ridiculous level of commitment. So -e sure. *ery sure.8.if new people are starting (socially entrepreneurial) ventures up% and they get a whole -unch of -uy+in from the for+profit sector% and the not+for+profit sector% and they change their mind% they5ve just given the social entrepreneurship community a -ad name. e don5t have the lu1ury of having people -ail% -ecause we5re trying to change perceptions.6 "oes he have any regrets a-out the path he5s chosenI 4$ot one8$ot one.6

B*B8*50,AP;Y >ornstein% "avid (@CCA) 4Changing the world on a shoestring! an am-itious foundation promotes social change -y finding ;social entrepreneurs56 in +tlantic $onthly% January% *ol. BA@% $o. @% pp2D+2C. >oschee% Jerr (@CCA) 4 hat does it take to -e a social entrepreneurI6 found on $ational Centre for Social Entrepreneurs we-site ( 3pp. >urnham% Katie (BFFB) 4 hat skills will nonprofit leaders need in the futureI6 in -onprofit .orld% *ol. BF% $o. 2% #ay<June BFFB% pp. 22+23. Cannon% Carl (BFFF) 4Charity for profit! how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good -y sharing wealth6 in -ational /ournal% June @G% pp. @ACA + @CFD. Catford% John (@CCA) 4Social entrepreneurs are vital for health promotion + -ut they need supportive environments too6 in 0ealth 1romotion International% *ol. @2% $o. B% pp. C3+ CH. Coeyman% #arjorie (@CCC) 4Social entrepreneurs eagerly move forward6 in )hristian ,cience $onitor% 'pril BH% *ol. C@% .ssue @F3% p. @H. "e )eeuw% Evelyne (@CCC) 4&ealthy cities! ur-an social entrepreneurship for health6 in 0ealth 1romotion International% *ol. @D% $o. 2% pp. BG@+BGC. "ees% J. /regory (@CCA) The #eaning of ;Social Entrepreneurship.5 Comments and suggestions contri-uted from the Social Entrepreneurship ,unders orking /roup% Gpp. "ees% J. /regory (BFF@) !nterprising -onprofits2 + &oolkit for ,ocial !ntrepreneurs. Toronto! John iley and Sons% .nc. 22Fpp. "owell% p. 33. illiam (BFFF) 4.nvesting in social change6 in &ime% July BD% *ol. @3G% .ssue D%

,ield% 0eggy '. and Janice #orse (@CA3) -ursing Research2 &he +pplication of 3ualitative +pproaches. 'spen 0u-lishers! 7ockville% #aryland. ,owler% 'lan. 4$/"(s as a moment in history! -eyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovationI6 in &hird .orld 3uarterly% *ol. B@% $o. D% pp. G2H+G3D. /endron% /eorge (@CCG) 4,lashes of genius! interview with 0eter "rucker6 in Inc.% #ay @G% *ol. @A% .ssue H% pp. 2F+2H. &enton% "ouglas% John #elville and Kim-erly alesh (@CCH) 4The age of the civic entrepreneur! restoring civil society and -uilding economic community6 in -ational )ivic Review% Summer% *ol. AG% $o. B% pp% @DC+@3G.

&erman% 7o-ert ". and "enise 7endina (BFF@) 4"onor reactions to commercial activities of nonprofit organizations! an 'merican case study6 in 4oluntas2 International /ournal of 4oluntary and -onprofit 5rgani'ations% *ol. B@% $o. B% pp. @3H+@GC. &i--ert% Sally '.% /illian &ogg and Theresa Muinn (BFFB) 4Consumer response to social entrepreneurship! the case of the >ig .ssue in Scotland6 in .nternational Journal of $onprofit and *oluntary Sector #arketing% *ol. H% $o. 2% pp. BAA+2F@. &orsnell% 'ndy and John 0epin (BFFB) 4Social entrepreneurship -asics6 in ront and )entre% *ol. C% $o. D% pp. @+G. James% Colin (BFF@) 4Social entrepreneurs6 in $anagement% (cto-er% BFF@% p. 3A. Johnson% Sherrill (BFF@) 4Strengthening the /enerational Chain! Engaging the $e1t /eneration of Social and Civic )eaders in Canada.6 1aper produced for the )anadian )entre for ,ocial !ntrepreneurship (@F pp.) Johnson% Sherrill (BFFB) 4Social Entrepreneurship )iterature 7eview.6 1aper produced for the )anadian )entre for ,ocial !ntrepreneurship (@A pp.) )assiter% 'pril (@CCH) 4The new social architects6 in 1olicy Review% July<'ugust% pp. 3B+ 3G. #c)eod% &eather (@CCH) 4Cross over! the social entrepreneur6 in Inc. ,pecial Issue2 ,tate of ,mall% *ol. @C% $o. H% pp.@FF+@FD. $inacs% >ill (@CCA) 4 hat is the -usiness of -usinessI6 in $aking .aves2 )anadas )!# $aga'ine% *ol. C% $o. @% pp. @C+B@. 0erry% Stewart (@CCC) 4Some terminology and definition in the field of community economic development6 in $aking .aves2 )anadas )!# $aga'ine% *ol. @F% $o. @% pp. BF+B2. 0ra-hu% /anesh $. (@CCC) 4Social entrepreneurial leadership6 in )areer #evelopment International% *ol. D% $o. 2% pp. @DF+@D3. 7eis% Tom (@CCC) =nleashing the $ew 7esources and Entrepreneurship for the Common /ood! a Scan% Synthesis and Scenario for 'ction. >attle Creek% #.! .K. Kellogg ,oundation. BHpp. 7o-erts Enterprise "evelopment ,und (no date). 4 hat is a social entrepreneurI6 on we-site (address unclear). Salter% Chuck (BFFF) 4&ope and "reams6 in ast )ompany% Septem-er BFFF% pp. @HA+ BFD.

Schuyler% /wyer (@CCA) 4Social entrepreneurship! profit as a means% not an end6 in Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial )eadership Clearinghouse on Entrepreneurial Education (CE)CEE) we-site ( 2p. Sheerman% >arry (BFFF) 4The role of the social entrepreneur6 in !ntrepreneurship and Innovation% (cto-er% BFFF% p. @CA. Thalhu-er% Jim (@CCA) 4The definition of a social entrepreneur6 found on $ational Centre for Social Entrepreneurs we-site ( 2pp. Thompson% John% /eoff 'lvy and 'nn )ees (BFFF) 4Social entrepreneurship + a new look at the people and the potential6 in $anagement #ecision% *ol. 2A% $o. 3% pp. 2DA+22A. Thompson% John (BFFB) 4The world of the social entrepreneur6 in International /ournal of 1ublic ,ector $anagement% *ol. @3% $o. 3% pp. D@B+D2@. *an Slam-rouk% 0aul (@CCA) 4' -usinesslike approach to helping the homeless6 in )hristian ,cience $onitor% (cto-er H% *ol. CF% .ssue BBF% pp.@. arwick% "avid (@CCH) 4 ill social entrepreneurs -lossom or hit -ottomI6 in 1eople $anagement% (cto-er C% *ol. 2% .ssue BF% p. 3G. Loung% #ichael (@CCH) 4"o+gooders with savvy6 in -ew ,tatesman% ,e-ruary B@% p. BF. Radek% Simon and Stephen Thake (@CCH) 4Send in the Social Entrepreneurs6 in -ew ,tatesman% June BF% *ol. BG% .ssue H22C% p. 2@.

Appendi+ A: *ntervie& 7uestions

(? Characteristics of the 3ir': a) -) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) &ow long has this organization<company -een in e1istenceI &ow many principals does the organization<company haveI hat was the age of the principals when the organization<company -eganI Could you -riefly descri-e the leadership structure of the companyI hat is the mission statement of the organization<companyI &ow many employees does the organization<company currently haveI &ow many volunteers does the organization<company currently haveI here is organization<company locatedI "o you have plans to e1pand to any other locations in the ne1t B yearsI hat is annual revenue of the company<annual -udget of the organizationI a. =nder N3F%FFF -. N3F%FFF Q @3F%FFF c. N@3F%FFF Q B3F%FFF d. (ver NB3F%FFFI

! Social Entrepreneurs: a) &ad you -een involved with other entrepreneurial activities -efore thisI a. .f so% can you provide some detailsI -) hy did you choose an entrepreneurial approach in this situationI c) hy did you choose to incorporate a social<environmental goal into your initiativeI d) &ow comforta-le are you with uncertainty (on a scale of @+3 with @ -eing not comforta-le at all and 3 -eing very comforta-le)I e) "id you have all the resources in place to start this initiative -efore taking actionI f) &ave you -een successful in convincing others to participate in this initiativeI a. .f yes% howI -. .f no% why notI g) "o you network with others interested in com-ining social and economic goalsI a. .f yes% how important is this to you (on a scale of @ Q 3 with @ -eing not important and 3 -eing very important)I -. .f no% is there a reason for thisI h) "o you have a mentor for this initiativeI a. .f yes% who and how did you find this personI -. .f yes% how important do you think your mentor has -een (on a scale from @+3 with @ -eing not important% and 3 -eing very important)I c. .f no% do you wish you had oneI i) &ave you ever heard the term social entrepreneurI a. .f yes% do you consider yourself one and whyI -. .f no% why notI

Social Entrepreneurship>Co''unity Econo'ic 6evelop'ent: a) 'ssuming that your organization<company is successful in the way you want it to -e% what will the social and<or environmental impact -eI -) 'gain% assuming your company<organization is successful% can you identify those who will -enefit from this successI c) hat are your contri-utions to your local community through this initiativeI d) hat do you consider the -iggest challenges in incorporating social and<or environmental goals into an entrepreneurial initiativeI e) hat has -een most helpful to you in this process of com-ining economic and social<environmental goalsI f) hat supports would have helped you in using an entrepreneurial approach with a dual -ottom lineI g) hat advice would you have for others undertaking this type of approachI

Appendi+ B: 8ist of ,esearch Participants

Si'on Boone 3ounder and Principal 0eneration Solar <&&&)generationsolar)co'? 6*eneration ,olar are leaders in the field of sustainable energy solutions. .e conduct business in a socially and environmentally responsible manner while e"ceeding applicable regulations. .e improve the 7uality of life for our clients, employees, and community, both locally and globally.8

/atalie Chinsa' 3ounder and 6irector ;u'anity8in% *nternational <&&&)hu'anitylin%)org? 60umanity9ink International focuses on providing assistance to enhance the lives and opportunities for those in need in the greater &oronto area and in the developing regions of the +mericas and the )aribbean.8 Initial projects include :(es (outh )an !ntrepreneurial #evelopment or a in &oronto and -ewfoundland.

Chris 0odsall 3ounder and Advisor Santropol ,oulant <&&&)santropolroulant)org? 6,antropol Roulant is a $ontreal-based, not-for-profit organi'ation founded and run by young people in the community. .e bring people together across generations and cultures through our innovative meals-on-wheels service, our intergenerational activities and volunteer programs. ,antropol Roulant uses food as a vehicle to break social and economic isolation between generations and to strengthen and nourish our local community. .e engage a diversity of people to take an active role in their communities through initiatives that address the health and food security needs of seniors and $ontrealers living with a loss of autonomy.8

0eordie 5uchterlony 3ounder and Principal ;o'e 0ro&n 5rganic 3oods <&&&)hgof)ns)ca? 60ome *rown 5rganic oods is a locally owned business dedicated towards satisfying the growing demand for healthy, locally grown, affordable and ecologically sustainable organic food. .e offer an efficient and cost-effective home delivery service of fresh organic fruits and vegetables every week.8.

,ahul ,a@ 3ounder and E+ecutive 6irector Meal E+change <&&&)'eale+change)co'? 6&he mission of $eal !"change is to promote student civic engagement through the development of solutions to hunger in )anada.. $eal !"change is a student-focused charity and a simple idea. 5n-campus volunteer student co-ordinators facilitate donations through each university;s ood ,ervice organi'ation. ,tudents simply choose to donate to $eal !"change at their residence caf< or dining hall. #onated points are accumulated and valued, while the coordinator determines which products are most in need by local food banks and agencies. ,tudent volunteers then distribute the goods.8 8eo Aong 3ounder and Advisor Youth 5ne <&&&)youthone)co'? 6&o foster, build, foster and strengthen the youth community so that young people can pursue their dreams without being restricted by social barriers. .ere looking at building connections between all the available resources out there so that youth have a better ability to find out about these resources. &his idea began when I was in high school, out of the frustration I saw in a lot of young people, not know that information and services were out there.8