Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

6) Scott-T Connection of Transformer: Transforming 3 Phase to 2 Phase:

1. 2. There are two main reasons for the need to transform from three phases to two phases, To give a supply to an existing two phase system from a three phase supply. To supply two phase furnace transformers from a three phase source. Two-phase systems can have 3-wire, 4-wire, or 5-wire circuits. It is needed to be considering that a two-phase system is not 2/3 of a three-phase system. Balanced three-wire, two-phase circuits have two phase wires, both carrying approximately the same amount of current, with a neutral wire carrying 1.414 times the currents in the phase wires. The phase-to-neutral voltages are 90 out of phase with each other.

Two phase 4-wire circuits are essentially just two ungrounded single-phase circuits that are electrically 90 out of phase with each other. Two phase 5-wire circuits have four phase wires plus a neutral; the four phase wires are 90 out of phase with each other.

The easiest way to transform three-phase voltages into two-phase voltages is with two conventional single-phase transformers. The first transformer is connected phase-to-neutral on the primary (three-phase) side and the second transformer is connected between the other two phases on the primary side.

The secondary windings of the two transformers are then connected to the two-phase circuit. The phase-toneutral primary voltage is 90 out of phase with the phase-to-phase primary voltage, producing a two-phase voltage across the secondary windings. This simple connection, called the T connection, is shown in Figure

The main advantage of the T connection is that it uses transformers with standard primary and secondary voltages. The disadvantage of the T connection is that a balanced two-phase load still produces unbalanced three-phase currents; i.e., the phase currents in the three-phase system do not have equal magnitudes, their phase angles are not 120 apart, and there is a considerable amount of neutral current that must be returned to the source.

The Scott Connection of Transformer:

A Scott-T transformer (also called a Scott connection) is a type of circuit used to derive two-phase power from a three-phase source or vice-versa. The Scott connection evenly distributes a balanced load between the phases of the source.

Scott T Transformers require a three phase power input and provide two equal single phase outputs called Main and Teaser. The MAIN and Teaser outputs are 90 degrees out of phase. The MAIN and the Teaser outputs must not be connected in parallel or in series as it creates a vector current imbalance on the primary side.

MAIN and Teaser outputs are on separate cores. An external jumper is also required to connect the primary side of the MAIN and Teaser sections. The schematic of a typical Scott T Transformer is shown

below:

Scott T Transformer is built with two single phase transformers of equal power rating. The MAIN and Teaser sections can be enclosed in a floor mount enclosure with MAIN on the bottom and Teaser on top with a connecting jumper cable. They can also be placed side by side in separate enclosures.

Assuming the desired voltage is the same on the two and three phase sides, the Scott-T transformer connection consists of a center-tapped 1:1 ratio main transformer, T1, and an 86.6% (0.53) ratio teaser transformer, T2. The center-tapped side of T1 is connected between two of the phases on the three-phase side. Its center tap then connects to one end of the lower turn count side of T2, the other end connects to the remaining phase. The other side of the transformers then connects directly to the two pairs of a two-phase four-wire system.

The Scott-T transformer connection may be also used in a back to back T to T arrangement for a three-phase to 3 phase connection. This is a cost saving in the smaller kVA transformers due to the 2 coil T connected to a secondary 2 coil T in-lieu of the traditional three-coil primary to three-coil secondary transformer. In this

arrangement the Neutral tap is part way up on the secondary teaser transformer . The voltage stability of this T to T arrangement as compared to the traditional 3 coil primary to three-coil secondary transformer is questioned

Key Point:

If the main transformer has a turns ratio of 1: 1, then the teaser transformer requires a turns ratio of 0.866: 1 for balanced operation. The principle of operation of the Scott connection can be most easily seen by first applying a current to the teaser secondary windings, and then applying a current to the main secondary winding, calculating the primary currents separately and superimposing the results. Load connected between phaseY1 and phase Y2 of the secondary:

Secondary current from the teaser winding into phase X1 =1.0 <90 Secondary current from the teaser winding into phase X2 =-1.0< 90 Primary current from H3 phase into the teaser winding= 1.1547< 90 Primary current from H2 phase into the main winding= 0.5774 <90 Primary current from H1 phase into the main winding= -0.5774< 90 The reason that the primary current from H3 phase into the teaser winding is 1.1547 due to 0.866: 1 turns ratio of the teaser, transforming 1/0.866= 1.1547 times the secondary current. This current must split in half at the center tap of the main primary winding because both halves of the main primary winding are wound on the same core and the total ampere-turns of the main winding must equal zero. Load connected between phase X2 and phase X1 of the secondary:

Secondary current from the main winding into phase X2 =1.0< 0 Secondary current from the main winding into phase X4= -1.0 <0 Primary current from H2 phase into the main winding =1.0 <0 Primary current from H1 phase into the main winding=- 1.0 <0 Primary current from H3 phase into the teaser winding= 0 Superimpose the two sets of primary currents: I H3= 1.1547 <90 +0= 1.1547 <90 I H2 =0.5774 <90 +1.0< 0= 1.1547 < 30 I H1 =0.5774 <90+ 1.0 <0=1.1547 <210 Notice that the primary three-phase currents are balanced; i.e., the phase currents have the same magnitude and their phase angles are 120 apart. The apparent power supplied by the main transformer is greater than the apparent power supplied by the teaser transformer. This is easily verified by observing that the primary currents in both transformers have the same magnitude; however, the primary voltage of the teaser transformer is only

86.6% as great as the primary voltage of the main transformer. Therefore, the teaser transforms only 86.6% of the apparent power transformed by the main.

We also observe that while the total real power delivered to the two phase load is equal to the total real power supplied from the three-phase system, the total apparent power transformed by both transformers is greater than the total apparent power delivered to the two-phase load.

The apparent power transformed by the teaser is 0.866 X IH1= 1.0 and the apparent power transformed by the main is 1.0X IH2 =1.1547 for a total of 2.1547 of apparent power transformed. The additional 0.1547 per unit of apparent power is due to parasitic reactive power owing between the two halves of the primary winding in the main transformer. Single-phase transformers used in the Scott connection are specialty items that are virtually impossible t o buy off the shelf nowadays. In an emergency, standard distribution transformers can be used

Advantages of the Scott T Connection:



If desired, a three phase, two phase, or single phase load may be supplied simultaneously The neutral points can be available for grounding or loading purposes

Disadvantages when used for 3 Phase Loading

This type of asymmetrical connection (3 phases, 2 coils), reconstructs three phases from 2 windings. This can cause unequal voltage drops in the windings, resulting in potentially unbalanced voltages to be applied to the load.

The transformation ratio of the coils and the voltage obtained may be slightly unbalanced due to manufacturing variances of the interconnected coils. This designs neutral has to be solidly grounded. If it is not grounded solidly, the secondary voltages could become unstable. Since this design will have a low impedance, special care will have to be taken on the primary protection fault current capacity. This could be an issue if the system was designed for a Delta-Star connection. The inherent single phase construction and characteristics of this connection produces a comparatively bulky and heavier transformer when compared with a normal three phase transformer of the same rating.

Application:

For Industrial Furnace Transformer. For Traction Purpose: The power is obtained from the 220 kV or 132 kV or 110 kV or 66 kV, three-phase, effectively earthed transmission network of the State Electricity Board, through single-phase transformers or Scott connected transformer installed at the Traction Substation. The primary winding of the single-phase transformer is connected to two phases of the transmission network or Where Scott-connected transformer is used, the primary windings are connected to the three phases of the transmission network.

The single-phase transformers at a Traction Substation are connected to the same two phases of the transmission network (referred as single-phase connection), or alternatively to different pairs of phases- the three single phase transformers forming a delta-connection on the primary side. Out of three single-phase transformers, one transformer feeds the overhead equipment (OHE) on one side of the Traction Substation, another feeds the OHE on the other side of the Traction Substation, and the third remains as standby. Thus the two single-phase transformers which feed the OHE constitute an open-delta connection (alternatively, referred as V-connection) on the three-phase transformers network. The Scott-connected transformer and V-connected single-phase

transformers are effective in reducing voltage imbalance on the transmission network. The spacing between

Open Delta Transformer


TUESDAY, MAY 31, 2011

adjacent substations is normally between 70 and 100 km.

or

V-V

Connection

of

3-Phase

As seen previously in connection of three single phase transformers that if one of the transformers is unable to operate then the supply to the load can be continued with the remaining tow transformers at the cost of reduced efficiency. The connection that obtained is called V-V connection or open delta connection. Consider the Fig. 1 in which 3 phase supply is connected to the primaries. At the secondary side three equal three phase voltages will be available on no load.

Fig. 1

The voltages are shown on phasor diagram. The connection is used when the three phase load is very very small to warrant the installation of full three phase transformer. If one of the transformers fails in - bank and if it is required to continue the supply eventhough at reduced capacity until the transformer which is removed from the bank is repaired or a new one is installed then this type of connection is most suitable. When it is anticipated that in future the load increase, then it requires closing of open delta. In such cases open delta connection is preferred.

Key point : It can be noted here that the removal of one of the transformers will not give the total load carried by V - V bank as tow third of the capacity of - bank. The load that can be carried by V - V bank is only 57.7% of it. it can be proved as follows.

Fig. 2(a)

Fig. 2(b)

It can be seen from the Fig. 2(a) - capacity = 3 VL IL = 3 VL (3 Iph ) - capacity = 3 VL Iph ............(i)

It can also be noted from the Fig. 2(b) that the secondary line current IL is equal to the phase current Iph. V- V capacity = 3 VL IL = 3 VL Iph Dividing equation (ii) by equation (i) ...............(ii)

Thus the three phase load that can be carried without exceeding the ratings of the transformers is 57.5 percent of the original load. Hence it is not 66.7 % which was expected otherwise. The reduction in the rating can be calculated as {(66.67 - 57.735)/(57.735)}x 100 = 15.476 Suppose that we consider three transformers connected in - fashion and supplying their rated load. Now one transformer is removed then each of the remaining tow transformers will be overloaded. The overload on each transformer will be given as,

Key point : This overload can be carried temporarily if provision is made to reduce the load otherwise overheating and breakdown of the remaining tow transformers would take place.

Limitations The limitation with V -V connection are given below : 1. The average p.f. at which V- V bank is operating is less than that with the load . This power p.f is 86.6 % of the balanced load p.f. 2. The tow transformers in V -V bank operate at different power factor except for balanced unity p.f .load. 3. The terminals voltages available on the secondary side become unbalanced. This may happen eventhough load is perfectly balanced. Thus in summary we can say that if tow transformers are connected in V - V fashion and are loaded to rated capacity and one transformer is added to increase the total capacity by 3 or 173.2 %. Thus the increase in capacity is 73.2 % when converting from a V - V system to a - system. With a bank of tow single phase transformers connected in V-V fashion supplying a balanced 3 phase load with cos asp.f., one of the transformer operate at a p.f. of cos (30-) and other at cos (30+). The powers of tow transformers are given by,

P1 = KVA cos (30-) P2 = KVA cos (30+) Example : A - bank consisting of three 40 KVA, 2300/230 V transformers supplies a load of 80 KVA. If one transformer is removed, find for the resulting V - V connection i) KVA load carried by each transformer ii) percent of rated load carried by each transformer iii) total KVA rating of the V - V bank iv) ratio of the V - V bank to - bank transformer ratings v) percent increase in load on each transformer when bank is converted into V - V bank.

Solution i) KVA load carried by each of the transformer is calculated as, (Total KVA load in V - V bank)/(KVA load carried per transformer) = 3 KVA load carried per transformer = (Total KVA load)/3 = 80/ 3 = 46.18 KVA ii) Percent of rated load carried by each transformer = (KVA / transformer)/(KVA rating / transformer) = 46.18/40 = 115.45% iii) KVA rating of V - V bank = (3 x 40) x 0.577 = 120 x 0.577 = 69.24 iv) (V -V rating)/( - rating) = 69.24/120 = 0.577 or 57.7% v) Load supplied by each transformer in - bank = 80/3 = 26.66 KVA % increase in load supplied by each KVA load/transformer in transformer = (V- V bank)/(KVA load / transformer in - bank) = 46.18 / 26.66 = 1.732 or 173.2%

Conversion From Three Phase to Tow phase (Scott Connection)


THURSDAY, JUNE 2, 2011

With the help of Scott connection, proposed by C.F. Scott, it is possible to obtain 2phase supply which is required for furnaces or even three phase load can be driven from the available 2phase supply source. The Scott connection which is serving this purpose is shown in the Fig.1.

Fig. 1

This connection uses tow transformers with different rating. But identical transformers with suitable tapping may also be used for the interchangeability and provision of spares. One of the transformers having 50% taping is called main transformer and other one having 86.6% tapping is called teaser transformer. If the secondaries of the tow transformers are connected as shown in the Fig. 1 then tow phase, three wire system is obtained. One end of the primary winding of the teaser transformer is connected to the centre tapping provided on the primary winding of the main transformer.The tow ends of the primary winding of the main transformer and 86.6 tapping point on the teaser transformer is connected to a balanced three phase supply. The voltage per turn is same both in primary of both main and teaser transformer. With the equal number of turns on secondaries of both the transformers, the secondary voltage will be equal in magnitude which results in symmetrical 2phase system. The same connection drawn slight differently is shown in the Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

The main transformer primary winding consists of N1 turns connected between lines Y and B of a symmetrical three phase supply. VRY, VYB and VBR are all line voltages. Hence VRY= VYB = VBR = VL . But RO being the altitude of the equilateral triangle, the voltage VRO is (3/2)VL. The voltage per turn will be same in primaries of both the transformers if number of turns between R and O are (3/2)N1. With this then the terminal voltages on the secondary windings having same turns will be equal in magnitude and have a same difference of between them. The point O is not the neutral point of 3 phase supply voltage as its voltage with respect to any line is not VL/3. N is the neutral point shown in Fig. 3. Voltage VRN is nothing but VL/3 whereas VRO is (3/2)VL. Hence the voltage between N and O will be

(3/2)VL - (1/3)VL = 0.288 VL ~ 0.29VL

Since 0.29 is one third of 0.866, N divides the teaser winding RO in the ratio 2 :1. Now let us consider the unity power factor load. The teaser secondary is supplying a current of I2T . Neglecting the magnetizing current we have IO we have, Transformation ratio, K = I1T/I2T = N2 /N1

Consider,

I1T/I2T = N2/N1

I1T = I2T x (N2 /((3/2)N1)) = (2/3) (N2/N1) I2T =1.15 ( N2/N1) I2T ... I1T = 1.15 K I2T ..................(i)

Each half on the primary winding of the main transformer carries current of consisting of I1m tow parts. i) First part balances the main secondary current I1M = ( N2/N1) I2M = K I2M

ii) The second part is equal to one half of the teaser primary current i.e. 0.5 I1T The main transformer primary winding forms a return path for the teaser primary current which is divided into tow halves at point O in either direction. The current in each half is equal to (I1T/2)=((1.15 K I2T ) /2) = 0.58 K I2T This current is shown in the Fig. 3

Fig. 3

Thus the phase R supplies current I1T which is divided into equal parts and is flowing in the main transformer in the opposite directions. Thus the line currents on the primary side are vectorially given by,

R =

1T

Y =

1M -

0.5

1T =

1M -

0.5

1T

B = -1M - 0.5 1T = - 1M - 0.5 1T The magnitude of these line currents are given by,

IR = I1T IY = IB = (( I1M )2 + (0.5 I1T )2) The currents in the lines Y and B are obtained vectorially. The teaser transformer currents flowing in the tow halves of the primary winding of the main transformer in the opposite direction and have no magnetic effect on the core and does not take part in balancing the secondary ampere turns of the main transformer. Thus when tow phase load of unity power factor is balanced then three phase side is also balanced. Now let us consider balanced row phase load at a lagging p.f. of cos. The corresponding phasor diagram is shown in the Fig. 4. The three phase side is again balanced as the currents drawn from the three phase system are equal balanced and lag by angle with respect to their respective phase voltages. This can be shown mathematically.

Fig. 4

Let us consider the equal currents at a power factor of cos lagging from secondary side ... I2T = I2M = I2 From the phasor diagram we have IR = I1T

IY = IB = (( I1M)2 + ( 0.5 I1T)2) Now, I1M = K I2M = K I2 I1T = 1.16 K I2T = 1.16 K I2 Substituting IR = 1.16 K I2 IY = IB = ((K I2)2+(0.5 x1.16 I2)2) = 1.16 K I2 Thus all the currents in the primary side are equal in magnitude. We have from the phasor diagram

Since the power factors of the load for the main transformer and the teaser transformer are equal, the phase angle between the secondary currents is also 90. The angle between the primary currents I1T and I1M is also 90. Thus the three line currents IR ,IY and IB are displaced from each other by 120 and lag the respective phase voltages by an angle . This proves that if the tow phase load is balanced then the loading on the three phase side is also balanced. Now we will consider the case of unbalanced tow phase load having different currents and different power factors. The phasor diagram for this case can be constructed in a similar manner. It is shown in the Fig. 5.

Fig. 5

Example 1 : Two transformers are required for a Scott connection operating from a 415 V, 3 phase supply for supplying two single phase furnaces 225 V on the two phase side. If the total output is 150 KVA, calculate the secondary to primary turns ratio and the winding currents for each transforme.

Solution :

For

the Primary Secondary

main voltage voltage = =

transformer 415 225 V V

Transformation ratio,

K = Secondary voltage / Primary voltage = 225/415 = 0.5421 Turns Secondary Primary current ratio = (150 x = = 10 )/(
3

N2/N1 = 2 300 162.63 x 225) x =

0.5421 30 A

current =

0.5421 A transformer

For Primary

teaser voltage = (3/2) voltage x 415 = =

359.40 225

V V

Secondary Transformation ratio, Turns ratio,

K = Secondary voltage/ Primary voltage = 225/359.4 = 0.6260 K = N2/N1 = 0.6260

Example 2 : In a Scott connection, calculate the values of line currents on the three phase side, if the loads on 2 phase side are 300 kW and 400 kW, both at 125 V and 0.707 p.f. and the three phase line voltage is 3300 V. The 300 kW load is on the leading phase of the 2 phase side. Neglect the losses.

Solution :

Primary Secondary Load Load carried carried by by ratio for teaser main main

line

voltage voltage = = K 300 400 =

3300 125 at at 0.707 0.707 =

V V p.f. p.f. 0.0378

secondary secondary transformer,

kW kW

Transformation

=V2 /V1 =

125/3300

Transformation ratio for teaser transformer, K = 1.1547 x Transformation ratio for main transformer = Power supplied by teaser 1.1547 = x 300 0.0378 kW at = 0.707 0.0436 p.f.

transformer

Secondary current in teaser transformer, I2T = (300 x 103) / (125 x 0.707) = 3394.62 A Primary current in teaser transformer, = Transformation ratio for teaser transformer x I2T = ..
.

0.0436

3394.62

148 IR = 148

A A p.f.

Line

current, supplied by main transformer = 400 kW at

Power

0.707

Secondary current in main transformer, I2M= (400 x 103) / (125 x 0.707) = 4526.16 A Primary current in main = transformer, 0.0378 x I1M= 452.16 = K . 171.08 I2M A

In addition to this current each half of the primary winding of the main transformer carries half of teaser primary current.

I1T = Total current carried = ((I1M) +


2

148
2

I1T /2
2

148/2 (74) ) IB =
2

= =

74

A A A

(I1T /2) ) =

((171.08) + IY =

186.39

186.39

The three line currents are IR = 148 A, IY = 186.39 A, IB= 186.39 A

26.1 Goals of the lesson


Three phase system has been adopted in modern power system to generate, transmit and distribute power all over the world. In this lesson, we shall first discuss how three number of single phase transformers can be connected for 3-phase system requiring change of voltage level. Then we shall take up the construction of a 3-phase transformer as a single unit. Name plate rating of a three phase transformer is explained. Some basic connections of a 3-phase transformer along with the idea of vector grouping is introduced. Key Words: bank of three phase transformer, vector group. After going through this section students will be able to answer the following questions. Point out one important advantage of connecting a bank of 3-phase transformer. Point out one disadvantage of connecting a bank of 3-phase transformer. Is it possible to transform a 3-phase voltage, to another level of 3-phase voltage by using two identical single phase transformers? If yes, comment on the total kVA rating obtainable. From the name plate rating of a 3-phase transformer, how can you get individual coil rating of both HV and LV side? How to connect successfully 3 coils in delta in a transformer?

26.2 Three phase transformer


It is the three phase system which has been adopted world over to generate, transmit and distribute electrical power. Therefore to change the level of voltages in the system three phase transformers should be used. Three number of identical single phase transformers can be suitably connected for use in a three phase system and such a three phase transformer is called a bank of three phase transformer. Alternatively, a three phase transformer can be constructed as a single unit.

26.3 Introducing basic ideas


In a single phase transformer, we have only two coils namely primary and secondary. Primary is energized with single phase supply and load is connected across the secondary. However, in a 3phase transformer there will be 3 numbers of primary coils and 3 numbers of secondary coils. So these 3 primary coils and the three secondary coils are to be properly connected so that the voltage level of a balanced 3-phase supply may be changed to another 3-phase balanced system of different voltage level.

Suppose you take three identical transformers each of rating 10 kVA, 200 V / 100 V, 50 Hz and to distinguish them call them as A, B and C. For transformer-A, primary terminals are marked as A A
1 2 1

1 2 1

and the secondary terminals are marked as a a . The markings are done in such a way that A and a

represent the dot () terminals. Similarly terminals for B and C transformers are marked and shown in figure 26.1.

Figure 26.1: Terminal markings along with dots

It may be noted that individually each transformer will work following the rules of single phase transformer i.e, induced voltage in a a will be in phase with applied voltage across A A and the ratio
1 2 1 2

of magnitude of voltages and currents will be as usual decided by a where a = N /N = 2/1, the turns
1 2

ratio. This will be true for transformer-B and transformer-C as well i.e., induced voltage in b b will
1 2

be in phase with applied voltage across B1 and induced voltage in c c will be in phase with applied
B2

1 2

voltage across C C .
1 2

Now let us join the terminals A , B2


2

and C

of the 3 primary coils of the transformers and no inter connections are made

between the secondary coils of the transformers. Now to the free terminals A , B1

and C a balanced 3-phase supply with


1

phase sequence A-B-C is connected as shown in figure 26.2. Primary is said to be connected in star.