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economic Effects OF Crime and Deviance Crime forces local and national authorities to spend billions on the prevention

n OF crimes an the detection, prosecution and punishment OF crimes. Crime has a primary(victims), secondary (community)and total economic impact Criminal offences can be aimed against individuals and households,commercial sector and companies,the public sector and society. According to Davidson(1 ), the economic effects can be bro!en do"n in relation to individual incidents. #he categories are$ 1.anticipation OF Crime "hich involves the use of precautionary measures to avoid crime such as alarms, surveillance,etc %. as a conse&uence OF crime$ loss OF property,medical and health costs '. (n response to crime) involves the cost OF policing, prosecution and court proceedings and sanctions *+CO,DA-. (/0AC# OF C-(/+ Crime indirectly influences the local,regional and natiomal economy Accordingly Detotto and Otranto (%111) crime acts li!e a ta2 on the entire economy (t discourages domestic and foreign direct investment /AC-O+CO,O/(C 3+4+3 C-(/+ influences$ 1. economic gro"th %. (ncome '. 3abour Force participation 5. (ncome spent on security measures 6. -eallocation OF resources 7. 8ncertainty and (nefficiency 9. reduces competitiveness OF businesses and investment :. &uality OF life . impact on property value 11. impact on tourism o According to congress on Crime 0revention in #hailand, the follo"ing crimes affect the citi;ens the most$ drug traffic!ing, e2ploitation OF natural resources,corruption and misappropriation of funds from ban!s, o #he most popular issue affecting most countries (* money laundering. Combating this issue has been ineffective. o According to <"esi *a!i%11') /oney 3aundering and the economy in =hana,an (/F estimates bet"een %)6> OF money in the global economy is laundered. A-#(C3+* O, /O,+. 3A8,D+-(,= =leaner) :: billlion to crush gangs.?une%111) Darain ,e"ton. 1. (t could cost 1@6 of the current national budget to smash the reign OF gangs) Audley *ha". %. A ?anuary %115 study on business an investment climate indicated that crime cost the economy 1%.5 bil or '.9 OF =D0 because businesses had to close early because OF crime '. crime retards the (slandAs +conomic =ro"th and According to (an Ball and Dillon Alleyne, it affects tourism

?A/A(CA 0A.* D+A-3. FO- .O8#C C-(/+ *A.* 8, -+0O-#) Arthur Call %11% 1. youth crime (* costing ?amaica billions each year. %. it is cho!ing the economy '. According to the 8,D0, CD report, ?amaica loses '.%1> OF =D0 5. ?amaica has the highest number of youth convicted crimes in the region 6. ?amaica spends more than 8.* 6% million "hich (* e&uivalent to 57.6 billion ?amaican dollars each year to fight youth crime 7. #his (* calculated based on direct e2penditure and potential revenue "hich stays a"ay because OF criminals. 9. ?amaica loses 8.* 5.'million investments each year and 8* 6 million from tourism. SOCIAL IMPACTS OF CRIME (n an article entitled DDeportation as an element OF return migration to the CaribbeanD by Dr /argaret Byron, highlights the follo"ing implications$ (mpacts on individuals and families, communities both in 8< and Caribbean islands an also global impacts O8#CO/+* FO- D+0O-#++* o -escued an reintegrated vs family and friend net"or!s o adopted by local gangs o completely isolate and left to live on streets o =lobally deported criminals e2pand the criminal enterprise in the Caribbean as criminal net"or!s are "idened. EFFECTS OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE ON SOCIAL WELLBEIN ! C-(/+ affects people by ma!ing them fearful and insecure it affects not only physical but mental health as "ell indirect loss (* suffered by crime victims including pmainland suffering, decreased &uality OF life and psychological distress. maEor criminal activities Caucasian individual to become displaced... some have to move out OF their communities,separate their families and find employment else"here. affects sociali;ation of the younger generation "ho are at ris! increase in criminal levels erodes confidence in la" enforcers. it results in capital flight According to ?+**O0 in his article,?an %11', capital flight (* the loss OF those "ith s!ills and education "ho prefer to "or! in a more certain environment. studies by 8F( sho"s that crime has a negative effect on social development as it diverts limited resources a"ay from health and education to security this affects &uality OF life for all in a recent address given by 0eter Buntin , national security minister, crime and corruption remain the main obstacle to ?amaicaAs rapid gro"th and development.similar remar!s have been made by prime ministers OF Bahamas, #rinidad and Beli;e

?+**O0, e2ecutive director OF th Caribbean council,