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2/19 Question 1

HW1: You dissolve 38.1g MgCl2 in 100 mL H2O (at 25o C). How much does the vapor pressure of the H2O change? P(H2O) = 0.0234 bar @ 25 C (given in lecture) Molar mass of MgCl2= 95.211 g/mol moles MgCl2 = 38.1 g / 95.211 g/mol = 0.4 moles moles ions = 0.4 moles MgCl2 * (3 moles ions / 1 mole MgCl2) = 1.2 moles ions moles H2O = 100 g / 18 g/mole = 5.56 moles mole fraction H2O = 5.56 moles H2O / 6.76 moles solution = 0.822 Vapor pressure = mole fraction * pure vapor pressure = 0.822 * 0.0234 bar = 0.0192 bar So the change is 0.0192 bar - 0.0234 bar = - 0.0042 bar

2/19 Question 2
HW2: Calculate the vapor pressure at 25 oC of a mixture between 25g benzene and 45 g toluene. This mixture behaves as an ideal liquid. P(benzene) = 0.126 bar. P(toluene) = 0.059 bar (hint in class: have to add the vapor pressure to get the vapor pressure of the mixture) Benzene is C6H6, Toluene is C7H8 MM benzene = 6(12) + 6(1) = 78 g/mol MM toluene = 7(12) + 8(1) = 84 g/mol mol benzene = 25g / 78g/mol = 0.32 mol benzene mol toluene = 45 g/ 84g/mol = 0.54 mol toluene Xbenzene = 0.32 mol / (0.32+0.54 mol) = 0.37 Xtoluene = 1-Xbenzene = 1 - 0.37 = 0.62 P (benzene in mix) = 0.37 (0.126 bar) = 0.04662 bar P (toluene in mix) = 0.62 (0.059 bar) = 0.03658 bar Pmix= Pbenzene + P toluene = 0.04662 bar + 0.03658 bar = 0.0832 bar

2/21 Question 1
What is the vapor pressure of a solution with 171.36 g MgCl2 in 900 mL H2O? AW (Mg) = 24.3, AW(Cl) = 35.45, p(H2O) = 0.0234 bar (@25oC) moles MgCl2 = 171.36 g / 95.2 g/mol = 1.8 moles MgCl2 moles ions = moles MgCl2 * 3 ions per MgCl2 = 5.4 moles ions moles H2O = 900 mL * (1 g H2O/ 1 mL H2O) / 18 g/mol = 50 moles moles H2O I assume that MgCl2 has a vapor pressure of 0, since it seems like a salt and no vapor pressure for it was given. Thus, only the vapor pressure of water will contribute from this solution. Mole fraction of H2O = 50 moles / (5.4 moles + 50 moles) = 0.902 Vapor pressure = 0.902 * 0.0234 bar = 0.0211 bar

2/21 Question 2
Calculate the freezing point of a solution with 155g ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) in 500 mL H2O. Kf (H2O) = 1.86 K/m 500mL water = 0.5 kg moles ethylene glycol 155g / 62 g/mol = 2.5mol molality = 2.5mol / 0.500kg = 5 m Tf =m*kf =5 m * 1.86 oC/m = 9.3 oC New freezing point will be -9.3 oC. We know that the Tf of pure water is 0 C and that the freezing point is depressed by the addition of impurities.

2/21 Question 3
What osmotic pressure (in bar) is generated when a cell is thrown into pure water? Assume that the inside of the cell functions like a solution of 9g NaCl in 1L H2O (added by TAs: the temperature is 25o C) The equation for osmotic pressure is: Pressure = i * R * T * c Where i is the Vant Hoff factor, which basically means how many ions each molecule dissociates into. Weve sneakily used this before - In 2/21 question 1 we multiplied by 3 to get the moles of ions in each mole of MgCl2. Note that, if a solute only partially dissolves, the Vant Hoff factor might not be an integer. M is Molarity, R is the gas constant, and T is the absolute temperature. Molarity = (9 g NaCl / 58.44 g NaCl/mole NaCl) / 1 L = 0.154 mol / L Thus, pressure = 2 * 0.154 mol / L * (8.314 Pa m3 / mol oK) * 298 oK Hey wait - the units of volume dont cancel here! I can fix this by converting the concentration to moles/m3 2 * (0.154 mol / L ) * (1000 L / 1 m3) * (8.314 Pa m3 / mol oK) * 298 oK = 763000 Pa Converting to bar: 763000 Pa * (1 bar / 100,000 Pa) = 7.63 bar! Thats a lot of pressure! This is why IV bags are basically full of salty water. If you were to replace someones blood with pure water, all of their cells would lyse (the cell-biology word for when cells explode)

2/24 Question 1
In one side of an osmotic chamber, you fill 20.0 mL of pure water. In the other side a solution of 116.2 mg insulin (5808 gmol) in 20.0 mL water. What height difference would you measure after equilibrium? Insulin is a monomeric protein. (From TAs: assume a temperature of 25 C) So well use the equation Osmotic pressure = i R T c moles insulin = 0.1162 g insulin * (1 mol insulin / 5808 g insulin) = 2 x 10-5 moles since insulin is a monomer, it doesnt fall apart into multiple particles i = 1 Concentration of insulin = (2 x 10-5 moles / 0.02 L)- But wait! As in 2/21 Q3, well need to change our volume to m3 to ensure that the units cancel out with R. Since theres 1000 L in 1 m3, I can write 0.02 L as 2 x 10-5 m3. Now well write concentration as 2 x 10-5 moles / 2 x 10-5 m3, or 1 mole / m3 Pressure = 1 * (8.314 Pa m3 / mol oK) * 298 oK * (1 mol / m3) = 2478 Pa From class, we know that osmotic pressure = gravity x density of water x height of column so 2478 Pa = 9.8 m/s2 * (1000 kg H2O / 1 m3 H2O) * x meters x = 0.25 meters, the height of the column of water

2/24 Question 2
How much oxygen dissolves in water at the surface of a lake at 18 oC? Note that air is 21% O2. KH(O2) = 0.0013 mol/L atm The dissolved oxygen will be: dissolved O2 = KH * pressure Since this lake is on the surface of the earth, and the pressure on the surface of the earth is right about 1 atmosphere, Ill assume the pressure here is 1 atmosphere. Now, since 21% of the molecules in the air are oxygen, the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is 0.21 atmosphere. Thus, dissolved O2 = (0.0013 mol / L atm) * 0.21 atm = 0.000237 mol/L Since we dont know the volume of this lake, the concentration is as far as we can get.