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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (English Edition, Vol. 20, No.

5, May 1999)

Published by SU, Shanghai, China

A CATENARY ELEMENT FOR THE ANALYSIS

OF CABLE STRUCTURF~
Peng Wei (~'fl TJ_), Sun Bingnan ( ~ J v ) ~ ) , Tang Jinchun ( ) ~ i ~)

Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310027, P R China (Commtmicated by Chen Shanlin; Received Feb 28, 1998, Revised Jan 16, 1999)
Based on analytical equations, a catenary element is presented for the Abstract finite element analysis of cable structures. Compared with usually used element (3node element, 5-node element), a program proposed element is of less The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a with rigidthe flying plate under explosive attack has computer time and better accuracy. an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

Abstract:

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock Key words: cable structures; catenary elements; tangent stiffness matrix behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying Introduction plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus Cable formula structures arc two nonlinear systems with explosive large displacements, they should and be analysed by an analytic with parameters of high (i.e. detonation velocity polytropic nonlinear elastic theory. At present, cable structures are usually analysed by finite element index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established. method with bar element or multi-node curved element, these elements have approximation to certain degree. An alternative approach by this paper is to use step-by-step methods 1. proposed Introduction based on approximate analytical equations of the elastic catenary. In contrast to the multi-element Explosive flying-plate technique ffmds its element. importantThe usepotential in the study of behavior of techniques, thedriven cable may be represented by a single savings in computer materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and time make the method attractive for static response calculations. cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions 1 common Statics of the Elastic Catenary of interest. Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal 1.1 Basic equations approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations The cable as field shown Fig. 1 isproducts suspened between fixed points governing the flow of in detonation behind thetwo flyor (Fig. I): A and B. The span of the cable is l = Ltt, the unstrained and strained length of the cable is L0 and L, respectively. A point

on the cable has Lagrangian coordinate s in the unstrained profile. Under self-weight of --ff =o, ap +u_~_xp+ au IV ( = mgL0) this point moves to occupy its new position in the strained profile described by au au 1 Cartesian coordinates x and z and Lagrangian coordinate p=0, . y

(i.0
A(0,0)

a--T =o, p =p(p, s),

aS

as

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the B(Lu, Lv) trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state paraW,/Lo behind the detonation r meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave wave D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
Fig. 1

Cable system

Fig. 2

Forces on a segment

293

The geometric constraint to be satisfied is: 532

A Catenary Element of Cable Structures

533

( d x / d p ) 2 + (dz/dp) 2 = 1.
With reference to Fig. 2, the balancing of horizontal and vertical forces yields

(1)

T . dx/dp = H, T'dz/dp = VA constitutive relation of Hooke' s law is:

W" s/Lo.

(2) (3)

T = EA(dp/ds - 1),
where E is Young' s modulus, A is the uniform cross-sectional area in the unstrained profile. The end conditions at the cable supports A and B are

(4) at B (s = L0). The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has 1.2 P a r a m e t r i c solutions an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In on F_qs. analysis ( 1 ) ~ (4), x, z and can paper, be expressed asby functions the indenpendent general,Based a numerical is required. In Tthis however, utilizing of the "weak" shock variableof s the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purbehavior terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying = T( s ) various = H high 2 + explosives V - W . with polytropic , (5) plate Tdriven by indices other than but nearly equal to three. Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus an analytic formula with two parameters of high H, s i n explosive h _ l ( V - (i.e. W _ 'detonation s / L o ) ] , velocity and polytropic (6) = = + _~[sinh_l(V) index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
x = Ln, z = Lv, p = L

x =0,

z=0,

pAbstract =0 at

A(s

=0),

z = z(s)=E~(~-2Zo)+ff-~{[I+(~
1.

Introduction

W~

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of By under using intense the end impulsive conditionsloading, s = Lo, x = synthesis L/~, z =ofLv, we can and obtain two equations H materials shock diamonds, explosive welding in and and V: of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions cladding of common interest. 1 V (8) Under L the of tone-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal n - assumptions EA + W approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations + products -~-~{[ 1behind + (V)2,] 1/2 - (Fig. [ 1 +I): (-~)2] 1/2}, rZto( governing the flow field of V detonation the flyor (9) Lv = EA x -2

(7)

1)

Catenary Element

--ff ap +u_~_xp+

au

=o,

au au it is 1 best to replace the catenary element in Fig. 1 For the purpose of developing procedure, y =0, (i.0 by that in Fig. 3, then aS a s F1 = - H, F 2 = V, F3 = - F1,

Fa = - F2 + W,

a--T =o, T, = ( p F~ + F~) 1/2 =p(p, s),

Tj = ( F 2 + F2) 1/2, FI where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products with respect to respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the trajectory F ofW flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para= mgL0, meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave the detonation Fig. behind 3 Catenary dementwave sinh-lx = ln[x + (1 + x2)1/2], D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products rewritting Eqs. (8) and (9) yields 293

+ ___lln Tj + F4] mg T , - - f - 2 2 '

(10)

534

Peng Wei, Sun Bingnan and Tang Jinehun

Lr

1 - 2EAmg

i(

(11)

Eqs. (10) and ( 11 ) may be written as


L~ = f ( F 1 , F 2 ) ,

4 = g(&,F2),

(12) (13)

8FI1
where

fSL:,
- fn] 1

r Abstract [K] = IF]-1 = [ kl, k,2] = [ f .


-

k21 k99 J f21 The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has "det[ (15) F] = Alf22 A2f21, an analytic solution only when the polytropic index- of detonation products equals to three. In general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock kll = f ~ I ( A , f = - A2f21 ) , behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purk m = - approximate terbation method, an analytic, first-order A 2 / ( A , f ~ solution - A 2 A 1 is ) , obtained for the problem of flying (16) plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other k21 -- - f21/(A1f22 - A2AI ), than but nearly equal to three. Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus k~ = A 1 / (high A l f ~explosive - A 2 A(i.e. , ) , detonation velocity and polytropic an analytic formula with two parameters of index) for estimation flying plate is established. from Eqs. (10) andof ( the 11 ) velocity we see of that

fn ] ~ '

(14)

A, = - ~ -

Lo

1. zg

1 in Tj + F4 "

1 {F2 Introduction T -& +~tT, +

(17)

F,(1 1) use in the study of behavior of Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important (18) f,~ = f~, = ~ - ~ , materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and cladding of metals. The method of estimation velocity and the way of raising it are questions Lo of flyor 1 (F2 F4) (19) of common interest. s~ = - ~ - ~ T , +~ Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal approach R e f e r e n c of e s solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): [ 1] [2] Jayaraman H B, Knudson W C. A curved element for the analysis of cable structures[J]. Comput and Struct, 1981,3(4)--ff :325 ~ 333 =o, ap +u_~_xp+ au Irvine H M. Cable Structures[M].Cambridge,Mass: MIT Press, 1981
au au 1 y

=0,
(i.0

a--T =o, p =p(p, s),


where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293

aS

as