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HEAT TRANSFER EP315

LABORATOTY MANUAL


Lecturer/Tutor: Mr. Bonavian/Ms Anita/Ms Sahlil Miraz

Name : ______________________________________
ID : ______________________________________
Course : ______________________________________



FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE & BUILD ENVIRONMENT
UCSI UNIVERSITY
2014
OBJECTIVES:
This subject will help the students to develop their skill s of collecting, analyzing, and presenting
the results of data acquired within a well-defined experimental system. The specific objectives
are to:
- Combine element of theory and practice particularly in heat transfer
- Develop competence in conducting experimental work
- Acquire a hand-on laboratory experience
- Familiarize with laboratory safety procedure
- Develop and demonstrate a knowledge of experimental error analysis, probability and
statistic
- Work collaboratively in group setting
- Develop practical skills to plan and design laboratory experiment

LEARNING OUTCOME:
Upon completing the experiments, students should be able to:
1. Collect and analyze experimental data and its relationship to theoretical principles of
heat transfer.
2. Prepare a written laboratory reports that clearly present the experimental results,
analysis, and relationship to theory.
3. Develop skills in operating common chemical engineering equipment and measurement
apparatus.

SUBJECT SYNOPSIS:
A laboratory course in heat transfer will acquire students the skills in project definition,
experimental operation, analytical procedures, data analysis and technical reports preparation.
LABORATORY SAFETY RULES:
Laboratory safety is the top priority and this requires all people in the laboratory to be
observing safe practices at all times!

All safety requirements as specified in this section will be strictly enforced. Students are
required to comply with the following rules when in the lab.
1. Wear suitable attire for lab work. Do not wear loose or bulky clothes, ties or jewelry
when working around rotating equipment. Students with long hair must tie their hair
before entering the lab. Open-toe shoes and sandals are not permitted.
(Lecturer/ instructor reserves the right not to allow students who do not follow this rule
to enter the lab)
2. Eating and drinking in the lab are strictly prohibited.
3. All hand phones must be switch off.
4. Always be punctual. Students later than 15 minutes are not allowed to perform the
experiment.
5. Always follow the instruction of the lab instructor or lecturer before the start of the lab.
6. It is important for each student to follow the procedures given by the laboratory
instructor when conducting laboratory experiment.
7. Clean the bench and return all apparatus to their respective places before you leave the
lab.
8. Before any experiment starts, students must study the information / precaution steps
and understand the procedures mentioned in the given laboratory sheet.
9. Students should report immediately to the laboratory instructor/officer if any injury
occurred.
10. Do not work with electricity under wet condition in laboratory. Electric shock is a serious
fatal error due to human negligence and may cause death.







Laboratory Reports:
Each student will be responsible for preparing an individual report after completing each
laboratory experiment.
a) Report submission
Reports must be submitted 1 week after the experiment. Any unforeseen circumstances
must be reported to the lab instructor immediately. Late submission will not be
accepted.
Fabricating results and plagiarism are strictly prohibited. Strict action will be taken if
student is found fabricating results or copy from others.
b) Report contents
Each report should contain the following:

Section
UCSI University Cover Page

Title of experiment

Objectives of experiment

Introduction
~Provide a scientific background related to the experiment and provides the reader with
justification for why the work was carried out.

Materials and Equipment
~List only the materials and equipment/apparatus used in the experiment.

Result and Calculation
~Present the data obtained from the experiment. The data have to be presented in a clear
and understandable manner.
~All tables must be clearly labeled with numbers and titles.
~All necessary calculations based on the raw data should be provided in this section.

Discussion
~This is most important section where detailed analysis of the experimental data should be
provided. Factors/issues related to the obtained results must be explained.
~Graphic materials based on the experimental data should be presented and discussed in
this section. All graphs must be clearly labeled with numbers and titles.
~Strategies that can use in the discussion:
Compare expected results with those obtained
Explain the results in terms of theoretical issues
What do the results indicate?
What is the significance of the results?
Relate results to the experimental objectives
Analyze experimental error
What ambiguities exist?
Find logical explanation for problems in the data

Conclusion
~Based on the discussion provided, summarize the key findings in a clear statement.
Additionally, the conclusion can also be used to express views on the weakness of the
experimental design (if there is any), or what is the implication of your conclusion.

References
~List all references used in the preparation of the report.
Information obtained from any source, including the Internet, is covered by copyright law.
Any source referred in the report must be acknowledged, both within the text and at the
end of it.
~The format should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style.


c) Report Assessment
The laboratory components accounts for 10% of the total marks for the subject.
Laboratory report will be assessed based on the following criteria:











LAB REPORT ASSESSMENT
Items Unacceptable Satisfactory Good Excellent Score
Score 1 2 3 4

Safety
measure/
Introduction


Precaution are
irrelevant or are not
appropriate to the
experiment

Precaution miss at
least one important
consideration; will
result in some risk to
student safety if not
revised

All major precautions
are adequately
addressed; procedures
adopted are likely to
produce a safe
experiment

Precaution fully
addressed .


Timeliness


Report handed in
more
than two days late

Up to one day late

Up to one hour late

Report handed in time


Experimental
procedures

Procedures do not
accurately list the
steps of the
experiment

Procedures are listed,
but seem missing some
information, some
steps are not numbered
and/or are in
incomplete sentences.

Procedures are listed,
important experimental
details are covered,
some minor details
missing


Procedures are listed in
clear steps; each step is
numbered and in a
complete sentence.


Result: data,
figures,
graphs,
tables, etc.

Figures, graphs,
tables contain errors
or are poorly
constructed, have
missing titles,
captions or numbers,
units missing or
incorrect, etc.

Most figures, graphs,
tables OK, some still
missing some important
or required features

All figures, graphs,
tables are correctly
drawn, but some have
minor problems or could
still be improved

All figures, graphs, tables
are correctly drawn, are
numbered and contain
titles/captions.


Discussion/
Observation

Very incomplete or
incorrect
interpretation of
trends and
comparison of data
indicating a lack of
understanding of
results

Some of the results
have been correctly
interpreted and
discussed; partial but
incomplete
understanding of
results is still evident

Almost all of the results
have been correctly
interpreted and
discussed, only minor
improvements are
needed

All important trends and
data comparisons have
been interpreted correctly
and discussed, good
understanding of results
is conveyed


Conclusion

Conclusions missing
or missing the
important points

Conclusions regarding
major points are drawn,
but many are
misstated, indicating a
lack of understanding

All important
conclusions have been
drawn, could be better
stated

All important conclusions
have been clearly made,
student shows good
understanding


Appearance
and formatting

Sections out of order,
report is not
typed/written using
the appropriate
format

Sections in order,
formatting is rough but
readable

Lab report is mostly
typed/written using the
appropriate format, all
sections in order,
formatting generally
good but could still be
improved

Lab report is typed/written
in well-formatted, very
readable.


Spelling,
grammar,
sentence
structure

Frequent grammar
and/or spelling errors,
writing style is rough
and immature

Occasional
grammar/spelling
errors, generally
readable with some
rough spots in writing
style

Less than 3
grammar/spelling errors,
mature, readable style

All grammar/spelling
correct and very well-
written


Total Mark


Final Score
Percentage (%)

= (Total Marks / 32 )*10

EXPERIMENT TITLE:
1. Fourier's Law study for
a. Linear conduction of heat along homogeneous bar.

b. Conduction of heat and overall heat transfer along a composite bar.

c. Effect of a change in cross-sectional area on the temperature profile along a thermal
conductor.

2. Demonstration of the relationship between power input & surface temperature in free and
forced convection

3. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
a) Parallel Flow
b) Counter Flow
c) Water Temperature Variation
d) Flow Rate Variation


4. The temperature profile and rate of heat transfer for radial conduction through the wall of
cylinder.


5. Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger with Parallel Flow
a) Parallel Flow
b) Counter Flow
c) Water Temperature Variation
d) Flow Rate Variation







HEAT CONDUCTION STUDY BENCH


The SOLTEQ

Heat Conduction Study Bench (Model: HE105) consists of two electrically


heated modules mounted on a bench support frame. One module contains a cylindrical metal
bar arrangement for a variety of linear conduction experiments while the other consists of a
disc for radial conduction experiment. Both test modules are equipped with an array of
temperature sensors. Cooling water, to be supplied from a standard laboratory tap is fed to one
side of the test pieces in order to maintain a steady temperature gradient.
The instrumentation provided permits accurate measurement of temperature and
power supply. Fast response temperature probes with a resolution of 0.1C are used. The
power control circuit provides a continuously variable electrical output of 0-100 Watts.
The test modules are designed to minimize errors due to true three-dimensional heat
transfer. The basic principles of conduction can be taught without knowledge of radiation or
convective heat transfer. The linear test piece is supplied with interchangeable samples of
conductors and insulators to demonstrate the effects of area, conductivity and series
combinations. Contact resistance may also be investigated, and the important features of
unsteady state conditions may be demonstrated.

For linear conduction, an electrical heating element, which comprises of a heat input
section fabricated from brass fitted with an electrical heater, is bonded to one end of a metal
rod (heat source). Another end of the rod, which is also made of brass, is exposed to heat
discharge (heat sink). The outer surface of the cylindrical rod is well insulated; thus yielding
one-dimensional linear heat conduction in the rod once the heating element is switched on.
Thermocouples are embedded in the rod, along its centerline.

For radial conduction, the electrical heating element is bonded to the center part of a
circular brass plate (heat source). The cooling water flows through the edge of the plate that
acts as a heat sink for heat discharge. The other surfaces of the plate are well insulated to
simulate radial heat conduction from the plate center to its edge when the heating element is
switched on. Thermocouples are embedded in the circular plate.







Linear Conduction Heat Transfer

Fouriers Law states that:

dx
dT
kA Q =
(1)

where,

Q = heat flow rate, [W]
k = thermal conductivity of the material,
(

Km
W

A = cross-sectional area of the conduction, [m
2
]
dT = changes of temperature between 2 points, [K]
dx = changes of displacement between 2 points, [m]

From continuity the heat flow rate (Q) is the same for each section of the
conductor. Also the thermal conductivity (k) is constant (assuming no change
with average temperature of the material).

Hence,
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
C
C
S
S
H
H
dx
dT A
dx
dT A
dx
dT A
= = (2)
i.e. the temperature gradient is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional
area.















Figure 1: Temperature distribution with various cross-sectional areas

AC

Q
AH
XH XS XC
AC
AC
Radial Conduction Heat Transfer (Cylindrical)
















Figure 2: Radial temperature distribution

When the inner and outer surfaces of a thick wall cylinder are each at a uniform
temperature, heat rows radially through the cylinder wall. From continuity
considerations the radial heat flow through successive layers in the wall must be
constant if the flow is steady but since the area of successive layers increases
with radius, the temperature gradient must decrease with radius.

The amount of heat (Q), which is conducted across the cylinder wall per unit
time, is:

i
o
o i
R
R
T T Lk
Q
ln
) (
=
t 2
(3)

Where,

Q = heat flow rate, [W]
L = thickness of the material, [m]
k = thermal conductivity of the material,
(

Km
W

T
i
= inner section temperature, [K]
T
o
= outer section temperature, [K]
R
o
= outer radius, [m]
R
i
= inner radius, [m]
Ri Ro

Temperature
Distribution
Ri
Ro

Ti
To
EXPERIMENT 1
Part A : FOURIER'S LAW STUDY FOR LINEAR CONDUCTION OF HEAT ALONG
HOMOGENEOUS BAR
Objective
To investigate Fourier's Law for the linear conduction of heat along a homogeneous bar
Procedures:

1. Make sure that the main switch initially off. Then Insert a brass conductor (25mm
diameter) section intermediate section into the linear module and clamp together.
2. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the
water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
3. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise position and
connect the sensors leads.
4. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be illuminated.
5. Turn the heater power control. Regulate the heater power between 0-40 watts. After
each change, sufficient time must be allowed to achieve steady state conditions.
6. Take the temperature reading from T1 until T9.
7. Plot the temperature, T versus distance, x. Calculate the theoretical and actual thermal
conductivity.

Note:
i) When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler take care to
match the shallow shoulders in the housings.
ii) Ensure that the temperature measurement points are aligned along the
longitudinal axis of the unit.

Results:














Part B: CONDUCTION OF HEAT AND OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER ALONG A
COMPOSITE BAR

Objective:
To study the conduction of heat along a composite bar and evaluate the overall heat
transfer coefficient

Procedure:

1. Make sure that the main switch initially off. Insert the stainless steel section or any
other metals (without sensor) into the linear module and clamp together.
2. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the
water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
3. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise position.
4. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be illuminated.
5. Turn the heater power control. Regulate the heater power to 0-40 watts. After each
change, sufficient time must be allowed to achieve steady state conditions.
6. Take the reading for T1, T2, T3, T7, T8, T9.
7. Plot of the temperature, T versus distance, x. Calculate the Overall Heat Transfer
Coefficient, U based on the knowledge of k
brass
and k
stainless steel
and distances x
1
, x
2
and
x
3
.
Note:
When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler take care to
match the surface.

Results:

Overall resistance to heat flow,















Part C: EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA ON THE TEMPERATURE
PROFILE ALONG A THERMAL CONDUCTOR
Objective:
To investigate the effect of a change in the cross-sectional area on the temperature
profile along a thermal conductor

Procedure:
1. Make sure that the main switch initially off. Insert an brass or any other metals
conductor (13mm diameter) section into the linear module and clamp together.
2. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the
water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
3. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise position.
4. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be
illuminated.
5. Turn the heater power control. Regulate the heater power between 0-20 watts. Allow
sufficient time for a steady state condition to be achieved before recording the
temperature at all six sensor points and the input power reading on the wattmeter (Q).
6. Plot the temperature, T versus distance, x. Comment on the trend and slope of the
graph.

Note:
When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler take care to
provide a good surface contact.

Results:











EXPERIMENT 2: DEMONSTRATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
POWER INPUT & SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN FREE AND FORCED
CONVECTION

Objectives:
To demonstrate the relationship between power input and surface temperature in free
and forced convection

PART A Natural Convection

Equipment Set-Up:

Wattmeter (Q)
Temperature Indicator
Plate Sensor
Heater
Probe
Sensor


Procedures:

1. Remove the fan assembly from the top of the duct.
2. Place the finned heat exchanger into the test duct.
3. Record the ambient air temperature (t
A
).
4. Set the heater power control to 20 Watts (clockwise).
5. Allow sufficient time to achieve steady state conditions before noting the heated plate
temperature (t
H
) into the table below.
6. Repeat this procedure at 40, 60 and 80 Watts.
7. Plot a graph of power against temperature (t
H
-t
A
).



Result:
Ambient air temperature (t
A
) = ________
o
C









PART B Forced Convection

Procedures:

1. Place the fan assembly on to the top of the duct.
2. Place the finned heat exchanger into the duct.
3. Note the ambient air temperature (t
A
).
4. Set the heater power control to 50 Watts (clockwise). Allow sufficient time to achieve
steady state conditions before noting the heated plate temperature (t
H
).
5. Set the fan speed control to give a reading of 0.5m/s on the thermal anemometer, allow
sufficient time to achieve steady state conditions. Record heated plate temperature.
6. Repeat this procedure at 1.0m/s and 1.5m/s.
7. Plot a graph of air velocity against temperature. ( t
H
t
A
)


Result:

Ambient air temperature (t
A
) = _______ C

Power input = 50 Watts

Air Velocity
m/s
Plate Temp (t
H
)
C
t
H
t
A

C
0
0.5
1.0
1.5






Input Power
Watts
Plate Temp (t
H
)
C
t
H
t
A

C
20
40
60
80
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

The SOLTEQ HE104-ST Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger has been designed specifically to
demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers in the most convenient way
possible in the laboratory classroom. The apparatus requires only a cold water supply, three
phase electrical outlet and a bench top to enable a series of simple measurements to be made
by students needing an introduction to heat exchanger design and operation. Experiments can
be readily conducted in a short period of time, with virtually no setting up operations to
accurately show the practical importance of the following:-

Temperature profiles
Co- and counter-current flow
Energy balances
Log mean temperature difference
Heat transfer coefficients

The equipment consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger mounted on a support
frame. Three temperature measuring devices are installed in both the inside and outside tubes
to measure the fluid temperatures accurately. To minimize losses in the system, the hot water
is fed through the inner pipe, with the cooling water in the outer annulus.

Control valves are incorporated in each of the two streams to regulate the flow. The
flow rates are measured using independent flow meters installed in each line.

The hot water system is totally self-contained. A hot storage tank is equipped with an
immersion type heater and an adjustable temperature controller which can maintain a
temperature to within approximately 1C. Circulation to the heat exchanger is provided by a
pump and hot water returns to the storage tank to be reheated. The cold water required for
the exchanger is taken from the laboratory mains supply.


Figure 1: Rear view of shell and tube heat exchanger

Figure 2: Front view of shell and tube heat exchanger

16
15
11
10
9
8
17
18
19
21
22
23
20
24
7 6
12
13
14
25 26
1
2
3
4
5
COMMISSIONING
(Refer to Figs. 1 and 2).

Check the drain valve underneath the water storage tank is fully closed (clockwise).

Remove the cover from the storage tank (1) and fill the tank with clean water to within 40mm
(about 1.5 inch) from the top.
NOTE: Heater will automatically off if the water level is below the level switch (2) in order to
prolong the heater life.

Replace the cover on the storage tank.

Connect the cold water inlet (24) to a source of cold water using flexible tubing.

Connect the cold water outlet (5) to a suitable drain.

Close the hot water flow control valve (16).

Set the temperature controller (19) to zero on the front panel.

Switch on the pump switch and observe operation of the pump.

Raise the cover on the storage tank and observe circulation of the water through the tank.

Open the hot water flow control valve (16) and allow water to flow through the exchanger until
a steady flow of water is indicated on the hot water flow meter (22).

Open the cold water flow control valve (15). Set the valves V1 V4 to parallel and co-current
positions alternatively. Allow water to flow through the exchanger until a steady flow of water
is indicated on the cold water flow meter (23).

Close the hot and cold water flow control valves.

Set the temperature controller (19) to an elevated temperature e.g. 50.0C. Switch on the
heater and observe the heater switch is illuminated indicating power output to the heating
element. Observe the heater in the storage tank and make sure it runs well.

Commissioning is now complete.



EXPERIMENT 3: SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Objective
The experiment aims to demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers.
Parallel and counter flow arrangements shall be used and the efficiency of the heat exchanger
will be investigated in each case.

PART A Parallel Flow Arrangement

1. Start the circulation of cold water.
2. Using the proper selector valve arrangement, set the flow of cold water parallel to the
flow of hot water. (Open V1 & V4, close V2 & V3)
3. Switch on the main switch and the pump.
4. Set the temperature controller to 60C.
*Note: You may initially reduce the cold water flow rate to speed up the temperature
increase.*
5. Set the hot water flow rate to 2 liters/min and the cold water flow rate to 1.5 liters/min.
6. Enable to temperature to stabilize before recording the temperatures from T1 to T4.

Results:
R
e
a
d
i
n
g
s

TT1
( tH
in
)
C
TT2
( tH
out
)
C
TT3
( tC
in
)
C
TT4
( tC
out
)
C

C
a
l
c
u
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
s

Power
emitted
W
Power
absorbed
W
Power
lost
W
Efficiency
%
t
m
C
U
W/m
2
C












PART B Counter Flow Heat Exchanger
1. Open V2 & V4, close V1 & V3
1. Set the temperature controller to 60C, and the hot water flow rate and cold water flow
rate to 2 liters/min and 1.5 liters/min respectively.
2. Upon reaching steady-state conditions, record the temperature readings from T1 to T4.

Results:
R
e
a
d
i
n
g
s

TT1
( tH
in
)
C
TT2
( tH
out
)
C
TT3
( tC
out
)
C
TT4
( tC
in
)
C

C
a
l
c
u
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
s

Power
emitted
W
Power
absorbed
W
Power
lost
W
Efficiency
%
t
m
C
U
W/m
2
C


PART C Flow Rate Variation
1. Use a counter flow set up of the heat exchanger.
2. Set the temperature controller to 60C.
3. Set the cold and hot water flow rate as in the table below.
Results:
R
e
a
d
i
n
g
s

Q
H
L / min
TT1
( tH
in
)
C
TT2
( tH
out
)
C
TT3
( tC
out
)
C
TT4
( tC
in
)
C
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
s

Q
H
L / min
Power
emitted
W
Power
absorbed
W
Power
lost
W
Efficiency
%
t
m

C
U
W / m
2
C
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0



PART D Water Temperature Variation
1. Use a counter flow set up of the heat exchanger.
2. Set both the cold and hot water flow rate to 2 liters/min.
3. Vary the hot water temperatures to 65C, 60C, 55C and 50C.
4. Upon reaching steady state conditions at each temperature setting, record the
temperatures of T1 to T4.

Results:
R
e
a
d
i
n
g
s

Temp
set
C
TT1
( tH
in
)
C
TT2
( tH
out
)
C
TT3
( tC
out
)
C
TT4
( tC
in
)
C
50
55
60
65
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
s

Temp
set C
Power
emitted
W
Power
absorbed
W
Power
lost
W
Efficiency
%
t
m
C
U
W/m
2
C

C
%

H
%

mean
%

50
55
60
65





















SUMMARY OF THEORY:

Power emitted = Q
H

H
Cp
H
(T
Hin
- T
Hout
)
Power absorbed = Q
C

C
Cp
C
(T
Cin
T
Cout
)

Power lost = power emitted - power absorbed

System efficiency, = % 100
emitted power
absorbed power


Log mean temperature difference, t
m
=
2
1
2 1
ln
t
t
t t
A
A
A A

- For parallel flow :


- For counter flow :



Overall heat transfer coefficient, U =

area t
absorbed power
m
A

where,
area = Surface area of contact
= p x OD
inner tube
x Length x tube count
= (3.142 x 0.0032 x 0.508) m x 55
= 0.281 m

Temperature efficiencies of the heat exchanger are:

a) for the cold medium

C
= % 100

Cin Hin
Cin Cout
t t
t t


b) for the hot medium

H
= % 100

Cin Hin
Hout Hin
t t
t t


c) mean temperature efficiency

mean
=
2
H C
q q +



CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

The SOLTEQ HE104 Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger has been designed specifically to
demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers in the most convenient way
possible in the laboratory classroom. The apparatus requires only a cold water supply, single
phase electrical outlet and a bench top to enable a series of simple measurements to be made
by students needing an introduction to heat exchanger design and operation. Experiments can
be readily conducted in a short period of time, with virtually no setting up operations to
accurately show the practical importance of the following:-

Temperature profiles
Co- and counter-current flow
Energy balances
Log mean temperature difference
Heat transfer coefficients

The equipment consists of a concentric tube exchanger in the form of a 'U' mounted on
a support frame. The external surface of the exchanger is insulated. Three temperature
measuring devices are installed in both the inside and outside tubes to measure the fluid
temperatures accurately. To minimize losses in the system, the hot water is fed through the
inner pipe, with the cooling water in the outer annulus.

Control valves are incorporated in each of the two streams to regulate the flow. The
flow rates are measured using independent flow meters installed in each line.

The hot water system is totally self-contained. A hot storage tank is equipped with an
immersion type heater and an adjustable temperature controller which can maintain a
temperature to within approximately 1C. Circulation to the heat exchanger is provided by a
pump and hot water returns to the storage tank to be reheated. The cold water required for
the exchanger is taken from the laboratory mains supply.




Figure 1: Rear view of concentric tube heat exchanger

Figure 2: Front view of concentric tube heat exchanger
COMMISSIONING
(Refer to Figs. 1 and 2).

Check the drain valve underneath the water storage tank is fully closed (clockwise).

Remove the cover (1) from the storage tank (4) and fill the tank with clean water to within
40mm (about 1.5 inch) from the top.
NOTE: Heater will automatically off if the water level is below the level switch (2) in order to
prolong the heater life.

Replace the cover on the storage tank.

Close the air bleed valves (11, 9) on the top of the heat exchanger.

Connect the cold water inlet (23) to a source of cold water using flexible tubing.

Connect the cold water outlet (24) to a suitable drain.

Close the hot water flow control valve (22).

Set the temperature controller (12) to zero on the front panel.

Switch on the pump switch and observe operation of the pump.

Raise the cover on the storage tank and observe circulation of the water through the tank.

Open the hot water flow control valve (22) and allow water to flow through the exchanger until
a steady flow of water is indicated on the hot water flow meter (21).

Open the cold water flow control valve (26). Set the selector valves (19) to parallel and co-
current positions alternatively. Allow water to flow through the exchanger until a steady flow of
water is indicated on the cold water flow meter (27).

Close the hot and cold water flow control valves.

Attach a length of flexible tubing to each of the air bleed valves (11, 9) at the top of the
exchanger. Open each bleed valve and allow water to flow until all air is expelled.

Close both bleed valves and remove the flexible tubing.

Set the temperature controller (12) to an elevated temperature e.g. 50.0C. Switch on the
heater and observe the heater switch is illuminated indicating power output to the heating
element. Observe the heater in the storage tank and make sure it runs well.
Commissioning is now complete.
Open ended experiment
EXPERIMENT 4: THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE AND RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER FOR
RADIAL CONDUCTION THROUGH THE WALL OF CYLINDER


Objective:
To examine the temperature profile and determine the rate of heat transfer resulting
from radial conduction through the wall of a cylinder

Result :
Plot the temperature, T versus distance, r.
Plot the graph temperature, T (k) versus ln r
Calculate the amount of thermal conductivity.














Open-ended experiment
EXPERIMENT 5: CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Objective
The experiment aims to design and construct the working principles of industrial heat
exchangers. Parallel and counter flow arrangements shall be used and the efficiency of the
heat exchanger will be investigated in each case.

Result:
Consist of 4 part which are:
- PART A Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
- PART B Counter Flow Heat Exchanger
- PART C Flow Rate Variation with counter flow condition
- PART D Water Temperature Variation with counter flow condition

You are require to calculate the efficiency of the heat exchanger


Notes:
For parallel flow, V1 & V3 must be open and V2 & V4 must be close.
For counter flow, V2 & V4 must be open and V1 & V3 must be close.
You can use set temperature at 60C
Cold water flow rate 1.5 liters/min
Hot water flow rate 2 liters/min