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Good leaders are made not born .

If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader.good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self study, education, training and experience. This guide will help you through that process. to inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know ,and ,do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. efore we get started, les define leadership. !eadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task or ob"ective and directs the organi#ation in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. $ person carries out this process by applying his or her leadership attributes %belief, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills&. $lthough your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and ob"ectives in the organi#ation, this power does not make you a leader... it simply makes you the boss. !eadership makes people want to achieve high goals and ob"ectives, while, on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or an ob"ective.

'hen a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader, he does not think about youe attributes. (e observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. (e uses this observation to tell if you are an honourable and trusted leader, or a self serving person who misuses his or her authority to look good and get promoted. )elf serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their people. The basis of good leadership is honourable character and selfless service to your organi#ation . In your employees* eyes, +our leadership is everything you do that affects the organi#ations ob"ectives and their well being. $ respected leader concentrates on

what she is ,be- %beliefs and character&, what she knows "ob, tasks, human nature&, and what she does %implement, motivate, provide direction&. 'hat makes a person follow a leader. /eople want to guided by those they respect and those who have a clear sense of direction. to gain respect, they must be ethical. $ sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.

T'0 10)T I1/02T$3T 45+) 06 !5$752)(I/

(ay*s study examined over 89 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that: trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organi#ation. 5ffective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to win organi#ational trust and confidence: helping the employees understand the company*s overall business strategy. (elping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business ob"ectives. ring information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an own employee*s division is doing - relative to strategic business ob"ectives.

)o basically, you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where you are going. 3otice how the ;/2I3<I/!5) 06 !5$752)(I/; in the next section closely ties in with this. (=1$3 25!$TI03) The six most important words: ;i admit i made a mistake.; The five most important words: ;you did a good "ob.; The four most important words: ;what is your opinion.; The three most important words: ;if you please.; The two most important words: ;thank you.; The one most important word: ;we.; The least most important word: ;i.;

T0 (5!/ +0= 5, 430', $37 70, %>& 60!!0' T(5)5 5!5?53 principles of leadership %later sections will expand on gaining an insight into these principles and providing tools to perform them&: 4now yourself and seek self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through reading, self-study, classes,etc.be technically proficient. $s a leader,you must know your "ob and have a solid familarity with your employees* "obs. )eek responsibility and take responsibility of your actions. )earch for ways to guide your organisation to new heights. $nd when things go wrong, they will sooner or later, do not blame others. $naly#e the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 1ake sound and

timely decisions. =se good problem solving, decision making and planning tools. )et the example. e a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do but also see. 4now your people and look out for their well-being. 4now human nature and importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 4eep your people informed. 4now how to communicate with your people within the organi#ation. 7evelop a sense of responsibility in your people. 7evelop good character traits within your people that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 5nsure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished. <ommunication is the key to this responsibility. Train your people as a team. $lthough many so called leaders call their organi#ation, department, section, etc. $ team@ they are not really teams... they are "ust a group of people doing their "obs. =se the full capabilities of your organi#ation. y developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organi#ation,department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.

The four ma"or factors of leadership are ..... T(5 60!!0'52: 7ifferent people require different styles of leadership. 6or example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. $ person with a different attitude requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. +ou must know your peopleA The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature: needs, emotions, and motivation. +ou must know your employees* be, know and do attributes.

!5$752: +ou must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. $lso, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successfull. If a follower does noit trust or lacks confidence in his or her leader, then she will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your supervisors, that you are worthy of being followed. <011=3I<$TI03: +ou lead through two way communication. 1uch of it is non-verbal. 6or instance, when you ;set the example,; that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. 'hat and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. )IT=$TI03: $ll situations are different. 'hat you do in one leadership situation will not always work in another situation. +ou must use your "udgement to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. 6or example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective .

If you are a leader that can be trusted,then the people around you will learn to respect you. to be a good leader,there are things tht u must be, know, and do. these fall under the leadership framework: 5 a professional. 5 a professional who possess good character traits. 430' the four factors of leadership- follower, leader, communication, situation. 430' yourself . 430' human nature 430' your "ob 430' your organi#ation.

70 provide direction. 70 implement. 70 motivate.

The road to great leadership: Inspire a shared vision - next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. 5nable others to act - give them tools and methods to solve the problem. 1odel the way - when the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. oss tells others what to do... a leader shows it can be done. 5ncourage the heart - share the glory with your followers* heart, keep the pains in your heart.

(ave better perceptions of realtiy and are comfortable with it. $ccept themselves and their own natures. Their lack artificiality. They focus on problems outside themselves and are concerned with basic issues and eternal questions. They like privacy and tend to get detached. 2ely on their own development and continued growth. $ppreciate the basic pleasures of life%do not take blessings for garnted&. (ave a deep feeling of kinship with others. They are deeply democratic and are not really aware of differences. (ave strong ethical and moral standards. $re original and inventive, less constricted and fresher than others.

(+G5I35 02 7I))$TI)6I52): 'orking conditions. /olicies and administrative practices. )alary and benefits. )upervision. )tatus. Bob security. 6ellow workers. /ersonal life.

10TI?$T02) 02 )$TI)6I52): 2ecognition. $chievement. $dvancement Growth. 2esponsibility. Bob challenge.

Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing. Warren Bennis, Ph.D. "On Becoming a Leader"

Intr oduction
30T5: )pecial pro"ect teams include work groups, cross functional teams, task forces, problem solving teams, committees, etc. 1any organi#ations have working groups that call themselves teams. ut their work is produced by a combination of individual contributions. Teams produce work that is based on collective effort. 4at#enbach and )mith %C& defined a team as ;$ small number of people with complementary s ills who are committed to a common purpose, per!ormance goals, and common approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.; The small number is anywhere from > to >9 members, with between 9 and D as manageable and optimal. It the number goes above D, communication tends to become centrali#ed because members do not have an adequate opportunity to speak to each other. If the group si#e goes over nine, extra time and effort are required to ensure good communication. "omplementary # ills provides synergy when the team is diverse and various ideas and multiple skills are combined. If the team is composed of like individuals, a congenital groupthink sets in which limits the number of solutions for creative problem solving. "ommon Purpose is the driving force of teams. The team must develop its own purpose. This purpose must be meaningful and must have ownership by everyone, as individuals and as a


group. $ team constantly revisit its purpose, making it more relevant as the team develops. 0ften called $gendas. (idden agendas may prevent the group from turning into a team. This is because their emotions and motives are hidden under the discussion table. Per!ormance %oals are the acting, moving, and energi#ing force of the team. )pecific performance goals are established, tracked, met and evaluated in an ongoing process. <ommon approach is the way members agree how they will work together. 1any teams have developed their own charter or a set of rules that outline the expected behaviors of members. 1embers often assume roles, including the Euestioner, the (istorian, the Time 4eeper, the 6acilitator, to keep the team process moving and on course. Mutually accountable is the aspect of teamwork that is usually the last to develop.

6orming, )torming, 3orming, /erforming, $d"ourning

The Tuckman model %>& shows the five stages that teams go through: from 6orming to )torming to 3orming to /erforming to $d"ourning.

In the 6orming stage, team members are introduced. They state why they were chosen or volunteered for the team and what they hope to accomplish within the team. 1embers cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior. This is a stage of


transition from individual to member status, and of testing the leader*s guidance both formally and informally. 6orming includes these feelings and behaviors: 5xcitement, anticipation, and optimism. /ride in being chosen for the pro"ect $ tentative attachment to the team )uspicion and anxiety about the "ob. 7efining the tasks and how they will be accomplished. 7etermining acceptable group behavior. 7eciding what information needs to be gathered. $bstract discussions of the concepts and issues, and for some members, impatience with these discussions. There will be difficulty in identifying some of the relevant problems. ecause there is so much going on to distract members* attention in the beginning, the team accomplishes little, if anything, that concerns it*s pro"ect goals. This is perfectly normal.

7uring the team*s transition from the ;$s-Is; to the ;To- e,; is called the )torming phase. $ll members have their own ideas as to how the process should look, and personal agendas are rampant. )torming is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They begin to reali#e the tasks that are ahead are different and more difficult than they imagined. Impatient about the lack of progress, members argue about "ust what actions the team should take. They try to rely solely on their personal and professional experience, and resist collaborating with most of the other team members. )torming includes these feelings and behaviors: 2esisting the tasks. 2esisting quality improvement approaches suggested by other members. )harp fluctuations in attitude about the team and the pro"ect*s chance of success. $rguing among members even when they agree on the real issues. 7efensiveness, competition, and choosing sides. Euestioning the wisdom of those who selected this pro"ect and appointed the other members of the team. 5stablishing unrealistic goals.


7isunity, increased tension, and "ealousy. The above pressures mean that team members have little energy to spend on progressing towards the team*s goal. ut they are beginning to understand one another. This phase sometimes takes F or G meetings before arriving at the 3orming phase.

The 3orming phase is when the team reaches a consensus on the ;To- e; process. 5veryone wants to share the newly found focus. 5nthusiasm is high, and the team is tempted to go beyond the original scope of the process. 7uring this stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities. They accept the team, team ground rules, their roles in the team, and the individuality of fellow members. 5motional conflict is reduced as previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. 3orming includes these feelings and behaviors: $n ability to express criticism constructively. $cceptance of membership in the team. $n attempt to achieve harmony by avoiding conflict. 1ore friendliness, confiding in each other, and sharing of personal problems. $ sense of team cohesion, spirit, and goals. 5stablishing and maintaining team ground rules and boundaries. $s team members begin to work out their differences, they now have more time and energy to spend on the pro"ect.

The team has now settled its relationships and expectations. They can begin performing by diagnosing, solving problems, and choosing and implementing changes. $t last team members have discovered and accepted each other*s strengths and weakness, and learned what their roles are. /erforming includes these feelings and behaviors: 1embers have insights into personal and group processes, and better understanding of each other*s strengths and weakness. <onstructive self-change.


$bility to prevent or work through group problems <lose attachment to the team The team is now an effective, cohesive unit. +ou can tell when your team has reached this stage because you start getting a lot of work done.

The team briefs and shares the improved process during the this phase. 'hen the team finally completes that last briefing, there is always a bittersweet sense of accomplishment coupled with the reluctance to say good-bye. 1any relationships formed within these teams continue long after the team disbands.

There are several factors that separate teams from groups.

2oles and 2esponsibilities

'ithin a group, individuals establish a set of behaviors called roles. These roles set expectations governing relationships. 2oles often serve as source of confusion and conflict. 'hile on the other hand, teams have a shared understanding on how to perform their role. These roles include: leader, facilitator, timekeeper, and recorder.

'hile teams have an identity, groups do not. It is almost impossible to establish the sense of cohesion that characteri#es a team without this fundamental step. $ team has a clear understanding about what constitutes the team*s *work* and why it is important. They can describe a picture of what the team needs to achieve, and the norms and values that will guide them.

Teams have an esprit that shows a sense of bonding and camaraderie. 5sprit is the spirit, soul, and state of mind of the


team. It is the overall consciousness of the team that a person identifies with and feels a part of. Individuals begin using ;we; more than ;me.;

Groups have a tendency to get bogged down with trivial issues. $sk yourself, ;(ow much time gets wasted in meetings you attend.; Teams use facilitators to keep the team on the right path.

'hile members of a group are centered upon themselves, the team is committed to open communication. Team members feel they can state their opinions, thoughts, and feelings without fear. !istening is considered as important as speaking. 7ifferences of opinion is valued and methods of managing conflict are understood. Through honest and caring feedback, members are aware of their strengths and weakness as team members. There is an atmosphere of trust and acceptance and a sense of community.

1ost groups are extremely rigid. Teams, however maintain a high level of flexibility, and they perform different task and maintenance functions as needed. The responsibility for team development and leadership is shared. The strengths of each member are identified and used.

Team members are enthusiastic about the work of the team and each person feels pride in being a member of the team. Team spirit is high. To be a successful team, the group must have a strong ability to produce results and a high degree of satisfaction in working with one another.


'orking 'ith 0ther Team 1embers

$lthough we are like in many ways, we are dislike in a lot more


ways. (umans have always tried to classify things, including themselves. This section uses a popular categori#er by placing people into four styles - 7river, /ersuader, $naly#er, 0rgani#er. %note that the names will vary widely depending upon the creator of the chart&. It does this by charting them on two dimensions tasks and emotions. /eople gets results on tasks between two extremes - expedience and processes. /eople use emotions in dealing with others through two extremes - controlled or responsive. In the chart below, the two dimensions are shown under the profile column in italics: /otential )trengths Get things done. 7etermined, requiring, thorough, decisive, efficient, direct /otential 'eaknesses In-attentative behavior when listening to others. 7ominating, unsympathetic, demanding, critical, impatient



4ey %focus&

$ take-charge person, exerts strong influence to get things done, 7river or focuses on results. <ontroller &motions are controlled and gets results through e'pedience. $ social specialist, expresses opinions and emotions easily@ prefers strong interaction /ersuader or with people. 5nthusiast &motions are responsi(e and gets results through e'pedience. !ikes to be well organi#ed and thought out@ prefers specific pro"ect and activities@ en"oys putting structure to ideas. &motions are controlled and gets results $naly#er or Theorist

results and accomplishments %get it done&

involvement and enthusiasm %positive ideas and responses&

Involves and works with others. /ersonable, stimulating, enthusiastic, innovative

(ard time following systems or processes. 0pinionated, undependable, reactionary

precision and accuracy %actions will be documented&

Great at organi#ing. Industrious, persistent, serious, orderly, methodical

<an have trouble when action needs to be take immediately. Indecisive, uncommunicative, critical


through processes. $daptive specialist, high concern for good relationships, seeks stability and predictability, 0rgani#er or relationships and wants to be part of $ffiliator stability %loyal& larger picture. &motions are responsi(e and gets results through processes.

uilds relationships. <ooperative, supportive, dependable, helpful

7oes not want to change. <onforming, uncommitted, hides true feelings

3otice that the two dimensions, results and emotions, are closely related to lake and 1outon*s Managerial %rid which uses /eople and Tasks as their grid. That is, we use emotions when dealing with people and our approach to tasks uses some sort of a result orientation approach. 'hen lake and 1outon came out with a tool that used only two dimensions or axis, is struck a cord with its simplicity. There are various degrees along the two dimensions %emotions and tasks&. 5ach experience that we have will call for varying degrees of emotions and approaches to task results. The result %how we accomplish tasks& and emotions %how we deal with people and experiences& dimensions can be charted as:


There are three main flaws that must be taken into consideration when using a tool of this nature: 5veryone uses all four style depending upon the situation, however, the chart can be a useful tool for understanding different viewpoints. It is based on the theory that each person tends to have one or two dominant styles. The very simplicity that makes a tool like this so popular, cannot possible accurately predict the complexity of human nature. (owever, it can help us get a handle on the various approaches taken by individuals. /eople try to pigeon-hole the four styles of people into certain categories. 6or example, managers are drivers, human resource personnel are persuaders, programmers are analysis*s, etc. This is simply untrue. 'here I once worked, our human resource contact was a driver, our manager was a persuader, one on the employees on the bottom of the rung was a driver, and one of our best technical persons was an organi#er. (owever, most of the employees %workers in a manufacturing plant& were organi#ers, analy#ers, or a combination of the two. The goal of using such a tool in a team setting is to reali#e that people look upon things with a different viewpoint than you. 6or example, the reason someone will not hurry-up and compete a task in not because they are slow, it might be because they are viewing it from a process standpoint and want to ensure that they get it absolutely right %analy#er&. $lso, it takes all types to form an


effective team. 'ithout drivers a team will get nothing done, without persuaders a team will fail to get all involved, without organi#ers a team will not gel together, without analy#ers a team will miss key steps. The four styles form a complete community, and it takes a community to grow a team.

(ow 7o 'e $rrive at a )olution. or 5ncouraging 'ild and Great Ideas

$ll to often, creativity gets stifled when everyone follows the rules or arriving at solutions the same old way. Teams often become so task- oriented that they narrow down their focus much too soon by choosing the first likely solution. It is time to adequately investigated the situation and its possibilities by: rainstorming 7elphi 7ecision 1aking 7ialectic 7ecision 1aking

Team <hecklist
Goals <lear mission statement JJJJJ 1easurable ob"ectives JJJJJ 0b"ectives are prioriti#ed JJJJJ Goals are set in all key task areas JJJJJ 2oles Individual roles, relationships, and accountabilities are clear JJJJJ )tyle of leadership is appropriate for the team tasks JJJJJ 5ach individual competent to perform her key tasks JJJJJ The mix of roles is appropriate to the team tasks JJJJJ /rocedures 7ecisions reached are effective JJJJJ 1anagement information is effectively shared JJJJJ 4ey activities are effectively coordinated JJJJJ


/roducts and services are of a high quality JJJJJ <onflict is managed effectively within the team JJJJJ Internal 2elationships There are no areas of mistrust JJJJJ 6eedback is constructive JJJJJ 2elationships are not competitive and unsupportive JJJJJ 5xternal 2elationships 2elationships with key external groups are effective JJJJJ 1echanisms are in place to integrate with each key group JJJJJ Time and effort is spent on identifying building and monitoring key external relationships JJJJJ


To )teve 'augh, being $ustralian is about ;looking after your mates, taking care of your family, being able to have a laugh at yourself;. orn in )ydney, )teve still lives in the southern suburbs with his young family. )teve was spotted as a talented cricketer at the young age C8. (e was selected for the 3ew )outh 'ales side while playing first grade cricket in )ydney, and wore the baggy green cap for the first time in CDK9, on a tour of )outh $frica. (e was the new kid on the block, and was a given a golden opportunity which led to one of $ustralia*s most distinguished cricketing careers. )teve 'augh has played representative cricket for $ustralia since CDK9, retiring in Banuary >LLG. (is incredible career, spanning more than CK years, has produced some outstanding moments in $ustralian sporting history. 'ho could forget his >LL against the 'est Indies at )abina /ark in CDD9, his twin centuries against 5ngland at 0ld Trafford in CDD8, or his daring C>L against )outh $frica in a must-win match at the CDDD 'orld <up. <aptaining the $ustralian Test team from CDDD to >LLG and the one-day side between CDD8 M DK and >LLC M L>, his leadership qualities have been described as *inspiring*. ;I try and instil faith in the players and give them self-belief and really empower them to be the best. $lthough better known for his cricket prowess, he is passionate about helping those less fortunate than himself. (is favourite personal philosophy on life is ;If you don*t stand


up for something, you*ll fall for everything;. This philosophy was put to the test when, during a visit to India in CDKN, )teve saw children and adults suffering from disease and poverty. (e was struck by those suffering from leprosy and their families and was prompted to get involved. 6or the past three years )teve has been actively assisting these families through his support of the =dayan (ome in arrackpore, India. The home takes children out of their leprosy environment and provides them with education, healthcare and opportunities in life. 'hen he started his work, the home catered only for boys. In recent years, with the assistance provided by )teve and others, the home now cares for NL young girls as well. (e is now working towards building another centre which will assist a further >LL girls in need of care. )teve is also working with young people in $ustralia, through his work as a patron of <amp Euality and the conductive 5ducation =nit for the )pastic <entre of 3ew )outh 'ales. $ustralians love to hear about )teve*s "ourneys and cricket tours and so he has become $ustralia*s best-selling sports* author. ;I see myself as an average guy who tries to help out my mates and loves my sport. I think in some ways, I*m sort of an underdog and a bit of a battler. I*ve always had to fight hard for my spot and to achieve what I have, and I*ve had to give CLLO. I think $ustralians like to see that in people and they like to recognise it.; $s a cricketer )teve has broken many records. $s a person he is a great humanitarian and brings hope to those in need. (e is an inspiration, not only for sports-loving $ustralians, but for many worldwide. $lways leading by example, )teve is an extraordinary $ustralian.


(enry 6ord, born Buly FL, CKNF, was the first of 'illiam and 1ary 6ord*s six children. (e grew up on a prosperous family farm in what is today 7earborn, 1ichigan. (enry en"oyed a childhood typical of the rural nineteenth century, spending days in a one-room school and doing farm chores. $t an early age, he showed an interest in mechanical things and a dislike for farm work. In CK8D, sixteen-year-old 6ord left home for the nearby city of 7etroit to work as an apprentice machinist, although he did occasionally return to help on the farm. (e remained an apprentice for three years and then returned to 7earborn. 7uring the next few years, (enry divided his time between operating or repairing steam engines, finding occasional work in a 7etroit factory, and over-hauling his father*s farm implements, as well as lending a reluctant hand with other farm work. =pon his marriage to <lara ryant in CKKK, (enry supported himself and his wife by running a sawmill.

T(5 53GI3552 In CKDC, 6ord became an engineer with the 5dison Illuminating <ompany in 7etroit. This event signified a conscious decision on 6ord*s part to dedicate his life to industrial pursuits. (is promotion to <hief 5ngineer in CKDF gave him enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines. These experiments culminated in CKDN with the completion of his own self-propelled vehiclethe Euadricycle. The Euadricycle had four wire wheels that looked like heavy bicycle wheels, was steered with a tiller like a boat, and had only two forward speeds with no reverse. $lthough 6ord was not the first to build a self-propelled vehicle with a gasoline engine, he was, however, one of several automotive pioneers who helped this country become a nation of



$fter two unsuccessful attempts to establish a company to manufacture automobiles, the 6ord 1otor <ompany was incorporated in CDLF with (enry 6ord as vice-president and chief engineer. The infant company produced only a few cars a day at the 6ord factory on 1ack $venue in 7etroit. Groups of two or three men worked on each car from components made to order by other companies. (enry 6ord reali#ed his dream of producing an automobile that was reasonably priced, reliable, and efficient with the introduction of the 1odel T in CDLK. This vehicle initiated a new era in personal transportation. It was easy to operate, maintain, and handle on rough roads, immediately becoming a huge success. y CDCK, half of all cars in $merica were 1odel Ts. To meet the growing demand for the 1odel T, the company opened a large factory at (ighland /ark, 1ichigan, in CDCL. (ere, (enry 6ord combined precision manufacturing, standardi#ed and interchangeable parts, a division of labor, and, in CDCF, a continuous moving assembly line. 'orkers remained in place, adding one component to each automobile as it moved past them on the line. 7elivery of parts by conveyor belt to the workers was carefully timed to keep the assembly line moving smoothly and efficiently. The introduction of the moving assembly line revolutioni#ed automobile production by significantly reducing assembly time per vehicle, thus lowering costs. 6ord*s production of 1odel Ts made his company the largest automobile manufacturer in the world. The company began construction of the world*s largest industrial complex along the banks of the 2ouge 2iver in 7earborn, 1ichigan, during the late CDCLs and early CD>Ls. The massive 2ouge /lant included all the elements needed for automobile production: a steel mill, glass factory, and automobile assembly line. Iron ore and coal were brought in on Great !akes steamers and by railroad, and were used to produce both iron and steel. 2olling mills, forges, and assembly shops transformed the steel into springs, axles, and car bodies. 6oundries converted iron into engine blocks and cylinder heads that were assembled with other components into engines. y )eptember CD>8, all steps in the manufacturing process from refining raw materials to final assembly of the automobile took place at the vast 2ouge /lant, characteri#ing (enry 6ord*s idea of mass production.



0n 3ovember >>, CDNF, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, Bohn 6it#gerald 4ennedy was killed by an assassin*s bullets as his motorcade wound through 7allas, Texas. 4ennedy was the youngest man elected /resident@ he was the youngest to die. 0f Irish descent, he was born in rookline, 1assachusetts, on 1ay >D, CDC8. Graduating from (arvard in CDGL, he entered the 3avy. In CDGF, when his /T boat was rammed and sunk by a Bapanese destroyer, 4ennedy, despite grave in"uries, led the survivors through perilous waters to safety. ack from the war, he became a 7emocratic <ongressman from the oston area, advancing in CD9F to the )enate. (e married Bacqueline ouvier on )eptember C>, CD9F. In CD99, while recuperating from a back operation, he wrote Pro!iles in "ourage, which won the /ulit#er /ri#e in history. In CD9N 4ennedy almost gained the 7emocratic nomination for ?ice /resident, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for /resident. 1illions watched his television debates with the 2epublican candidate, 2ichard 1. 3ixon. 'inning by a narrow margin in the popular vote, 4ennedy became the first 2oman <atholic /resident. (is Inaugural $ddress offered the memorable in"unction: ;$sk not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.; $s /resident, he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get $merica moving again. (is economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since 'orld 'ar II@ before his death, he laid plans for a massive assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty.2esponding to ever more urgent demands, he took vigorous action in the cause of equal rights, calling for new civil rights legislation. (is vision of $merica extended to the quality of the national culture and the central role of the arts in a vital society. (e wished $merica to resume its old mission as the first nation dedicated to the revolution of human rights. 'ith the $lliance for /rogress and the /eace <orps, he brought $merican idealism to the aid of developing nations. ut the hard reality of the <ommunist challenge remained. )hortly after his inauguration, 4ennedy permitted a band of <uban exiles, already armed and trained, to invade their homeland. The attempt to overthrow the regime of 6idel <astro was a failure. )oon thereafter, the )oviet =nion renewed its campaign against 'est erlin. 4ennedy replied by reinforcing the erlin garrison and increasing the 3ation*s military strength, including new efforts in outer space. <onfronted by this reaction, 1oscow, after the erection of the erlin 'all, relaxed its pressure in central 5urope. Instead, the 2ussians now sought to install nuclear missiles in <uba. 'hen this was discovered by air reconnaissance in 0ctober CDN>, 4ennedy imposed a quarantine on all offensive weapons bound for <uba. 'hile the world trembled on the brink of nuclear


war, the 2ussians backed down and agreed to take the missiles away. The $merican response to the <uban crisis evidently persuaded 1oscow of the futility of nuclear blackmail. 4ennedy now contended that both sides had a vital interest in stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and slowing the arms race--a contention which led to the test ban treaty of CDNF. The months after the <uban crisis showed significant progress toward his goal of ;a world of law and free choice, banishing the world of war and coercion.; (is administration thus saw the beginning of new hope for both the equal rights of $mericans and the peace of the world.