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DENTAL MATERIALS #2 • TOXICITY – a dose related potential material to

cause cell or tissue death


TERMINOLOGIES:

• VISCOSITY – the resistance of a fluid to flow


• FLOW – a property of the material to be deformed
continuously without altering the magnitude of the
applied force • TARNISH – surface discoloration on a metal or a
slight loss or alteration of the surface finish or luster

• CORROSION – deterioration of a metal which is


* Impression materials should have good flow property in caused by reaction with its environment
order to get the detailed parts

TOXICITY EVALUATION OF DENTAL MATERIALS;


• RHEOLOGY – study of the flow of matter
• Should be harmless to the pulp and the soft tissues
• MICROLEAKAGE – the presence of microscopic
• No toxic substance that can be absorbed into the
spaces between the restoration and the prepared
circulatory system to cause toxic response
cavity which may lead to bacterial growth around the
restoration and it is usually associated with post-
• Free of sensitivity agents to cause an allergic
operative sensitivity
response

• THERMAL CHANGES – the tooth structure and the • No carcinogenic potential


restoration are continuously exposed to hot and cold
beverages and food, therefore, thermal conductivity
and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the
restorative material are important properties to GYPSUM – rock or solid substances which have been
preserve the health of the pulp grounded into powder form and then heated

• GALVANISM/GALVANIC ACTION – the presence of


different metals in the oral cavity producing elective
shock or electric current CALCINATION – manufacturing process if gypsum followed
by heating process

• OPEN CALCINATION – gypsum is heated on a kettle


*170lbs – average biting force 110 - 120°C resulting in β-hemihydrate or PLASTER
OF PARIS

• CLOSED CALCINATION – gypsum is heated 120 -


• INFECTION CONTROL – the routine use of mask 130°C resulting in α-hemihydrate or DENTAL STONE
and gloves to protect the dentist against infection
from microorganism

• WEAR, ABRASSION & EROSION – loss of material ADA CLASSIFICATION OF GYPSUM PRODUCTS
from a surface caused by mechanical action or
through combination of chemical and mechanical • TYPE I – SOLUBLE/IMPRESSION PLASTER
action
o Used as an impression material, usually
o ABRASSION - mechanical secondary material

o EROSION – chemical • TYPE II – MODEL PLASTER/PLASTER OF PARIS

o Investing medium used to stabilize the


o WEAR – both chemical and mechanical articulation of the upper and lower cast in
the articulator
• ALLERGY – abnormal antigen-antibody reaction to a
substance that is harmless to most individuals o For study cast

• TYPE III – DENTAL STONE


• BIOCOMPATIBILITY – the ability of a material to
elicit and appropriate biological response in a given
o For construction of a working cast
application in the body

• TYPE IV – DENTAL STONE HIGH STRENGTH/ DIE


CAST
o For construction of working die

• TYPE V – DENTAL STONE HIGH STRENGTH, HIGH Rosette Go 111508 


EXPANSION

o For cast construction

o used in casting gold (18k)

PLASTER OF PARIS

• bigger in size compared to dental stone

• has irregularly shaped crystal

• less dense, randomly shaped

• used to make study cast/model

• used as an investing medium to create the mold of


the future restoration

• used to make surgical cast

• used to make figurines

DENTAL STONE

• smaller, prismatic and regularly shaped

• compact/denser

• stronger than plaster

DENTAL STONE HIGH STRENGTH

• stronger than ordinary dental stone

• used to make working die

DENTAL STONE HIGH STRENGTH, HIGH EXPANSION

• used as investing medium if using white metals

IMPRESSION – negative copy of an arch

CAST – positive copy of an arch

DIE – copy of a single tooth or more

*pure gold (24k) cannot be used in the oral cavity

*white metals have high shrinkage