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# IESO 2013

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

Mass of Planet Radius of Planet Rotation Period Inclination of Rotation Axis with respect to its Or ital Plane !en"th of Semi#ma\$or axis of the or it Eccentricity of Or it %otal Mass of Satellites

Student Code: 'ater (apour Percenta"e Ma"netic +ield Stren"th &ensity of Atmosphere )eothermal Acti,ity )reen *ouse Effect

Statement

%he yearly mean temperatures of planets do not match with their expected lac- ody temperature. A solute ,ariation in the temperature durin" the course of one day differs si"nificantly from one planet to another. A solute ,ariation in the temperature durin" the course of one year at the e/uator of the planet differs si"nificantly from one planet to another. On some planets0 there is a lar"e latitudinal percenta"e ,ariation in temperatures. Mean temperature 1a,era"ed o,er a day2 on different days. Earth is different on

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

Rotation Period Planetof Mass with respect to Inclination of its Or ital PlaneRotation Axis Eccentricity of Or it %otal Mass of Satellites PlanetRadius of !en"th of Semi#ma\$or axis of the or it

Student Code: 'ater (apour Percenta"e Ma"netic +ield Stren"th &ensity of Atmosphere )eothermal Acti,ity / )reen *ouse Effect / / / / / /

Statement

%he yearly mean temperatures of planets do not match with their expected lac- ody temperature. A solute ,ariation in the temperature durin" the course of one day differs si"nificantly from one planet to another. A solute ,ariation in the temperature durin" the course of one year at the e0uator of the planet differs si"nificantly from one planet to another. On some planets1 there is a lar"e latitudinal percenta"e ,ariation in temperatures. Mean temperature 2a,era"ed o,er a day3 on different days. Earth is different on / /

/ / / / / / / /

/ / /

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Time: 45 Minutes

## Theoretical Test Astronomy

Maximum Marks: 28.5

Instructions:

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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31. 0e list a ew acts #elow a#out temperatures at the sur ace o ;enus) Earth and 4ars. 8a: The yearly mean temperatures o planets do not match with their e%pected #lac+ #ody temperature. 8#: 3#solute variation in the temperature during the course o one day di ers signi icantly rom one planet to another. 8c: 3#solute variation in the temperature during the course o one year at the e(uator o the planet di ers signi icantly rom one planet to another. 8d: On some planets) there is a large latitudinal percentage variation in temperatures. 8e: 4ean temperature 8averaged over a day: on Earth is di erent on di erent days. In the ta#le given in your answer sheet) we list a num#er o physical properties related to a planet and its various motions) which may or may not #e relevant in e%plaining the acts a#ove. In the ta#le) tic+ in appropriate rows those properties which are relevant or each o the acts a#ove. <um#er o relevant parameters or each row can #e none) one or more than one. Total \$% !oints or correct tic+9mar+s. &arnin': Every wrong tic+ mar+ has penalty o (%.2 !oints. 3". The ma%imum altitude o the Sun as seen rom 4ysore on summer solstice day and winter solstice day are 72o ,1* and ,&o 17* respectively. =sing this in ormation) o#tain the inclination o the Earth*s a%is 8: and ind the latitude o 4ysore 8:. )* !oints+ 3\$. The mass ratio o Pluto and Charon is 2:1. The period o revolution o Charon around Pluto is a#out /.\$27 days. -ou are given that 4Pluto > 1.\$1 % 17"" +g) 1Pluto > 116, +m) ? > /./7" % 17911 < m" +g9" the 4inimum and ma%imum distance o Pluto rom Earth are &"2&.7 % 17/ +m and 7,"2 % 17/ +m respectively. 8a: 'ind the length o the semi9ma@or a%is o Charon*s or#it o revolution a#out Pluto. ), !oints+ 8#: 'ind the ratio a:1Pluto) where *a* is the distance o the Centre o 4ass o the Pluto9Charon system rom the center o Pluto . )2 !oints+ 8c: Theoretically) what is the minimum diameter o the optical telescope which can resolve the system rom EarthA Ignore e ects o Earth*s atmosphere.)2 !oints+ 3&. The diagram on the ne%t page shows the BertCprung91ussell diagram 8B91 diagram: with si% positions 83 5 ': indicated. The y9a%is is given in terms o Solar Duminosity 8DE: and %9a%is gives e ective sur ace temperature 8T: o stars in Felvin. 8a: 0hich letters indicate the position o stars that have the largest and the smallest diameters respectivelyA )2 !oints+ 8#: 0hich letters indicate the stars with the same spectral class #ut with di erent luminositiesA )\$ !oints+ 8c: 0hich letters indicate the stars that are primarily #urning BydrogenA )\$.5 !oints+ 8d: 0hich letter would indicate position o a white dwar in this diagramA )\$ !oint+

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

31. 3". Please see ne%t page Inclination o the Earth*s a%is is Datitude o 4ysore is A,. .luto an# /haron: 8a: Semi9ma@or a%is > 8#: a:1Pluto > 8c: Giameter >

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A4. 0(1 #ia'ram 8a: Star o Dargest Giameter 8#: ?ive letters o stars 8c: ?ive letters o stars 8d: 0hite Gwar letter

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

Sheet for numerical calculations (write question number clearly)

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

A1. Atmosphere of Planets See table: + 0.5 points for each correct marking, -0.2 for each wrong marking. !or winter solstice, !or s&mmer solstice 'in northern tropical region(, ,sing these, Inclination of the Earth-s a.is, 1atit&de of 2ysore, (1.5 points for each of the four steps) A . Pluto and charon!
3 0

A .

## aw " #\$ % % as " )*\$ % '#\$ % + ( " #\$ + % " /o 0 " ) o )7-

G ( M pl + M ch )T 2 9 G M pl T 2 = 'a( 3y 4epler-s Third 1aw, a = (1.5 points) 4 2 32 2 5ence a 0=1.9610 7 m (1.5 points) 'b( The distance of barycentre from 6l&to will be a\$7#. (1 point) 7 a 1.965 10 3y comparing, a:b " (1 points) = =1.83 b 91.195 106 'c( One sho&ld try to resol8e the 6l&to9charon system, when the 6l&to is closest to the Earth as thats when the ang&lar separation will be highest. (0.5 point) 1et &s say we are &sing optical wa8elengths aro&nd ::\$nm 'a slightly better appro.imation will be to &se bl&e end of 8isible light aro&nd ;\$\$ nm( 1.22 1.22 d pl (1.5 points) D= = 15 cm a0 A". #-\$ dia%ram 'a( Star of 1argest <iameter 'b( 'c(

&

'

## (2 points) (1 point) (1.5 points) (1 point)

( and ) A* + and )

(d) '

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

Practical Test Astronomy Questions

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Time: 90 Minutes

Maximum Marks: 34

Instructions:

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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1. Construct a Sundial or 4ysore 9:atitude ; <1" o 1/* =) :ongitude ; 77o \$\$*E>. -ou can ignore corrections due to e(uation o time. 4aterials given: a s(uare plastic #oard o si?e o &7 cm % &7 cm) a 1 metre long metal rod) " nut #olts) a \$7 cm scale and mar+er pens to ma+e Sundial mar+ings on the plastic#oard. @se the ollowing procedure. To ma+e a simple Sundial) you should ma+e the shadow o the rod all in the e(uatorial plane. 'or this) push the rod through the hole at the centre o the #oard. =ow put this device on a lat sur ace such that it rests on a #oard edge and one end o the rod. The #oard should #e e%actly perpendicular to the rod. 'or this) i% the nut #olts on the rod on #oth the sides o the #oard. The other end o rod should #e pointing towards the north celestial pole. 0rite your student code on the plastic #oard. Show this arrangement to the e%aminer. %& !oint' 9a> 4easure length o the rod rom the end towards the =orth Celestial Pole to the #oard and write on the answer sheet. 4ar+ =orth acing and South acing sides o the #oard with letters ( and ) respectively. %3 !oints' 9#> 4ar+ lines showing the direction o the shadow o the rod on the #oard or the winter solstice day. 4a+e mar+ings or every " hours. %4 !oints' 9c> 4ar+ the similar lines or summer solstice day. %3 !oints' 9d> 0here do you e%pect the shadow o the rod will #e seen on the e(uino% daysA 0rite answer as = 9=orth side> ! S 9South side> ! B 9#oth sides> ! C 9neither side>.%& !oint' ". -ou are given a s+y map which shows s+y or "& hours % 1"7 degrees. -ou are also given a list o all constellations with their I3@ designations. 3ssume that today is the date o closing ceremony i.e. 16th Septem#er "71\$ and you are told that it is a ull moon day. %* !oints each' 9a> 4ar+ the Celestial E(uator on the map at appropriate place. Denote it with letter * Q*. 9#> 4ar+ the Ecliptic 9apparent path o the Sun over one year> on the map at appropriate place. Denote it with letter *+*. 9c> 4ar+ the Sun*s position on the map or the noon o given day. Denote it with letter *)*. 9d> 4ar+ the 4oon*s position on the map or the noon o given day. Denote it with letter *M*. 9e> 0rite the three letter I3@ code o the constellation you will o#serve on the ?enith at the time o 4oonrise. 4ar+ the position o the ?enith on the map as *,*. 9 > 0rite the three letter I3@ code o the constellation you will o#serve on the nadir at the time o 4oonrise. 4ar+ the position o the nadir on the map as *(*.

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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\$. Picture 1 shows star trails captured #y an 3stronomy Olympiad student. 9a> Identi y constellation9s> in the picture. 0rite the three letter I3@ code o the constellation9s> in your answer sheet. There are more than one constellations ! parts o constellations visi#le in the picture. Identi y as many as you can. %4 !oints' 9#> 0rite the letters rom the ollowing ta#le) corresponding to the stars) i they are present in the picture. %* !oints' 3. Dene# D. Du#he E. Dene#ola B. 1igel E. 3lgol F. 4i?ar C. Spica '. 1egulus I. Betelgeuse 9c> :et us assume that stars num#ered as 1 and " have nearly the same 1ight 3scension 91.3.> 'ind e%posure time o the photograph. %4 !oints' Picture 1: Photo Credit: 4r. Chiraag .uwe+ar. Ta+en on ",!7\$!"71"

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

-ist o. /onstellations with IA0 /o#es
(o\$ 1 " \$ & , / 7 2 6 17 11 1" 1\$ 1& 1, 1/ 17 12 16 "7 "1 "" "\$ "& ", "/ "7 "2 "6 \$7 /onstellation 3ndromeda 3ntlia 3pus 3(uarius 3(uila 3ra 3ries 3uriga Bootes Caelum Camelopardalis Cancer Canes Genatici Canis 4aHor Canis 4inor Capricornus Carina Cassiopeia Centaurus Cepheus Cetus Chamaleon Circinus Colum#a Coma Berenices Corona 3ustralis Corona Borealis Corvus Crater Cru% /o#e 3nd 3nt 3ps 3(r 3(l 3ra 3ri 3ur Boo Cae Cam Cnc CGn C4a C4i Cap Car Cas Cen Cep Cet Cha Cir Col Com Cr3 CrB Crv Crt Cru (o\$ /onstellation /o#e Cyg Del Dor Dra E(u Eri 'or Eem Eru Fer For Fya Fyi Ind :ac :eo :4i :ep :i# :up :yn :yr 4en 4ic 4on 4us =or Oct Oph (o\$

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/onstellation

/o#e Ori Pav Peg Per Phe Pic Psc Ps3 Pup Py% 1et Sge Sgr Sco Scl Sct Ser Se% Tau Tel Tri Tr3 Tuc @4a @4i Gel Gir Gol Gul

\$1 Cygnus \$" Delphinus \$\$ Dorado \$& Draco \$, E(uuleus \$/ Eridanus \$7 'orna% \$2 Eemini \$6 Erus &7 Fercules &1 Forologium &" Fydra &\$ Fydrus && Indus &, :acerta &/ :eo &7 :eo 4inor &2 :epus &6 :i#ra ,7 :upus ,1 :yn% ," :yra ,\$ 4ensa ,& 4icroscopium ,, 4onoceros ,/ 4usca ,7 =orma ,2 Octans ,6 Ophiucus

/7 Orion /1 Pavo /" Pegasus /\$ Perseus /& Phoeni% /, Pictor // Pisces /7 Pisces 3ustrinus /2 Puppis /6 Py%is 77 1eticulum 71 Sagitta 7" Sagittarius 7\$ Scorpius 7& Sculptor 7, Scutum 7/ Serpens 77 Se%tans 72 Taurus 76 Telescopium 27 Triangulum 21 Triangulum 3ustrale 2" Tucana 2\$ @rsa 4aHor 2& @rsa 4inor 2, Gela 2/ Girgo 27 Golans 22 Gulpecula

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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This is colour inverted copy o the central part o the picture in the (uestion paper.

## Practical Test Astronomy Answer )heet

1. Sundial 9a> :ength o the rod ; ". 9e> I3@ code ; 9 > I3@ code ; \$. Star Trails 9a> Constellation =ames 9#> Star :etters 9c> E%posure time ; 9d>

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

Sheet for numerical calculations (write question number clearly)

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

1. Sundial Length of the rod from end to the board = .! cm "7.# cm\$ %. "e\$ I&' code ( Oph ")e *ill also accept Her - !.7#\$ "f\$ I&' code ( Lup ")e *ill also accept Ori - !.7#\$ +. Star Trails "a\$ UMa "1.# points\$, CVn "1 point\$, Leo, LMi, Dra "!.# point each\$ "b\$ Star Letters D, H "c\$ E-posure time = 30 minutes Numeri al Cal ulations !uestion "# \$a% &s the rod should point to ./P, length of the rod on the ground side should be - = %! 0 tan "\$ = 1% cm, *here is the latitude. Thus, the length on the other side is .! cm. "may be 7.# cm, gi2en plastic board is !.# cm thic3\$ \$& points% 4ar3ing . and S \$" point% \$'% *inter solstice mar3ings should be on side mar3ed by S \$" point% 4ar3ing local noon shado* line \$0() points% Symmetric mar3ings for other lines at +! degrees \$0(* points ea h% \$ % 5ealising that Summer Solstice mar3ings *ill be on the other side of the board \$"(+ points% &ctual mar3ings for Summer Solstice \$"(+ points% "d\$ 6 \$" point% !uestion 3 \$ % /onnecting start and end points for trails of a fe* stars "at least +\$ and dra*ing their perpendicular bisectors to find ./P \$"(+ points% 4easuring the angle subtended by these trails at the ./P as 7.# degrees "781 degrees accepted\$ \$" point% Estimating e-posure time as +! minutes \$"(+ point%

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## Time allotted: 75 minutes

Total Marks: 61

1. The figure below shows global freshwater withdrawal as a percentage of total available (see legend for color code) in the year 1995 and a model projection for the year 2025CE.

## Answer the following questions by choosing the correct option:

(5 min)

(i) One of the countries in which there is no significant change in water stress between 1995 and 2025 CE is A. Egypt. B. USA. C. India. D. China. (ii) The reason for the answer of (i) above is A. This country is located near the equator. B. This country has already limited water resources. 2 marks 1 mark

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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C. This country has the largest population in the world. D. This country has a relatively higher growth rate of population. (iii) Out of the three continents in the southern hemisphere, the most affected is Africa, the reason being, the continent as a whole 2 marks A. has the largest fraction of desert area among the three. B. receives the least rainfall among the three. C. has the highest population among the three. D. has more runoff through rivers such as Nile and Congo. 2. Weathering of rocks increases with temperature when more CO2 is added to the Earth's atmosphere. What would happen when there is no volcanic eruption on the Earth for millions of years: 5 min (i) In addition to the long term climate change caused by changes in the Earth's orbital parameters, 2 marks A. the Earth would gradually become warmer because of CO2 accumulation. B. the Earth would gradually cool because of consumption of CO2 for weathering of rocks. C. there would be no additional change in the Earth's temperature. (ii) Water is able to weather rocks because 2 marks

A. it is present in all the three states of matter (i.e., solid ice, liquid water and water vapour) on the Earth. B. it is the most abundant compound on the Earths surface. C. it can dissolve silicates, when it is pure. D. it is a polar molecule, and in addition, dissolved carbon dioxide makes it acidic. (iii) In the past (Neoproterozoic times), the whole Earth is believed to have cooled into a 'snowball'. A possible reason could be that 1 mark A. there were more frequent solar eclipses reducing incoming solar radiation. B. there were frequent volcanic eruptions throwing aerosols into Earth's atmosphere, cooling the Earth.
Mysuru, India, 11 19 September 2013 4 Theory Test Atmosphere & Hydrosphere

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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C. changes in the orbital parameters of the Earth were more severe. D. there were no volcanic eruptions for a long time, while weathering continued to consume the atmospheric carbon dioxide. 3. At present the Earth's surface is 70% oceans and 30 % land. If it were 100% oceans and no land, mark the following sentences as True (T) or False (F) 4 x 1.25 = 5 marks; 5 min (i) There will be no land breeze and sea breeze ( T / F ) (ii) There will be sea breeze, but no land breeze ( T / F ) (iii) There will be seasonal rainfall in the tropics, but much weaker than at present ( T / F ) (iv) Both hemispheres will have the same season (e.g. summer) at the same time ( T / F ) 4. Nansen observed that ice floating in the Arctic Ocean moves at an angle of 45 to the right of the wind and not along the direction of the wind. Which forces in balance govern the movement of ice? 2 marks ;2 min A. attraction of sun, moon and earth B. wind force, friction and Coriolis force C. pressure gradient, gravity and Coriolis force D. winds, molecular friction and gravity

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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5. The figure below shows the variation of temperature with height. 6 x 1 = 6 marks; 5 min

## 140 130 120 110 100 90 80

height (km)

B
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -100

E F

-80

-60

## -40 -20 Temperature (deg. C)

20

40

Write the names of the various layers (as marked A to F in the figure above and Column I in Table in the next page) such as troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere, mesosphere, stratopause and tropopause, in Column II. Fill each row in column III with one or more of the following (you can leave it blank if there is

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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no appropriate option given): Cumulus clouds, cirrus clouds, top of cumulonimbus clouds, noctilucent clouds, aurorae, and UV absorption by ozone.

I A B C D E F

II

III

6. (i) The graph below shows a schematic of the evolution of gases H2, O2, N2 and CO2 in the Earths atmosphere. Match the curves against the gases in the Table in the next page. 4 x 1 = 4 marks; 7 min .

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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A B C D
(ii) Fill in the blank: According to this, banded iron formation (deposition of iron oxide in the form of bands) in the Earths History started after around .............................. million years ago 1 mark

7. The mean temperature of the Earth is governed by the overall radiation energy balance, i.e., net solar radiation absorbed equals the radiation back to space. If So is the solar constant, T the mean temperature, the albedo, and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, then, which of the following is the correct representation of this? 2 marks; 3 min A. (1) So = T4 B. So = 4 (1)T4 C. (1) So = 2 T4 D. (1) So = 4 T4 8. The Rainfall distribution in two regions P and Q is shown in the Table. 4 min

## Monthly Rainfall (mm)

Region
P Q Jan 2 98 Feb 0 99 Mar 1 102 Apr 0 101 May 0 100 Jun Jul Aug 450 95 Sep 250 105 Oct 75 99 Nov 10 101 Dec 7 105

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Pick out the correct statement/s. A. The interannual variability of rainfall is more at P than at Q. B. The intra-annual variability of rainfall is more at P than at Q. C. The average monthly rainfall is about 120 mm at Q.

2 marks

D. The averages of monthly rainfall over one year at P and Q are the same.
9. Earth is warming due to CO2 increase. In the tropical belt 30oS to 30oN, which among the following statements are true? 2 x 2 = 4 marks; 5 min A. Largest warming occurs in the atmospheric layer 10-14 km above the surface. B. Largest warming occurs in the stratosphere. C. The entire atmospheric column from surface to 50 km height warms. D. Lower troposphere warms and stratosphere cools. E. Warming is at the surface and rest of the atmosphere is unaffected.

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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10. Write the name the clouds shown below in the Table below A B

A B C D

10

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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11. The figure below shows the sea level pressure chart and the figure in the next page, the geopotential height of 500 hPa level (arbitrary units). Indicate the wind directions by marking arrows at locations A, B, C, D, and E in the figure below, and G and H in figure in the next page. 8 x 0.5 = 4 marks; 7 min

C B

11

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## 500 hPa geopotential height

12. If the rise in global mean sea level is 55 m due to the melting of Antarctic ice, estimate the approximate volume of ice. Take the radius of Earth to be ~6720 km. (Assume that the area of the oceans does not change with sea level and ignore the small difference in densities of ice and water) 5 marks 10 min

12

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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13. In an ocean where the temperature of the water column increases only by solar radiation, by what amount the temperature of a uniformly mixed column of water of depth 100 m would increase for 50 W m-2 of radiation incident for a period of 10 hours? The specific heat of water is 4200 J/kg and density is 1025 kg/m3 2 marks; 3 min

14. Cricket or baseball players are not concerned about Coriolis force deflecting the ball. But an ocean current flowing from the equator to mid-latitude is deflected by the Coriolis force because: 2 marks; 2 min A. the cricket ball or baseball is smaller than the Earth. B. the time of flight of the ball is much shorter than the period of Earths rotation. C. the Earth is attracted by the sun and the moon, but the cricket ball or baseball is not. D. the shape of the Earth is not exactly spherical, but the ball is almost spherical.

13

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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15. A tropical cyclone, when moving over tropical ocean becomes more intense, whereas when it moves over land, it becomes weaker mainly because: 1 min A. trees and buildings obstruct cyclone movement. B. evaporation from the sea surface is higher. C. of higher wind speed over land. D. of higher precipitation over land. 16. Consider an ocean current that is 200 km wide and 200 m deep flowing with a uniform speed of 1 m s-1. How much water is carried by this current in one year? 2 marks; 3 min 1 mark;

14

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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17. Given below two zonal distributions of vertical thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific. (figures on left and right). Identify which figure corresponds to an El Nino and which is a non-El Nino year. 2 marks;, 2 min

15

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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18. Interactions of the atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and the biosphere

among them lead to many positive and negative feedbacks in the climate system. A positive feedback is one which helps the agent which caused it to increase and a negative feedback is one which works against the agent which caused it. Identify the following observations into positive (+), negative () feedback and no feedback (0). 3 x 1 = 3 marks; 3 min (i) Higher temperature leading to higher evaporation and so more water vapour in the troposphere ( + / / 0 ) (ii) Additional ice formation in the polar regions, increasing Earth's albedo. ( + / / 0 ) (iii) Addition of CO2 to the Earth's atmosphere (e.g., by volcanism), and increasing the temperature and weathering rate of rocks. ( + / / 0 ) 19. The CO2 that reaches deep parts of the ocean takes about /________ / to return to atmosphere
because\_________\ A. /10 years/, \of El Nino and La Nina\ B. /6 months to one year/, \of monsoons\ C. /10000 years/, \there are no currents in the deep ocean\ D. /1000 years/, \deep ocean circulation is slow\ 2 marks; 2 min

16

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17

## Theory Test Atmosphere & Hydrosphere

ISEO 2013 Hydrosphere and Atmosphere Theory, Mysuru, India, Correct Answers and marks Question number 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 Subquestion number (i) (ii) (iii) (i) (ii) (iii) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Correct answer A B C B D D T F T F B Marks

## Question Subquestion Answer No. No. 5 5 A B

marks

Ionosphere Mesosphere

0.5+0.5 0.5+0.5

5 5

C D

Stratopause

0.5+0.5 0.5+0.5

6 6 6 6 6

## (i) (i) (i) (i) (ii)

A B C D -

1 1 1 1 1

Question No 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 11

Subquestion No. A B C D

answer D B and D A and D Cumulus congestus Cumulonimbus Cirrus Altostratus, altocumulus See figures below

marks 2 1 +1 2+2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 8 X 0.5 (For each correct arrow 0.5) Correct Area 2 Multiply by70% 2 mark Volume 1marks 2

12

2.18x 1016 m3

13

0.004 C

14 15

B B

2 1

## Answer 1.26 x 1015 m3 Left El Nino Right non-El Nino + + D

Marks 2 1+1 1 1 1 2

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Instruction to participants about field measurement: 1. Students will be taken to the meteorological observatory located in the Agricultural farm station at Naganahalli. 2. All participants should wear cap, non-skid shoes, T-shirt and trousers suitable for carrying out the field experiment. 3. All participants must strictly follow the instruction of the instructor. 4. Care should be taken while climbing the ladder not to slip and also mind your head not to get hurt while take the reading for wind speed 5. Initial reading for serial number 3 will be announced on the day of the test.

Measurement of the meteorological parameters The following observations were carried out by the student: a) b) c) d) e) Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Wind speed Wind direction Cloud types

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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DATA SHEET 1. Name of the Student 2. Student Code Serial Number 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Wind speed Wind direction Cloud type Unit Degree Centigrade Degree Centigrade Initial Reading= Degrees Reading

1. Using the above data/observation answer the following questions: Questions: a) The wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures differ because (2 marks)

A. They are of different types one is mercury thermometer, the other, resistance thermometer. B. Water has a higher specific heat than air. C. Air has a higher specific heat than water. D. Water loses energy due to evaporation.
Mysuru, India, 11 19 September 2013 4 Practical Test Atmosphere

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## b) Circle the correct option:

(2 marks)

A. Evaporation increases with decreasing temperature, and also with increasing humidity. B. Evaporation decreases with increasing temperature and humidity. C. Evaporation decreases with increasing wind speed and temperature. D. Evaporation increases with increasing wind speed and temperature.

c) What is the wind speed (m/s) and direction measured by you at the met station you visited? 3 marks

d) Circle the types of cloud that were observed by you at the met station you visited? 2 marks A. Cumulus B. Cirrus C. Stratus D. Nimbus E. Altocumulus F. Altostratus

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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e) The water level in the evaporimeter on 5 September 2013 was 14 cm at 09:00 Hrs. There were two episodes of rain on 7th September and 10th September with rainfall of 3 cm and 5 cm respectively. If the water level in the evaporimeter was 19 cm on 11th September 2013 , 09:00 Hrs. what is the average rate of evaporation during the entire period of observation in mm/hr? 5 marks

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Instruction to participants about field measurement: 1. Students will be taken to the meteorological observatory located in the Agricultural farm station at Naganahalli. 2. All participants should wear cap, non-skid shoes, T-shirt and trousers suitable for carrying out the field experiment. 3. All participants must strictly follow the instruction of the instructor. 4. Care should be taken while climbing the ladder not to slip and also mind your head not to get hurt while take the reading for wind speed Measurement of the meteorological parameters The following observations would be carried out by the student: a) b) c) d) e) Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Wind speed Wind direction Cloud types DATA SHEET 3. Name of the Student 4. Student Code Serial Number 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Wind speed Wind direction Cloud type Unit Degree Centigrade Degree Centigrade Initial Reading= Degrees Reading

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## Practical Test Atmosphere

ISEO 2013 Atmosphere Practical,Mysuru, India, Correct Answers and marks Question number 1 1 1 Subquestion number (a) (b) (c) Correct answer Marks

D D

2 2

(d)

1 Total marks

(e)

5 14

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## Students Name and Code: `

Mysuru, India, 11 19 September 2013 1 Practical Test Hydrosphere

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Two sets of data pertaining to profiles of temperature, salinity and (density-1000) from two locations on from the north Indian Ocean are given below. Draw the vertical distribution of temperature and salinity. Use one graph sheet each to draw the Data SET-1 and Data SET-2 and answer the following questions. Data SET-1 Depth (m) Temperature (C) Salinity (PSU) (also parts per mil) 31.04 31.05 31.06 32.56 33.41 34.38 34.69 34.73 34.79 34.86 34.91 34.99 Density-1000 (kg m-3)

0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -75 -90 -100 -125 -150 -200

29.03 28.99 28.98 28.96 28.97 28.96 23.54 23.21 19.79 17.85 15.87 13.43

19.09 19.10 19.11 20.35 21.80 22.98 23.94 24.56 24.98 25.57 25.71 26.30

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Data SET-2 Depth (m) Temperature (C) Salinity (PSU) (also parts per mil) 36.54 36.53 36.53 36.53 36.51 36.52 36.5 36.3 36.14 36.03 35.94 35.93 Density-1000 (kg m-3)

0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -75 -90 -100 -125 -150 -200

26.00 25.98 25.95 25.92 25.90 25.89 25.87 23.91 21.78 20.33 18.97 17.17

24.20 24.20 24.21 24.22 24.21 24.22 24.21 24.65 25.15 25.46 25.75 26.19

Questions: a) Plot the vertical profiles of temperature and salinity for SET-1 & SET-2 in the two graph sheets provided. 5 marks

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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b) Determine the Mixed layer depth (in m) in SET-1& SET-2? SET-1 SET-2

2 marks

c) Using the plots you made and the (density-1000) values from the tables, if needed, determine the thickness of the barrier layer (in m) in SET-1& SET2? (barrier layer refers to the depth zone within the isothermal layer where the salinity increases rapidly). Circle the correct option. 2 marks A. B. C. D. 30 m for SET-1 and 0 m for SET-2 20 m for SET-1 and 75 m for SET-2 50 m for SET-1 and 75 m for SET-2 10 m for SET-1 and 0 m for SET-2

d) What are the temperature and salinity gradients in the barrier layer for SET-1 & SET-2 data? 4 marks A. 0 per m in salinity for SET-1 and 0 per m in temperature for SET-2 B. 0.09 per m in salinity for SET-1 and 0 per m in temperature for SET-2 C. 0.09 per m in salinity for SET-2 and 0 per m in temperature for SET-1 D. 0.09 per m in temperature for SET-1 and 0.09 per m in salinity for SET-2 e) Identify which SET pertains to the Arabian Sea (less river discharge), and which SET the Bay of Bengal (more river discharge): Write AS for Arabian Sea and BB for Bay of Bengal, in the appropriate row. 2 marks SET-1 SET-2

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## Practical Test Hydrosphere

ISEO 2013 Hydrosphere Practical, Mysuru, India, Correct Answers and marks Question number 1 Subquestion number (a) Correct answer Marks

Each parameter 5 for each set plotted correctly 1 x 4 Neatness and legibility 1

(b)

1 1 1

2 4 2

Total marks

15

SET-1

SET-2

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Instructions:

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## WRITTEN TEST IN GEOSPHERE

Q.No. Questions Questions 1 to 10 correspond to Figure 1. Points

Figure 1

1000 km

What is the correct order (older to younger) of the formation of the rocks? a) C,D,B,A,E+(H,G,F) b) C,B,E,H,A,F,E,D c) C,F,B,A,E +(H,G,D) d) H,G,F,E,C,D,B,A Which types of faults are presented in the Figure 1? a) Reverse faults b) Extension faults c) Transform faults d) Strike slip faults

(3)

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Which type of tectonic setting is presented in the Figure 1? a) Subduction b) Collision c) Rifting d) Transform Which type of fossil should NOT be expected in unit A? a) Stromatolite b) Fossil wood c) Ammonite d) Echinoderms Which mineral is expected to be found in layer G? a) Halite b) Calcite c) Quartz d) Clay The red sandstone in layer B is cemented by: a) Copper b) Quartz c) Calcite d) Iron Cross bedding is most likely to be expected in layers: a) A b) B c) C d) D Which of the following rocks is a result of interaction between the Hydrosphere and the Biosphere: a) Sandstone b) Salt c) Limestone d) Granite

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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The hydrosphere processes that affect various rocks in the section is seen in : a) All the rocks b) All the rocks except granite and rhyolite c) Limestone, marl and salt d) Sandstone, conglomerate and limestone Which of the earth systems (spheres) is active in producing salt deposits? a) Hydrosphere and biosphere b) Geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. c) Geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere d) Atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere

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10

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## Questions 11 to 13 corresponds to Figure 2.

This is a schematic diagram of a typical cross-section of an ocean

Figure 2

11

How many plates are present in the Figure above? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 Which type of rock could be formed in Region A? a) Basalt, obsidian and chert b) Sandstone and basalt c) Clay and chert d) Mostly basalt

(2)

12

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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13

Beneath which regions of the section can one expect volcanism? a) C and E b) A and C c) B and D d) B and A

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## Questions 14 to 19 corresponds to Figure 3.

Shown in the Figure 3 are sedimentary rock sections from two different continents X and Y. The names of the rock strata are provided at the left. Different symbols represent fossils as shown in the legend at the right. The fossils are given hypothetical names. Each type of fossil represents a specific geologic time.

Figure 3

14

Which of the following pair represents similar age: a) G and R b) A and L c) D and P d) B and P

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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15

Which of the following statement is true? a) O is younger than D b) A is older than L c) N and C are of same age d) O is older than D Which of the following animal group appeared earliest in the history of these continents? a) Ac b) Tr c) Mc d) An

(2)

16

(1)

17

Vt represents a terrestrial animal that cannot swim. How would you explain the (2) occurrence of Vt fossil in both the continents, if there is a vast ocean between continent X and Y today? a) Vt appeared independently in both the continents b) The continents were connected when Vt was alive c) Vt developed an ability of swimming and later lost it. d) b and c E represents an ash layer containing a radioactive isotope with half life of 100 (3) Ma (million years). The ratio of parent to daughter isotope is found to be 1/8 in E. What is the age of the strata E? a) 200 Ma b) 300 Ma c) 400 Ma d) 800 Ma If the absolute age of each strata is denoted by tstrata. Please find out which of the following statement is true? (> means greater than) a) tC >tD> tF b) tD >tN>tL c) tP >tQ> tR d) tO >tD> tQ
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18

19

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## Questions 20-21 correspond to figure 4.

Continent X

Continent Y

Figure 4 20 A, B, M and Q are fossils occurring in rock strata of Continent X and Continent (2) Y. If you want to correlate these two rock successions which fossil would you choose as the best index fossil? a) A b) B c) M d) Q What makes it the best index fossil? a) It is present in one rock unit only b) It is present in more than one rock unit c) It is present in rocks of both continents, d) a and c
(2)

21

22

What part of the timescale does a rock represent if it contains fish fossil, (1) trilobites and brachiopod? a) Paleozoic b) Mesozoic, c) Proterozoic, d) Cenozoic

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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23

Rivers carry salt and deposit them to the ocean at a specific rate RSalt per year. (3) The concentration of salt in one unit of ocean water is CSalt. The evaporation rate is REvap, the total volume of ocean water is VOcean, the total volume of river water is VRiver. If you want to calculate the age of the ocean, which of the following data are necessary? a) RSalt, CSalt, VOcean b) REvap, VRiver, CSalt c) REvap, VRiver, RSalt, d) RSalt, CSalt, REvap, Global warming causes sea level increase because it facilitates the following factor. a) Melting of floating ice berg b) Melting of continental ice sheet c) Increasing the oceanic circulation d) a and b As we move away from mid-oceanic ridge under the sediment, we encounter progressively a) Younger and lighter rocks b) Older and lighter rocks c) Older and denser rocks d) Denser rocks of same age Which of the following DOES NOT qualify as a mineral a) Halite, b) Sugar crystal, c) Natural ice crystal, d) Pyroxene The volcanic eruptions are commonly situated along subduction zones. The most common composition of the magma here is a) Andesitic b) Basaltic c) Rhyolitic d) Peridotitic
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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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28

The most violent of the volcanic eruptions are commonly related to the_____________ magma. e) Andesitic f) Basaltic g) Rhyolitic h) Peridotitic

(1)

29

The Figure 5 below represents a map with volcanoes. Volcano A is active today (2) and volcano H is the oldest. The volcanoes in between follow the similar age progression. If the volcanoes are a result of hotspot on a moving plate, what is the right progression of movement of this particular plate?

Figure 5

a) b) c) d)

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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30

Figures 6 a to c represent different degrees of sorting and rounding of grains in a sedimentary rock indicative of distance of transport. Which of the answers is correct?

(1)

Figure 6

a) A is transported over longer distance than B and C respectively. b) B is transported over longer distance than C and A respectively. c) C is transported over longer distance than B and A respectively.
31

Why was Wegeners continental drift theory initially rejected? a) Absence of data on deep sea features b) Absence of a mechanism for motion of continents c) Ignorance of distribution of volcanoes d) Absence of paleomagnetic data It is a well established fact that Earth is constantly cooling. Where is the heat flow maximum? a) Mid-oceanic ridges b) Subduction zones c) Fold mountains d) Precambrian Shield areas Following the above question, which of the processes is responsible for heat loss? a) Under thrusting of plates b) Formation of mountains c) Pouring out of lava d) Metamorphism
10/18

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32

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33

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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34

This crystalline rock contains coarse grains of feldspar, quartz and mica i. Name the rock a) Gabbro b) Granite c) Basalt d) Diorite It is glassy, has conchoidal fracture, it comes in different colours and it is extrusive in nature. What is it? a) Basalt b) Pumice c) Obsidian d) Chert

(1)

35

(1)

36

The upper mantle and the crust make up a major tectonic feature of our earth. Answer the following questions in relation to this feature. i. What is it called? a) Lithosphere b) Asthenosphere c) Mesosphere ii. What is the physical state of this layer of the Earth? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Plastic d) Brittle

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37

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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1 A Footwall block 2

Footwall 6A block 1

Footwall block

Footwall Hinge line Hinge line 1 A block B of 2 B of anticline anticline Hinge line Hinge line 13 M Anticline 13 M Anticline 2 B of 2 B of Youngest Youngest anticline rock rock anticline 13 M Anticline 13 M Anticline 16 P exposed 16 P exposed 1 Youngest Youngest on on rock surface surface rock Footwall 16 P exposed P exposed 2 Oldest 16 Oldest 1 A block on rock rock on surface surface Footwall 20 20 T exposed Hinge line T exposed Oldest Oldest A block Footwall on Figure 7on 2 B of1 rock 1 surface A block surface rock 38 (3) Match the numbered features of geologic structures (in normal position) in anticline 20 T exposed 20 T exposed Hinge line 23 W Syncline 23 W Syncline Figure 7 to the correct terms the right. 13 M on Anticline on 2 B of Oldest Hinge line on Oldest Youngest 1 surface surface anticline 2 formation B of formation rock 2 23 W Syncline 23 W Syncline 13 10 B M J Anticline of 10 B J anticline of 16 P exposed 3 Oldest Oldest 13 M Anticline Youngest plunging plunging on 4 formation formation rock structure Youngest structure surface 5 10 B J of 16 BHinge J line of P exposed Hinge line10rock Oldest plunging plunging 6 on P exposed of of rock 9 E I 16 9 E I structure structure surface List of Answers 20 plunging on plunging T exposed Hinge line Hinge line Oldest A Hinge line of anticline anticline surface anticline on of of rock B Hinge Dip of 9 Oldest surface 9 line E of I syncline E DipI of plunging 20 7 M T Gexposed rock fault 7 M G fault plunging C Anticline 23 W Syncline anticline 20 plane T exposed plane anticline D Youngest rock exposed on surface on Oldest Dip of surface on Hinge Dip of Hinge G Oldest rock exposed on 8 surface formation P H 8 P H 7 M G fault 7 surface M G fault W Syncline Line Line 10 B J of23 I Syncline plane plane 23 W Syncline Oldest Strike of Strike of plunging Hinge 11 T K formation Hinge fault 11 T 8 KOldest structure 8 P H P fault H Line10 B J of plane formation plane Line Hinge line Strike of Strike of plunging 10 B line J of Hinge line Hinge of 9 E I 11 T K fault 11plunging T of K fault structure of plunging 6 lineW Fstructure plane plane 6 W F Hinge plunging plunging anticline Hinge line Hinge line of Hinge line Test syncline syncline Mysore, India, September 11-19, 2013 Dip (Theory Geosphere) 9 of E 12/18 I of of plunging of 7 M G fault 6 W F 9 E I 6 W F plunging anticline plunging plunging plane syncline anticline syncline Dip of Hinge 1

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Figure 8

39

Match the numbered features of geologic structures in Figure 7 to the correct terms on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

(3)

A B C D E F

Footwall block Hanging Wall Strike of fault plane Hanging Wall block Footwall Dip direction of the fault plane

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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40

Based on the various processes acting on different rocks that is indicated on the arrows, mark the type of rocks in the boxes given in Figure 9.

(3)

Figure 9 W Weathering, E Erosion, T Transportation, D Deposition, L Lithification , T Temperature, P Pressure, F Fluid, M Melting, C - Crystallization a) 1=Igneous rock, 2=Metamorphic rock, 3=Sedimentary rock b) 3=Igneous rock, 2=Metamorphic rock, 1=Sedimentary rock c) 2=Igneous rock, 3=Metamorphic rock, 1=Sedimentary rock

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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Figure 10

41

Match the numbers on the Figure 10 above to the appropriate terms or descriptions below. 1 Region indicated by #1 2 Region indicated by #2 3 Region indicated by #3 4 Type of Seismic Waves 5 Another type of Seismic Waves 6 Density of region #6 7 Phenomenon observed in region#7 8 Density of the Outer C ore 9 Density of the Inner C ore 10 Region #10

(10)

A B C D E F G H I J

S-Waves P-Waves Low-Velocity Zone 5.5 gram per cubic centimeter 10 - 12 gram per cubic centimeter 12 - 13 gram per cubic centimeter Solid Inner C ore Upper Mantle Lithosphere S-waves cannot penetrate liquid outer core
15/18 (Theory Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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42

Which one of the following statements is true? a) Both gravity and magnetic field decreases with increase in the latitude. b) Both gravity and magnetic field increases with increase in the latitude. c) Gravity field increases with the latitude whereas the magnetic field decreases with latitude d) Gravity field decreases with the latitude whereas the magnetic field increases with latitude Which one of the following statements is true? (>means greater than and < means less than respectively.) a. Conductivity of ocean water < Conductivity of ground water < conductivity of rain water b. Conductivity of ocean water < Conductivity of ground water >conductivity of rain water c. Conductivity of ocean water > Conductivity of ground water < conductivity of rain water d. Conductivity of ocean water > Conductivity of ground water > conductivity of rain water

(2)

43

44

With respect to the Figure 11 which of the following options is correct? (> means (1) greater than and < means less than)

Figure 11
a) Elevation at b) Elevation at c) Elevation at d) Elevation at A > Elevation at B > Elevation at C A > Elevation at B < Elevation at C A < Elevation at B > Elevation at C A < Elevation at B < Elevation at C

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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45

An earthquake was recorded at stations X, and Y which are at 50 km, and 200 km respectively from the epicenter. Which of the following statement is correct? a. Magnitude is less at station X whereas intensity is more at station X b. Magnitude and intensity are more at station X than at station Y c. Magnitude is same at both the stations whereas intensity is more at station X d. Magnitude is same at both the stations whereas intensity is more at station Y If the depth is reduced from 10 km to 1 km the hydrostatic pressure will a. Increase by 10 times b. Increases by 100 times c. Decrease by 10 times d. Decreases by 100 times Statement I: Earth is not a perfect sphere Statement II: Gravitational acceleration would not be constant over the earths surface a. Statements I and II are correct , Statement II follows Statement I b. Statements I and II are correct , Statement I follows Statement II c. Statements I and II are incorrect d. Only statement I is correct

(1)

46

(1)

47

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48

If the moon had never existed, one of the following statements is INCORRECT. (1) a) The length of the day would have been shorter b) The tilt of the Earths axis would vary more c) There would be no tides on Earth d) It would be much darker at night all the year round

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## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

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49

The summer in the northern hemisphere is warmer than the southern hemisphere, in spite of the fact that the Earth is farthest from the sun. This is because: A. During northern summer the North Pole is tilted toward the sun. B. There is more land in the northern hemisphere. C. Earth moves slowly at aphelion than at perihelion. D. During northern summer the days are shorter than in winter. Choose the correct answer from the following options. a) A and B are correct b) C and D are correct c) B and C are correct d) A and D are correct

(1)

50

If a topographic profile is drawn along line X-Y, the profile will be similar in shape to

(1)

Figure 12
a) b) c) d) A B C D

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## GEOSPHERE WRITTEN TEST ANSWER KEY

Q. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer A B C B A D B C A B C D D C A B B B B D D A A B C B A C D B B A C B C A A I C D B A G Marks 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

39

C F A D B E 40 A 41 1 I 2 C 3 H 4 A 5 B 6 D 7 J 8 E 9 F 10 G 42 B 43 D 44 A 45 C 46 C 47 A 48 C 49 C 50 A

1 2 3 4 5 6

10

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TOTAL 84

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

7th International Earth Science Olympiad GEOSPHERE PRACTICAL TEST PART 1 INFOSYS CAMP

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EXERCISE #1 Study the set of samples in locations 1 4 and answer the following five questions. Time: 40 MINUTES (20 POINTS) Instructions: Complete the following 5 questions based on the rock sample provided. Location 1: 1. Which of the following features can you observe in the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Fossil Cross bedding Horizontal bedding Crystalline structure A multi-minerallic rock (more than one mineral) A mono-minerallic rock (one mineral) Lineation (Elongated minerals are arranged in a parallel manner) Foliation (Marked with bands of different minerals) Vesicular structure Minerals cannot be seen with the naked eye Glassy texture

2. What conclusion(s) can you draw about the formation of this rock sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) This rock formed in a shallow marine environment. b) This rock formed in an open sea environment. c) This rock formed in a deep sea environment. d) Sedimentation in an oversaturated environment. e) Sedimentation in a cave environment. f) This rock formed in a lake environment.

g) This rock formed in a river environment. h) This rock formed in a dune environment. i) j) This rock formed in an (igneous) plutonic environment. This rock formed in an (igneous) volcanic environment. (Practical Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

k) This rock underwent regional metamorphism. l) This rock underwent contact metamorphism.

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3. What observation/ principle helped you draw the conclusion? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) The principle of original horizontality. b) The principle of the present is the key to the past. c) The principle of superposition. d) The size of a mineral crystal in an igneous rock is dependent on the rate of cooling. e) Slow cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively high. f) Fast cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively low.

g) The temperature is relatively high at deeper levels of the crust. h) The temperature is relatively low towards the surface of the crust. i) j) The pressure is relatively high deep in the crust. Linear minerals grow with a parallel orientation under conditions of high pressure.

k) Rocks can behave elastically under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. l) The roundness of a grain is a result of both the distance of transport and hardness of the mineral.

m) Cross bedding structure is a result of sedimentation by moving air (wind) or water. n) Sedimentation in a river environment leads to all the layers inclined in the same direction and the thickness of the layers is on the order of a few tens of centimeters. o) Sedimentation in a wind environment leads to inclination of the layers in different directions and the thickness of the layers is on the order of meters.

4. Which processes are directly relevant to the formation of the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) Sedimentation b) Uplift c) Erosion d) Weathering

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

e) Burial f) Lithification

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## g) Melting h) Slow crystallization i) j) Fast crystallization Regional metamorphism

k) Contact metamorphism 5. Which of the following Earth Systems are involved in the formation and exposure of the rock?. (Note: Choose only ONE response, which represents all the systems that DIRECTLY influenced the formation AND exposure of the sample). a) Geosphere and Atmosphere. b) Geosphere and Hydrosphere. c) Geosphere and Biosphere. d) Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. e) Hydrosphere and Biosphere. f) Atmosphere and Biosphere.

g) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. h) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere. i) j) Geosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Hydrosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere.

k) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Location 2: 1. Which of the following features can you observe in the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Fossil Cross bedding Horizontal bedding Crystalline structure A multi-minerallic rock (more than one mineral) A mono-minerallic rock (one mineral) Lineation (Elongated minerals are arranged in a parallel manner) (Practical Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

8. 9. 10. 11. Foliation (Marked with bands of different minerals) Vesicular structure Minerals cannot be seen with the naked eye Glassy texture

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2. What conclusion(s) can you draw about the formation of this rock sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) This rock formed in a shallow marine environment. b) This rock formed in an open sea environment. c) This rock formed in a deep sea environment. d) Sedimentation in an oversaturated environment. e) Sedimentation in a cave environment. f) This rock formed in a lake environment.

g) This rock formed in a river environment. h) This rock formed in a dune environment. i) j) This rock formed in an (igneous) plutonic environment. This rock formed in an (igneous) volcanic environment.

k) This rock underwent regional metamorphism. l) This rock underwent contact metamorphism.

3. What observation/ principle helped you draw the conclusion? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) The principle of original horizontality. b) The principle of the present is the key to the past. c) The principle of superposition. d) The size of a mineral crystal in an igneous rock is dependent on the rate of cooling. e) Slow cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively high. f) Fast cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively low.

g) The temperature is relatively high at deeper levels of the crust. h) The temperature is relatively low towards the surface of the crust. i) The pressure is relatively high deep in the crust.

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

j)

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Linear minerals grow with a parallel orientation under conditions of high pressure.

k) Rocks can behave elastically under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. l) The roundness of a grain is a result of both the distance of transport and hardness of the mineral.

m) Cross bedding structure is a result of sedimentation by moving air (wind) or water. n) Sedimentation in a river environment leads to all the layers inclined in the same direction and the thickness of the layers is on the order of a few tens of centimeters. o) Sedimentation in a wind environment leads to inclination of the layers in different directions and the thickness of the layers is on the order of meters.

4. Which processes are directly relevant to the formation of the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) Sedimentation b) Uplift c) Erosion d) Weathering e) Burial f) Lithification

## g) Melting h) Slow crystallization i) j) Fast crystallization Regional metamorphism

k) Contact metamorphism 5. Which of the following Earth Systems are involved in the formation and exposure of the rock?. (Note: Choose only ONE response, which represents all the systems that DIRECTLY influenced the formation AND exposure of the sample). a) Geosphere and Atmosphere. b) Geosphere and Hydrosphere. c) Geosphere and Biosphere. d) Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. Mysore, India, September 11-19, 2013 (Practical Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

e) Hydrosphere and Biosphere. f) Atmosphere and Biosphere.

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g) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. h) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere. i) j) Geosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Hydrosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere.

k) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Location 3: 1. Which of the following features can you observe in the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Fossil Cross bedding Horizontal bedding Crystalline structure A multi-minerallic rock (more than one mineral) A mono-minerallic rock (one mineral) Lineation (Elongated minerals are arranged in a parallel manner) Foliation (Marked with bands of different minerals) Vesicular structure Minerals cannot be seen with the naked eye Glassy texture

2. What conclusion(s) can you draw about the formation of this rock sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) This rock formed in a shallow marine environment. b) This rock formed in an open sea environment. c) This rock formed in a deep sea environment. d) Sedimentation in an oversaturated environment. e) Sedimentation in a cave environment. f) This rock formed in a lake environment.

g) This rock formed in a river environment. h) This rock formed in a dune environment. i) This rock formed in an (igneous) plutonic environment.

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

j) This rock formed in an (igneous) volcanic environment.

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k) This rock underwent regional metamorphism. l) This rock underwent contact metamorphism.

3. What observation/ principle helped you draw the conclusion? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) The principle of original horizontality. b) The principle of the present is the key to the past. c) The principle of superposition. d) The size of a mineral crystal in an igneous rock is dependent on the rate of cooling. e) Slow cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively high. f) Fast cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively low.

g) The temperature is relatively high at deeper levels of the crust. h) The temperature is relatively low towards the surface of the crust. i) j) The pressure is relatively high deep in the crust. Linear minerals grow with a parallel orientation under conditions of high pressure.

k) Rocks can behave elastically under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. l) The roundness of a grain is a result of both the distance of transport and hardness of the mineral.

m) Cross bedding structure is a result of sedimentation by moving air (wind) or water. n) Sedimentation in a river environment leads to all the layers inclined in the same direction and the thickness of the layers is on the order of a few tens of centimeters. o) Sedimentation in a wind environment leads to inclination of the layers in different directions and the thickness of the layers is on the order of meters.

4. Which processes are directly relevant to the formation of the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) Sedimentation b) Uplift c) Erosion

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

d) Weathering e) Burial f) Lithification

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## g) Melting h) Slow crystallization i) j) Fast crystallization Regional metamorphism

k) Contact metamorphism 5. Which of the following Earth Systems are involved in the formation and exposure of the rock?. (Note: Choose only ONE response, which represents all the systems that DIRECTLY influenced the formation AND exposure of the sample). a) Geosphere and Atmosphere. b) Geosphere and Hydrosphere. c) Geosphere and Biosphere. d) Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. e) Hydrosphere and Biosphere. f) Atmosphere and Biosphere.

g) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. h) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere. i) j) Geosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Hydrosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere.

k) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Location 4: 1. Which of the following features can you observe in the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fossil Cross bedding Horizontal bedding Crystalline structure A multi-minerallic rock (more than one mineral) A mono-minerallic rock (one mineral) (Practical Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Lineation (Elongated minerals are arranged in a parallel manner) Foliation (Marked with bands of different minerals) Vesicular structure Minerals cannot be seen with the naked eye Glassy texture

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2. What conclusion(s) can you draw about the formation of this rock sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) This rock formed in a shallow marine environment. b) This rock formed in an open sea environment. c) This rock formed in a deep sea environment. d) Sedimentation in an oversaturated environment. e) Sedimentation in a cave environment. f) This rock formed in a lake environment.

g) This rock formed in a river environment. h) This rock formed in a dune environment. i) j) This rock formed in an (igneous) plutonic environment. This rock formed in an (igneous) volcanic environment.

k) This rock underwent regional metamorphism. l) This rock underwent contact metamorphism.

3. What observation/ principle helped you draw the conclusion? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) The principle of original horizontality. b) The principle of the present is the key to the past. c) The principle of superposition. d) The size of a mineral crystal in an igneous rock is dependent on the rate of cooling. e) Slow cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively high. f) Fast cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively low.

g) The temperature is relatively high at deeper levels of the crust. h) The temperature is relatively low towards the surface of the crust. i) The pressure is relatively high deep in the crust. (Practical Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

j)

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Linear minerals grow with a parallel orientation under conditions of high pressure.

k) Rocks can behave elastically under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. l) The roundness of a grain is a result of both the distance of transport and hardness of the mineral.

m) Cross bedding structure is a result of sedimentation by moving air (wind) or water. n) Sedimentation in a river environment leads to all the layers inclined in the same direction and the thickness of the layers is on the order of a few tens of centimeters. o) Sedimentation in a wind environment leads to inclination of the layers in different directions and the thickness of the layers is on the order of meters.

4. Which processes are directly relevant to the formation of the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). a) Sedimentation b) Uplift c) Erosion d) Weathering e) Burial f) Lithification

## g) Melting h) Slow crystallization i) j) Fast crystallization Regional metamorphism

k) Contact metamorphism 5. Which of the following Earth Systems are involved in the formation and exposure of the rock?. (Note: Choose only ONE response, which represents all the systems that DIRECTLY influenced the formation AND exposure of the sample). a) Geosphere and Atmosphere. b) Geosphere and Hydrosphere. c) Geosphere and Biosphere. d) Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. Mysore, India, September 11-19, 2013 (Practical Test Geosphere)

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

e) Hydrosphere and Biosphere. f) Atmosphere and Biosphere.

Student Code

g) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. h) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere. i) j) Geosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Hydrosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere.

## k) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere.

EXERCISE #2 Measure and record the strike and dip of the inclined plane at location 5 & 6. Time: 10 minutes (10 POINTS)

EXERCISE #3 Measure the porosity of sand using the apparatus provided at location 7. Time: 15 minutes (10 POINTS).

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

7th International Earth Science Olympiad GEOSPHERE PRACTICAL TEST PART 2 LOCATION: KARIGHATTA

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Instructions: Study the rocks at locations 1 to 4 and answer the following questions.
Please surrender your papers with the answers marked to the mentor on site before you get into the bus. (Time 30 minutes; 20 points).
1. Which of the following features can you observe in the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Fossil Cross bedding Horizontal bedding Crystalline structure A multi-minerallic rock (more than one mineral) A mono-minerallic rock (one mineral) Lineation (Elongated minerals are arranged in a parallel manner) Foliation (Marked with bands of different minerals) Vesicular structure Minerals cannot be seen with the naked eye Glassy texture

2. What conclusion(s) can you draw about the formation of this rock sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). m) This rock formed in a shallow marine environment. n) This rock formed in an open sea environment. o) This rock formed in a deep sea environment. p) Sedimentation in an oversaturated environment. q) Sedimentation in a cave environment. r) This rock formed in a lake environment. s) This rock formed in a river environment. t) This rock formed in a dune environment.

u) This rock formed in an (igneous) plutonic environment. v) This rock formed in an (igneous) volcanic environment. w) This rock underwent regional metamorphism. x) This rock underwent contact metamorphism.

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

Student Code

3. What observation/ principle helped you draw the conclusion? (You may choose more than 1 answer). p) The principle of original horizontality. q) The principle of the present is the key to the past. r) The principle of superposition. s) The size of a mineral crystal in an igneous rock is dependent on the rate of cooling. t) Slow cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively high.

u) Fast cooling of magma occurs when the surrounding temperature is relatively low. v) The temperature is relatively high at deeper levels of the crust. w) The temperature is relatively low towards the surface of the crust. x) The pressure is relatively high deep in the crust. y) Linear minerals grow with a parallel orientation under conditions of high pressure. z) Rocks can behave elastically under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. aa) The roundness of a grain is a result of both the distance of transport and hardness of the mineral. bb) Cross bedding structure is a result of sedimentation by moving air (wind) or water. cc) Sedimentation in a river environment leads to all the layers inclined in the same direction and the thickness of the layers is on the order of a few tens of centimeters. dd) Sedimentation in a wind environment leads to inclination of the layers in different directions and the thickness of the layers is on the order of meters.

4. Which processes are directly relevant to the formation of the sample? (You may choose more than 1 answer). l) Sedimentation

## 7th International Earth Science Olympiad

r) Melting s) Slow crystallization t) Fast crystallization

Student Code

u) Regional metamorphism v) Contact metamorphism 5. Which of the following Earth Systems are involved in the formation and exposure of the rock?. (Note: Choose only ONE response, which represents all the systems that DIRECTLY influenced the formation AND exposure of the sample). l) Geosphere and Atmosphere.

m) Geosphere and Hydrosphere. n) Geosphere and Biosphere. o) Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. p) Hydrosphere and Biosphere. q) Atmosphere and Biosphere. r) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. s) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere. t) Geosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere.

u) Hydrosphere and Atmosphere and Biosphere. v) Geosphere and Atmosphere and Hydrosphere and Biosphere.

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