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ADVANCED TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY

PatiI.S.S", Shinde B.M.~, Katikar.R.S.~, Kavade M. V.4

ABSTRACT
The paper is with the intention to provide awareness of particular work measurement technique called 'Maynard Operation Sequence Technique' essential for planning and controlling operation. The objective ot any work measurement technique is to reduce the work content and thereby improve the productivity of the process. The disadvantages of the other work measurement methods over Mo.S. T is that in each technique like MTM, PMTS the recording of the data is classified into a number of intangit:...Jranges, .,.!'Ihich are not user-friendly. Mo.S. T has the data manipulation during operation. They has almost eliminated the online worker unconfortability. 1) INTRODUCTION
H.B.Maynard and Company in data collection .This new know the amount of time a r,iislically , it is for any of The advantages had nuruduccd M.O.ST system after they found the applicauou (If PMTS./l.ITM detailed system was brought into practice in the u.s. 1975. There are malty reasons for wanting to particular task should take to accomplish .It may simply be for rcaSO:1S of curiosity. But, three reasons: to accomplish planning. determine performance. and establish C(IStS.

of M.O.S.T . over other work measurement technique ,~re:It is faster 111.111 other work measurement techniques. It has corurollcd accuracy It reduces r;ll'cr work. The tunc ~';IIIbe calculated in advance. [a~y ~(l ;L' \!'II and understand, it is workman-Ir icndly. It is uni vcrv.rl .ipphcation. Ralill~ ;';ILI{lr " 1101required. III C:illl,I.,hit,h \\lIr;"- measurement mdcpcndcntly. The \Iilll 1':quHcli i\ less Ih;II1 other methods and hence economical. It is UlIl'.I<C,,1 thcrclorc , more ;1-:t;epJrl<: (11 management .cng iuccr-. ,u!',;rvisurs consisting ol l,Ii': or

and \\,.)ri.:nlCll.

A 1I-1.0.ST allalY~ls i~" L""1i':' Ic study of an opcr.uon or a suboperation

several methods and total normal

step, u nu:

and corresponding sequence models. as well as appropriate !UI the operation or suboperation (excluding allowancex ) .

parameter

time

t'l THE CONCEPT 01-- ,\IOST WORK {VIEAS RE!V[ENT TECHNIQUE: "Because Industrial CIl~IiI,'cr, .irc lilllght with sufficient study any method can he improv cd. many crforts have been made to simplify the \'.t'~' lIiC.I\UrCIIlCn[ analyst', lash: .Thi s has . for instance. led ill a vurict y of higher 1e\",:1 MTM data system now III u-, I ',,, .ur.rudc also led us [(I cx auunc the whole concept of w or], measurement III find a better way for :lIlalyslS III ;:";',11''1':I,h Ihclr Illi,sioll. The result w.rv the formation of the ,::>:lc'L'j'! l.ucr to he known as ~10ST. Maynard Operation Sn;uL'IiL', Tcc hruquc ". ;"IOST is il sysrcn, 10 IIle,I'W,: \.(lrh:. therefore it conccrur.ncs on [he .noveme.u of \lb;L'c', , Ltficicnt. smooth. productive wor']; is performed \\ hc;! Ih.: I,,i( motion pallCrtlS arc tact ically arranged and '!l;"";hly choreographed (method cn~i nccri ng ). It \\ .1\ 11<'\1, c',: II!;U tl: movcrncu I, or t he object <, fo 110vv ccrt.ii n COIl\I-tcn i Iv repeat ing pnucru: such itS reach. gr,asp', II!(I\C. IHhlll<'". illc (lbjccl. etc. To ilH"'C an object ,l universe s:XjUCIlCL'111<',:-':1 in-rend of random dctui lcd
b.is, motions
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Nation::! Conference on Recent Trends in CAD/CAMiCAE (NCRTC-2004). 21-23 June 2C04. R.1.T.. Rajararnnagar

!n general. objects call be moved in only two ways, either they are picked and moved freely moved while maintaining contact with another surface. For example, a box can be picked up of a workbench to another or it can be pushed across the top of the workbench. For each sequence of CVCIII~ occurs, therefore. a separate MOST activity model applies. The use of i separate activity sequence model. Consequently. (llih three basic MOST activity sequences measuring the movements of objects with manual cranes: The General Move Sequence (for the movements are -ieeded for describing manual

through space. or they are and carried from one end type of move, a different tools analyzed through a

work. plus a fourth

for

i I

of an objects

fr.:e1y through

air) in contact with a surface or is attached

The controlled MI)\C Sequence (for the movements to another object dl1rtng thc movement) The Tool Use )C4L1eIlLC(fur the use of common

of an objects

when it remain

hand tools) . Refer Table 1.

Sequence ModelGeneral Move is defined as moving objects manually from one location to another freely through the air. To account for the various ways in which a General Move can occur. the activity sequence is made up of four subactivities : A Action distance (mainly horizontal) R Body motions (mainly vertical) G Gain corurol P Placement These subacuviuc-, .1.--:arranged in a sequence model (Fig. I ). consisting of a series of parameters organized in a logical sequence. The ~e4l!e'~,c model defines the events or actions that always take place in a prescribed order when an object is being moved r"r,,::: OIIC location to another. The General Move Sequence Model, which is the most commonly used sequence u.odc}. ,...1..1..:;"; ncd ..J~ follows: These subacu v iuc , .'1 ~e411C:1Cemodel parameters, are then assigned time related index numbers based on the motion of tile ':ul'.lc'i\-::\,. This approach provides complete analysis flex ibility within the overall control of the sequence mods: i,r "id'~ object moved. any combination of motions might occur, and using MOST. any cornbinarior, m y he analyzed : ,- II:.: General Move Sequence. these index values arc easily memorized from a brief datu card .. -\ !'uily indexed G-:::- i .. \ I .vc Sequence, for example. might appear as fo!lows: Gel

2.1) The Basic

content

,
i
("', ,
I

Put

.-\6

36

"~ !

BO

P3

1
fl

II
II

Where: A6 '" W.:;, ,',' t" four steps to object location B6 = Bend .uu: < GI = Gain c.v: ., ,.: ,'IIC light object A I = Move ,oj ;. .: .: JI'dance within reach BU = No blld~:: ::.':1 P3 = Place .IP,i .., ,::,1 "t'ject AO = No re'IU:i, 6 + 6 + I + ! . .\ 10 = 170 TMU This c x amplc CUll: arise. and place 11;,'
'

II :I ,I
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'i :'1,1

.u st ancc, represent hole.


i

the following

activity:

walk three: steps to pick up a bolt from floor level.

General lVlovc " . occurs as it G:':Il,'; : machine shop 01"'; "

h.: most frequently

'- 1. '\ c. with the percentage

used of the three sequence rnode ls. Roughly SO % of all manual work running higher for assembl y and material handling and lower for

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4. 13

Na;ional Conference en Recent Trends in CAD/CAM/CAE

(NCRTC-2004)_ 21-23 June 2004. RJ.T . Rajaramnagar

2.2)The Controlled Move Sequence


(Fig.L). This sequence is used to coyer such activitjss as operating a lever Of crank, activating a button or switch, or simply sliding an object over a surface. In addition to the A, B, and G parameters from the General Move Sequence, the sequence model for a controlled move contains the following subactivities: M controlled

i
"I '

I
I

,
,

X
Process time Align

Move

As many assembly sequence indexed s

as one -third of the activities occurring in machine shop operations may involve controlled moves. In work. however. the fraction is usually much smallest. A Typical activity covered by the controlled move is the engaging of the feed lever on the milling machine. The sequence model for this activity might be follows: r. Mot

Get

AI-BIJ

GI

II XIO

,0;:

Actuate 10

Retur~~

I I

,r

i.

Where:

Reach to the lever a distance with in reach No body motion GI Get hold of the lever MI Move lever up to 12 inches to engage feed XIO Process time of Approximately 3.5 sec. [0 =: No alignment AO No return. ExampleFrom a position in front of the lathe, the operator takes two steps to the side, revolution. and sets the cutting tool by aligning the handwheel dial to a scale mark A3 80 G I M6 XO 16 AO

Al

00

turns the handwheel

two

( 3 + I + 6 + 6 ) X 10 =: 16C TMU

2.3) Tool Use Sequence mode! :


This sequence model covers the use of hand tools for such activities as fastening or loosening, CUlling .cleaning. gauging. and recording .Aiso . certain activities requiring the use of the blain fer mental processes can be classified as tool use. e.g .. reading and thinking. As indicated above. this model i, a combination of General move and controlled move uctivirics. It was developed as a pdr! of the basic MOST systems. merely to sirr.plify the analysis of the activities related to the use of the hand tools. The use of a wrench. Get
t001

for example. Put aside GI


1001

might be described or operator

by the following Put


1001 ir

sequence: Return PI or o~ect object In place

object A I 130 Where:


r\ I

Ur

tool FIG

AI

BO

P3

AI

80

AO

Reach to wrench = No body motion G I = Get hold of wrench B(~ = Nc body motion P' = Place wrench on fastener F 10 = Tiglucn fastener with wrench A I = Move wrench a distance with in reach f3(l No body motion PI = Lay wrench aside .-\0 = No return ( I + I ;- I + 10 + I + I ) X 10 = 180 TMU
80

+.'
v

3) THE .\IOST SYSTEM FAMILY MOST IS d i Ideo into ious systems as furnished
v .rr

below depending

till

the level of accuracy.

-L 14

National Conference on Recent Trends in CAD/CAM/CAE

(NCRTC-2004)_ 21-23 June 2004_ R.I.T .. Rajaramnagar

i ,

repetitiveness off the operations. cycie time of the operation being types of MOST systems which areMini MOST ( used for repetitive operations) Basic MOST ( used for general operations) Maxi MOST ( used for Non-repetitive. operations) Clerical MOST ( used for clerical operation)

performed.

type 'of operation

etc. There

Mini

MOST

At the lowest level . Mini MOST provides the most de uled and precise methods analyze.In general , this level of detail an pr cision is required to analyze any operation likely to be re mere than 1500 rimes per work .An operation in this c tegory may range from 2 to 10 seconds .There are only Set models i.c the General and the Controlled Move. In contrast to Basic MOST. the index value total for a Set model IS 11Iulli;,licd by I and converted to minutes or seconds Area of arrlic.t!ioll';: Light press operations. Manufacturing of PCB.etc

Basic \'IOST
At the I nrcrmcdiatc level, operations that are likely to be performed more than 150 but fewer than 1500 times per should be analyvcd with Basic MOSi. An operation in this category may range from a few seconds to 10 rninu length. (Opcrauons longer than 10 minutes may be analyzed with Basic MOST, with 0.5-3 minutes being typical time for Busic !'-IOSD. The majority of operations in most industries fall into this category. Basic MOST index r: readily accommodate the cycle-to-cycle variations typical at this level. The method descriptions that result from I MOST :tn."~ .'';' .irc sufficiently detailed for use as operator instructions.

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Areas ot application:
!\:iAXI _\lOST

General manual Work.

At the hl:;he't level. Maxi MOST is used to analyze operations that are likely to be performe-d fewer than 150 time! week. .-\n oper.':ltlll in this category may be less than 2 minutes to more than several hours in length. Maxi Mt index r ..Jn~t::, .:L":;,;:\Ir.t:d::.te the wide cycle-to-cycle variations that are typical in such work as setups or heavy assern Even ,hI.' J..-. ,.1. the method descriptions resulting from Maxi MOST are very practical for instructional purpc Maxi :-'1(),,j u<, 'he same index values as Basic and Mini MOST. However the multiplier here is 100 instead of [ .n [h~k \l(.l\ I "ilLi then converted as required,

..!,

Areas

,_,j' ;Ii~pl;\ .uion.

Maintenance

work, S[l:P building,

rail

C3.i

fabrications

etc.

4)TU\IL 1:'\["1 ~;: The um., ::,;[. ,!,,;,I In MOST are identical to those used in the basic M'I M (Methods-Time Measurement) system, arc b;,~e.:,i .;' i:l'i.~. and parts of hours called Time Measurement Units (TMl,;l. One TMU is equivalent to 0.00001 ho The f<,[I" .:': _"n\crsion table is provided for calculating standard times:
The till:_' I u. !l Icomplete \\"orkin:;
level.

.' '" TMU for each sequence mode! in calculated by adding the index numbers and multiplying the SUIll ., _,"l\c.:fted to hours, mins or sees. Total time for adding the computed sequence times arrives at I . , . I x. r analysis. All time values established b~ \LO.5.T reflect the activity of an average skilled opcra :r..:;c performance level or normal pace. This time represents pure work content at 1009', perforrnur

The vur: , .,:I..I;:tivities in the various sequences are based on detailed MT.M. backup analyses describing I different .. !"' ,:, "h. The MT.M analyses are slotted into fixed time ranges represented by an index vall c(Jrre.:s[l":: ... ~ i 'Illcdian. Time range~ arc calculated using statistical accuracy principle theory. The para me van.uu-, .:: .: .',.1 till data cards for quick reference. Parameter indexing is the appl ication of time related index vall to e;I.:I: .... .. .: n.odcl parameter base Oil the motion content. It is defined as the process of sclccung the appropr i. par.uucr,': ::i Irom the reference table or date card and appiving the corresponding mdex value .

S) SYS'! I \ I . ..,!:LECTION
Figlli":'. ~ pi H~t..-q,:! .. :" .iccur.. :.
CfI"illl .. Ii:.:

CH.A..RTS

: provide another approach to applying the s c selection gurde lmcs. These chart-, arc bas cd on r.. .: I(,ngcr the analyzed rime. the morc accurate the anal yxi c (Jut: 10 the baiancing clfcct): (2) the OVCI '!i' of analyses !mpro,es as short-cycle anal , '<5 arc properly combined, Theses Ci':III~arc designed ...:i (If standards that includes short-cycle Jnal: <5 wi ll havc the expected level of accuracy.

-L l:'i

National Conference

on ~ecent Trends in CAD/CAM/CAE

(NCRTC-2004).

21-23 June 2004. R.I.T . Rajaramnagar

Each chart covers one of the two levels of accuracy most often required by government and industry. With either chart. if you know or can estimate the approximate length of the operation in minutes and the percentage of the standard calculation period occupied. by repetitions of the operation. you can quickly determine which MOST version will be suff:ciently accurate for the analysis. This provides a useful guideline for avoiding the extra work that would he required to analyze operations with a version of MOST more detailed than necessary. ---

,
I

I
j

For example. using Fig. 2 if the operation is about one minute long and will be repeated enough times to occupy about 30 % of the pay period. a Basic MOST analysis will be sufficiently accurate. If repetitions of this same operation occupy 70 % of the period, however, then Mini MOST must be used for the analysis. A similar determination is made for each analysis. When all analyses of the operations that fill the calculation period fall within the charted limits. overall accuracy within .::!:..-5% is assured. To maintain overall accuracy, when estimating the cycle time for the operation, do not include the time for any step or sequence of steps that is repeatedvdentically jvithin the operation cycle. .

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6)CONCLUSION
With the help of MOST method. its possible to achieve major times reduction in the manufacturing of the products . . MOST nearly gives non-machining time reduction of 60 to 65 0/0. Which is measure achievement for MOST application. MOST gives alternative to the Time Study method. With the help of this method its possible to get the production time of the products before its actual manufacturing starts. This helps in the production planning of FOK (First of Its Kind) products. With the Most it's possible now to plan the production for one day before in the beginning of day itself Since its provided with software support called as MDAT (MOST DATA) which eliminate the manual calculation and give ease in the time measurement. REFERANCE I. Antis. William,
Foundation.
L..

Honeycutt,

John M., J r. , and Koch, Edward N .. The Basic Moticns of MTM, The Maynard Maynard's Industrial Engineering Handbook,
4th

1986

Hodscn, William
1992 Wcsterkarnp.

K., Editor-in-Chief,

Edition. MoGraw-Hill.
1997

3.

4.
5.

6.

Thomas A., Maintenance Manager's Standard Manual, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Halt, Zandin, Kjefl E., M05T Wo.k Measurement Systems, 2nd Edition. Marcel Dekker. 1990 SCl'111. P "MOST Work Measurement Systems" 200) Vcnkat~sh.S" Thesis on MOST Study at Gear carrier assembly" ~OO2

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",,:iollaJ Conference on Recent Trends in CAD/CAM/CAE

(NCRTC-2004).

21-23 June 2004. R.I.T . Rajaramnagar

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20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Estimated Fig I. MOST <ystern selection guidelines

Percentage

of calculation

Period level

for -5% accuracy

at a 95 % confidence

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Use Basic

OST

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20 30 40 50 60 70

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80

90

100 Period
% confidence

Estimated Percentage Fig '2 .\ 1( ",'


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of calculation

selection guidelines

for

J 09C accuracy at a 90

level
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National Conference on Recent

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Basic MOST work measurement SEQUENCE ACITVITY MODEL General Move Controlled Move Tool Use ABGABPA ABGMXIA ABGASP A

Technique SUB-ACTIVITIES Action Distance, B- Body Motion G- Gain Control , P- Placement M- Move controlled, X - Process Time Alignment F-Fasten, L- Loosen, C- Cut, SSurface Treat M- Measure, R- Record, T- Thick

I
,

ASP

--

Table 1 Sequence

Models comprising

the Basic MOST technique.