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THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH. A.D. 1647.

Confessio Fidei Westmonasteriensis.


[The English text is taken from the second edition which appeared under the title, 'The Humble | Advice | of the | Assembly | of | Divines, | now by Authority of Parliament | sitting at Westminster, | concerning | a Confession of Faith: | with the uotations and Te!ts of | "cri#ture anne!ed$ Presented by them lately to both Houses of Parliament$ | Printed at %ondon& | and | re#rinted at 'dinburgh by 'van Tyler, Printer to | the (ings most '!cellent )a*estie$ 1647 ' The spelling and punctuation are conformed to modern usage The changes of the !merican re"ision, which occur chiefl# in $h %%&&& , relating to the $i"il 'agistrate, and in $h %%%& , relating to (#nods and $ouncils, are inserted in their proper places, and marked )# italics 'inor changes are indicated in footnotes The *atin translation of the +estminster $onfession and $atechisms )# , - .see /reface0 appeared first at $am)ridge, 1616 .also 161203 at Edin)urgh, 1624, etc 3 and at ,lasgow, 16640, under the title, '$onfessio 5idei | in Conventu theologorum authoritate + Parliamenti Anglicani indicto + 'laborata& + eidem Parliamento #ostmodum + '!hibita& + uin et ab eodem, deinde,ue ab 'cclesia "coticana + Cognita et A##robata& + und cum | $atechismo | du#lici, 'a6ori, 'inori7ue3 | ' "ermone Anglicano summa cum fide + in %itinum versa$ Cantabrigi-: e!cudebat .ohannes Field, celeberrim- Academity#ogra#hus '8

Confession of Fait .
C a!ter I. /f the Holy "cri#ture$

Confessio Fidei.
Ca!. I. -e (criptura (acrosancta

& !lthough the light of nature, and the works of creation and pro"idence, do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of ,od, as to lea"e men inexcusa)le3946 #et are the# not sufficient to gi"e that knowledge of ,od, and of his will, which is necessar# unto sal"ation3947 therefore it pleased the *ord, at sundr# times, and in di"ers manners, to re"eal himself, and to declare that his will unto his $hurch3949 and afterwards, for the )etter preser"ing and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure esta)lishment and comfort of the $hurch against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice

& uan,uam natur- lumen, o#era,ue Dei cum Creationis tum Providenti-, bonitatem e*us, sa#ientiam, #otentiam,ue eo us,ue manifestant, ut homines vel inde reddantur ine!cusabiles:942 eam tamen Dei, voluntatis,ue divincognitionem, ,u- #orro est ad salutem necessaria, ne,ueunt nobis ingenerare$914 uocirca Domino com#lacitum est, variis ,uidem modis vicibus,ue 'cclesi- su- semeti#sum revelare, suam,ue hanc voluntatem #atefacere&911 sed et eandem omnem #ostea literis consignare, ,uo et veritati su- tam conservand- ,uam #ro#agand- melius consuleret, nec 'cclesia sua contra carnis corru#telam, contra malitiam mundi "atan-,ue, #r-sidio foret ac solatio destituta$911 0nde factum est, ut, #ost,uam #ristini illi modi, ,uibus olim #o#ulo suo Deus voluntatem suam revelabat, *am desiverint,916

641 of (atan and of the world, to commit the same wholl# unto writing391: which maketh the hol# (cripture to )e most necessar#391; those former wa#s of ,od's re"ealing his will unto his

people )eing now ceased 914 && <nder the name of hol# (cripture, or the +ord of ,od written, are now contained all the =ooks of the >ld and ?ew Testament, which are these@
Of the Old Testament. ,enesis Exodus *e"iticus ?um)ers -euteronom# Aoshua Audges Cuth & (amuel && (amuel & Eings && Eings & $hronicles && $hronicles EBra ?ehemiah Esther Ao) /salms /ro"er)s Of the New Testament. The ,ospels according to 'atthew, 'ark, *uke, Aohn To Timoth# && To Titus To /hilemon The Epistle to the Ecclesiastes The (ong of (ongs &saiah Aeremiah *amentations EBekiel -aniel Dosea Aoel !mos >)adiah Aonah 'icah ?ahum Da)akkuk Fephaniah Daggai Fechariah 'alachi

"cri#tura "acra sit ma!ime necessaria$917 && "acr- "cri#tur-, nomine, seu 1erbi Dei scri#ti continentur hodie omnes illi libri tam 1eteris ,uam 2ovi 3nstrumenti,919nem#e ,uorum inferius subse,uuntur nomina$
"eteris Testamenti. 4enesis$ '!odus$ %eviticus$ 2umeri$ Deuteronomium$ .osua$ .udices$ 6uth$ "amuelis 1 "amuelis : 6egum 1 6egum : Chronicorum 1 Chronicorum : '5ra$ 2ehemias$ 'sther$ .ob$ Psalmi$ Proverbia$ No#i a$tem. 'vangelium secundem )atth-um, )arcum, Acta a#ostolorum$ Titum$ Pauli es#istol- ad 6omanos$ Philemonem$ '#ist$ ad Hebr-os$ %ucam, .ohannem 'cclesiastes$ Canticum Canticorum$ 3saias$ .eremias$ %amentationes$ '5echiel$ Daniel$ Hosea$ .oel$ !mos /badias$ .onas$ )icheas$ 2ahum$ Habucuc$ 7e#hanias$ Hagg-us$ 7acharias$ )alachias$

64:
The !cts of the !postles /aul's Epistles to the Comans

$orinthians & $orinthians && ,alatians Ephesians /hilippians $olossians Thessalonians & Thessalonians && To Timoth# &

De)rews The Epistle of Aames The 5irst and (econd Epistles of /eter The 5irst, (econd, and Third Epistles of Aohn The Epistle of Aude The Ce"elation

Corinthios 3$ 33$ .acobi '#istola$ 4alatas$ '#hesios$ Phili##enses$ Collossenses$ Thessalonicens 3$ 33$ .ud- '#istola$ Timotheum 3$ 33$ A#ocaly#sis$ .ohan$ '#ist$ 3$ 33$ 333$ Petri '#ist$ 3$ 33$

!ll which are gi"en )# inspiration of ,od, to )e the rule of faith and life 912 &&& The )ooks commonl# called !pocr#pha, not )eing of di"ine inspiration, are no part of the $anon of the (cripture3 and therefore are of no authorit# in the $hurch of ,od, nor to )e an# otherwise appro"ed, or made use of, than other human writings 961 &G The authorit# of the hol# (cripture, for which it ought to )e )elie"ed and o)e#ed, dependeth not upon the testimon# of an# man or church, )ut wholl# upon ,od .who is truth itself0, the !uthor thereof3 and therefore it is to )e recei"ed, )ecause it is the +ord of ,od 96; G +e ma# )e mo"ed and induced )# the testimon# of the 64; $hurch to an high and re"erent esteem of961 the hol# (cripture3966 and the hea"enliness of the matter, the efficac# of the doctrine, the ma6est# of the st#le, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole .which is to gi"e all glor# to ,od0, the full disco"er# it makes of the onl# wa# of man's sal"ation, the man# other incompara)le excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments where)# it doth a)undantl#

ui omnes divina ins#iratione dati sunt in Fidei vit-,ue regulam$964 &&& %ibri A#ocry#hi, vulgo dicti, ,uum non fuerint divinitus ins#irati, Canonem "cri#tur- nullatenus constituunt& #roinde,ue nullam aliam authoritatem obtinere debent in 'cclesia Dei, nec aliter ,uam alia humana scri#ta, sunt aut a##robandi aut adhibendi 96: &G Authoritas "cri#tur- sacr#ro#ter ,uam ei debetur fides et observantia, non ab ullius aut hominis aut 'cclesi- #endet testimonio, sed a solo e*us authore Deo, ,ui est i#sa veritas: eo,ue est a nobis reci#ienda, ,uoniam est 1erbum Dei 964 G Testimonium 'cclesi- efficere ,uidem #otest ut de "cri#tura sacra ,uam honorifice sentiamus&969 materies insu#er e*us c8lestis, doctrin- vis et efficacia, styli ma*estas, #artium omnium consensus, totius,ue sco#us .ut Deo nem#e omnis gloria tribuatur0, #lena deni,ue ,uam e!hibet unic- ad salutem vicommonstratio, #r-ter alias e*us virtutes incom#arabiles, et #erfectionem summam, argumenta sunt ,uibus abunde se 1erbum Dei et luculenter #robat& nihilominus tamen

e"idence itself to )e the +ord of ,od3 #et, notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infalli)le truth, and di"ine authorit# thereof, is from the inward work of the Dol# (pirit, )earing witness )# and with the +ord in our hearts 967 G& The whole counsel of ,od, concerning all things necessar# for his own glor#, man's sal"ation, faith, and life, is either expressl# set down in (cripture, or )# good and necessar# conse7uence ma# )e deduced from (cripture@ unto which nothing at an# time is to )e added, whether )# new re"elations of the (pirit, or traditions of men 974 ?e"ertheless we acknowledge the inward illumination of the (pirit of ,od to )e necessar# for the sa"ing 644 understanding of such things as are re"ealed in the +ord397: and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of ,od, and go"ernment of the $hurch, common to human actions and societies, which are to )e ordered )# the light of nature and $hristian prudence, according to the general rules of the +ord, which are alwa#s to )e o)ser"ed 97; G&& !ll things in (cripture are not alike plain in themsel"es, nor alike clear unto all3976 #et those things which are necessar# to )e known, )elie"ed, and o)ser"ed, for sal"ation, are so clearl# propounded and opened in some place of (cripture or other, that not onl# the learned, )ut the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinar# means, ma# attain unto a sufficient understanding of them 977 G&&& The >ld Testament in De)rew .which was the nati"e language of the people of ,od of old0, and the ?ew Testament in ,reek .which at the time of the writing of it was most generall#

#lena #ersuasio et certitudo de e*us tam infallibili veritate, ,uam authoritate divina non aliunde nascitur ,uam ab interna o#eratione "#iritus "ancti, #er verbum et cum verbo i#so in cordibus nostris testificantis 962 G& Consilium Dei universum de omnibus ,u- ad suam i#sius gloriam, ,u-,ue ad hominum salutem, fidem, vitam,ue sunt necessaria, aut e!#resse in "cri#tura continetur, aut conse,uentia bona et necessaria derivari #otest a "cri#tura& cui nihil deince#s addendum est, seu novis a s#iritu revelationibus, sive traditionibus hominum$971 3nternam nihilominus illuminationem "#iritus Dei ad salutarem eorum #erce#tionem, ,u- in 1erbo Dei revelantur, agnoscimus esse necessariam:974 7uin etiam nonnullas esse circumstantias cultum -ei spectantes et EcclesiH regimen, iis cum humanis actioni)us et societati)us communes, 7uH naturali lumine ac prudentia $hristiana secundum generales "er)i regulas .perpetuo 7uidem illas o)ser"andas0 sunt regulandH 971 G&& u- in "cri#tura continentur non sunt omnia -,ue aut in se #ers#icua, aut omnibus hominibus evidentia,979 ea tamen omnia ,u- ad salutem necessaria sunt cognitu, creditu, observatu, adeo #ers#icue, alicubi saltem in "cri#tura, #ro#onuntur et e!#licantur, ut eorum non docti solum, verum indocti etiam ordinariorum debito usu mediorum, sufficientem asse,ui #ossint intelligentiam$972 G&&& 3nstrumentum 1etus Hebr-a lingua 9anti,ua Dei #o#ulo nem#e vernacula: 2ovum autem 4r-ca .ut ,u- a#ud 4entes ma!ime omnium tunc tem#oris, ,uum scriberetur illud,

known to the nations0, )eing immediatel# inspired )# ,od, and )# his singular care and pro"idence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical3994 so as in all contro"ersies 641 of religion the $hurch is finall# to appeal unto them 99: =ut )ecause these original tongues are not known to all the people of ,od who ha"e right unto, and interest in the (criptures, and are commanded, in the fear of ,od, to read and search them,99; therefore the# are to )e translated into the "ulgar language of e"er# nation unto which the# come,994 that the +ord of ,od dwelling plentifull# in all, the# ma# worship him in an accepta)le manner,991 and, through patience and comfort of the (criptures, ma# ha"e hope 996 &% The infalli)le rule of interpretation of (cripture is the (cripture itself3 and therefore, when there is a 7uestion a)out the true and full sense of an# (cripture .which is not manifold, )ut one0, it must92: )e searched and known )# other places that speak more clearl# 92; % The (upreme Audge, )# which all contro"ersies of religion are to )e determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and pri"ate spirits, are to )e examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can 646 )e no other )ut the Dol# (pirit speaking in the (cripture 921
C a!ter II. /f 4od, and of the Holy Trinity$

obtinuerat0, immediate a Deo ins#irata, e*us,ue cura et Providentia singulari #er omnia huc us,ue secula #ura et intaminata custodita, ea #ro#ter sunt authentica$991Adeo sane ut ad illa ultimo in omnibus de religione controversiis 'cclesia debeat a##ellare$997 uoniam autem /riginales ist- lingu- non sunt toti Dei #o#ulo intellect- . uorum tamen et *us est ut scri#turas habeant, et interest #lurimum, ,ui,ue eas in timore Dei legere *ubentur et #erscrutari0999 #roinde sunt in vulgarem cu*us,ue 4entis, ad ,uam #ervenerint linguam transferend-,992 ut omnes, verbo Dei o#ulenter in i#sis habitante, Deum grato acce#to,ue modo colant,924 et #er #atientiam ac consolationem "cri#turarum s#em habeant$921 &% 3nfallibilis "cri#turam inter#retandi regula est "cri#tura i#sa$ uoties igitur cun,ue oritur ,u-stio de$ vero #leno,ue "cri#turcu*usvis sensu .unicus ille est non multi#le!0, e! aliis locis, ,ui a#ertius lo,uuntur, est indagandus et cognoscendus$924 % "u#remus *ude!, a ,uo omnes de religione controversi- sunt determinand-, omnia Conciliorum decreta, o#iniones "cri#torum 1eterum, doctrin- deni,ue hominum, et #rivati ,uicun,ue "#iritus sunt e!aminandi, cu*us,ue sententia tenemur nemur ac,uiescere, nullus alius esse #otest, #r-ter "#iritum "anctum in "cri#tura #ronunciantem$926
Ca!. II. -e -eo et (acroIsancta Trinitate

& There is )ut one onl#927 li"ing and

& 0nus est unicus,ue,212 vivens ille

true ,od,929 who is infinite in )eing and perfection,922 a most pure spirit,244 in"isi)le,241 without )od#, parts,24: or passions,24; immuta)le,244 immense,241 eternal,246 incomprehensi)le,247 almight#,249 most wise,242 most hol#,214 most free,211 most a)solute,21: working all things according to the counsel of his own immuta)le and most righteous will,21; for his own glor#3214 most lo"ing,211 gracious, merciful, longsuffering, a)undant in goodness and truth, forgi"ing ini7uit#, transgression, and sin3216 the rewarder of them that diligentl# seek him3217 and withal most 6ust and terri)le in his 6udgments3219

et verus Deus:2:4 ,ui idem est essentia et #erfectione infinitus,2:1 "#iritus #urissimus,2:: invisibilis,2:; sine cor#ore, sine #artibus,2:4 sine #assionibus,2:1 immutabilis,2:6 immensus,2:7 Hternus,2:9 incom#rehensibilis,2:2 omni#otens,2;4 summe sa#iens,2;1 summe sanctus,2;: liberrimus,2;; ma!ime absolutus&2;4 o#erans omnia secundum consilium immutabilis su- ac *ustissimvoluntatis,2;1 ad suam i#sius gloriam&2;6 idem,ue summa benignitate,2;7 gratia, misericordia, et longanimitate& bonitate abundans et veritate& condonans ini,uitatem, transgressionem et #eccatum&2;9 studiose ,u-rentium i#sum remunerator&2;2 sed et in *udiciis suis *ustissimus idem ac tremendus ma!ime&244 #eccatum omne #erosus,24; et ,ui sontem nullo un,uam absolvet modo$244 && /mnem vitam,219 omnem gloriam,212 bonitatem,264 beatitudinem,ue261 omnem in sese habet et a sei#so Deus& ,ui solus in se sibi,ue est ad omnia sufficiens& creaturarum, ,uas i#se condidit, nullius egens,26: nec gloriam ab eis derivans ullam,26; verum in iis, #er eas, iis i#sis, ac su#er eas #ro#riam i#sius gloriam tantummodo manifestans$ 3s omnis entitatis fans est unicus, a ,uo, #er ,uem et ad ,uem omnia&264 summum,ue in ea dominium habet, ac #er illa, #ro illis, in illa #ro suo arbitrio ,uidlibet agendi #otestatem$261 3n cons#ectu e*us a#erta sunt omnia ac manifesta&266 scientia e*us infinita est, infallibilis, at,ue a creatura inde#endens,267 adeo ut illi contingens incertumve nihil sit&269 in omnibus e*us consiliis, o#eribus et mandatis est sanctissimus$262 uic,uid cultus, ,uic,uid officii, ,uic,uid obse,uii ab Angelis illi, ab hominibus,

647 hating all sin,241 and who will )# no means clear the guilt# 24: && ,od hath all life,241 glor#,246 goodness,247 )lessedness,249 in and of himself3 and is alone in and unto himself allsufficient, not standing in need of an# creatures which he hath made,242 nor deri"ing an# glor# from them,214 )ut onl# manifesting his own glor# in, )#, unto, and upon them@ he is the alone foundation of all )eing, of whom, through whom, and to whom are all things3211 and hath most so"ereign dominion o"er them, to do )# them, for them, or upon them whatsoe"er himself pleaseth 21: &n his sight all things are open and manifest321; his knowledge is infinite, infalli)le, and independent upon the creature3214 so as nothing is to him contingent or uncertain 211 De is most hol# in all his counsels, in all his works, and in all his commands 216 To him is due from angels and men, and e"er# other creature, whatsoe"er worship, ser"ice, or o)edience, he is

pleased to re7uire of them 217 &&& &n the unit# of the ,odhead 649 head there )e three persons, of one su)stance, power, and eternit#@ ,od the 5ather, ,od the (on, and ,od the Dol# ,host 271 The 5ather is of none, neither )egotten nor proceeding3 the (on is eternall# )egotten of the 5ather327: the Dol# ,host eternall# proceeding from the 5ather and the (on 27;
C a!ter III. /f 4od;s 'ternal Decree$277

aut a ,uavis creatura e!igere #lacet, id illi omne *ure o#timo debetur$274 &&& &n -eitatis unitate personH tres sunt unius e*usdem,ue essenti-, #otential ac -ternitatis& Deus Pater, Deus Filius, ac Deus "#iritus "anctus$274 Pater ,uidem a nullo est, nec genitus nem#e nec #rocedens: Filius autem a Patre est -terne genitus:271 "#iritus autem "anctus -terne #rocedens a Patre Filio,ue$276
Ca!. III. -e Hterno -ei -ecreto

& ,od from all eternit# did, )# the most wise and hol# counsel of his own will, freel# and unchangea)l# ordain whatsoe"er comes to pass3279 #et so as there)# neither is ,od the author of sin,272 nor is "iolence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the li)ert# or contingenc# of second causes taken awa#, )ut rather esta)lished 294 && !lthough ,od knows whatsoe"er ma# or can come to pass upon all supposed conditions,294 #et hath he not decreed an# thing )ecause he foresaw it as future, or as that which would come to pass upon such conditions 291 &&& =# the decree of ,od, for the manifestation of his glor#, 642 some men and angels299 are predestinated unto e"erlasting life, and others foreordained to e"erlasting death 292 &G These angels and men, thus predestinated and foreordained, are particularl# and unchangea)l# designed3 and their num)er is so certain and definite that it can not )e either increased or diminished 22:

& Deus, e sa#ientissimo sanctissimo,ue consilio voluntatis su-, libere ac immutabiliter, ,uic,uid un,uam evenit, ab omni -terno ordinavit&291 ita tamen, id inde nec author #eccati evadat Deus,29: nec voluntati creaturarum sit vis illata, ne,ue libertas aut contingentia causarum secundarum ablata sit, verum #otius stabilita$29; && uamvis omnia cognoscat Deus, ,u- su##ositis ,uibusvis conditionibus sunt eventu #ossibilia&296 non tamen ideo ,uic,uam decrevit ,uoniam illud #r-viderat aut futurum, aut #ositis talibus conditionibus eventurum$297 &&& Deus, ,uo gloriam suam manifestaret, nonnullos hominum ac Angelorum224 decreto suo ad -ternam vitam #r-destinavit, alios autem ad mortem -ternam #r-ordinavit$221 &G #r-destinati illi et #r-ordinati homines Angeli,ue, #articulariter sunt ac immutabiliter designati, certus,ue illorum est ac definitus numerus, adeo ut nec augeri #ossit nec imminui$22;

G Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, ,od, )efore the foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and immuta)le purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of his will, hath chosen in $hrist, unto e"erlasting glor#,224 out of his mere free grace and lo"e, without an# foresight of faith or good works, or perse"erance in either of them, or an# other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes mo"ing him thereunto3221 and all to the praise of his glorious grace 226 G& !s ,od hath appointed the elect unto glor#, so hath he, )# the eternal and most free purpose of his will, foreordained all the means thereunto 1444 +herefore the# who are elected, )eing fallen in 614 !dam, are redeemed )# $hrist,144: are effectuall# called unto faith in $hrist )# his (pirit working in due season3 are 6ustified, adopted, sanctified,144; and kept )# his power through faith unto sal"ation 1444 ?either are an# other redeemed )# $hrist, effectuall# called, 6ustified, adopted, sanctified, and sa"ed, )ut the elect onl# 1441

G ui e! humano genere sunt ad vitam #r-destinati, illos Deus ante *acta mundi fundamenta, secundum -ternum suum ac immutabile #ro#ositum, secretum,ue voluntatis su- consilium et bene#lacitum, elegit in Christo ad -ternam gloriam,227 id,ue e! amore suo et gratia mere gratuita& nec fide, nec bonis o#eribus, nec in his illave #erseverantia, sed ne,ue ulla alia re in creatura, #r-visis, i#sum tan,uam causis aut conditionibus ad id moventibus&229 ,uo totum nem#e in laudem cederet glorios- su- grati-$222 G& uemadmodum autem Deus electos ad gloriam destinavit, sic omnia etiam ,uibus illam conse,uantur media #r-ordinavit, voluntatis su- #ro#osito -terno simul et liberrimo$1441 ua#ro#ter electi, #ost,uam la#si essent in Adamo, a Christo sunt redem#ti&1446 #er "#iritum e*us o##ortuno tem#ore o#erantem, ad fidem in Christum vocantur efficaciter& *ustificantur, sanctificantur,1447 et #otentia i#sius #er fidem custodiuntur ad salutem$1449 2ec alii ,uivis a Christo redimuntur, vocantur efficaciter *ustificantur, ado#tantur, sanctificantur et salvantur, #r-ter electos solos$1442 G&& 6eli,uos humani generis Deo #lacuit secundum consilium voluntatis su- inscrutabile J,uo misericordiam #ro libitu e!hibet abstinetve0 in gloriam su#rem- su- in creaturas #otestatis, #r-terire& eos,ue ordinare ad ignominiam et iram #ro #eccatis suis, ad laudem *ustiti- suglorios-$1411 G&&& Doctrina de sublimi hoc #r-destinationis mysterio non sine summa cura et #rudentia tractari debet,1411 ,uo nimirum homines, dum voluntati Dei in verbo e*us revelat-

G&& The rest of mankind ,od was pleased, according to the unsearcha)le counsel of his own will, where)# he extendeth or withholdeth merc# as he pleaseth, for the glor# of his so"ereign power o"er his creatures, to pass )#, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the praise of his glorious 6ustice 1414 G&&& The doctrine of this high m#ster# of predestination is to )e handled with special prudence and care,141: that men attending the will of ,od re"ealed in his +ord, and

#ielding o)edience thereunto, ma#, from the certaint# of their effectual "ocation, )e assured of their eternal election 141; (o shall this doctrine afford matter of praise, re"erence, and admiration of ,od31414 and of humilit#, diligence, and a)undant consolation

advertant animos, ei,ue debitam e!hibeant obedientiam, de efficaci sua vocatione certiores facti, ad -ternsu- electionis assurgere #ossint certitudinem$1416 3ta demum su##editabit h-c doctrina laudandi, reverendi, admirandi,ue Deum argumentum,1417,uin etiam humilitatis,

611 to all that sincerel# o)e# the gospel 1419 diligenti- et consolationis co#iosomnibus sincere obedientibus evangelio$1412
C a!ter I". /f Creation$ Ca!. I". -e $reatione

& &t pleased ,od the 5ather, (on, and Dol# ,host,14:4 for the manifestation of the glor# of his eternal power, wisdom, and goodness,14:1 in the )eginning, to create or make of nothing the world, and all things therein, whether "isi)le or in"isi)le, in the space of six da#s, and all "er# good 14:: && !fter ,od had made all other creatures, he created man, male and female,14:6 with reasona)le and immortal souls,14:7 endued with knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, after his own image,14:9 ha"ing the law of ,od written in their hearts,14:2 and power to fulfill it314;4 and #et under a possi)ilit# of transgressing, )eing left to the li)ert# of their own will, which was su)6ect unto change 14;1 =eside this law written in their hearts, the# recei"ed a command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good 61: and e"il3 which while the# kept the# were happ# in their communion with ,od,14;9 and had dominion o"er the creatures 14;2

& Deo, Patri, Filio et "#iritui sancto, com#lacitum est,14:; ,uo -tern- su- cum #otenti- tum sa#ienti- bonitatis,ue gloriam manifestaret,14:4 mundum hunc, et ,uin eo continentur universa tam visibilla ,uam invisibilia, in #rinci#io intra se! dierum s#atium creare, seu e! nihilo condere, at,ue omnia ,uidem bona valde$14:1 && Post,uam omnes alias creaturas condidisset Deus, creavit hominem marem et f8minam,14;: animabus inditis rationalibus ac immortalibus,14;; imbutos cognitione, *ustitia, vera,ue sanctitate, ad suam i#sius imaginem,14;4 habentes in cordibus suis inscri#tam Divinam legem,14;1 simul et eandem im#lendi vires&14;6 non tamen sine ,uadam violandi #ossibilitate& libertati si,uidem #ermissi erant voluntatis suhaud immutabilis$14;7 Pr-ter autem hanc in cordibus eorum inscri#tam legem de non comedendo e! arbore scienti- boni mali,ue mandatum insu#er acce#erunt& ,uod certe ,uam diu observabant, communione Dei beati erant,1444 dominium,ue habebant in creaturas$1441

C a!ter ". >f /ro"idence

Ca!. ". -e /ro"identia

,od, the great $reator of all things, doth uphold,144: direct, dispose, and go"ern all creatures, actions, and things,144; from the greatest e"en to the least,1444 )# his most wise and hol# pro"idence,1441 according to his infalli)le foreknowledge1446 and the free and immuta)le counsel of his own will,1447 to the praise of the glor# of his wisdom, power, 6ustice, goodness, and merc# 1449

& )agnus ille rerum omnium creator Deus sa#ientissima sua et sanctissima simul #rovidentia1442 creaturas, actiones, res,ue1414 a ma!imis us,ue ad minimas1411universas sustentat,141: dirigit, ordinat, gubernat,ue secundum infallibilem suam #r-scientiam,141; et voluntatis suconsilium liberum ac immutabile,1414 ad laudem glori- sa#ienti- su-, #otenti-, *ustiti-, bonitatis, ac misericordi-$1411 && uamvis res#ectu #r-scientiac decreti Dei .caus- #rim-0 omnia immutabiliter at,ue infallibiliter eveniant,1419 #er eandem tamen ille #rovidentiam eadem ordinat evenire necessario, libere, aut contingenter, #ro natura causarum secundarum$1412

&& !lthough in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of ,od, the first cause, all things come to pass immuta)l# and infalli)l#,1416 #et )# the same pro"idence he ordereth them to fall out, according to the nature of second causes, either necessaril#, freel#, or contingentl# 1417

&&& ,od, in his ordinar# pro"idence, &&& Deus in #rovidentia sua maketh use of means,1464 #et is free to ordinaria mediis utitur,146: iis tamen work without,1461 non astringitur, ,uo minus abs,ue eis,146; 61; a)o"e,1464 and against them, at his su#ra1466 aut etiam contra ea #ro 1461 pleasure arbitrio suo o#eretur$1467 &G The almight# power, unsearcha)le wisdom, and infinite goodness of ,od so far manifest themsel"es in his pro"idence that it extendeth itself e"en to the first fall, and all other sins of angels and men,1469 and that not )# a )are permission,1462 )ut such as hath 6oined with it a most wise and powerful )ounding,1474 and otherwise ordering and go"erning of them, in a manifold dispensation, to his own hol# ends31471 #et so as the sinfulness thereof proceedeth onl# from the creature, and not from ,od3 who, )eing most hol# and righteous, neither is nor can )e the author or appro"er of sin 147: &G /mni#otentem Dei #otentiam, sa#ientiam inscrutabilem, bonitatem,ue infinitam #rovidentia e*us eo us,ue manifestat, ut vel ad #rimum la#sum, omnia,ue reli,ua #eccata, seu hominum sint sive angelorum, se e!tendat&147; ne,ue id ,uidem #ermissione nuda,1474 verum cui con*uncta est sa#ientissima #otentissima,ue eorum limitatio,1471 ac aliusmodi ad sanctos sibi #ro#ositos fines dis#ensatione multi#lici ordinatio et gubernatio&1476 ita tamen ut omnis eorum vitiositas a sola #roveniat creatura, a Deo neuti,uam, ,ui sanctissimus ,uum sit *ustissimus,ue ne,ue est, nec esse

,uidem #otest #eccati autor aut a##robator$1477 G The most wise, righteous, and gracious ,od doth oftentimes lea"e for a season his own children to manifold temptations and the corruption of their own hearts, to chastise them for their former sins, or to disco"er unto them the hidden strength of corruption and deceitfulness of their hearts, that the# ma# )e hum)led31479 and to raise them to a more close and constant G "a#ientissimus, *ustissimus, et gratiosissimus idem Deus, s-#enumero filios suos tentationibus multifariis, suorum,ue cordium corru#tioni ad tem#us #ermittit& ,uo ob admissa #rius #eccata castiget eos, vel corru#tionis iis detegat vim occultam, cordium,ue suorum fraudulentiam ut humilientur&1472 ,uo,ue eos e!citet ad strictam magis et constantem a sei#so #roferendis su##etiis de#endentiam& uo deni,ue adversus onmes occasiones #eccati de futuro reddat cautiores$ "ed et ob alios etiam varios fines, *ustos sanctos,ue sibi #ro#ositos$149: G& uod scelestos illos s#ectat im#ios,ue homines, ,uos Deus, ut *ustus *ude!, ob #eccata #r-cedentia e!c-cat indurat,ue&1492 eis ille non solum gratiam suam non im#ertit, ,ua i#sis cum illuminari intellectus, tum affici corda #otuissent&1424 sed interdum subtrahit eis ,uibus imbuti erant dona,1421 et i#sos e!#onit illiusmodi ob*ectis, unde corru#tio eorum arri#it sibi #eccandi occasiones&142: simul,ue tradit eos suis i#sorum concu#iscentiis et tentationibus mundi, et #otestati "atan-&142; e! ,uo fit ut sei#sos i#si indurent, et ,uidem sub iisdem mediis ,uibus utitur Deus ad alios emolliendos$1424 G&& Providentia Dei sicut ad omnes creaturas universali modo se e!tendit& ita modo #lane #eculiari 'cclesi- sucuram gerit, ac in e*us bonum dis#onit universa$1426
Ca!. "I. -e hominis lapsu, de peccato e6us7ue pKna

614 dependence for their support unto1494 himself, and to make them more watchful against all future occasions of sin, and for sundr# other 6ust and hol# ends 1491 G& !s for those wicked and ungodl# men whom ,od, as a righteous 6udge, for former sins, doth )lind and harden,149; from them he not onl# withholdeth his grace, where)# the# might ha"e )een enlightened in their understandings and wrought upon in their hearts,1494 )ut sometimes also withdraweth the gifts which the# had,1491 and exposeth them to such o)6ects as their corruption makes occasion of sin31496 and withal, gi"es them o"er to their own lusts, the temptations of the world, and the power of (atan31497 where)# it comes to pass that the# harden themsel"es, e"en under those means which ,od useth for the softening of others 1499 G&& !s the pro"idence of ,od doth, in general, reach to all creatures, so, after a most special manner, it taketh care of his $hurch, and disposeth all things to the good thereof 1421 611
C a!ter "I. >f the 5all of 'an, of (in, and of the /unishment thereof

& >ur first parents, )eing seduced )# the su)tilt# and temptation of (atan, sinned in eating the for)idden fruit 1427 This their sin ,od was pleased, according to his wise and hol# counsel, to permit, ha"ing purposed to order it to his own glor# 1429 && =# this sin the# fell from their original righteousness and communion with ,od,1141 and so )ecame dead in sin,114: and wholl# defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and )od# 114; &&& The# )eing the root of all mankind,1147 the guilt of this sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature con"e#ed to all their posterit# descending from them )# ordinar# generation 1149 &G 5rom this original corruption, where)# we are utterl# indisposed, disa)led, and made opposite to all good,1111 and wholl# inclined to all e"il,111: do proceed all actual transgressions 111; G This corruption of nature, 616 during this life, doth remain in those that are regenerated31117 and although it )e through $hrist pardoned and mortified, #et )oth itself and all the motions thereof are trul# and properl# sin 1119 G& E"er# sin, )oth original and actual, )eing a transgression of the righteous law of ,od, and contrar# thereunto,11:1 doth, in its own nature, )ring guilt upon the sinner,11:: where)# he is )ound o"er to the wrath of ,od11:; and curse of the law,11:4 and so made su)6ect to death,11:1 with all miseries spiritual,11:6 temporal,11:7 and eternal 11:9
C a!ter "II. /f 4od;s Covenant with )an$

& Primi #arentes, "atan- subtilitate ac tentatione seducti, fructus vetiti esu #eccaverunt$1422 Hoc eorum #eccatum secundum sa#iens suum sanctum,ue consilium Deo #lacuit #ermittere, non sine #ro#osito illud ad suam i#sius gloriam ordinandi$1144 && Hoc illi #eccato, *ustitia sua originali et communione cum Deo e!ciderunt&1144 ita,ue facti sunt in #eccato mortui,1141 at,ue in omnibus facultatibus ac #artibus animcor#oris,ue #enitus contaminati$1146 &&& uum,ue illi fuerint radi! totius humani1142 generis, hu*usce #eccati reatus fuit im#utatus, eadem,ue in #eccato mors ac natura corru#ta #ro#agata, omnibus illorum #osteris, ,uot,uot ab iis ordinaria ,uidem generatione #rocreantur$1114 &G Ab hac originali labe .,ua ad omne bonum facti sumus inhabiles #rorsus ac im#otentes, ei,ue #lane o##ositi,1114 ad malum autem omne #roclives #enitus01111 #roveniunt omnia #eccata actualia$1116 G H-c natur- corru#tio durante hac vita manet etiam in regenitis&1112 et ,uamvis #er Christum et condonata sit et mortificata& nihilo minus tam i#sa, ,uam e*us motus universi vere sunt ac #ro#rie #eccata$11:4 G& Peccatum omne cum originale tum actuale, ,uum *ust- Dei legis transgressio sit ei,ue contraria,11:2 #eccatori sua#te natura reatum infert,11;4 ,uo ad iram Dei,11;1 ac maledictionem legis11;: subeundam obligatur, adeo,ue redditur obno!ius morti11;; simul et miseriis omnibus s#iritualibus,11;4 tem#oralibus,11;1 ac -ternis$11;6
Ca!. "II. -e fKdere -ei cum nomine

& The distance )etween ,od and the creature is so great that although reasona)le creatures do owe o)edience unto him as their $reator, #et the# could ne"er ha"e an# fruition of him as their )lessedness and reward )ut )# some "oluntar# condescension on ,od's part, which he hath )een pleased to express )# wa# of co"enant 11;7 && The first co"enant made with 617 man was a co"enant of works,11;2 wherein life was promised to !dam, and in him to his posterit#,1144 upon condition of perfect and personal o)edience 1141 &&& 'an )# his fall ha"ing made himself incapa)le of life )# that co"enant, the *ord was pleased to make a second,1141 commonl# called the co"enant of grace@ wherein he freel# offered unto sinners life and sal"ation )# Aesus $hrist, re7uiring of them faith in him that the# ma# )e sa"ed,1146 and promising to gi"e unto all those that are ordained unto life his Dol# (pirit, to make them willing and a)le to )elie"e 1147 &G This co"enant of grace is fre7uentl# set forth in the (cripture )# the name of a testament, in reference to the death of Aesus $hrist the testator, and to the e"erlasting inheritance, with all things )elonging to it, therein )e7ueathed 1111 G This co"enant was differentl# administered in the time of the law and in the time of the gospel@111; under the law it was administered )# promises, prophecies, 619 sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lam), and other t#pes and ordinances deli"ered to the people of the Aews, all foreIsignif#ing $hrist to come,1111 which were for that time sufficient and

& Tanta est inter deum et creaturam distantia, ut licet creatur- rationales obedientiam illi ut creatori suo debeant, nullam tamen fruitionem e*us tan,uam su- beatitudinis ac #r-mii habere un,uam #otuissent, ni voluntaria fuisset ali,ua e! #arte Dei condescentio& ,uam i#si e!#rimere #lacuit icto f8dere$11;9 && Primum f8dus cum hominibus initum erat f8dus o#erum,114: ,uo vita Adamo #romissa erat, e*us,ue in eo #osteris,114; sub conditione obedienti#erfect- ac #ersonalis$1144 &&& uum autem homo la#su suo omnem sibi #r-stru!isset ad vitam aditum #er illud f8dus, com#lacuit Domino secundum inire,1149 ,uod vulgo dicimus 5Kdus ,ratiH3 in ,uo #eccatoribus offert gratuito vitam ac salutem #er .esum Christum, fidem in illum ab iis re,uirens ut salventur&1142 #romittens,ue omnibus ,ui ad vitam ordinantur se s#iritum suum sanctum daturum, ,ui in illis o#eretur credendi cum voluntatem tum #otentiam$1114 &G Hoc f8dus 4rati- in "cri#tura s-#e nomine Testamenti indigitatur, res#ectu nimirum mortis Testatoris .esu Christi, -tern-,ue illius h-reditatis, ,uam is una cum omnibus eam s#ectantibus inibi legabat$111: G Hoc f8dus sub %ege at,ue sub 'vangelio administratum est modo alio at,ue alio$1114 "ub %ege ,uidem #er #romissiones, #ro#hetias et sacrificia, #er circumcisionem, agnum #ascalem, alios,ue ty#os ac instituta #o#ulo .udaico tradita, ,u- omnia 1enturum Christum #r-significabant&1119 erant,ue #ro ratione illorum tem#orum sufficientia,

efficacious, through the operation of the (pirit, to instruct and )uild up the elect in faith in the promised 'essiah,1116 )# whom the# had full remission of sins and eternal sal"ation3 and is called the >ld Testament 1117 G& <nder the gospel, when $hrist the su)stance1161 was exhi)ited, the ordinances in which this co"enant is dispensed are the preaching of the word and the administration of the sacraments of =aptism and the *ord's (upper3116: which, though fewer in num)er, and administered with more simplicit# aud less outward glor#, #et in them it is held forth in more fullness, e"idence, and spiritual efficac#,116; to all nations, )oth Aews and ,entiles31164 and is called the ?ew Testament 1161 There are not, therefore, two co"enants of grace differing in su)stance, )ut one and the same under "arious dispensations 1166 612
C a!ter "III. >f $hrist the 'ediator

et #er o#erationem s#iritus efficacia ad electos instruendum ac -dificandum in fide in #romissum )essiam,1112 #er ,uem #lenum #eccatorum remissionem et salutem -ternam sunt consecuti& dicitur,ue Getus Testamentum 1164 G& "ub evangelio autem, e!hibito *am Christo, substantia1167 scilicet ac antity#o, #r-scri#t- rationes in ,uibus hoc f8dus dis#ensatur, sunt #r-dicatio verbi, et administratio sacramentorum, ba#tismi nem#e ac c8n- Dominic-&1169 in ,uibus ,uidem utut numero #aucioribus, iis,ue sim#licius ac minore cum e!terna gloria administratis, cum ma*ore tamen #lenitudine, evidentia, et efficacia s#irituali1162 #o#ulis cunctis tam .ud-is ,uam 4entibus<<=> e!hibetur& Dicitur,ue ?o"um Testamentum 1171 2on sunt ergo duo f8dera grati-, re at,ue natura discre#antia& sed unum idem,ue, licet non uno modo dis#ensatum$117:
Ca!. "III. -e $hristo 'ediatore

& &t pleased ,od, in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the *ord Aesus, his onl#I)egotten (on, to )e the 'ediator )etween ,od and man,117; the /rophet,1174 /riest,1171 and Eing31176 the Dead and (a"iour of his $hurch,1177 the Deir of all things,1179 and Audge of the world31172 whom he did, from all eternit#, gi"e a people to )e his seed,1194 and to )e )# him in time redeemed, called, 6ustified, sanctified, and glorified 1191 && The (on of ,od, the second person in the Trinit#, )eing "er# and eternal ,od, of one su)stance, and e7ual with the 5ather did, when the fullness of time was come, fake upon him man's nature,1121 with all the

& Com#lacitum est Deo Filium e*us unigenitum Dominum .esum in -terno suo #ro#osito eligere at,ue ordinare ut )ediator esset inter Deum et hominem,119: Pro#heta,119; "acerdos,1194 et 6e!,1191 ca#ut idem et salvator 'cclesi- su-31196 rerum omnium h-res,1197 )undi,ue .ude!31199 cui ab -terno #o#ulum dedit futurum illi in semen,1192 ac #er illum stato tem#ore redimendum, vocandum, *ustificandum, sanctificandum ac glorificandum 1124 && Filius Dei #ersona secunda in Trinitate, verus nem#e idem -ternus,ue Deus, substanti- cum Patre unius e*usdem,ue, ei,ue co-,ualis, cum advenerat tem#oris #lenitudo, assum#sit naturam

essential properties and common infirmities thereof, #et without sin@112: )eing concei"ed )# the power of the Dol# ,host in the wom) of the Girgin 'ar#, of her su)stance 112; (o that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the ,odhead and the manhood, were insepara)l# 6oined together 6:4 in one person, without con"ersion, composition, or confusion 1127 +hich person is "er# ,od and "er# man, #et one $hrist, the onl# mediator )etween ,od and man 1129 &&& The *ord Aesus, in his human nature thus united to the di"ine, was sanctified and anointed with the Dol# (pirit a)o"e measure31:41 ha"ing in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge,1:4: in whom it pleased the 5ather that all fullness should dwell31:4; to the end that, )eing hol#, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth,1:44 he might )e thoroughl# furnished to execute the office of a mediator and suret# 1:41 +hich office he took not unto himself, )ut was thereunto called )# his 5ather,1:46 who put all power and 6udgment into his hand, and ga"e him commandment to execute the same 1:47 &G This office the *ord Aesus did most willingl# undertake,1:11 which, that he might discharge, he was made under the law,1:16 and did perfectl# fulfill it31:17 endured most grie"ous torments immediatel# in his soul,1:19 6:1 and most painful sufferings in his )od#31::4 was crucified, and died31::6 was )uried, and remained under the power of death, #et saw no corruption 1::7 >n the third da# he arose from the dead,1::9 with the same )od# in which he suffered31::2 with

humanam,1124una cum omnibus e*us #ro#rietatibus essentialibus, communibus,ue infirmitatibus, immunem tamen a #eccato,1121 conce#tus scilicet in utero e,ue substantia )ari- 1irginis,1126 virtute "#iritus "ancti$ Adeo sane ut naturdu-, integr-, #erfect-, distinct-,ue Deitas ac humanitas in una eadem,ue #ersona indissolubili ne!u con*unctfuerint, sine conversione, com#ositione, aut confusione$1122 u,uidem #ersona vere Deus est ac vere homo, unus tamen Christus, unicus inter Deum et hominem )ediator$1:44 &&& Dominus .esus in humana sua natura divin- hunc modum con*uncta sanctificatus est, ac "#iritu sancto su#ra mensuram unctus,1:49 in se habens omnes sa#ienti- notiti-,um thesauros&1:42 in ,uo Patri visum est ut omnis #lenitudo inhabitaret,1:14 at,ue eo ,uidem fine ut sanctus, innocuus, intaminatus, #lenus,ue grati- ac veritatis e!istens,1:11 ad )ediatoris 1adis,ue munus e!e,uendum #erfecte esset instructus$1:1: uod ille officium non arri#uit sibi, verum a Patre erat ad id vocatus,1:1; ,ui omnem ei #otestatem ac *udicium in manus dedit, und cum mandato e!ercendi$1:14 &G Hoc munus #romtissima voluntate in se susce#it Dominus .esus,1:12 ,uod ut e!#leret factus est sub %ege,1::4 eam #erfecte im#levit,1::1 immediate in anima,1::: sua gravissimos subiit cruciatus, in cor#ore1::; vero #er#essiones ,uam ma!ime dolorificas& crucifi!us est, ac mortuus&1:;; se#ultus est, mansit,ue sub mortis #otestate& nec tamen ullam vidit corru#tionem$1:;4 Tertio die surre!it a mortuis,1:;1 cum eodem in ,uo #assus fuerat cor#ore,1:;6 cum ,uo

which also he ascended into hea"en, and there sitteth at the right hand of his 5ather,1:;4 making intercession31:;1 and shall return to 6udge men and angels at the end of the world 1:;: G The *ord Aesus, )# his perfect o)edience and sacrifice of himself, which he through the eternal (pirit once offered up unto ,od, hath full# satisfied the 6ustice of his 5ather,1:44 and purchased not onl# reconciliation, )ut an e"erlasting inheritance in the kingdom of hea"en, for all those whom the 5ather hath gi"en unto him 1:41 G& !lthough the work of redemption was not actuall# wrought )# $hrist till after his incarnation, #et the "irtue, efficac#, and )enefits thereof were communicated unto the elect, in all ages successi"el# from the )eginning of the world, in and )# those promises, t#pes, 6:: and sacrifices, wherein he was re"ealed, and signified to )e the seed of the woman which should )ruise the serpent's head, and the lam) slain from the )eginning of the world, )eing #esterda# and toda# the same and fore"er 1:44 G&& $hrist, in the work of mediation, acteth according to )oth natures3 )# each nature doing that which is proper to itself31:46 #et, )# reason of the unit# of the person, that which is proper to one nature is sometimes, in (cripture, attri)uted to the person denominated )# the other nature 1:47 G&&& To all those for whom $hrist hath purchased redemption he doth certainl# and effectuall# appl# and communicate the same31:14 making intercession for them,1:11 and re"ealing unto them, in and )# the +ord, the m#steries of sal"ation31:1: effectuall#

etiam ascendit in c8lum, ibi,ue sedens ad de!tram Patris1:;7 intercedit,1:;9 rediturus inde in consummatione mundi, ad homines angelos,ue *udicandum$1:;2 G Dominus .esus obedientia sua #erfecta, sui,ue i#sius sacrificio& ,uod #er -ternum "#iritum Deo semel obtulit, *ustiti- Patris #lene satisfecit,1:4: ac omnibus ei a Patre datis non modo reconciliationem& verum etiam -ternam h-reditatem in regno c8lorum ac,uisivit$1:4;

G& uamvis redem#tionis o#us non nisi #ost incarnationem e*us, a Christo ,uidem actu effectum fuerit, vis tamen e*us, efficacia, et beneficia #er omnia iam inde a mundi #rimordiis ela#sa secula electis sunt communicata, in et #er #romissiones illas, ty#os, et sacrifica, ,uibus revelatum erat et significatum hunc esse semen illud mulieris, ,uod contriturum erat ser#entis ca#ut, agnum,ue illum mactatum ab initio mundi& ut ,ui heri ac hodie idem est et in sem#iternum$1:41 G&& Christus in o#ere )ediatorio agit secundum utram,ue naturam, id agens #er utramvis, ,uod eidem #ro#rium est,1:49 nonnun,uam tamen fit #ro#ter #erson- unitatem ut ,uod uni natur- #ro#rium est, #erson- ab altera natura denominat- in "cri#tura tribuatur$1:42 G&&& Pro ,uibus Christus redem#tionem ac,uisivit, iis omnibus certo ,uidem ac efficaciter eam a##licat im#ertit,ue,1:11 #ro eis intercedens,1:16 eis,ue in verbo et #er verbum revelans mysterium salutis,1:17 #er "#iritum suum eis ut credere velint

persuading them )# his (pirit to )elie"e and o)e#3 and go"erning their hearts )# his +ord and (pirit31:1; o"ercoming all their enemies )# his almight# power and wisdom, in such manner and wa#s as are most consonant to his wonderful and unsearcha)le dispensation 1:14 6:;
C a!ter I%. /f Free?will$

ac obedire #ersuadens efficaciter,1:19 eorum,ue gubernans corda verbo suo s#iritu,ue& sed et vi sua omni#otenti, ac sa#ientia debellans omnes eorum hostes, iis autem modis mediis,ue ,uadmirabili et inscrutabili e*us dis#ensationi sunt ma!ime consentanea$1:12
Ca!. I%. De libero arbitrio$

& ,od hath endued the will of man with that natural li)ert#, that 1:64is neither forced nor )# an# a)solute necessit# of nature determined to good or e"il 1:61 && 'an, in his state of innocenc#, had freedom and power to will and to do that which is good and wellI pleasing to ,od, )ut #et muta)l#, so that he might fall from it 1:6; &&& 'an, )# his fall into a state of sin, hath wholl# lost all a)ilit# of will to an# spiritual good accompan#ing sal"ation31:66 so as a natural man, )eing altogether a"erse from that good,1:67 and dead in sin,1:69 is not a)le, )# his own strength, to con"ert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto 1:62

& 'am human- voluntati naturalem Deus indidit libertatem, ut nec cogatur un,uam, ne,ue absoluta ulla naturnecessitate ad bonum aut malum determinetur$1:6: && Homo in statu innocentilibertatem habuit ac #otentiam, ,uod bonum erat Deo,ue gratum volendi agendi,ue&1:64 mutabiliter tamen, ita ut illa #otuerit e!cidere$1:61 &&& Homo #er la#sum suum in statum #eccati, #otentiam omnem ,uam habuerat voluntas e*us ad bonum ali,uod s#irituals et saluti contiguum amisit #enitus&1:74 adeo sane ut naturalis homo, ut#ote ab e*usmodi bono abhorrens #rorsus,1:71 ac in #eccato mortuus,1:7: non #ossit un,uam suis i#sius viribus convertere semet, sed ne ,uidem ad conversionem se vel #r-#arare$1:7; &G uandocun,ue Deus convertit ac in statum grati- transfert #eccatorem, eundem e!imit naturali sua sub #eccato servitute,1:76 sola,ue gratia sua #otentem reddit ad s#irituale bonum volendum #r-standum,ue&1:77 ita tamen ut #ro#ter manentem adhuc in eo corru#tionem, bonum nec #erfecte velit& ne,ue id tantummodo, verum etiam ,uando,ue malum$1:72 G 1oluntas humana #erfecte ac

&G +hen ,od con"erts a sinner, and translates him into the state of grace, he freeth him from his natural )ondage under sin,1:74 and )# his grace alone ena)les him freel# to will and to do that which is spirituall# good31:71 #et so 6:4 as that, )# reason of his remaining corruption, he doth not perfectl#, nor onl#, will that which is good, )ut doth also will that which is e"il 1:79 G The will of man is made

perfectl# and immuta)l# free to good alone, in the state of glor# onl# 1:94
C a!ter %. /f 'ffectual Calling$

immutabiliter libera ad bonum solum redditur non nisi in statu glori-$1:91


Ca!. %. De vocatione efficaci

& !ll those whom ,od hath predestinated unto life, and those onl#, he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectuall# to call,1:9: )# his +ord and (pirit,1:9; out of that state of sin and death, in which the# are )# nature, to grace and sal"ation )# Aesus $hrist31:94 enlightening their minds, spirituall# and sa"ingl#, to understand the things of ,od31:91 taking awa# their heart of stone, and gi"ing unto them an heart of flesh31:96 renewing their wills, and )# his almight# power determining them to that which is good,1:97 and effectuall# drawing them to Aesus $hrist31:99 #et so as the# come most freel#, )eing made willing )# his grace 1:92 && This effectual call is of ,od's 6:1 free and special grace alone, not from an# thing at all foreseen in man31:29 who is altogether passi"e therein, until, )eing 7uickened and renewed )# the Dol# (pirit,1:22 he is there)# ena)led to answer this call, and to em)race the grace offered and con"e#ed in it 1;44 &&& Elect infants, d#ing in infanc#, are regenerated and sa"ed )# $hrist through the (pirit,1;44 who worketh when, and where, and how he pleaseth 1;41 (o also are all other elect persons, who are incapa)le of )eing outwardl# called )# the ministr# of the +ord 1;46 &G >thers, not elected, although the# ma# )e called )# the ministr# of the +ord,1;14 and ma# ha"e some common operations of the (pirit,1;11 #et the# ne"er trul# come unto1;1:

& Deus ,uos ad vitam #r-destinavit omnes, eos,ue solos dignatur #er verbum suum et s#iritum1:24 constituto suo acce#to,ue tem#ore vocare efficaciter1:21 e statu illo #eccati et mortis in ,uo sunt natura constituti, ad gratiam ac salutem #er .esum Christum&1:2: id,ue mentes eorum illuminando, ut modo s#irituali et salutari ,u- Dei sunt intelligant&1:2; tollendo eorum cor lapideum, donando7ue eis cor carneum31:24 voluntates eorum renovando ac #ro #otentia sua omni#otente ad bonum determinando,1:21 et ad .esum Christum trahendo efficaciter&1:26 ita tamen ut illi nihilominus liberrime veniant, volentes nem#e facti #er illius gratiam$1:27 && 'ffica! h-c vocatio est a sola Dei gratia:, gratuita illa et s#eciali& a nulla autem re in homine #r-visa&1;41 ,ui in hoc negotio se habet omnino #assive, donec #er s#iritum sanctum vivificatus ac renovatus,1;4: #otis inde factus sit vocationi huic res#ondere, gratiam,ue inibi oblatam et e!hibitam am#le!ari$1;4; &&& 'lecti infantes in infantia sua morientes regenerantur salvantur,ue a Christo #er s#iritum1;47 J,ui ,uando et ubi, et ,uo sibi #lacuerit modo o#erator031;49 sicut et reli,ui electi omnes, ,uot,uot e!tern- vocationis #er ministerium verbi sunt inca#aces$1;42 &G Alii autem, ,ui non electi sunt, ut ut verbi ministerio vocari #ossint,1;11 communes,ue nonnullas o#erationes "#iritus e!#eriri,1;16 nun,uam tamen vere ad Christum accedunt,

$hrist, and therefore can not )e sa"ed@1;1; much less can men, not professing the $hristian religion, )e sa"ed in an# other wa# whatsoe"er, )e the# ne"er so diligent to frame their li"es according to the light of nature and the law of that religion the# do profess31;14 and to assert and maintain that the# ma# is 6:6 "er# pernicious, and to )e detested 1;12
C a!ter %I. /f .ustification

#roinde,ue nec salvari #ossunt$1;17 )ulto ,uidem minus #oterunt illi, ,uot,uot religionem Christianam non #rofitentur 9summam licet o#eram navaverint moribus suis ad naturlumen, istius,ue ,uam #rofitentur religionis legem com#onendis:, e!tra hanc unicam viam salutem un,uam obtinere$1;19 At,ue huic ,uidem contrarium statuere ac defendere, #erniciosum admodum est ac detestandum$1;:4
Ca!. %I. De .ustificatione

& Those whom ,od effectuall# calleth he also freel# 6ustifieth31;:1 not )# infusing righteousness into them, )ut )# pardoning their sins, and )# accounting and accepting their persons as righteous@ not for an# thing wrought in them, or done )# them, )ut for $hrist's sake alone3 nor1;:: )# imputing faith itself, the act of )elie"ing, or an# other e"angelical o)edience to them, as their righteousness3 )ut )# imputing the o)edience and satisfaction of $hrist unto them,1;:; the# recei"ing and resting on him and his righteousness )# faith3 which faith the# ha"e not of themsel"es, it is the gift of ,od 1;:4 && 5aith, thus recei"ing and resting on $hrist and his righteousness, is the alone instrument of 6ustification31;:9 #et is it not alone in the person 6ustified, )ut is e"er accompanied with all other sa"ing graces, and is no dead faith, )ut worketh )# lo"e 1;:2

& uos Deus vocat efficaciter, eosdem etiam gratis *ustificat,1;:1 non ,uidem *ustitiam iis infundendo, sed eorum #eccata condonando, #ersonas,ue #ro *ustis re#utando at,ue acce#tando& ne,ue id certe #ro#ter ,uic,uam aut in iis #roductum, aut ab iis #r-stitum, verum Christi solius ergo& eis,ue ad *ustitiam non fidem i#sam, non credendi actum, aut aliam ,uamcun,ue obedientiam evangelicam, verum obedientiam ac satisfactionem Christi im#utando,1;:6 eum nem#e reci#ientibus, ei,ue ac *ustiti- e*us #er fidem innitentibus& ,uam illi fidem e! dono Dei, non a sei#sis, habent$1;:7 && Fides hoc modo Christum reci#iens, ei,ue innitens ac *ustitie*us, est *ustificationis unicum instrumentum&1;;4 in homine tamen *ustificato h-c non est solitaria, verum gratiis aliis omnibus salutaribus sem#er comitata& ne,ue est h-c fides mortua, sed ,u- #er charitatem o#eratur$1;;1 &&& ui hunc in modum *ustificantur, eorum omnium debita Christus #er

&&& $hrist, )# his o)edience and 6:7 death, did full# discharge the de)t of

all those that are thus 6ustified, and did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to his 5ather's 6ustice in their )ehalf 1;;: Let inasmuch as he was gi"en )# the 5ather for them,1;;; and his o)edience and satisfaction accepted in their stead,1;;4 and )oth freel#, not for an# thing in them, their 6ustification is onl# of free grace31;;1 that )oth the exact 6ustice and rich grace of ,od might )e glorified in the 6ustification of sinners 1;;6

obedientiam suam mortem,ue #rorsus dissolvit& eorum,ue vice *ustitiPatris sui realem, #lenum, et #ro#rie dictam satisfactionem #r-stitit$1;;7 uum tamen non #ro#ter in iis ,uic,uam, verum gratuito Pater cum Christum i#sum #ro eis dederit,1;;9 tum obedientiam e*us ac satisfactionem tan,uam eorum loco constituti1;;2 acce#taverit& omnino a gratia gratuita est eorum *ustificatio&1;44 uo nimirum Dei tum accurata *ustitia tum locu#les gratia glorificata foret in *ustificatione #eccatorum$1;41 &G Ab -terno decrevit Deus electos omnes *ustificare,1;41 Christus,ue in tem#oris #lenitudine mortuus est #ro eorum #eccatis, et in *ustificationem eorum resurre!it:1;46 nihilo minus tamen *ustificati #rius non sunt, ,uam Christum eis in tem#ore suo o##ortuno "#iritus "anctus actu a##licuerit$1;47 G Perseverat Deus eorum #eccata condonare ,uos semel *ustificavit,1;14 ,uin et etiamsi e!cidere statu *ustificationis nun,uam #ossint&1;11 fieri tamen #otest ut ir- Dei, #atern,uidem illi, #er #eccata sua se e!#onant, nec lumen #aterni vultus #rius sibi habeant restitutum, ,uam semet i#sos humiliaverint, #eccata agnoverint, im#loraverint veniam, fidem deni,ue et #8nitentiam suam renovaverint$1;1; G& .ustificatio fidelium sub 1etere ac 2ovo1;11 Testamento ,uoad isth-c omnia est una eadem,ue$1;16

&G ,od did, from all eternit#, decree to 6ustif# all the elect,1;4: and $hrist did, in the fullness of time, die for their sins, and rise again for their 6ustification@1;4; ne"ertheless, the# are not 6ustified until the Dol# (pirit doth, in due time, actuall# appl# $hrist unto them 1;44 G ,od doth continue to forgi"e the sins of those that are 6ustified31;49 and although the# can ne"er fall from the state of 6ustification,1;42 #et the# ma# )# their sins fall under ,od's fatherl# displeasure, and not ha"e the light of his countenance restored unto them, until the# hum)le themsel"es, 6:9 confess their sins, )eg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance 1;1: G& The 6ustification of )elie"ers under the >ld Testament was, in all these respects, one and the same with the 6ustification of )elie"ers under the ?ew Testament 1;14
C a!ter %II. /f Ado#tion$

Ca!. %II. De Ado#tione$

!ll those that are 6ustified ,od "ouchsafeth, in and for his onl# (on Aesus $hrist, to make partakers of the

Deus *ustificatos omnes dignatur in filio suo unigenito .esu Christo, et #ro#ter eundem #artici#es facere

grace of adoption31;17 )# which the# are taken into the num)er, and en6o# the li)erties and pri"ileges of the children of ,od31;19 ha"e his name put upon them31;12 recei"e the (pirit of adoption31;64 ha"e access to the throne of grace with )oldness31;61 are ena)led to cr#, !))a, 5ather31;6: are pitied,1;6; protected,1;64 pro"ided for,1;61 and chastened )# him as )# a father31;66 #et ne"er cast off,1;67 )ut sealed to the da# of redemption,1;69 and inherit the promises,1;62 as heirs of e"erlasting sal"ation 1;74

grati- Ado#tionis&1;71 #er ,uam in numerum filiorum Dei assumuntur, talium,ue immunitatibus ac #rivilegiis #otiuntur,1;7: im#ositum sibi habent nomen Dei,1;7; "#iritum ado#tionis acci#iunt,1;74 aditum habent ad thronum grati- cum confidentia,1;71 #otestatem conse,uuntur clamandi Abba Pater,1;76 commiserationem,1;77 tutelam,1;79 et #rovidentiam1;72 sortiuntur& ,uin et castigationem Dei #aternam e!#eriuntur&1;94 nun,uam tamen abdicantur,1;91 verum in diem redem#tionis consignati1;9: #romissiones obtinent h-reditario *ure,1;9; ut ,ui h-redes sunt -ternsalutis$1;94
Ca!. %III. De "anctificatione

6:2
C a!ter %III. /f "anctification

& The# who are effectuall# called and regenerated, ha"ing a new heart and a new spirit created in them, are further sanctified, reall# and personall#, through the "irtue of $hrist's death and resurrection,1;91 )# his +ord and (pirit dwelling in them31;96 the dominion of the whole )od# of sin is destro#ed,1;97 and the se"eral lusts thereof are more and more weakened and mortified,1;99and the# more and more 7uickened and strengthened, in all sa"ing graces,1;92 to the practice of true holiness, without which no man shall see the *ord 1;24

& uot,uot efficaciter vocantur, ac regenerantur, cor novum habentes novum,ue s#iritum in se creatum, sunt virtute mortis et resurrectionis Christi1;21 #er verbum e*us s#iritum,ue in eis inhabitantem1;2: ulterius sandificati, realiter ,uidem ac #ersonaliter: totius cor#oris #eccati dominium in eos destruitur,1;2; e*us,ue vari- libidines debilitantur indies magis magis,ue ac mortificantur&1;24 illi interim magis magis,ue in omni gratia salutari vivificantur et corroborantur indies,1;21 ad #ra!im ver- sanctimoni-, ,ua ,uidem destitutus nemo un,uam videbit Dominum$1;26 && 0niversalis est h-c et #er totum hominem diffusa sanctificatio,1444 verum in hac vita est im#erfecta nonnullis corru#tionis reli,uiis adhuc in omni #arte remanentibus,1441 unde bellum e!oritur #er#etuum et im#lacabile& hinc carne adversus s#iritum, illinc s#iritu adversus carnem concu#iscente$144: &&& 3n ,uo ,uidem bello licet

&& This sanctification is throughout in the whole man,1;27 #et imperfect in this life3 there a)ideth still some remnants of corruption in e"er# part,1;29 whence ariseth a continual and irreconcila)le war, the flesh lusting against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh 1;22 &&& &n which war, although the

remaining corruption for a time ma# much pre"ail,144; #et, through the continual suppl# of strength from the sanctif#ing (pirit of 6;4 $hrist, the regenerate part doth o"ercome31441 and so the saints grow in grace,1446 perfecting holiness in the fear of ,od 1447
C a!ter %I". /f "aving Faith

corru#tio residua #ossit ali,uandiu #r-valere #lurimum,1444 #ars tamen regenita, sanctificante Christi s#iritu #er#etuas ferente su##etias, evadit victri!031449 adeo,ue sancti in gratia crescunt,1442 sanctitatem in timore Domini #erficientes$1414
Ca!. %I". De Fide salvifica

& The grace of faith, where)# the elect are ena)led to )elie"e to the sa"ing of their souls,1411 is the work of the (pirit of $hrist in their hearts,141: and is ordinaril# wrought )# the ministr# of the +ord3141; )# which also, and )# the administration of the sacraments and pra#er, it is increased and strengthened 1414 && =# this faith a $hristian )elie"eth to )e true whatsoe"er is re"ealed in the +ord, for the authorit# of ,od himself speaking therein31412 and acteth differentl# upon that which each particular passage thereof containeth3 #ielding o)edience to the commands,14:4 trem)ling at the threatenings,14:1 and em)racing the promises of ,od for this life and that which is to come 14:: =ut the principal acts of sa"ing faith are accepting, recei"ing, and resting upon $hrist alone 6;1 for 6ustification, sanctification, and eternal life, )# "irtue of the co"enant of grace 14:7 &&& This faith is different in degrees, weak or strong314:2 ma# )e often and man# wa#s assailed and weakened, )ut gets the "ictor#314;4 growing up in man# to the attainment of a full assurance through $hrist,14;1 who is

& 4ratia Fidei, ,ua electi credere valent ad animarum suarum salutem,1411 "#iritus Christi o#us est in eorum cordibus o#erantis,1416 effectum #lerum,ue verbi Dei ministerio,1417 ,uo eodem etiam, ut et administratione "acramentorum at,ue oratione robur ei accedit ac incrementum$1419 && Hac Fide credit Christianus verum esse ,uic,uid in verbo revelatur, #ro#ter authoritatem i#sius inibi lo,uentis Dei&14:; et varie ,uidem in illud agit tum obse,uendo mandatis,14:4 tum ad minas contremiscens,14:1 tum etiam #romissa Dei, seu #r-sentem hanc vitam seu futuram s#ectent, am#le!ando,14:6 #ro varia nem#e ratione illarum rerum, ,u- in singulis verbi #artibus continentur$ 1erum fidei salvificactus illi sunt #r-ci#ui, Christi acce#tatio et rece#tio, in eum,ue solum recumbentia #ro *ustificatione, sanctificatione, i#sa,ue adeo vita -terna, virtute f8deris graticonse,uendis$14:9 &&& Fides h-c #ro diversis e*us gradibus debilior est aut fortior&14;; im#ugnari ,uidem s-#enumero multis,ue modis ac debilitari #otest, non ita tamen ,uin victri! evadat&14;4 et ,uidem in multis ad #lenum us,ue

)oth the author and finisher of our faith 14;:


C a!ter %". /f 6e#entance unto %ife

certitudinem #er Christum adolescit,14;1 ,ui fidei nostr- idem author est et consummator$14;6
Ca!. %". De resi#iscentia ad vitam

& Cepentance unto life is an e"angelical grace,14;7 the doctrine whereof is to )e preached )# e"er# minister of the gospel, as well as that of faith in $hrist 14;9 && =# it a sinner, out of the sight and sense, not onl# of the danger, )ut also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins, as contrar# to the hol# nature and righteous law of ,od, and upon the apprehension of his merc# in $hrist to such as are penitent, so grie"es for and hates his sins as to turn from them all unto ,od,1444 purposing and endea"oring

& 6esi#iscentia ad vitam est gratia 'vangelica,14;2 cuius ,uidem doctrina #ariter ac illa de fide in Christum est a singulis ministris 'vangelii #r-dicanda$ && Per eam #eccator e! ins#ectu sensu,ue non solum #ericuli verum etiam tur#itudinis, ac natur#eccatorum suorum #rorsus abominand-$1441 ut#ote sanct- Dei natur-, *ust-,ue legi adversantium, at,ue e #ers#ecta e*us erga #8nitentes in Christo misericordia, ita #eccata sua deflet ac detestatur, ut ab eis omnibus ad Deum convertatur144: cum #ro#osito conatu,ue in cunctis mandatorum

6;: to walk with him in all the wa#s of his e*us viis cum eodem ambulandi$1444 commandments 144; &&& !lthough repentance )e not to )e rested in as an# satisfaction for sin, or an# cause of the pardon thereof,1441 which is the act of ,od's free grace in $hrist31446 #et is it of such necessit# to all sinners that none ma# expect pardon without it 1447 &&& 'tsi resi#iscenti- nobis fidendum non sit, ac si ea esset ulla aut #ro #eccatis satisfactio, aut causa remissionis #eccatorum1449 .,ui gratiDei in Christo gratuit- actus est0,1442 est nihilominus cunctis #eccatoribus us,ue adeo necessaria, ut sine ea nulla cuivis un,uam remissio sit e!#ectanda$1414

&G !s there is no sin so small )ut it &G uemadmodum nullum est 1411 deser"es damnation, so there is no #eccatum adeo e!iguum ut sin so great that it can )ring damnation damnationem non mereatur,141; ita upon those who trul# repent 141: ne,ue magnum adeo #eccatum ullum est, ut damnationem inferre #ossit vere #8nitentibus$1414 G 'en ought not to content themsel"es with a general repentance, )ut it is e"er# man's dut# to endea"or to repent of his particular sins particularl# 1411 G 3n resi#iscentia generali ac,uiescendum non est, verum ad id contendere tenetur ,uis,ue, ut singulorum suorum #eccatorum ,uam #articularem agat #8nitentiam$1416

G& !s e"er# man is )ound to make pri"ate confession of his sins to ,od, pra#ing for the pardon thereof,1417 upon which, and the forsaking of them, he shall find merc#31419 so he that scandaliBeth his )rother, or the $hurch of $hrist, ought to )e willing, )# a pri"ate or pu)lic confession and sorrow for his sin, to declare his repentance 6;;

G& uemadmodum autem tenetur ,uivis #eccata sua Deo #rivatim confiteri, et #ro remissione illorum #recibus contendere:1412 .,uod si #r-stiterit et #eccata simul dereli,uerit, misericordiam conse,uetur01464 ita ,ui fratri suo, aut 'cclesi- Christi, scandalo fuerit, #rom#tus et #aratus esse debet ,ua confessione sive #rivata, sive etiam #ublica, ,ua de #eccatis

6;4 works is not at all of themsel"es, )ut wholl# from the (pirit of $hrist 1497 !nd that the# ma# )e ena)led thereunto, )esides the graces the# ha"e

sint #r-standis omnino id a s#iritu Christi est, nullatenus autem e sei#sis$1424 't ,uo eis #r-standis #ares fiant, #rater habitus grati- iam

alread# recei"ed, there is re7uired an actual influence of the same Dol# (pirit to work in them to will and to do of his good pleasure31499 #et are the# not hereupon to grow negligent, as if the# were not )ound to perform an# dut# unless upon a special motion of the (pirit3 )ut the# ought to )e diligent in stirring up the grace of ,od that is in them 1492

infusos, e*usdem "#iritus sancti actualis #orro re,uiritur influentia, ,ua nem#e in iis o#eretur tum velle tum etiam efficere #ro suo i#sius bene#lacito:1421 sed ne,ue tamen iis #roinde socordi- sese licet #ermittere& ac si nisi s#ecialiter eos e!citante "#iritu ad nulla #ietatis officia #r-standa tenerentur& verum sedulam debent navare o#eram sustitand- illi ,u- in iis est divingrati-$142: &G ui gradum obedientisummum ,uidem in hac vita #ossibilem asse,uuntur, tantum abest ut su#ererogare ,uic,uam #ossint ac #lus #r-stare ,uam ,uod Deus re,uisiverit, ut multum sane subsidant infra illud, ,uod e! officio #r-stare obligantur$1421 G Peccatorum veniam, aut vitam -ternam de Deo mereri non valemus, ne o#timis ,uidem o#eribus nostris& cum #ro#ter summam illam inter ea et futuram gloriam dis#aritatem& tum etiam #ro#ter infinitam distantiam ,u- inter nos ac Deum intercedit& cui nos #er illa nec #rodesse ,uic,uam #ossumus, ne,ue #ro antecedentium #eccatorum nostrorum debito satisfacere&1144 verum cum ,uantum #ossumus fecerimus, non nisi ,uod debemus #r-stiterimus, ac servi inutiles futuri sumus&1141 tum deni,ue ,uoniam a s#iritu Dei in ,uantum bona sunt #roficiscuntur,114: ita vero sunt coin,uinata, tantum,ue im#erfectionis ac infirmitas admistum habent, #rout a nobis efficiuntur, ut strictum Dei *udicium non sint ferendo$114; G& 2ihilominus tamen acce#tis in gratiam #er Christum fidelium #ersonis, eorum etiam o#era bona #er eundem acce#ta sunt&1147 non ,uod in hac vita sint omnis cul#- #rorsus immunia, ,u-,ue in cons#ectu Dei

&G The# who in their o)edience attain to the greatest height which is possi)le in this life, are so far from )eing a)le to supererogate and to do more than ,od re7uires, as142; that the# fall short of much which in dut# the# are )ound to do 1424 G +e can not, )# our )est works, merit pardon of sin, or eternal life at the hand of ,od, )# reason of the great disproportion that is )etween them and the glor# to come, and the infinite distance that is )etween us and ,od, whom )# them we can neither profit nor satisf# 6;1 for the de)t of our former sins31426 )ut when we ha"e done all we can, we ha"e done )ut our dut#, and are unprofita)le ser"ants31427 and )ecause, as the# are good, the# proceed from his (pirit31429 and as the# are wrought )# us, the# are defiled and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection that the# can not endure the se"erit# of ,od's 6udgment 1422

G& Let notwithstanding, the persons of )elie"ers )eing accepted through $hrist, their good works also are accepted in him,1144 not as though the# were in this life wholl# un)lama)le and unrepro"a)le in ,od's

sight31141 )ut that he, looking upon them in his (on, is pleased to accept and reward that which is sincere, although accompanied with man# weaknesses and imperfections 1146 G&& +orks done )# unregenerate men, although for the matter of them the# ma# )e things which ,od commands, and of good use )oth to themsel"es and others31114 6;6 #et )ecause the# proceed not from a heart purified )# faith,111: nor are done in a right manner, according to the +ord,111; nor to a right end, the glor# of ,od31114 the# are therefore sinful, and can not please ,od, or make a man meet to recei"e grace from ,od 1111 !nd #et their neglect of them is more sinful and displeasing unto ,od 1116
C a!ter %"II. /f the Perseverance of the "aints

nullam re#rehensionem mereantur&1149 verum ,uod illa res#iciens in filio suo Deus, ,uod sincerum est, utcun,ue multis infirmitatibus ac im#erfectionibus involutum, acce#tare dignetur ac remunerari$1142 G&& /#era nondum regenitorum, licet, ,uoad materiam #r-ce#to divino conformia esse #ossint, sibi,ue i#sis et aliis item utilia&1111 cum tamen ne,ue a corde #rofluant #er fidem de#urato,1117 nec secundum verbum eo ,uo #ar est #r-stentur modo,1119 sed ne,ue ad finem debitum, Dei nem#e gloriam, destinentur&1112 sunt #roinde #eccata, nec Deo grata esse #ossunt, nec reddere ,uen,uam valent idoneum ad gratiam a Deo reci#iendum$11:4 '*usmodi tamen o#erum neglectu, gravius ,uidem illi #eccant Deum,ue offendunt vehementius$11:1
Ca!. %"II. De #erseverantia "anctorum

& The# whom ,od hath accepted in his =elo"ed, effectuall# called and sanctified )# his (pirit, can neither totall# nor finall# fall awa# from the state of grace3 )ut shall certainl# perse"ere therein to the end, and )e eternall# sa"ed 11:: && This perse"erance of the saints depends, not upon their own freewill, )ut upon the immuta)ilit# of the decree of election, flowing from the free and unchangea)le lo"e of ,od the 5ather311:4 upon the efficac# of the merit and intercession of Aesus $hrist311:1 the a)iding 6;7 of the (pirit and of the seed of ,od within them311:2 and the nature of the co"enant of grace@11;4 from all which ariseth also the certaint# and infalli)ilit# thereof 11;1

& uot,uot Deus in dilecto suo acce#tavit, vocavit efficaciter ac #er "#iritum suum sanctificavit, non #ossunt illi statu grati- aut finaliter e!cidere aut totaliter& verum in eo ad finem us,ue certo #erseverabunt, ac salutem -ternam conse,uentur$11:; && h-c autem sanctorum #erseverantia, non #endet a libero i#sorum arbitrio, verum a decreti electionis immutabilitate .,uod e! amore Dei Patris flu!it, gratuito illo ac immutabili0,11:6 a meriti .esu Christi ac intercessionis efficacia,11:7 a "#iritus et seminis Dei in iis #ermansione&11:9 a natura deni7ue fKderis gratiH311;: e 7ui)us omni)us etiam emergit certitudo e6usdem et infalli)ilitas 11;;

&&& ?e"ertheless the# ma#, through the temptations of (atan and of the world, the pre"alenc# of corruption remaining in them, and the neglect of the means of their preser"ation, fall into grie"ous sins311;4 and for a time continue therein@11;1 where)# the# incur ,od's displeasure,11;6 and grie"e his Dol# (pirit311;7 come to )e depri"ed of some measure of their graces and comforts311;9 ha"e their hearts hardened,11;2 and their consciences wounded31144 hurt and scandaliBe others,1141 and )ring temporal 6udgments upon themsel"es 114:
C a!ter %"III. /f the Assurance of 4race and "alvation

&&& 2ihilo tamen minus fieri #otest ut iidem illi, ,ua "atan- mundi,ue tentatione, ,ua manentis adhuc in iis corru#tionis #r-valentia, et neglectu mediorum conservationis su-, in #eccata gravia incidant,114; in eis,ue ad tem#us commorentur&1144 unde iram Dei sibi i#sis contrahunt,1141& e*us,ue "#iritum "anctum contristant,1146 gratias suas et consolationes ,uadantenus et ,uoad gradus nonnullos amittunt,1147 corda sibi habent indurata,1149 et vulneratas conscientias&1142 aliis nocumento sunt et offendiculo,1114 sibimet i#sis deni,ue accersunt *udicia Dei tem#oralia$1111
Ca!. %"III. De certitudine grati- et salutis

& !lthough h#pocrites and other unregenerate men ma# "ainl# decei"e themsel"es with false hopes and carnal presumptions of )eing in the fa"or of ,od and estate of sal"ation,111: which hope of theirs 6;9 shall perish@1114 #et such as trul# )elie"e in the *ord Aesus, and lo"e him in sincerit#, endea"oring to walk in all good conscience )efore him, ma# in this life )e certainl# assured that the# are in a state of grace,1111 and ma# re6oice in the hope of the glor# of ,od, which hope shall ne"er make them ashamed 1116 && This certaint# is not a )are con6ectural and pro)a)le persuasion, grounded upon a falli)le hope31164 )ut an infalli)le assurance of faith, founded upon the di"ine truth of the promises of sal"ation,1161 the inward e"idence of those graces unto which these promises are made,116: the testimon# of the (pirit of adoption witnessing with our spirits that we are the children of ,od@116; which (pirit is the earnest of our inheritance, where)# we are sealed to the da# of

& uamvis fieri #otest ut hy#ocritalii,ue homines non regeniti s#e vana falsis,ue 9#ro corru#t- natur- more: o#inionibus #r-sum#tis, se deci#iant, favorem Dei, statum,ue salutis sibi falso arrogantes&111; ,u- illorum s#es #eribit:1117 ,ui tamen in Dominum .esum vere credunt, eum,ue sincere diligunt, studentes coram i#so in omni bona conscientia ambulare& evadere #ossunt in hac vita certi se in statu grati- esse constitutos&1119 ,uin etiam l-tari #ossunt s#e glori- Dei, ,u,uidem s#es nun,uam eos #udefaciet$1112 && H-c certitudo non est #ersuasio mere con*ecturalis et #robabilis, inni!a s#e fallaci&1161 verum infallibilis ,u-dam fidei certitudo, fundamentum habens divinam #romissionum salutis veritatem&1166 gratiarum, ,uibus #romissiones ill- fiunt internam evidentiam&1167 testimonium deni,ue s#iritus ado#tionis una cum s#iritibus nostris testificantis nos esse filios Dei&1169 ,ui ,uidem s#iritus arrhabo est h-reditatis nostr-, ,uo in diem redemtionis sigillamur$1162

redemption 1164 &&& This infalli)le assurance doth not so )elong to the essence of faith, )ut that a true )elie"er ma# wait long, and conflict with man# difficulties )efore he )e partaker of it@1174 #et, )eing ena)led )# the (pirit to know the things which are freel# gi"en him of ,od, he 6;2 ma#, without extraordinar# re"elation, in the right use of ordinar# means, attain thereunto 117: !nd therefore it is the dut# of e"er# one to gi"e all diligence to make his calling and election sure3117; that there)# his heart ma# )e enlarged in peace and 6o# in the Dol# ,host, in lo"e and thankfulness to ,od, and in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of o)edience, the proper fruits of this assurance@1174 so far is it from inclining men to looseness 1171 &&& H-c certitudo infallibilis, non ita s#ectat essentiam fidei, ,uin vere fidelis e!#ectare ,uando,ue diutius, et cum variis difficultatibus confligere #rius #ossit, ,uam illius com#os fiat,1171 verum #oterit idem ordinariorum usu debito mediorum, abs,ue revelatione ulla e!traordinaria eam adi#isci,1176 s#iritu nem#e ,uDeus illi gratuito donaverit cognoscendi facultatem subministrante$ Proinde,ue tenetur ,uis,ue, ,uo vocationem suam sibi et electionem certmn faciat, omnem adhibere diligentiam,1177 unde cor suum habeat #ace et gaudio in s#iritu sancto, in Deum amore et gratitudine, in actibus observanti- robore et alacritate dilatatum& ,ui certitudinus huius fructus #ro#rii sunt ac genuini$1179 Tantum abest ut homines inde ad omnem ne,uitiam discingantur$1172 &G Certitudo salutis vere fidelibus multifariam concuti #otest et imminui imo et ,uando,ue interrum#i& conservandi scilicet eam incuria& la#su in #eccatum ali,uod insigne, ,uod conscientiam vulnerat, s#iritum,ue contristat& tentatione ali,ua vehementi ac subitanea& uti etiam Deo vultus sui lumen subducente, ac #ermittente ut vel illi ,ui i#sum timent in tenebris ambulent omni #rorsus lumine viduati:1191 nun,uam tamen destituuntur #enitus illo Dei semine vita,ue fidei$ Christi illa fratrum,ue dilectione, ea sinceritate cordis et #ietatis officia #r-standi conscientia& unde #er o#erationem s#iritus eadem illa certitudo tem#estive #ossit reviviscere:1194 ,uibus,ue interim ne #rorsus in des#erationem ruant suffulciuntur$1191

&G True )elie"ers ma# ha"e the assurance of their sal"ation di"ers wa#s shaken, diminished, and intermitted3 as, )# negligence in preser"ing of it3 )# falling into some special sin, which woundeth, the conscience, and grie"eth the (pirit3 )# some sudden or "ehement temptation3 )# ,od's withdrawing the light of his countenance, and suffering e"en such as fear him to walk in darkness and to ha"e no light@1194 #et are the# ne"er utterl# destitute of that seed of ,od, and life of faith, that lo"e of $hrist and the )rethren, that sincerit# of heart and conscience of dut#, out 644 of which, )# the operation of the (pirit, this assurance ma# in due time )e re"i"ed,119: and )# the which, in the mean time, the# are supported from utter despair 119;

C a!ter %I%. /f the %aw of 4od

Ca!. %I%. De %ege Dei

& ,od ga"e to !dam a law, as a co"enant of works, )# which he )ound him and all his posterit# to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual o)edience3 promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death upon the )reach of it3 and endued him with power and a)ilit# to keep it 1196

& Deus Adamo legem dedit ut f8dus o#erum, ,uo cum illum i#sum tum #osteros e*us omnes, ad obedientiam #ersonalem, integram, e!,uisitam simul et #er#etuam obligavit, #ollicitus vitam si observarent, violatoribus autem mortem interminatus& eundem,ue #otentia et viribus imbuit, ,uibus #ar esset illam observando$1197 && %e! ista #ost la#sum non desiit esse *ustiti- regula #erfectissima& ,uo etiam nomine a Deo est in monte "inai tradita, tabulis duabus descri#ta, decem #r-ce#tis com#rehensa&1124 ,uorum ,uatuor #rima officium nostrum erga Deum, se! autem reli,ua nostrum erga homines officium com#lectuntur$1121 &&& Pr-ter autem hanc legem, ,umoralis vulgo audit, visum est Deo ut #o#ulo 3sraelitico tan,uam 'cclesiminorenni leges daret ceremoniales instituta ty#ica multifaria continentes& #artim de cultu, Christi gratias, actiones, #er#essiones ac beneficia #r-figurantia&1121 #artim autem de moralibus officiis institutiones varias e!hibentia$1126 uleges ceremoniales omnes hodie sub novo instrumento sunt abrogat-$1127 &G 3isdem etiam tan,uam cor#ori #olitico leges multas dedit *udiciales, ,u- una cum istius #o#uli #oliteia e!#irarunt, nullos hodie alios obligantes su#ra ,uod generalis et communis earum -,uitas #ostularit$1122 G %e! moralis omnes tam *ustificatos ,uam alios ,uosvis #er#etuo ligat ad obedientiam illi e!hibendam&164; ne,ue id ,uidem solummodo vi materi- ,u- in illa

&& This law, after his fall, continued to )e a perfect rule of righteousness3 and, as such, was deli"ered )# ,od upon mount (inai in ten commandments, and written in two ta)les31199 the first four commandments containing our dut# towards ,od, and the other six our dut# to man 1192 &&& =eside this law, commonl# called moral, ,od was pleased to gi"e to the people of &srael, as a $hurch under age, ceremonial laws, containing se"eral t#pical ordinances, 641 partl# of worship, prefiguring $hrist, his graces, actions, sufferings, and )enefits3112: and partl# holding forth di"ers instructions of moral duties 112; !ll which ceremonial laws are now a)rogated under the ?ew Testament 1124 &G To them also, as a )od# politic, he ga"e sundr# 6udicial laws, which expired together with the state of that people, not o)liging an# other, now, further than the general e7uit# thereof ma# re7uire 1129 G The moral law doth fore"er )ind all, as well 6ustified persons as others, to the o)edience thereof31644 and that not onl# in regard of the matter contained in it, )ut also in respect of

the authorit# of ,od the $reator who ga"e it 1641 ?either doth $hrist in the gospel an# wa# dissol"e, )ut much strengthen, this o)ligation 164:

continetur, verum etiam virtute authoritatis eandem constituentis creatoris Dei&1644 ne,ue sane hoc e*us vinculum in evangelio ulla ratione dissolvit Christus, verum idem #lurimum confirmavit$1641 G& uamvis vere fideles non sint sub lege tan,uam sub o#erum f8dere, unde aut *ustificari #ossint aut condemnari:1647 est tamen ea illis non minus ,uam aliis vehementer utilis, ut ,u- ,uum sit vit- norma, illos voluntatem divinam suum,ue officium edocendo dirigit simul et obligat ad consentanee ambulandum&1617 i#sis,ue #atere facit natur-, cordis, vit-,ue su- nefaria in,uinamenta:1619 adeo ut ad illam semet e!igentes, cum #eccati ulterius convinci, #ro eodem humiliari, ac e*usdem odio inflammari #ossint&1612 tum vero etiam ut #ers#icere #ossint evidentius ,uam #lane necessarius eis Christus, ,uam,ue #erfecta sit e*usdem obedientia$16:4 1erum ulterius etiam regenitis ea utilis esse #ossit, in ,uantum nem#e corru#tiones eorum #eccata #rohibendo co@rcet,16:1 graviter autem interminando indicat tum ,uid vel eorum #eccata commeruerint, tum etiam ,uas ea #ro#ter in hac vita afflictiones e!#ectare #ossint, utcun,ue ab earum maledictione, ,uam le! minatur, liberentur$16:: uinetiam #romissiones e*us demonstrant iis obedientia Deo ,uam acce#ta sit et a##robata& ,uas,ue illa #r-stita benedictiones16:; .licet non tan,uam lege debitas e! o#erum f8dere016:4 #ossint illi e!#ectare$ Adeo ut ,uod ,uis bonum #r-stet invitante lege, a malo autem abhorreat lege deterritus, nullo #rorsus argumento sit, eum sub lege esse, non vero sub gratia constitutum$16:1

G& !lthough true )elie"ers )e not under the law as a co"enant of works, to )e there)# 6ustified or condemned31646 #et is it of great use to them, as well as to others3 in that, as a rule of life, informing them of the will of ,od and their 64: dut#, it directs and )inds them to walk accordingl#31649 disco"ering also the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and li"es31642 so as, examining themsel"es there)#, the# ma# come to further con"iction of, humiliation for, and hatred against sin31614 together with a clearer sight of the need the# ha"e of $hrist, and the perfection of his o)edience 1611 &t is likewise of use to the regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it for)ids sin3161: and the threatenings of it ser"e to show what e"en their sins deser"e, and what afflictions in this life the# ma# expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law 161; The promises of it, in like manner, show them ,od's appro)ation of o)edience, and what )lessings the# ma# expect upon the performance thereof31614 although not as due to them )# the law as a co"enant of words@1611 so as a man's doing good, and refraining from e"il, )ecause the law encourageth to the one, and deterreth from the other, is no e"idence of his )eing under the law, and not under grace 1616

64;

G&& ?either are the forementioned uses of the law contrar# to the grace of the gospel, )ut do sweetl# compl# with it@16:6 the (pirit of $hrist su)duing and ena)ling the will of man to do that freel# and cheerfull# which the will of ,od, re"ealed in the law, re7uireth to )e done 16:7
C a!ter %%. /f Christian %iberty, and %iberty of Conscience

G&& ?e7ue interim *egis usus isti iam memorati, E"angelii gratiH ad"ersantur, sed cum eadem conspirant sua"iter,16:9 "oluntatem humanam ita su)6ugante ac im)uente $hristi (piritu, ut idem illud prHstare "aleat spontanee ac alacriter, 7uod a) illa exigit "oluntas -ei in lege sua re"elata 16:2
Ca!. %%. De %ibertate Christiana de,ue %ibertate Conscienti-

& The li)ert# which $hrist hath purchased for )elie"ers under the gospel consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning wrath of ,od, the curse of the moral law316;4 and in their )eing deli"ered from this present e"il world, )ondage to (atan, and dominion of sin,16;1 from the e"il of afflictions, the sting of death, the "ictor# of the gra"e, and e"erlasting damnation316;: as also in their free access to ,od,16;; and their #ielding o)edience unto him, not out of sla"ish fear, )ut a childlike lo"e and16;4 willing mind 16;1 !ll which were common also to )elie"ers under the law316;6 )ut under the ?ew Testament the li)ert# of $hristians is further enlarged in 644 their freedom from the #oke of the ceremonial law, to which the Aewish $hurch was su)6ected3164; and in greater )oldness of access to the throne of grace,1644 and in fuller communications of the free (pirit of ,od, than )elie"ers under the law did ordinaril# partake of 1641 && ,od alone is *ord of the conscience,1642 and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men which are in an# thing contrar# to his +ord, or )eside it in matters of faith or worship 1614 (o that to )elie"e

& %ibertas ,uam Christus ac,uisivit fidelibus sub 'vangelio in eo sita est, ,uod a reatu #eccati, ab ira Dei condemnante, a legis )oralis maledictione immunes fiant,16;7 ,uod a #r-senti malo seculo, a dura "atanservitute, dominio,ue #eccati:16;9 ab afflictionum malo, ab aculeo mortis, a se#ulchri victoria ab -terna deni,ue damnation16;2 liberentur& uod,ue libere eis liceat ad Deum accedere:1644 ei,ue non e metu servile, verum e filiali dilectione, #romto,ue animo #r-bere valeant obedientiam$1641 At,ue h-c ,uidem omnia cum fidelibus sub lege habent communia$164: 1erum sub 2ovo Testamento ulterius adhuc se e!tendit libertas Christiana& in ,uantum nem#e %egis ceremonialis *ugo, cui sub*ecta erat 'cclesia .udaica, e!imuntur&1646 ma*orem,ue confidentiam ad thronum gratiaccedendi,1647 sed et effusiorem gratuiti "#iritus Dei communicationem sunt consecuti, ,uam ordinarie sub %ege fideles #artici#arunt$1649 && Deus solus Dominus est conscienti-,1611 ,uam certe e!emit doctrinis et mandatis hominum, ubi aut verbo e*us adversantur, aut in rebus fidei et cultus ,uic,uam ei su#eraddunt$1616 0nde ,ui e*usmodi

such doctrines, or to o)e# such commands1611 out of conscience, is to )etra# true li)ert# of conscience3161: and the re7uiring of161; an implicit faith, and an a)solute and )lind o)edience, is to destro# li)ert# of conscience, and reason also 1614

aut doctrinas credunt, aut mandatis obtem#erant, ,uasi ad id e! conscientia teneantur, veram ii conscienti- libertatem #rodunt$1617 ui autem vel fidem im#licitam, vel obedientiam absolutam c-cam,ue e!igunt, n- illi id agunt, ut cum conscienti-, tum rationis etiam destruant libertatem$1619 &&& ui sub #r-te!tu Christianlibertatis, cuivis aut cu#iditati indulgent aut #eccato assuescunt, eo i#so libertatis Christian- finem corrum#unt& nem#e ut e manibus inimicorum nostrorum liberati, Domino in sanctimonia et *ustitia coram i#so omnibus diebus vitnostr- abs,ue metu serviamus$1664 &G uoniam vero #otestates ,uas Deus ordinavit, et libertas ,uam ac,uisivit Christus non in eum finem a Deo destinat- sunt ut se mutuo #erimant, verum ut se sustentent ac conservent invicem& ui ita,ue sub libertatis Christian- #r-te!tu #otestati cuivis legitim- .civilis sit sive 'cclesiastica0 aut legitimo e*usdem e!ercitio contraiverint, ordinationi divin- resistere censendi sunt,1666 ui,ue vel e*usmodi o#iniones #ublicaverint, #ra!esve defenderint, ,u- lumini natur-, aut religionis Christian- de fide, de cultu, aut moribus #rinci#iis notis, aut #ietatis deni,ue vi ac efficaciadversantur& vel e*usmodi o#iniones #ra!esve erroneas, ,u- aut sua natura aut #ublicationis defensionisve modo, e!tern- #aci ac euta!i-, ,uas in 'cclesia sua stabilivit Christus, #erniciem minitantur& omnino licitum est tum ab iis facti rationem re#oscere, tum in eos ,ua censuris 'cclesiasticis,1667 ,ua civilis magistratus #otestate animadvertere$1669

&&& The# who, upon pretense of $hristian li)ert#, do practice an# sin, or cherish an# lust, do there)# destro# the end of $hristian li)ert#3 which is, that, )eing deli"ered out of the hands of our enemies, we might ser"e the *ord without fear, in holiness and righteousness )efore him, all the da#s of our life 1612 641 &G !nd )ecause the power1661 which ,od hath ordained, and the li)ert# which $hrist hath purchased, are not intended )# ,od to destro#, )ut mutuall# to uphold and preser"e one another3 the# who, upon pretense of $hristian li)ert#, shall oppose an# lawful power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it )e ci"il or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance of ,od 166: !nd for their pu)lishing of such opinions, or maintaining of such practices, as are contrar# to the light of nature, or to the known principles of $hristianit#, whether concerning faith, worship, or con"ersation3 or to the power of godliness3 or such erroneous opinions or practices, as, either in their own nature, or in the manner of pu)lishing or maintaining them, are destructi"e to the external peace and order which $hrist hath esta)lished in the $hurch3 the# ma# lawfull# )e called to account, and proceeded against )# the censures of the $hurch,166; and )# the power of the $i"il 'agistrate 16641661

646

C a!ter %%I. >f Celigious +orship and the (a))athIda#

Ca!. %%I. -e cultu religioso et de (a))ato

& The light of nature showeth that there is a ,od, who hath lordship and so"ereignt# o"er all3 is good, and doeth good unto all3 and is therefore to )e feared, lo"ed, praised, called upon, trusted in, and ser"ed with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the might 1662 =ut the accepta)le wa# of worshiping the true ,od is instituted )# himself, and so limited to1674 his own re"ealed will, that he ma# not )e worshiped according to the imaginations and de"ices of men, or the suggestions of (atan, under an# "isi)le representations1671 or an# other wa# not prescri)ed in the Dol# (cripture 167: && Celigious worship is to )e gi"en to ,od, the 5ather, (on, and Dol# ,host3 and to him alone@1671 not to angels, saints, or an# other creature@1676 and since the fall, not without a 'ediator3 nor in the mediation of an# other )ut of $hrist alone 1677 &&& /ra#er with thanksgi"ing, )eing one special part of religious worship,1691 is )# ,od re7uired of all 647 men3169; and that it ma# )e accepted, it is to )e made in the name of the (on,1694 )# the help of his (pirit,1691 according to his will,1696 with understanding, re"erence, humilit#, fer"enc#, faith, lo"e, and perse"erance31697 and, if "ocal, in a known tongue 1699 &G /ra#er is to )e made for things lawful,1621 and for all sorts of men li"ing, or that shall li"e hereafter31626 )ut not for the dead,1627 nor for those of whom it ma# )e known that the# ha"e sinned the sin unto death 1629

& Constat ,uidem natur- lumine esse Deum ,ui in universa Primatum obtinet ac absolutum Dominium, eundem,ue bonum esse ac omnibus beneficum, #roinde,ue toto corde, tota anima, totis,ue viribus timendum esse et diligendum, laudandum ac invocandum, ei,ue fidendum esse ac serviendum$167; At rationem verum Deum colendi acce#tabilem i#se instituit, ita,ue voluntate sua revelata definivit, ut coli non debeat secundum imaginationes ac inventa hominum, aut suggestiones "atan-, sub s#ecie ,uavis visibili, aut alia via ,uaviscun,ue ,uam scri#tura sacra non #r-scri#sit$1674 && Cultus religiosus Deo Patri Filio et "#iritui sancto, ei,ue soli est e!hibendus,1679 non angelis, non sanctis, ne,ue alii cuivis creatur-,1672 nec i#si Deo ,uidem #ost la#sum citra )ediatorem, aut ,uidem #er )ediatorem alium ,uam .esum Christum$1694 &&& "u##licationem cum gratiarum actione, ,u- est inter #artes #r-ci#uas divini cultus,169: Deus fieri iubet ab hominibus universis&1692 ,u-, ,uo Deo grata sit et acce#ta, est in nomine Filii,<AB> subsidio s#iritus e*us,1621 et secundum i#sius voluntatem,162: cum intellectu, reverentia, humilitate, fervore, fide, amore, ac #erseverantia offerenda&162; et ,uidem, si vocalis sit, in lingua nota est efferenda$1624 &G Preces #ro rebus non nisi licitis sunt faciend-,1622 #ro hominibus autem cuiuscun,ue generis, vivis scilicet, aut etiam victuris ali,uando&1744 #ro mortuis autem neuti,uam&1741 sed ne,ue #ro iis, de ,uibus constare #ossit eos #eccatum

ad mortem #er#etrasse$174: G The reading of the (criptures with godl# fear3174; the sound preaching31744 and consciona)le hearing of the +ord, in o)edience unto ,od with understanding, faith, and re"erence31741 singing of psalms with grace in the heart31746 as, also, the dne administration and worth# recei"ing of the sacraments instituted )# $hrist3 are all parts of the ordinar# religious worship of ,od@1747 )esides religious oaths,1749 "ows,1742 solemn 649 fastings,1719 and thanksgi"ings upon se"eral1712 occasions317:4 which are, in their se"eral times and seasons, to )e used in an hol# and religious manner 17:1 G& ?either pra#er, nor an# other part of religious worship, is now, under the gospel, either tied unto, or made more accepta)le )# an# place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed@17:4 )ut ,od is to )e worshiped e"er# where17:1 in spirit and17:6 truth317:7 as in pri"ate families17:9 dail#,17:2 and in secret each one )# himself,17;4 so more solemnl# in the pu)lic assem)lies, which are not carelessl# or willfull# to )e neglected or forsaken, when ,od, )# his +ord or pro"idence, calleth thereunto 17;1 G "cri#turarum lectio cum timore #io&1714 verbi #r-dicatio solida,1711 e*usdem,ue auditio religiosa e! obedientia erga Deum, cum intellectu, fide et reverentia&171: Psalmorum cum gratia in corde cantatio,171; #rout etiam "acramentorum, ,u- Christus instituit, debita administratio, et #artici#atio digna, sunt divini cultus reiigiosi #artes, et ,uidem ordinarii 1714 6eligiosa insu#er *uramenta,1711 vota,ue&1716 solennia *e*unia,1717 solennes,ue gratiarum actiones, #ro varietate eventuum17::& suo ,u-,ue tem#ore ac o##ortunitate sancte ,uidem ac religiose sunt adhibenda$17:; G& Hodie sub evangelio ne,ue #reces, nec ulla #ars alia religiosi cultus ita cuivis alligatur loco in ,uo #r-stetur aut versus ,uem dirigatur,17;: ut inde gratior evadat et acce#tior& verum ubi,ue Deus colendus est17;; in s#iritu ac veritate&17;4 ,uotidie17;1 ,uidem inter #rivatos #arietes a ,uavis familia,17;6 ut etiam a ,uolibet seorsim in secreto&17;7 at solenniter magis in conventibus #ublicis, ,ui certe ,uoties eo nos Deus vocat, seu verbo suo seu #rovidentia, non sunt vel e! incuria vel obstinatione animi aut negligendi aut deserendi$17;9 G&& uemadmodum est de lege natur- ut indefinite #ortio ,u-dam tem#oris idonea divino cultui celebrando se*uncta sit ac assignata& ita in verbo suo Deus .#r-ce#to morali, #ositivo ac #er#etuo, homines omnes cu*uscun,ue fuerint seculi obligante0 s#eciatim e se#tenis ,uibus,ue diebus diem unum in "abbatum designavit, sancte sibi observandum$1744 uod

G&& !s it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time )e set apart for the worship of ,od3 so, in his +ord, )# a positi"e, moral, and perpetual commandment, )inding all men in all ages, he hath particularl# appointed one da# in se"en for a (a))ath, to )e kept hol# unto him@17;2 which, from the

642

)eginning of the world to the resurrection of $hrist, was the last da# of the week3 and, from the resurrection of $hrist, was changed into the first da# of the week,1741 which in (cripture is called the *ord's da#,174: and is to )e continued to the end of the world, as the $hristian (a))ath 174;

,uidem ab orbe condito ad resurrectionem us,ue Christi dies ultimus erat in se#timana& deinde autem a Christi resurrectione in se#timan- diem #rimum transferebatur&1744 ,ui ,uidem in "cri#tura -ies -ominicus1741 nuncu#atur, est,ue #er#etuo ad finem mundi tan,uam "abbatum Christianum celebrandus$1746 G&&& Tunc autem hoc "abbatum Deo sancte celebratur, ,uum #ost corda rite #r-#arata, et com#ositas suas res mundanas, homines non solum a suis i#sorum o#eribus, dictis, cogitatis& .,u- circa illas e!erceri solent0 a recreationibus etiam ludicris ,uietem sanctam toto observant die&1742 verum etiam in e!ercitiis divini cultus #ublicis #rivatis,ue, ac in officiis necessitatis et misericordi- toto illo tem#ore occu#antur$1714
Ca!. %%II. De .uramentis, votis,ue licitis

G&&& This (a))ath is then kept hol# unto the *ord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs )eforehand, do not onl# o)ser"e an hol# rest all the da# from their own works, words, and thoughts, a)out their worldl# emplo#ments and recreations31747 )ut also are taken up the whole time in the pu)lic and pri"ate exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessit# and merc# 1749
C a!ter %%II. /f %awful /aths and 1ows

& ! lawful oath is a part of religious worship,1711 wherein, upon 6ust occasion, the person swearing solemnl# calleth ,od to witness what he asserteth or promiseth3 and to 6udge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth 171: && The name of ,od onl# is that 614 )# which, men ought to swear, and therein it is to )e used with all hol# fear and re"erence31711 therefore to swear "ainl# or rashl# )# that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all )# an# other thing, is sinful, and to )e a)horred 1716 Let as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted )# the +ord of ,od, under the ?ew Testament, as well as under the >ld,1717 so a lawful oath, )eing imposed )# lawful authorit#, in such matters ought to )e taken 1719

& .uramentum licitum est #ars cultus religiosi,171; ,ua .occasione *usta oblata0 ,ui *urat, Deum, de eo ,uod asserit aut #romittit, solenni modo testatur& eundem,ue a##ellat se secundum illius ,uod *urat veritatem aut falsitatem *udicaturum$1714 && Per solum Dei nomen *urare debent homines, ,uod ,uidem cum omni timore sancto ac reverentia est inibi usur#andum$1712 Proinde,ue #er nomen illud gloriosum ac tremendum *urare leviter, aut temere, vel etiam omnino *urare #er rem aliam ,uamviscun,ue, sceleratum est et ,uam ma!ime #erhorrescendum$1764 1eruntamen sicut in rebus ma*oris #onderis et momenti secundum verbum Dei licitum est *us*urandum non minus ,uidem sub 2ovo ,uam sub 1etere Testamento:1761 ita sane *us*urandum licitum, authoritate

legitima si e!igatur, non est in rebus e*usmodi declinandum$176: &&& +hosoe"er taketh an oath ought dul# to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to a"ouch nothing )ut what he is full# persuaded is the truth 176; ?either ma# an# man )ind himself )# oath to an# thing )ut what is good and 6ust, and what he )elie"eth so to )e, and what he is a)le and resol"ed to perform 1764 Let it is a sin to refuse an oath touching an# thing that is good and 6ust, )eing imposed )# lawful authorit# 1761 &&& uicun,ue *uramentum #r-stat eum #ondus actionis tam solennis rite secum #er#endere o#ortet, at,ue *uratum de nullo asseverare ,uod verum esse non habeat sibi #ersuasissimum$1766 2e,ue licet cuivis ad agendum ,uic,uam obstringere semet *ure*urando, nisi ,uod revera bonum *ustum,ue est, ,uod ille e*usmodi esse credit, ,uod,ue i#se #r-stare #otest statuit,ue$1767 1eruntamen de re bona *usta,ue *us*urandum, legitima authoritate si e!igatur, #eccat ille ,ui detrectat$1769 &G .uramentum #r-standum est sensu verborum vulgari ,uidem ac manifesto, sine -,uivocatione aut reservatione mentali ,uaviscun,ue$177: Ad #eccandum ,uen,uam obligare ne,uit, verum in re ,ualibet cui abest #eccatum, ,ui semel illud #r-stitit, adim#lere tenetur, vel etiam cum damno suo&177; ne,ue sane licet, ,uamvis h-reticis datum aut infidelibus, violare$1774

&G !n oath is to )e taken in the plain and common sense of 611 the words, without e7ui"ocation or mental reser"ation 1762 &t can not o)lige to sin3 )ut in an# thing not sinful, )eing taken, it )inds to performance, although to a man's own hurt@1774 nor is it to )e "iolated, although made to heretics or infidels 1771

G ! "ow is of the like nature with a G 1otum, natur- consimilis est promissor# oath, and ought to )e made cum *uramento #romissorio, #ari,ue with the like religious care, and to )e debet tum religione nuncu#ari tum performed with the like fide #ersolvi$1776 faithfulness 1771 G& &t is not to )e made to an# creature, )ut to ,od alone@1777 and that it ma# )e accepted, it is to )e made "oluntaril#, out of faith and conscience of dut#, in wa# of thankfulness for merc# recei"ed, or for the1779 o)taining of what we want3 where)# we more strictl# )ind oursel"es to necessar# duties, or to other things, so far and so long as the# ma# fitl# conduce thereunto 1772 G&& ?o man ma# "ow to do an# G& 2on est ulli creatur-, sed Deo soli nuncu#andum,1794 et ,uo gratum illi esse #ossit acce#tum,ue, est ,uidem lubenter, e fide, officii,ue nostri conscientia susci#iendum, vel gratitudinis nostr- ob acce#ta beneficia testand- causa, vel boni alicu*us, ,uo indigemus, conse,uendi& #er hoc autem nosmet ad officia necessaria arctius obligamus& vel etiam ad res alias ,uatenus ,uidem et ,uamdiu istis subserviunt$1791 G&& 2emini ,uic,uam vovere licet

thing for)idden in the +ord of ,od, or what would hinder an# dut# therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance whereof he hath no promise 61: or a)ilit# from ,od 179; &n which respect,1794 popish monastical "ows of perpetual single life, professed po"ert#, and regular o)edience, are so far from )eing degrees of higher perfection, that the# are superstitions and sinful snares, in which no $hristian ma# entangle himself 1791
C a!ter %%III. /f the Civil )agistrate

se acturum, ,uod aut verbo Dei #rohibetur& aut officium ali,uod inibi #r-ce#tum im#ediret, ,uodve non est in voventis #otestate, et cui #r-stando vires illi Deus non est #ollicitus$179: 0nde Pontificiorum illa de #er#etuo c8libatu, de #au#ertate, de,ue obedientia regulari vota )onastica, tantum abest ut #erfectionis gradus sint sublimiores, ut su#erstitionis #lane sint ac #eccati la,uei, ,uibus nulli un,uam Christiano semeti#sum licet im#licare$1796
Ca!. %%III. De )agistratu Civili

& ,od, the (upreme *ord and Eing of all the world, hath ordained ci"il magistrates to )e under him, o"er the people, for his own glor# and the pu)lic good, and to this end hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of e"ilI doers 1797 && &t is lawful for $hristians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate when called thereunto31792 in the managing whereof, as the# ought especiall# to maintain piet#, 6ustice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth,1724 so, for that end, the# ma# lawfull#, now under the ?ew Testament, wage war upon 6ust and necessar# occasion 1721M172: 61; &&& The ci"il magistrate ma# not assume to himself the administration of the +ord and (acraments, or the power of the ke#s of the kingdom of hea"en@1726 #et he hath authorit#, and it is his dut# to take order, that unit# and peace )e preser"ed in the $hurch, that the truth of ,od )e kept pure and entire, that all )lasphemies and

& "u#remus totius )undi 6e! ac Dominus Deus, )agistratus Civiles ordinavit ,ui vices e*us gerant su#ra #o#ulum ad suam i#sius gloriam, ac bonum #ublicum& in ,uem finem eosdem armavit #otestate gladii, #ro#ter bonorum ,uidem animationem ac tutamen, animadversionem autem in maleficos$1799 && Christianis, ,uoties ad id vocantur, )agistratus munus et susci#ere licet et e!e,ui&172; in ,uo ,uidem gerendo, ut #ietatem #r-ci#ue, *ustitiam, ac #acem secundum salubres cu*us,ue 6ei#ublic- leges tueri debent,1724 ita ,uo illum finem conse,uantur, licitum est iis vel hodie sub 2ovo Testamento in causis *ustis ac necessariis bellum gerere$1721 &&& )agistratui Civili verbi et sacramentorum administrationem, aut clavium regni c8lorum #otestatem assumere sibi non est licitum:1722 nihilo tamen minus et *ure #otest ille, ei,ue incumbit #rovidere ut 'cclesiunitas ac tran,uillitas conservetur, ut veritas Dei #ura et integra custodiatur, ut su##rimantur

heresies )e suppressed, all corruptions and a)uses in worship and discipline pre"ented or reformed, and all the ordinances of ,od dul# settled, administered, and o)ser"ed 1727 5or the )etter effecting whereof he hath power to call s#nods, to )e present at them, and to pro"ide that whatsoe"er is transacted in them )e according to the mind of ,od 1729

blas#hemi- omnes, h-reses,ue, ut in cultu ac disci#lina omnes corru#telac abusus aut #r-caveantur aut reformentur, omnia deni,ue instituta divina, ut rite statuminentur, administrentur, observentur$1944 uomnia ,uo melius #r-stare #ossit, #otestatem habet tum "ynodos convocandi, tum ut i#sis intersit, #ros#iciat,ue, ut ,uic,uid in iis transigatur sit menti divinconsentaneum$1941

The a)o"e section is changed in the !merican re"ision, and adapted to the separation of $hurch and (tate, as follows@

[&&& Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration of the Word and "acraments .: $hron xx"i 190& or the #ower of the Ceys of the Cingdom of heaven .'att x"i 123 1 $or i" 1, :0& or, in the least, interfere in matters of faith .Aohn x"iii ;63 'al ii 73 !cts " :20$ Det as nursing fathers, it is the duty of civil magistrates to #rotect the Church of our common %ord, without giving the #reference to any denomination of Christians above the rest, in such a manner that all ecclesiastical #ersons whatever 614shall en*oy the full, free, and un,uestioned liberty of discharging every #art of their sacred functions, without violence or danger .&sa xlix :;0$ And, as .esus Christ hath a##ointed a regular government and disci#line in his Church, no law of any commonwealth should interfere with, let, or hinder, the due e!ercise thereof, among the voluntary members of any denomination of Christians, according to their own #rofession and belief ./sa c" 113 !cts x"iii 14N160$ 3t is the duty of civil magistrates to #rotect the #erson and good name of all their #eo#le, in such an effectual manner as that no #erson be suffered, either u#on #retence of religion or infidelity, to offer any indignity, violence, abuse, or in*ury to any other #erson whatsoever: and to taCe order, that all religious and ecclesiastical assemblies be held without molestation or disturbance .: (am xxiii ;3 1 Tim ii 13 Com xiii 40 8 &G &t is the dut# of people194: to pra# for magistrates,194; to honor their persons,1944 to pa# them tri)ute and other dues,1941 to o)e# their lawful commands, and to )e su)6ect to their authorit#, for conscience' sake 1946 &nfidelit# or difference in religion doth not make "oid the magistrate's 6ust and legal authorit#, nor free the people from their due o)edience to him@1947 from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted31949 much less hath the /ope an# power or 6urisdiction o"er them in their dominions, or o"er an# of their people3 and least of all to depri"e them of their dominions or &G Debet #o#ulus #ro )agistratibus #reces fundere,1942 #ersonas eorum honore #rose,ui,1914 tributa alia,ue eis debita #ersolvere,1911 obtem#erare licitis eorum mandatis, ac #ro#ter conscientiam sub*ici illorum authoritati&191: ,u- si *usta sit ac legitima, non eam illorum infidelitas, non religio diversa cassam reddit, ne,ue #o#ulum liberat a debit-, illis obedienti- #r-statione,191; ,ua viri ,uidem 'cclesiastici non e!imuntur,1914 multo minus in i#sos magistratus, intra ditionem suam, ant e! eorum #o#ulo ,uemvis #otestatem ullam

li"es, if he shall 6udge them to )e

habet aut *urisdictionem Pa#a 6omanus, minime vero omnium vita illos aut #rinci#atu e!uendi, si i#se scilicet eos h-reticos esse *udicaverit, vel etiam alio #r-te!tu ,uoviscun,ue$1916
Ca!. %%I". De Con*ugio et Divortio

611 heretics, or upon an# other pretense whatsoe"er 1911


C a!ter %%I". /f )arriage and Divorce

& 'arriage is to )e )etween one man and one woman@ neither is it lawful for an# man to ha"e more than one wife, nor for an# woman to ha"e more than one hus)and at the same time 1917 && 'arriage was ordained for the mutual help of hus)and and wife31912 for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the $hurch with an hol# seed319:4 and for pre"enting of uncleanness 19:1 &&& &t is lawful for all sorts of people to marr# who are a)le with 6udgment to gi"e their consent 19:1 Let it is the dut# of $hristians to marr# onl# in the *ord 19:6 !nd, therefore, such as profess the true reformed religion should not marr# with infidels, /apists, or other idolaters@ neither should such as are godl# )e une7uall# #oked, )# marr#ing with such as are notoriousl# wicked in their life, or maintain damna)le heresies 19:7

& Con*ugium inter unum virum ac f8minam unam contrahi debet& ne,ue viro ulli u!ores #lures, nec ulli f8min- ultra unum maritum eodem tem#ore habere licet$1919 && Con*ugium erat institutum, cum #ro#ter mariti u!oris,ue au!ilium mutuum,19:: tum #ro#ter humani generis #role legitima, 'cclesi-,eu sancto semine incrementum,19:; tum vero etiam ad im#udicitiam declinandam$19:4 &&& )atrimonio *ungi cuivis hominum generi licitum est, ,ui consensum suum #r-bere valent cum *udicio&19:9 1eruntamen solum in Domino connubia inire debent Christiani&19:2 #roinde,ue ,uot,uot religionem veram reformatam,ue #rofitentur, non debent 3nfidelibus, Pa#istis, aut aliis ,uibuscun,ue idololatris connubio sociari& ne,ue sane debent ,ui #ii sunt im#ari *ugo co#ulari, con*ugium cum illis contrahendo ,ui aut im#robitate vitsunt notabiles, aut damnabiles tuentur h-reses$19;43 &G Connubia intra consanguinitatis affinitatis,ue gradus in verbo Dei vetitos iniri non est licitum&19;4 ne,ue #ossunt e*usmodi incesta con*ugia ,uavis aut humana lege, aut consensione #artium fieri legitima, adeo ut #ersonis illis ad instar mariti et u!oris liceat un,uam cohabitare$19;1

616 &G 'arriage ought not to )e within the degrees of consanguinit# or affinit# for)idden in the +ord319;1 nor can such incestuous marriages e"er )e made lawful )# an# law of man, or consent of parties, so as those persons ma# li"e together, as man and wife 19;: The man ma# not marr# an# of his

wife's kindred nearer in )lood than he ma# of his own, nor the woman of her hus)and's kindred nearer in )lood than of her own 19;;

2on licet viro e cognatione u!oris suducere, ,uam si -,ue sei#sum attingeret sanguine, ducere non liceret& sicuti nec f8min- licet viro nubere a mariti sui sanguine minus, ,uam a suo liceret, alieno$19;6 G Adulterium aut scortatio si admittatur #ost s#onsalia, ac ante con*ugium detegatur, #ersoninnocenti *ustam #r-bet occasionem contractum illum dissolvendi&1944 ,uod si adulterium #ost con*ugium admittatur, licebit #arti innocenti divortium lege #ostulare ac obtinere&1941 at,ue ,uidem #ost factum divortium con*ugio alteri sociari, #erinde acsi mortua esset #ersona illa ,u- con*ugii fidem violabat$194: G& uamvis ea sit hominis corru#tio ut #roclivis sit ad e!cogitandum argumenta, indebite illos ,uos Deus connubio *un!it dissociandi& nihilominus tamen e!tra adulterium ac desertionem ita obstinatam, ut cui nullo remedio, nec ab 'cclesia nec a )agistratu civili subveniri #ossit, sufficiens causa nulla esse #otest con*ugii vinculum dissolvendi$1941 At,ue hac ,uidem in re #rocedendi ordo #ublicus et regularis est observandus, nec #erson- ill-, ,uarum *us agitur, sunt suo arbitrio *udiciove in causa #ro#ria #ermittend-$1946
Ca!. %%". De 'cclesia

G !dulter# or fornication, committed after a contract, )eing detected )efore marriage, gi"eth 6ust occasion to the innocent part# to dissol"e that contract 19;7 &n the case of adulter# after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent part# to sue out a di"orce,19;9 and after the di"orce to marr# another, as if the offending part# were dead 19;2

G& !lthough the corruption of man )e such as is apt to stud# arguments, undul# to put asunder those whom ,od hath 6oined together in marriage3 #et nothing )ut adulter#, or such willful desertion as can no wa# )e remedied )# 617 the $hurch or ci"il magistrate, is cause sufficient of dissol"ing the )ond of marriage3194; wherein a pu)lic and orderl# course of proceeding is to )e o)ser"ed3 and the persons concerned in it, not left to their own wills and discretion in their own case 1944

C a!ter %%". /f the Church

& The catholic or uni"ersal $hurch, which is in"isi)le, consists of the whole num)er of the elect, that ha"e )een, are, or shall )e gathered into one, under $hrist the head thereof3 and is the spouse, the )od#, the fullness of him that filleth all in all 1947

& Catholica sive 0niversalis 'cclesia ea ,u- est invisibilis constat e toto electorum numero, ,uot,uot fuerunt, sunt, aut erunt un,uam in unum collecti, sub Christo e*usdem Ca#ite& est,ue s#onsa, cor#us ac #lenitudo e*us ,ui im#let omnia in omnibus$1949

&& The "isi)le $hurch, which is also catholic or uni"ersal under the gospel .not confined to one nation as )efore under the law0 consists of all those, throughout the world, that profess the true religion,1942 and of1914 their children31911 and is the kingdom of the *ord Aesus $hrist,191: the house and famil# of ,od,191; out of which there is no ordinar# possi)ilit# of sal"ation 1914

&& 'cclesia visibilis .,u- etiam sub 'vangelio, Catholica est et universalis, non autem unius gentis finibus, ut #ridem sub lege, circumscri#ta0 e! iis omnibus constat, undecun,ue terrarum sint, ,ui veram religionem #rofitentur,1911 una cum eorundem liberis&1916 est,ue 6egnum Domini .esu Christi,1917 Domus et familla Dei,1919 e!tra ,uam ,uidem ordinarie fieri ne,uit ut ,uivis salutem conse,uatur$1912 &&& Catholic- huic 'cclesi- visibili dedit Christus ministrorum ordinem, oracula, ac instituta Dei ad sanctos us,ue ad finem mundi in hac vita colligendos simul et #erficiendos& in ,uem finem #r-sentia sua, s#iritu,ue secundum i#sius #romissionem, eadem reddit efficacia$1961 &G 'cclesia h-c Catholica e!titit ,uando,ue magis ,uando,ue minus visibilis$1964 'cclesi- autem #articulares .,u- sunt illius membra0 eo magis minusve #ur- sunt, ,ui ma*ori aut minori cum #uritate in iis docetur e!ci#itur,ue 'vangelii doctrina, administrantur divina instituta, cultus,ue #ublicus celebratur$1961 G Purissim- omnium ,u- in terris sunt 'cclesi-, cum mi!tur- tum etiam errori sunt obno!i-,1962 eous,ue autem nonnull- degenerarunt, ut e! 'cclesiis Christi fact- demum sint i#sius "atan- "ynagog-&1974 nihilominus tamen nun,uam deerit in terris 'cclesi-, ,u- Deum colat secundum i#sius voluntatem$1971 G& 'cclesi- ca#ut e!tra unum Dominum .esum Christum nullum est&197; nec ullo sensu ca#ut e*us esse #otest Pa#a 6omanus, ,ui est insignis ille Antichristus, homo ille #eccati et #erditionis filius& in 'cclesia semet

619 &&& <nto this catholic "isi)le $hurch $hrist hath gi"en the ministr#, oracles, and ordinances of ,od, for the gathering and perfecting of the saints, in this life, to the end of the world@ and doth )# his own presence and (pirit, according to his promise, make them effectual thereunto 1964 &G This catholic $hurch hath )een sometimes more, sometimes less "isi)le 196: !nd particular churches, which are mem)ers thereof, are more or less pure, according as the doctrine of the gospel is taught and em)raced, ordinances administered, and pu)lic worship performed more or less purel# in them 196; G The purest churches under hea"en are su)6ect )oth to mixture and error31966 and some ha"e so degenerated as to )ecome no churches of $hrist, )ut s#nagogues of (atan 1967 ?e"ertheless, there shall )e alwa#s a $hurch on earth to worship ,od according to his will 1969 G& There is no other head of the $hurch )ut the *ord Aesus $hrist@197: nor can the /ope of Come, in an# 612 sense )e head thereof3 )ut is that !ntichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the

$hurch against $hrist, and all that is called ,od 1974


C a!ter %%"I. /f the Communion of "aints

efferens adversus Christum, et su#ra ,uic,uid dicitur Deus$1971


Ca!. %%"I. De Communione "anctorum

& !ll saints that are united to Aesus $hrist their head, )# his (pirit and )# faith, ha"e fellowship with him in his graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glor#@1976 and )eing united to one another in lo"e, the# ha"e communion in each other's gifts and graces,1977 and are o)liged to the performance of such duties, pu)lic and pri"ate, as do conduce to their mutual good, )oth in the inward and outward man 1979

& "ancti omnes, ,ui ca#iti suo .esu Christo #er "#iritum e*us ac #er fidem uniuntur, gratiarum e*us, #er#essionum, mortis, resurrectionis ac glori- e*us habent communionem&1972 at,ue inde etiam amore con*uncti sibimet invicem mutuam donorum suorum gratiarum,ue societatem ,uandam ineunt,1994 ac ad e*usmodi officia #r-standa #ublica et #rivata obligantur, ,u- ad mutuum eorum bonum conducant, cum ,uoad internum tum etiam ,uoad e!ternum hominem$1991 && ui sanctos sese #rofitentur, sanctam illi societatem et communionem inire tenentur et conservare, cum in divino cultu, tum alia officia s#iritualia #r-stando, ,uad mutuam eorum -dificationem conferre #ossint&199; uin etiam #orro sublevando se mutuo in rebus e!ternis, #ro ratione cu*us,ue vel facultatum vel indigenti-$ u- ,uidem communio, #rout o##ortunitatem Deus obtulerit, est ad eos omnes, ,ui ubivis locorum Domini .esu nomen invocant, e!tendenda$1991 &&& H-c autem communio ,ua sancti cum Christo #otiuntur, eos substanti- Deitatis e*us neuti,uam reddit #artici#es, nec ullo res#ectu -,uales Christo: uorum utrumvis affirmare im#ium est ac blas#hemum&1992 ne,ue sane communio illa, ,u- iis secum mutuo ,uatenus sanctis intercedit& cu*us,uam ad bona et #ossessiones suas *us #rivatum vel tollit vel imminuit$1924

&& (aints, )# profession, are )ound to maintain an hol# fellowship and communion in the worship of ,od, and in performing such other spiritual ser"ices as tend to their mutual edification3199: as also in relie"ing each other in outward things, according to their se"eral a)ilities and necessities 664 +hich communion, as ,od offereth opportunit#, is to )e extended unto all those who, in e"er# place, call upon the name of the *ord Aesus 1994 &&& This communion which the saints ha"e with $hrist, doth not make them in an#wise partakers of the su)stance of his ,odhead, or to )e e7ual with $hrist in an# respect@ either of which to affirm is impious and )lasphemous 1996 ?or doth their communion one with another, as saints, take awa# or infringe the title or propriet#1997 which each man hath in his goods and possessions 1999

C a!ter %%"II. /f the "acraments

Ca!. %%"II. De "acramentis

& (acraments are hol# signs and seals of the co"enant of grace,1921 immediatel# instituted )# ,od,192: to represent $hrist and his )enefits, and to confirm our interest in him@192; as also to put a "isi)le difference )etween those that )elong unto the $hurch and the rest of the world31924 and solemnl# to engage them to the ser"ice of ,od in $hrist, according to his +ord 1921

& "acramenta sunt f8deris gratisigna sacra et sigilla,1926 immediate a Deo instituta,1927 ad Christum e*us,ue beneficia re#r-sentandum, ad *us nostrum in illo confirmandum,1929 #rout etiam ad illos ,ui 'cclesiam s#ectant a reli,uis illis ,ui sunt e mundo, visibili discrimine se#arandum,1922 ut,ue ii solenniter devinciantur ad obedientiam et cultum Deo in Christo *u!ta verbum e*us e!hibendum$1244 && 3n "acramento ,uolibet est inter signum et rem significatam relatio ,u-dam s#iritualis, sive "acramentalis unio& unde fit ut alterius nomina et effectus alteri ,uando,ue tribuantur$124; &&& u- in "acramentis sive #er ea rite adhibita e!hibetur gratia, #er vim ali,uam iis intrinsecam non confertur, ne,ue e! intentione vel #ietate adininistrantis #endent "acramenti vis ac efficacia&1247 verum e! o#eratione "#iritus,1249 ac verbo institutionis, ,uod com#lectitur cum #r-ce#tum, unde celebrandi "acramenti #otestas fit, tum etiam #romissionem de beneficiis digne #erci#ientibus e!hibendis$1242 &G "acramenta duo tantum sunt a Christo Domino nostro in 'vangelio instituta, Ea#tismus scilicet, et c8na Domini& ,uorum neutrum de debet nisi a ministro verbi legitime ordinato dis#ensari$1211 G "acramenta 1eteris Testamenti si res s#irituales #er ea significatas e!hibitas,ue res#iciamus, ,uoad substantiam eadem fuere cum his sub 2ovo$121;
Ca!. %%"III.

&& There is in e"er# sacrament 661 a spiritual relation or sacramental union, )etween the sign and the thing signified3 whence it comes to pass that the names and the1241 effects of the one are attri)uted to the other 124: &&& The grace which is exhi)ited in or )# the sacraments, rightl# used, is not conferred )# an# power in them3 neither doth the efficac# of a sacrament depend upon the piet# or intention of him that doth administer it,1244 )ut upon the work of the (pirit,1241 and the word of institution, which contains, together with a precept authoriBing the use thereof, a promise of )enefit to worth# recei"ers 1246 &G There )e onl# two sacraments ordained )# $hrist our *ord in the gospel, that is to sa#, =aptism and the (upper of the *ord@ neither of which ma# )e dispensed )# an# )ut )# a minister of the +ord lawfull# ordained 1214 G The sacraments of the >ld Testament, in regard of the spiritual things there)# signified and exhi)ited, were, for su)stance, the same with those of the ?ew 121:
C a!ter %%"III.

/f Ea#tism

De Ea#tismo

& =aptism is a sacrament of the 66: ?ew Testament, ordained )# Aesus $hrist,1214 not onl# for the solemn admission of the part# )aptiBed into the "isi)le $hurch,1211 )ut also to )e unto him a sign and seal of the co"enant of grace1216, of his ingrafting into $hrist,1217 of regeneration,1219 of remission of sins,1212 and of his gi"ing up unto ,od, through Aesus $hrist, to walk in newness of life@12:4 which sacrament is, )# $hrist's own appointment, to )e continued in his $hurch until the end of the world 12:1 && The outward element to )e used in this sacrament is water, wherewith the part# is to )e )aptiBed in the name of the 5ather, and of the (on, and of the Dol# ,host, )# a minister of the gospel lawfull# called thereunto 12;4 &&& -ipping of the person into the water is not necessar#3 )ut )aptism is rightl# administered )# pouring or sprinkling water upon the person 12;: &G ?ot onl# those that do actuall# profess faith in and o)edience unto $hrist,12;4 )ut also the infants 66; of one or )oth )elie"ing parents are to )e )aptiBed 12;6 G !lthough it )e a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance,12;9 #et grace and sal"ation are not so insepara)l# annexed unto it, as that no person can )e regenerated or sa"ed without it,12;2 or that all that are )aptiBed are undou)tedl# regenerated 1244 G& The efficac# of )aptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered31244 #et, notwithstanding, )# the right use of

& Ea#tismus est sacramentum 2ovi Testamenti, a .esu Christo institutum,12:: non solum #ro#ter solennem #erson- ba#ti5at- in 'cclesiam visibilem admissionem,12:; verum etiam ut signum eidem sit, et sigillum cum f8deris grati-,12:4 tum su- in Christum insitionis,12:1 regenerationis,12:6 remissionis #eccatorum,12:7 ac sui i#sius Deo #er Christum dedicationis, ad ambulandum in vit- novitate$12:9 uod ,uidem "acramentum e Christi i#sius mandato est in 'cclesia e*us ad finem us,ue mundi retinendum$12:2 && 'lementum e!ternum in hoc "acramento adhibendum est A,ua& ,ua ba#ti5ari debet admittendus, a ministro 'vangelii legitime ad hoc vocato, in nomine Patris et filii et "#iritus "ancti$12;1 &&& Ea#ti5andi in a,uam immersio necessaria non est& verum ba#tismus rite administratur a,ua su#erfusa vel etiam ins#ersa ba#ti5ando$12;; &G 2on illi solum ,ui fidem in Christum ei,ue se obedientes fore actu ,uidem #rofitentur,12;1 verum etiam infantes ,ui a Parente vel altero vel utro,ue fideli #rocreantur, sunt ba#ti5andi$12;7 G uamvis grave #eccatum sit institutum hoc des#icatui habere vel negligere&1241 non tamen ei salus et gratia ita individue annectuntur, ut abs,ue illo nemo un,uam regenerari aut salvari #ossit,124: aut ,uasi indubium omnino sit regenerari omnes ,ui ba#ti5antur$124; G& Ea#tismi efficacia ei tem#oris momento ,uo administratur non adstringitur$1246 2ihilominus tamen, usu debito hu*us instituti non offertur

this ordinance the grace promised is not onl# offered, )ut reall# exhi)ited and conferred )# the Dol# ,host, to such .whether of age or infants0 as that grace )elongeth unto, according to the counsel of ,od's own will, in his appointed time 1241

solum #romissa gratia, verum etiam omnibus .tam infantibus ,uam adultis0 ad ,uos gratia illa e consilio Divinvoluntatis #ertinet, #er "#iritum "anctum in tem#ore suo constituto realiter confertur et e!hibetur$1247

G&& The sacrament of )aptism is )ut G&& "acramentum Ea#tismi eidem once to )e administered to an# #erson- non est nisi semel person 1249 administrandum$1242
C a!ter %%I%. /f the %ord;s "u##er Ca!. %%I%. De C8na Domini

& >ur *ord Aesus, in the night wherein he was )etra#ed, instituted 664 the sacrament of his )od# and )lood, called the *ord's (upper, to )e o)ser"ed in his $hurch, unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remem)rance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all )enefits thereof unto true )elie"ers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their further engagement in, and to all duties which the# owe unto him3 and to )e a )ond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as mem)ers of his m#stical )od# 1214

& Dominus noster .esus eadem ,ua #rodebatur nocte instituit cor#oris et sanguinis sui sacramentum, $Knam -omini ,uam dicimus, in 'cclesia sua ad finem us,ue mundi celebrandum, in #er#etuam memoriam sacrificii sui i#sius in morte sua oblati, et ad beneficia istius omnia vere fidelibus obsignandum& in eorum item alimentum ac incrementum in Christo s#irituale& ,uo,ue ad officia cuncta #r-standa, #rius ,uidem illi debita, arctiori adhuc nodo tenerentur& ut vinculum deni,ue ac #ignus foret communionis illius ,u- iis cum Christo et secum i#sis mutuo, tan,uam cor#oris i#sius mystici membris, intercedit$1211 && 3n hoc "acramento non Patri suo offertur Christus, sed ne,ue inibi fit reale ali,uod sacrificium ad #eccatorum remissionem vivis aut mortuis #rocurandam&1211 verum unic- istius oblationis, ,ua Christus semet i#sum i#se in cruce, et ,uidem omnino semel obtulit, commemoratio solum& una cum s#irituali #ro#terea laudis omnimod- Deo redditoblatione$1216 0nde Pontificiorum istud sacrificium )iss- .uti lo7ui amant0 #lane detestandum sit o#ortet, ut#ote ma!ime in*uriam uni illi unico,ue Christi sacrificio, ,uod ,uidem unica est #ro #eccatis electorum universus

&& &n this sacrament $hrist is not offered up to his 5ather, nor an# real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the 7uick or dead,121: )ut onl# a commemoration of that one offering up of himself, )# himself, upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual o)lation of all possi)le praise unto ,od for the same3121; so that the /opish sacrifice of the mass, as the# call it, is most a)omina)l# in6urious to $hrist's one onl# sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect 1214

#ro#itiatio$1217 661 &&& The *ord Aesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pra#, and )less the elements of )read and wine, and there)# to set them apart from a common to an hol# use3 and to take and )reak the )read, to take the cup, and .the# communicating also themsel"es0 to gi"e )oth to the communicants31219 )ut to none who are not then present in the congregation 1212 &G /ri"ate masses, or recei"ing this sacrament )# a priest, or an# other, alone3126: as likewise the denial of the cup to the people3126; worshiping the elements, the lifting them up, or carr#ing them a)out for adoration, and the reser"ing them for an# pretended religious use, are all contrar# to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of $hrist 1264 G The outward elements in this sacrament, dul# set apart to the uses ordained )# $hrist, ha"e such relation to him crucified, as that trul#, #et sacramentall# onl#, the# are sometimes called )# the name of the things the# represent, to wit, the )od# and )lood of $hrist31269 al)eit, in su)stance and nature, the# still 666 remain trul#, and onl#, )read and wine, as the# were )efore 1274 G& That doctrine which maintains a change of the su)stance of )read and wine, into the su)stance of $hrist's )od# and )lood .commonl# called transu)stantiation0 )# consecration of a priest, or )# an# other wa#, is repugnant, not to (cripture alone, )ut e"en to commonIsense and reason3 o"erthroweth the nature of the &&& 3n hoc suo instituto #r-ce#it Dominus .esus )inistris suis, verbum institutionis #o#ulo declarare, orare, ac elementis #ani scilicet ac vino benedicere, ea,ue hac ratione a communi ad sacrum usum se#arare, ,uinetiam #anem acci#ere et frangere& #oculum item in manus acci#ere& at,ue Jcommunicantibus una i#sis0 utrum,ue communicantibus e!hibere,1264 nemini autem a congregatione tunc absenti$1261 &G )iss- #rivat-, sive #erce#tio hu*usce "acramenti a solo vel "acerdote vel alio ,uovis&1261 #rout etiam #oculi a #o#ulo detensio,1266 elementorum adoratio, ,uo,ue adorentur elevatio aut circumgestatio, ut et #r-te!tu religiosi usus cu*uscun,ue asservatio, sunt ,uidem omnia tum hu*usce "acramenti naturtum Christi institutioni #lane contraria$1267 G 3n hoc "acramento e!terna elementa ad usus a Christo institutos rite se#arata, ita ad eum crucifi!um referuntur ut rerum ,uas re#r-sentat nominibus .cor#oris nem#e ac sanguinis Christi0 vere ,uidem, at "acramentaliter tantum, sint nuncu#ata,1262 manent si,uidem adhuc ,uoad substantiam et naturam vere solum,ue #anis ac vinum nihilo minus ,uam antea fuerant$1271 G& Doctrina illa ,u- substanti#anis ac vini in substantiam cor#oris et sanguinis Christi conversionem .transubstantiatio vulgo dicitur0 sive illam #er "acerdotis consecrationem, sive ,uomodocun,ue demum fieri statuit, non scri#tur- solum, verum etiam communi omnium sensui ac rationi adversatur, sacramenti

sacrament3 and hath )een, and is the naturam evertit, su#erstitionis cause of manifold superstitions, #ea, of multifari- causa e!titit at,ue gross idolatries 127: etiamnum e!istit, imo vero et crassissim- idololatri-$127; G&& +orth# recei"ers, outwardl# partaking of the "isi)le elements in this sacrament,1274 do then also inwardl# )# faith, reall# and indeed, #et not carnall# and corporall#, )ut spirituall#, recei"e and feed upon $hrist crucified, and all )enefits of his death@ the )od# and )lood of $hrist )eing then not corporall# or carnall# in, with, or under the )read and wine3 #et as reall#, )ut spirituall#, present to the faith of )elie"ers in that ordinance, as the elements themsel"es are, to their outward senses 1271 G&&& !lthough ignorant and wicked men recei"e the outward elements in this sacrament, #et 667 the# recei"e not the thing signified there)#3 )ut )# their unworth# coming thereunto are guilt# of the )od# and6 )lood of the *ord, to their own damnation +herefore all ignorant and ungodl# persons, as the# are unfit to en6o# communion with him, so are the# unworth# of the *ord's ta)le, and can not, without great sin against $hrist, while the# remain such, partake of these hol# m#steries,1279 or )e admitted thereunto 1272
C a!ter %%%. /f Church Censures

G&& Digne communicantes, 'lementa in hoc "acramento visibilia dum #artici#ant,1276 una cum iis interne Christum crucifi!um et beneficia mortis e*us universa revera et realiter .modo, non carnali ,uidem aut cor#oreo, sed s#irituali0 #er fidem reci#iunt eis,ue vescuntur$ Cor#us si,uidem et sanguis Christi non cor#oreo aut carnali modo in, cum, vel sub #ane ac vino& realiter tamen, ac s#iritualiter credentium fidei in hoc instituto, non minus ,uam e!ternis sensibus elementa i#sa, sunt #r-sentia$1277 G&&& Homines im#robi et ignari e!terna licet in hoc sacramento #erci#ere #ossint elementa, rem tamen #er ea significatam non reci#iunt& verum indigne illuc accedendo, rei fiunt cor#oris ac sanguinis Dominici ad sui i#sorum condemnationem$ ua#ro#ter homines im#ii et ignari #rout communioni cum Deo #otiundnullatenus sunt idonei, ita #rorsus indigni sunt ,ui accedant ad mensam Domini& ne,ue sine gravi in Christum #eccato, #ossunt .,uamdiu tales esse non destiterint "acra h-c mysteria #artici#are&1294 vel ad ea #artici#andum admitti$1291
Ca!. %%%. De Censuris 'cclesiasticis

& The *ord Aesus, as king and head of his $hurch, hath therein appointed a go"ernment in the hand of $hurch officers, distinct from the ci"il magistrate 129: && To these officers the ke#s of the kingdom of hea"en are committed, )# "irtue whereof the# ha"e power

& Dominus .esus ,uatenus 6e! et ca#ut 'cclesi- su- constituit in ea regimen, ,uod in officiariorum 'cclesiasticorum manu foret, distinctum a civili )agistratu$129; && /fficiariis hisce claves regni c8lorum sunt commiss-, ,uarum virtute obtinent #otestatem #eccata vel

respecti"el# to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, )oth )# the +ord and censures3 and to open it unto penitent sinners, )# the ministr# of the gospel, and )# a)solution from censures, as occasion shall re7uire 1294

retinendi vel remittendi #ro varia #eccantium conditione& im#8nitentibus ,uidem regnum illud tam #er verbum ,uam #er censuras occludendi, #eccatoribus vero #8nitentibus tam evangelii ministerio ,uam absolutione a censuris idem a#eriendi, #rout occasio #ostulaverit$1291 &&& /mnino necessari- sunt censur- 'cclesiastic-, lucrandis fratribus delin,uentibus eis,ue in viam reducendis, reli,uis autem a similibus delictis deterrendis, fermento illi malo, ne totam massam inficiat, e!#urgando& ad honorem Christi et "anctam 'vangelii #rofessionem vindicandum, ut #r-vertatur deni,ue ira Dei, ,u- merito in 'cclesiam accendi #osset, si i#sius f8dus, hu*us,ue sigilla ab insigniter ac #ertinaciter delin,uentibus im#une #rofanari #ateretur$1299 &G uo melius autem hosce fines conse,uantur, #rocedere debent 'cclesi- officiarii, admonendo, a "acramento c8n- Dominic- ad tem#us ali,uod sus#endendo, e!communicando deni,ue ab 'cclesia, #ro ratione criminis, at,ue #ersondelin,uentis merito$1224
Ca!. %%%I. De "ynodis et Conciliis

669 &&& $hurch censures are necessar# for the reclaiming and gaining of offending )rethren3 for deterring of others from the1296 like offenses3 for purging out of that lea"en which might infect the whole lump3 for "indicating the honor of $hrist, and the hol# profession of the gospel3 and for pre"enting the wrath of ,od, which might 6ustl# fall upon the $hurch, if the# should suffer his co"enant, and the seals thereof, to )e profaned )# notorious and o)stinate offenders 1297 &G 5or the )etter attaining of these ends, the officers of the $hurch are to proceed )# admonition, suspension from the (acrament of the *ord's (upper for a season, and )# excommunication from the $hurch, according to the nature of the crime and demerit of the person 1292
C a!ter %%%I. /f "ynods and Councils

& 5or the )etter go"ernment and & uo melius gubernari, ac ulterius further edification of the $hurch, there -dificari #ossit 'cclesia, conventus ought to )e such assem)lies as are e*usmodi fieri debent, ,uales vulgo commonl# called s#nods or "ynodi et Concilia nuncu#antur$122: 1221 councils 662
The !merican edition here adds the following@

[And it belongeth to the overseers and other rulers of the #articular churches, by virtue of their office, and the #ower which Christ hath given them for edification, and not for destruction, to a##oint such assemblies .!cts x" 0& and to convene together in them, as often as they shall *udge it e!#edient for the good of the Church .!cts x" ::, :;, :10 8

&& !s magistrates ma# lawfull# call a s#nod of ministers and other fit persons to consult and ad"ise with a)out matters of religion3122; so, if magistrates )e open enemies to the $hurch, the ministers of $hrist, of themsel"es, )# "irtue of their office, or the#, with other fit persons, upon delegation from their churches, ma# meet together in such assem)lies 1224M1221 &&& [&& 8 &t )elongeth to s#nods and councils, ministeriall#, to determine contro"ersies of faith, and cases of conscience3 to set down rules and directions for the )etter ordering of the pu)lic worship of ,od, and go"ernment of his $hurch3 to recei"e complaints in cases of maladministration, and authoritati"el# to determine the same@ which decrees and determinations, if consonant to the +ord of ,od, are to )e recei"ed with re"erence and su)mission, not onl# for their agreement with the +ord, )ut also for 674 the power where)# the# are made, as )eing an ordinance of ,od, appointed thereunto in his +ord 1229 &G [&&& 8 !ll s#nods or councils since the apostles' times, whether general or particular, ma# err, and man# ha"e erred3 therefore the# are not to )e made the rule of faith or practice, )ut to )e used as a help in )oth :444 G [&G 8 (#nods and councils are to handle or conclude nothing )ut that which is ecclesiastical@ and are not to intermeddle with ci"il affairs which concern the commonwealth, unless )# wa# of hum)le petition in cases extraordinar#3 or )# wa# of ad"ice for satisfaction of conscience, if the# )e thereunto re7uired )# the ci"il magistrate :44:

&& uemadmodum licitum est )agistratibus "ynodum )inistrorum aliorum,ue ,ui sunt idonei convocare, ,uibuscum de religionis rebus deliberent ac consultent:1226 3ta si )agistratus fuerint 'cclesi- hostes a#erti, licebit Christi ministris a sei#sis virtute officii, eisve cum aliis idoneis, acce#ta #rius ab 'cclesiis suis delegatione, in istiusmodi conventibus congregari$1227 &&& "ynodorum et Conciliorum est controversias fidei et conscienticasus, ministerialiter ,uidem, determinare& regulas ac #r-scri#ta ,uo melius #ublicus Dei cultus e*us,ue 'cclesi- regimen ordinentur constituere& uerelas de mala administratione delatas admittere, de,ue iis authoritative decernere$ u- ,uidem decreta et decisiones, modo verbo Dei consenserint, cum reverentia sunt ac summissione e!ci#ienda& 2on ,uidem solum ,uod verbo Dei sint consentanea, verum etiam gratia #otestatis ea constituentis, ut ,usit ordinatio Dei id ad in verbo suo designata$1222 &G "ynodi omnes sive concilia #ost A#ostolorum tem#ora, seu generales sive #articulares, errori sunt obno!i-, ,uin ne,ue #auc- erraverunt$ Proinde,ue fidei aut #ra!eos norma constituend- non sunt, verum in utris,ue au!ilii loco adhibend-$:441 G "ynodi et Concilia id solum ,uod 'cclesiam s#ectat tractare debent et concludere& ne,ue civilibus negotiis, ,u- rem #ublicam s#ectant ingerere se debent, nisi humiliter su##licando in casibus, si ,ui acciderint, e!traordinariis& aut consulendo, ,uoties id ab eis #ostulat )agistratus civilis, nem#e ,uo conscienti- illius satisfiat$:44;

C a!ter %%%II. /f the "tate of )en after Death, and of the 6esurrection of the Dead
:444

Ca!. %%%II. De statu hominum #ost mortem, de,ue resurrectione mortuorum

& The )odies of men, after death, return to dust, and see corruption3:441 )ut their souls .which neither die nor sleep0, ha"ing an immortal su)sistence, immediatel# return to ,od who ga"e them :446 The souls of the righteous, )eing then made perfect in holiness, are recei"ed into the highest hea"ens, where the# )ehold

& Hominum cor#ora #ost mortem ad #ulverem rediguntur, et corru#tionem vident::447 At animillorum .,u- ,uidem nec morientur nec obdormiunt0 ut ,u- subsistentiam habent immortalem, ad Deum continuo earum datorem revertuntur$:449 Anim- ,uidem .ustorum iam tum #erfecte sanctificat-, c8lis su#remis acci#iuntur, ubi Dei faciem in lumine ac gloria intuentur, cor#orum suorum #lenum redemtionem e!#ectantes::411 Animvero im#roborum con*iciuntur in 4ehennam, ubi inter diros cruciatus in tenebris e!terioribus conclusmanent, ad *udicium magni illius diei asservat-$:41: %ocum autem animabus a cor#ore solutis e!tra hosce duos "cri#tura "acra non agnoscit ullum$ && 2ovissimo illo die, ,ui com#erientur in vivis non morientur ,uidem sed mutabuntur&:411 ,ui mortui fuerint resuscitabuntur omnes, i#sissimis iis cor#oribus ,uibus viventes ali,uando fungebantur, ac non aliis, utut ,ualitate differentibus& ,u- denuo animabus ,u-,ue suis -terno con*ugio unientur$:416 &&& 3n*ustorum cor#ora ad dedecus #er #otentiam Christi suscitabuntur& *ustorum autem cor#ora #er s#iritum e*us ad honorem, fient,ue h-c conformia cor#ori i#sius glorioso$:419
Ca!. %%%III. De ultimo *udicio

671 the face of ,od in light and glor#, waiting for the full redemption of their )odies@:442 and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where the# remain in torments and utter darkness, reser"ed to the 6udgment of the great da# :414 =esides these two places for souls separated from their )odies, the (cripture acknowledgeth none && !t the last da#, such as are found ali"e shall not die, )ut )e changed3:41; and all the dead shall )e raised up with the selfIsame )odies, and none other, although with different 7ualities, which shall )e united again to their souls fore"er :414

&&& The )odies of the un6ust shall, )# the power of $hrist, )e raised to dishonor3 the )odies of the 6ust, )# his (pirit, unto honor, and )e made conforma)le to his own glorious )od# :417
C a!ter %%%III. /f the %ast .udgment

& ,od hath appointed a da# wherein & Diem Deus designavit ,uo he will 6udge the world in mundum in *ustitia *udicabit #er righteousness )# Aesus $hrist,:412 to .esum Christum&:4:4 cui a Patre data est

67: whom all power and 6udgment is gi"en of the 5ather :4:1 &n which da#, not onl# the apostate angels shall )e 6udged,:4:: )ut likewise all persons, that ha"e li"ed upon earth, shall appear )efore the tri)unal of $hrist, to gi"e an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds3 and to recei"e according to what the# ha"e done in the )od#, whether good or e"il :4:; && The end of ,od's appointing this da#, is for the manifestation of the glor# of his merc# in the eternal sal"ation of the elect3:4:7 and of his 6ustice in the damnation of the repro)ate, who are wicked and diso)edient :4:9 5or then shall the righteous go into e"erlasting life, and recei"e that fullness of 6o# and refreshing which shall come from the presence of the *ord@:4:2 )ut the wicked, who know not ,od, and o)e# not the gospel of Aesus $hrist, shall )e cast into eternal torments, and )e punished with e"erlasting destruction from the presence of the *ord, and from the glor# of his power :4;4 &&& !s $hrist would ha"e us to )e certainl# persuaded that there shall )e a da# of 6udgment, )oth to deter all men from sin, and for the 67; greater consolation of the godl# in their ad"ersit#@:4;: so will he ha"e that da# unknown to men, that the# ma# shake off all carnal securit#, and )e alwa#s watchful, )ecause the# know not at what hour the *ord will come3 and ma# )e e"er prepared to sa#, $ome, *ord Aesus, come 7uickl# :4;; !men $harles Derle, Prolocutor $ornelius =urges,

omnis #otestas et *udicium$:4:4 uo ,uidem die non solum *udicabuntur Angeli a#ostatici,:4:1 verum etiam omnes homines, ,uot,uot us#iam in orbe terrarum ali,uando vi!erint, coram Christi tribunali com#arebunt, ut cogitationum, dictorum, factorum,ue suorum rationem reddant, reci#iant,ue simul *u!ta id ,uod in cor#ore ,uis,ue fecerit, seu bonum fuerit sive malum$:4:6 && 'o autem consilio Diem hum #r-stituit Deus, ,uo nem#e misericordi- su- constaret gloria e! -terna salute electorum, *ustitiautem e damnatione re#roborum, ,ui im#robi sunt et contumaces$ Tunc enim *usti introibunt in vitam -ternam, reci#ient,ue #lenitudinem illam gaudii ac refrigerii, ,u- a #r-sentia Domini ventura sunt: 3m#ii autem, ,ui Deum ignorant, ,ui,ue 'vangelio .esu Christi non morem gerunt, in -ternos cruciatus detrudentur, -terna,ue #erditione #unientur a #r-sentia Domini et a #otenti- i#sius gloria #rofligati$:4;1 &&& uemadmodum Christus nobis, futurum esse ali,uando diem *udicii, esse velit #ersuasissimum& tum ,uo omnes a #eccato absterreantur, tum ob ma*us #iorum solatium in rebus adversis::4;4 ita sane diem i#sum vult ab hominibus ignorari, ,uo securitatem omnem carnalem e!cutiant, et nun,uam non sint vigilantes .,uum ,ua hora venturus sit Dominus ignorant0 ut,ue sem#er sint #arati ad dicendum 1eni Domine .esu, etiam cito veni$:4;1 !men

Assessor Der)ert /almer, Assessor$ Denr# Co)roughe, "criba !doniram =#field, "criba