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GRAMMA

R
AND

VOCABULARY
for
C A M B R I D G E A DVANCED
AND PROFICIENCY

W T

E Y

lift

RICHARD SIDE

and

GUY WELLMAN

GRAMMAR VOCABULARY
for
CAMBRIDGE ADVANCED
AND PROFICIENCY

AND

Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world www. longman-elt.com Pearson Education Limited 1999 he right o! "ichard #ide and Gu$ %ellman to be identi!ied as authors o! this %or& ha'e been asserted b$ them in accordance with the Cop$right( )esigns and *atents Act +,-All rights reser'ed. no part o! this publication ma$ be reproduced( stored in a retrie'al s$stem( or transmitted in an$ !orm or b$ an$ means( electronic( mechanical( photocop$ing( recording( or otherwise without the prior written permission o! the *ublishers. First published 1999 Second impression 2000 ISBN 0 !2 "19#$ ! Acknowledgements %esi&ned b' First Edition Illustrations b' Noel Ford (o)er desi&n b' *ndre+ ,li)er Pro-ect mana&ed b' (hristina .use /he publishers +ould li0e to than0 the follo+in& for their 0ind permission to adapt e1cerpts from ori&inal te1ts2 /x!ord oda$ 3passa&e4 pa&e 2956 he 0ndependent( from article b' 7illiam 8artson4 1$91299: 3passa&e on &lobal +armin&4 pa&e 1$$56 1ewswee& 2$911919!: 3passa&e on t+ins4 pa&e 1 156 ;uartet Boo0s4 from #udan b' N 7orral 319!05 3passa&e4 pa&e 1 $56 See0er and 7arbur&4 from 1either Here 1or here b' Bill Br'son 319915 3passa&e on tra)ellin& in Europe4 pa&e 1 56 Pen&uin4 from Citi2ens b' Simon Schama4 p921 3passa&e4 pa&e 19"59 Set in <onot'pe %ante Printed in Spain b' =raficas Estella

Contents
Syllabus map Int !"u#t$!n Un$t !n%

311 i#

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 Possibilit'4 probabilit' and certaint' SECTION 5 ,bli&ations E&am

!
p a#t$#% '

Problem tenses
Ent y t%st

1# 1: 1!
Un$t (!u

#0 #2

OVERVIEW SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION 4 I

20 22 2"

Modal verbs 2
Ent y t%st

2
3

OVERVIEW > <eanin&s of modals SECTION )

#2 #$

Intention4 +illin&ness4 fre?uenc'4

Present Perfect ,ther Perfect forms (ontinuous forms /he future


SECTION

Vocabulary
2# 2! $0 $2
SECTION 5

Necessit'4 dut' and ad)ice habit

"

SECTION

2 *bilit'4 permission
Special uses of should. modals in the past

SECTION

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 Fre?uenc' :" SECTION 5

*bilit'4 ?ualit' and

Stati)e )erbs

achie)ement 7
E&am p a#t$#% - :!

SECTION 3 (ollocation2 an introduction


E&am p a#t$#% )

C!0

Un$t ($.% Un$t t*!

Passives
Ent y t%st

$2 $$

Ent y t%st

Subjunctives and Unreal Past; Conditionals


I

!0 !1 !2 !"

OVERVIEW SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION 4 I

OVERVIEW SECTION SECTION

2
3

SECTION 3

Sub-uncti)es and Anreal Past

Li0el' conditionals in the past4 present and future *&ents and ob-ects +ith the passi)e $" Infiniti)es and -ing form passi)es $# Structures +ith get and ha'e $! Not usin& the passi)e2 transiti)e "0 to intransiti)e Anli0el' conditionals in the present and future Past conditionals !!

Vocabulary
"2 "" "# "!
SECTION 5

90 92

9"
SECTION 4

Vocabulary
SECTION 5 <etaphor SECTION 3 7ord formation2 prefi1es and suffi1es
E&am p a#t$#% /

@erbs +e commonl' use in the passi)e

SECTION 3 Phrasal )erbs6 )erb > preposition E&am p a#t$#% +

Un$t t, %%

Modal verbs 1
Ent y t%st

9# "! "9
P !0 %ss t%st )

OVERVIEW SECTION i SECTION

3testin& contents of Anits 1 B 5

Predictin& and past

0 2

2 /rue4 untrue4 possible2 present

:0 :2

"

CONTENTS

SECTION
Un$t s$& 100

2 Each and e'er$ 148


/nes( another( other4s5( one 150 another( each other little( most

SECTION

Linking clauses
Ent y t%st )11 )1)

SECTION 4 ;uantifiers2 much( man$( a lot o!( 152 4a5 !ew( 4a5 SECTION 5 An$( some( somewhere( an$where( 154 etc9

OVERVIEW SECTION i SECTION

/ime and .eason

)1+ )1)12

2 .esult and Purpose


(oncession clauses

Vocabulary
SECTION 6 *mount and e1tent 156 SECTION 3

=roups of and

SECTION

parts of 158
E&am p a#t$#% 5 160

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 E1pressin& purpose and effect SECTION 5

10! 110
))+

Un$t t%n 162

*&reein& or not

oun clauses
Ent y t%st

E&am p a#t$#% 2

1#2 1#$ /hatBclauses 1#" 1## 1#!

OVERVIEW
Un$t s%.%n

11"

SECTION i SECTION

2 7hBclauses
/oBinfiniti)e and -ing clauses

Adjectives and adverbs


Ent y t%st ))))/

SECTION

SECTION 4 .eference2 this( that( these( those. 1:0 such. so

OVERVIEW SECTION i

*d-ecti)e structures6 ad-ecti)e or ad)erbD

11# 11!
)+1

Vocabulary
SECTION 5

Nouns from phrasal )erbs

1:2 1:" 1:#

SECTION

2 In)ersion after ne&ati)e ad)erbs


<a0in& comparisons

SECTION # Lac04 shorta&e and e1cess


E&am p a#t$#% )1

SECTION $

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 %ifferences and similarities SECTION 5

122
)+)+2

P !0 %ss t%st +

1:!E
67

Sentence ad)erbs

3testin& contents of Anits 1 B105

E&am p a#t$#% 3

Un$t %$0,t

12!

ouns and articles


Ent y t%st )+4 )+5

OVERVIEW SECTION i SECTION

Asin& the or no article

1$0 1$2 1$" 1$#

2 Sin&ular4 plural4 uncountable


(lassif'in&

SECTION $

SECTION 4 *d-ecti)es and )erbs as nouns

Vocabulary
SECTION 5

Sin&ular4 plural uncountable2 common phrases

1$!

SECTION # (ompounds
E&am p a#t$#% 4

1"0 1"2

Un$t n$n%

1""

!eterminers and "ronouns


Ent y t%st 1""

OVERVIEW 1" SECTION i

All( both( the whole( neither( either( 1"# no( none

CONTE NTS

Vocabulary
8 Un$t %l%.%n

1!2

SECTION 3

;uotin&4 reportin& and interpretin&

21!

#elative clauses
Ent y t%st

SECTION 4 (ommunicatin&

220 222

1!2 1!$ 7ords used +ith relati)e pronouns ,mittin& relati)e pronouns Nominal relati)e clauses 1!" 1!# 1!!

E&am p a#t$#% )' 8 Un$t (!u t%%n 22

OVERVIEW SECTION i

Verb com"lementation 1
Ent y t%st 22"

SECTION

SECTION F

OVERVIEW 22 SECTION i SECTION

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 .eference +ords SECTION 5

.efle1i)e and reciprocal )erbs 22#

2 @erbs follo+ed b' thatBclauses 22! and ad-ecti)es


@erbs used +ith prepositional 2$0 and ad)erbial phrases

190 192 19" 19#

SECTION 3

Problems and solutions

E&am p a#t$#% ))

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 %ependent prepositions and 2$2 prepositional phrases SECTION 5 E1pressin& 0no+led&e and belief 2$" E&am p a#t$#% )-

Un$t t*%l.%

$m"%asis
Ent y t%st

2$# 19# 19:


I Un$t ($(t%%n 2$!

OVERVIEW SECTION I SECTION

Frontin&

19! 200

2 Introductor' here and It


Emphasis usin& %hat( All and It 202

Verb com"lementation 2
Ent y t%st 2$!

SECTION

OVERVIEW 2$9

SECTION 4 Nominalisation

20"

SECTION i

Vocabulary
SECTION 5

@erbs follo+ed b' -ing and infiniti)e

2"0 2"2 2""

Substitutin& one phrase for another

20#

SECTION

2 @erbs follo+ed b' infiniti)e


@erbs follo+ed b' as

SECTION 3

SECTION # Intensif'in& and emphasisin&


E&am p a#t$#% )+ 8 Un$t t,$ t%%n

20! 210 212

Vocabulary
SECTION 4 (ompetition4 opposition4 2"# disa&reement SECTION 5

Startin& and endin&2 creatin& 2"! and destro'in&

E&am p a#t$#% )/ 2 0

#e"orted s"eec%
Ent y t%st

212 21$ /enses in reported speech 21" 21#

P !0 %ss t%st ' 2 2

OVERVIEW SECTION i SECTION

3testin& contents of Anits 1B1 5

2 .eport structures

9%y 2 :

S!""a#$s %a&
Unit one
Grammar *roblem tenses
OVERVIEW

pa&e 1# Gi P %s%nt P% (%#t Present Perfect +ith other tenses6 idiomatic phrases

2 2 2

Ot,% P% (%#t t%ns%s Past Perfect H Future Perfect6 Perfect C!nt$nu!us Perfect (ontinuous6 Past (ontinuous for plans4 polite re?uests6 (ontinuous infiniti)es6

infiniti)es and -ing forms Perfect (ontinuous passi)e


T,% (utu % Future forms6 will in time and ifBclauses6 common phrases to refer to the future

Perfect tenses6 continuous tenses6 the future

Vocabulary

5, Stat$.% .% bs Ases in (ontinuous and nonB(ontinuous tenses 6 C!ll!#at$!n <eanin&6 fi1ed and open6 &rammatical forms

Unit two
Grammar *assi'es
OVERVIEW

pa&e $2

1 1

A0%nts an" !b7%#ts <ention of a&ents6 )erbs +ith t+o ob-ects6 limitations of passi)e Pass$.% an" $n($n$t$.% Infiniti)es after certain passi)e )erbs6 passi)e

infiniti)es6 report )erbs $G Get an" have (ausati)es6 Get 6 -ed. 07'e had m$ car stolen( etc9 " T ans$t$.% t! $nt ans$t$.% (han&in& sub-ect +ithout usin& passi)e6 meanin&s of er&ati)e )erbs 5^ V% bs #!mm!n $n t,% pass$.% @erbs +ith no a&ent6 -ed ad-ecti)e or passi)eD6 prepositions +ith passi)es6 phrasal )erbs 6 P, asal .% bs Prepositions and

Form4 and reasons for usin&4 the passi)e

Vocabulary

particles6 position of ob-ect6 prepositions after passi)es


OVERVIEW

Unit three
Grammar Modal 'erbs +

Basic &rammar6 main uses of modals i6 alphabetical list of modals

pa&e "!
P %"$#t$n0 (ertaint'6 possibilit'6

T ut, an" p!ss$b$l$ty /rue H untrue6 e1pressin& opinions6 &i)in& reasons6

e1pressin& anno'ance
N%#%ss$ty: "uty: a".$#% Must( ha'e to( should( needn7t( don7t ha'e to etc96 other )erbs for necessit' and

e1pressin& opinions

ad)ice
P!ss$b$l$ty: p !bab$l$ty: #% ta$nty Li0elihood2 bound to( etc96 improbabilit' Obl$0at$!ns Le&al H

institutional4 moral4 personal obli&ations6 freedom of choice

Unit four
Grammar Modal 'erbs 2
OVERVIEW

pa&e #2 iG Int%nt$!n: ( %;u%n#y: ,ab$t Intention H refusal6 offers H re?uests6 fre?uenc'

2 2 2 2

Ab$l$ty: p% m$ss$!n Can 0 Could )9 was 0 were able to. theoretical possibilit'6 permission6 re&ister Should; m!"als $n t,% past Special uses of should. modals in the past6 modal Perfects F %;u%n#y *d)erbs and phrases6 ad-ecti)es6 habits and trends Ab$l$ty: ;ual$ty an" a#,$%.%m%nt %ependent prepositions6 collocation6 connotation6 metaphor

<ain uses of modals 26 0e' difficulties +ith meanin&s

SYLLABUS MA'

Unit five
forms6 will 0 won7t in 3HBclauses6 mi1in& time references6 false conditionals -$ Unl$<%ly #!n"$t$!nals @erb forms6 would in ifB clauses6 0!... are to 0 were to

pa&e !0 iG Sub7un#t$.%s an" Un %al Past Present and Past sub-uncti)e6 Anreal Past 2 L$<%ly #!n"$t$!nals @erb

Grutntnur #ub8uncti'es and 9nreal *ast. Conditionals


OVERVIEW

Sub-uncti)es6 Anreal Past6 conditionals6 when and i!. alternati)es to i!

4 4 4

Past #!n"$t$!nals @erb forms6 would ha'e... would ha'e. omittin& i! etc9

Vocabulary

M%tap,! (ompound ad-ecti)es and nouns6 sin&le +ords6 idiomatic phrases P %($&%s an" su(($&%s (han&in& meanin&6 prefi1es in nonBe1istent +ords6 suffi1es and part of speech6

suffi1es chan&in& meanin&

Unit six
Grammar :in&ing clauses
OVERVIEW

pa&e 100 -G T$m% an" R%as!n /ime clauses2 E'er since( etc96 .eason clauses2 because( etc9

/'pes of clause6 reasons for use6 position

2 2 2 2

R%sult an" Pu p!s% .esult clauses2 so( etc96 Purpose clauses2 in order to( etc9 C!n#%ss$!n #laus%s Position of lin0in& +ords6 bac0&round information6 une1pected contrast

Vocabulary

Pu p!s% an" %((%#t Purpose H intention6 result4 cause and effect A0 %%$n0 ! n!t Not &i)in& in6 +ei&hin& thin&s up6 &i)in& in

Unit seven
Grammar Ad8ecti'es and ad'erbs
OVERVIEW

pa&e 11" -G A"7%#t$.% st u#tu %s *d-ecti)es after nouns6 structures after ad-ecti)es6 late( latel$( etc9 2 In.% s$!n *fter ne&ati)e ad)erbs6 uses $I Ma<$n0 #!mpa $s!ns (omparati)es6 similarities6 double comparati)es6 preferences6 as 0 li&e. as i! 0 though " D$((% %n#%s an" s$m$la $t$%s (ollocation6 s'non'ms6 modifiers6 lin0in& phrases6 idiomatic phrases G S%nt%n#% a".% bs %efinition6 uses pa&e 12!

Position of ad-ecti)es and ad)erbs6 ad)erbs from ad-ecti)es6 ad)erbial phrases

Vocabulary

Unit eight
Grammar 1ouns and articles
OVERVIEW

1
the

The ! n! a t$#l% he +ith nouns al+a's sin&ular6 nouns +ithout articles6 &eneral or specific2 addin& S$n0ula : plu al: un#!untabl% *l+a's plural6 uncountable +ith -s. collecti)es6 here is 0 are.

(ountable H uncountable2 a 0 an( the( or no article6 other determiners

uncountable H countable $I Class$(y$n0 .eferrin& to &roups2 plural4 the( a ; an. special &roups " A"7%#t$.%s an" .% bs as n!uns he unemplo$ed( the supernatural( etc96 &erunds +ith H +ithout the
S$n0ula : plu al an" un#!untabl% (ommon phrases2 on !oot( in all weathers( etc9 C!mp!un"s Noun > noun6 ad-ecti)e > noun6 ad-ecti)e > ad-ecti)e6 other combinations

Vocabulary

Unit nine
Grammar
pronouns
OVERVIEW

pa&e 1"" )eterminers and


all, both, the whole, neither, either, no, none Ases6 common phrases Each an" every

%ifferences in meanin& H use6 sin&ular H plural6 common phrases


One an" another, other(s), one another, each other Ases6 common phrases =uant$($% s> much, many, (a) few, %t#? *rticles6 use in ne&ati)es H ?uestions6 formalit'6 common phrases 5^ Any, some, somewhere, anywhere, %t#? Ases6 common phrases

Pronoun )9 determiner6 usin& determiners to&ether6 sin&ular4 plural4 uncountable6 common phrases

Vocabulary

6 6

Am!unt an" %&t%nt E1tent and de&ree6 +ords e1pressin& ?uantit' G !ups !( an" pa ts !( %escribin& &roups6 informal phrases6 collocation

6 7

Unit ten
Tnat@#laus%s *fter nouns H ad-ecti)es H report )erbs6 as sub-ect6

pa&e 1#2 omittin& that. comparison +ith relati)e clauses


IVn@#laus%s Ases6 +ith prepositions6 +ith infiniti)es6 whether and i!.

Grammar 1oun clauses


OVERVIEW

%efinition6 t'pes6 position

e1clamations
T!@$n($n$t$.% an" -in #laus%s Sentence position6 differences6 addin& sub-ects6

common phrases
R%(% %n#%> this, that, these, those; such; so /ime H distance6 referrin& bac06

common phrases

Vocabulary

N!uns ( !m p, asal .% bs Position of particle6 transiti)e H intransiti)e6 noun )9 phrasal )erb La#<: s,! ta0% an" %&#%ss /he ha)es6 /he ha)e nots

Unit eleven
Grammar "elati'e clauses
OVERVIEW

pa&e 1!2 iG W! "s us%" *$t, %lat$.% p !n!uns Prepositions6 relati)es after pronouns H determiners H wh- +ords 2 Om$tt$n0 %lat$.% p !n!uns 7hen to omit6 replacin& clauses6 descripti)e clauses $G N!m$nal %lat$.% p !n!uns %efinition6 uses6 follo+ed b' toBinfiniti)e6 what before a noun6 contact clauses 4 R%(% %n#% *! "s /'pes of reference2 specif'in&4 arran&in&4 focusin&4 etc9 5_ P !bl%ms an" s!lut$!ns Facin& problems4 findin& solutions4 etc96 collocation6 idiomatic phrases

%efinin& H nonBdefinin&6 relati)e pronouns6 position of pronouns

Vocabulary

Unit twelve
Grammar Emphasis
OVERVIEW

pa&e 19# iG F !nt$n0 %efinition6 uses6 frontin& noun clauses6 introduction phrases

Stress H intonation6 stron&er +ords6 repetition6 sentence ad)erbs6 passi)es6 other &rammatical chan&es

2 2 2

Int !"u#t! y There an" It %umm' sub-ects6 it > clause H > report )erb6 referrin& for+ard Emp,as$s us$n0 What, All an" It %hat ! All 0 am going to do is ... etc.; 0t was im who ran into

the o!!ice.
N!m$nal$sat$!n %efinition6 uses6 ha'e a tal&( ma&e a comment( etc9

Vocabulary

I Subst$tut$n0 !n% p, as% (! an!t,% Asin& ad)erbs H nouns H ad-ecti)es H phrases6 multiple chan&es 6 Int%ns$(y$n0 an" %mp,as$s$n0 *d-ecti)es6 collocation6 ad)erbs of de&ree6 e1a&&eration6 ad)erbials4 etc9

Unit thirteen
Grammar "eported speech
OVERVIEW

pa&e 212 iG T%ns%s $n %p! t%" sp%%#, /enses of report )erb6 reportin& past H present tenses6 reportin& modal )erbs 2 R%p! t st u#tu %s /'pes of clause6 infiniti)e and -ing. impersonal reports6 summarisin&6 personal comments

=rammar H )ocabular' chan&es6 orders H ?uestions6 fle1ible chan&es

Vocabulary

3 3

=u!t$n0: %p! t$n07an" $nt% p %t$n0 .eferrin& directl'6 doubtin&6 interpretin& C!mmun$#at$n0 7a's o! spea0in&6 phrasal )erbs6 idiomatic phrases

Unit fourteen
Grammar Verb
complementation l
OVERVIEW

pa&e 22" Gi R%(l%&$.% an" %#$p !#al .% bs Ase6 )erbs al+a's H commonl' refle1i)e6 meanin& chan&es 2 V% bs A tnat@#laus%s an" a"7%#t$.%s @erb > thatBclause6 )erb > describin& noun H ad-ecti)e $I V% bs A p %p!s$t$!nal B a".% b$al p, as%s @erbs of mo)ement H position6 )erb > phrase H > ad)erb H > wa$

/ransiti)e H intransiti)e6 structures after )erbs6 lin0 )erbs

" D%p%n"%nt p %p!s$t$!ns @erb H ad-ecti)e H noun > preposition6 prepositional phrases 3_ E&p %ss$n0 <n!*l%"0% an" b%l$%( (ollocation6 common phrases pa&e 2$! <= V% bs (!ll!*%" by in ! $n($n$t$.% %ifferences6 perfect -ing. )erb > -ing or bare infiniti)e

Unit fifteen
Grammar Verb
complementation 2
OVERVIEW

2 V%

bs (!ll!*%" by $n($n$t$.% @erb > toBinfiniti)e ! to be ! Perfect Infiniti)e H

bare infiniti)e6 !or 6 ob-ect $I V% bs (!ll!*%" by as %efinin& a role or function6 as 6 noun H ad-ecti)e6 definin& ob-ects6 similar structures 4 C!mp%t$t$!n: !pp!s$t$!n: "$sa0 %%m%nt (ollocation6 +ord formation6 prepositions I Sta t$n0 B %n"$n0C # %at$n0 B "%st !y$n0 (ommon phrases6 phrasal )erbs

Asin& t+o )erbs6 preposition > -ing

Ac&nowledgements
T"is #ook is dedicated to $o"n Ec0ersle'9 T"e aut"ors would like to t"ank t"e !ollowing% Sue and William& Sall' and Claire !or t"eir untold (atience) $o"n Eckersle' !or "is generosit' and su((ort) Cli*e& $udit" and t"e sta!! and students at +EET Language Centre& +ournemout") T"e sta!! and students o! T"e Eckersle' Sc"ool o! Englis"& O,!ord)

Int(od$)t*on
A+O-T T.IS +OO/
%ho is this hoo& !or>
/his boo0 is for an' ad)anced student of En&lish but it is particularl' rele)ant to people stud'in& for the (ambrid&e (ertificate in *d)anced En&lish 3(*E5 or the (ertificate of Proficienc' in En&lish 3(PE5 e1ams9 7e assume that an'bod' usin& this boo0 has a reasonable 0no+led&e of and abilit' to use En&lish4 at least up to (ambrid&e First (ertificate standard9
T8E ENTRY TEST

Each Anit be&ins +ith an Ent y t%st? Each e1ercise in this test is related to one of the =rammar Sections +ithin the Anit9 If 'ou ha)e difficulties +ith an e1ercise4 there is a crossBreference to the rele)ant Section +hich +ill pro)ide all the e1planation and practice 'ou need9 ,n the other hand4 if 'ou find the e1ercise eas'4 it ma' mean that 'ou are perfectl' competent in that area of &rammar and 'ou ma' +ish to i&nore that Section9
T8E OVERVIEW

%hat sort o! grammar is in this boo&>


/his boo0 co)ers the main areas of En&lish &rammar at ad)anced le)el and concentrates on areas 'ou need to pass the e1ams9 It loo0s4 for e1ample4 at )erb and noun structures4 ad)erb and ad-ecti)e structures4 and +a's of lin0in& comple1 sentences and te1ts9 It also pro)ides information on st'le and re&ister4 for e1ample +hether some structures are more t'pical of +ritten or spo0en En&lish9 *lthou&h &rammar and )ocabular' are ob)iousl' important in all areas of the ad)anced e1ams4 special attention is &i)en to structures +hich are fre?uentl' tested in Paper $ BAse of En&lish9 For e1ample4 modal )erbs 3see Anits $ and "5 and relati)e clauses 3see Anit 115 ha)e occurred in )irtuall' e)er' Paper $ in the (PE e1am in recent 'ears9 Some areas of &rammar4 such as relati)e clauses and determiners 3see Anit 01& occur most fre?uentl' in the cloJe test 3see pa&e 1" belo+54 +hile modal Perfects are )er' common in sentence &apped sentences B the practice e1ercises in the boo0 reflect this9 ,ther areas of &rammar4 such as articles 3see Anit !54 ma' cause 'ou more difficult' in Paper 2 B (omposition9 *&ain4 the practice e1ercises in the boo0 reflect this9

/he O.% .$%* pro)ides a summar' of the &rammar +hich students in ad)anced classes should alread' be familiar +ith9 For e1ample4 +ith relati)e clauses 3see Anit 115 'ou should alread' 0no+ about the differences bet+een definin& and nonBdefinin&

%hat sort o! 'ocabular$ is in this boo&>


*t ad)anced le)el4 there is an enormous amount of )ocabular' to learn9 No boo0 can hope to co)er it all9 It is also much more difficult to predict )ocabular' +hich +ill occur in the e1ams9 /his boo0 focuses on areas of )ocabular' that are useful in a +ide ran&e of situations4 e9&9 a&reein& and disa&reein&4 fre?uenc'4 problems and solutions4 startin& and endin&4 etc9 7ords that combine fre?uentl' +ith others are a particular focus9 /his in)ol)es a consideration of collocation 3see Anit 19#5 as +ell as +hat &rammatical structures +e can use +ith certain +ords9 Each Anit has t+o Sections dedicated to )ocabular'4 but there is also a lot of )ocabular' in the =rammar Sections2 &roups of +ords often share similar &rammatical patterns4 e9&9 )erbs that are commonl' follo+ed b' thatBclauses or toBinfiniti)e structures 3see Anit 1"9254 or )erbs that are commonl' follo+ed b' it > clause 3see Anit 129259 /he Sections often end +ith e1amples of common phrases and idioms +hich use the &rammatical structures9 @ocabular' Sections complement the precedin& =rammar Sections +here possible4 +hilst others deal +ith separate topics9 /he S'llabus map 3pa&es 201 sho+s this9 Some of the &rammar or )ocabular' in the boo0 ma' be formal or used in limited conte1ts4 thou&h lan&ua&e that +ould normall' be considered specialised4 such as le&al or technical -ar&on or academic or literar' usa&e4 is not included because it is not tested in the e1ams9

8o+ can 0 use this boo&>


/here are man' different +a's to use this boo09 Kou can use the C!nt%nts or Syllabus map to loo0 up a particular area of &rammar or )ocabular' that 'ou +ant to stud'9 ,r4 'ou ma' +ant to stud' complete Anits in the order in +hich the' appear9 Se)eral options are a)ailable to 'ou9 .eferences +ithin the Sections +ill point 'ou in the direction of e1planations of related areas of &rammar or )ocabular' in other Sections or Anits9

12

INTRODUCTION

relati)e clauses B these are summarised in the ,)er)ie+9 /he %atch /ut+( bo1es hi&hli&ht areas that often continue to cause difficult'9 If 'ou ha)e an' difficulties +ith the points co)ered in the ,)er)ie+4 loo0 at Grammar and ?ocabular$ !or @irst Certi!icate b' Lu0e Prodromou 3Lon&man59
T8E GRAMMAR SECTIONS

Each Anit has bet+een t+o and fi)e G amma S%#t$!ns +hich deal +ith aspects of a particular area of &rammar9 /hese Sections contain e1planations and descriptions +ith man' of e1ample sentences9 /he pa&e ends +ith a short e1ercise so that 'ou can chec0 +hether 'ou ha)e understood the main &rammar points9
PRACTICES

,pposite is a pa&e of related practice e1ercises9 /he first practice is al+a's a strai&htfor+ard test of understandin& the main &rammar points in the Section6 the later practices are more complicated and reflect the le)el and st'le of the ad)anced e1ams9 /hese practices can be done in class or for home+or09 If 'ou are doin& them in class4 'ou ma' +ant to discuss 'our ans+ers +ith other students or +ith 'our teacher before chec0in& the correct ans+ers in the 9%y at the bac0 of the boo0 3in L+ith Me'L editions59 %iscussion helps e)er'bod' to understand and remember the main facts or issues9
T8E VOCABULARY SECTIONS

Each Anit has t+o V!#abula y S%#t$!ns? /hese deal +ith a particular area of )ocabular' such as +ords connected +ith differences and similarities 3see Anit :9"5 or competin& 3see Anit 1 9"59 Le1ical areas such as collocation4 +ord formation4 phrasal )erbs4 prepositions and idiomatic phrases are also co)ered4 specificall' in particular Sections and &enerall' in other @ocabular' Sections9 /here are se)eral short PreBpractices +ithin the e1planations9 /he main Practice e1ercises contain much of the )ocabular' presented in the e1planations but also add other related items9
T8E EDAM PRACTICES

*t the end of each Anit there is an E&am p a#t$#% +hich re)ises the &rammar and )ocabular' in the +hole Anit usin& (*E and (PEBt'pe e1ercises9 Each paper has the same score so that 'ou can monitor 'our &eneral pro&ress as 'ou +or0 +ith different Anits9
T8E PROGRESS TESTS

*fter Anits 4 10 and 1 there are P !0 %ss t%sts in (*E and (PEBe1am format9 /he' re)ise the &rammar and )ocabular' of the pre)ious fi)e Anits to&ether +ith an' other pre)ious Anits9

%ill 0 pass *ro!icienc$ i! 0 do e'er$thing in this hoo&>


,ne te1tboo0 is ne)er enou&h to become fluent9 7e recommend that 'ou read +idel' in En&lish 3boo0s4 ma&aJines4 ne+spapers9995 as +ell as ta0e e)er' opportunit' to listen to En&lish 3satellite tele)ision4 film4 radio9995 and spea0 the lan&ua&e4 so that 'ou can use it naturall' and easil'9 E)er'bod' can learn a lan&ua&e 3+e ha)e all alread' learned at least oneN54 but it ta0es time4 patience and hard +or09

34

INTRODUCTION

A+O-T T.E E5A6S


%hat le'el are CAE and C*E>
(*E is an ad)anced e1am at a le)el bet+een (ambrid&e First (ertificate in En&lish and (PE9 It is reco&nised b' man' British Ani)ersities for En&lish Lan&ua&e entr' re?uirements at under&raduate le)el9 (PE is more +idel' reco&nised for the same purpose as +ell as bein& a ?ualification in man' countries to teach En&lish9 * pass at (PE is an indication that 'ou should be able to follo+ lectures in En&lish4 +rite essa's4 understand the boo0s 'ou need to read4 and contribute effecti)el' in under&raduate seminars and classes9 In other +ords4 it is ?uite a hi&h le)el9 For both e1ams4 &rades O4 P and Q are passes9 % is a narro+ fail and E is a fail9 Both e1ams consist of fi)e papers9 /he first three papers are normall' ta0en on the same da'9 Papers " and ma' be on different da's +ithin a +ee0 or t+o of the other papers9
PAPER ) CPE @ R%a"$n0 C!mp %,%ns$!n 31 hour5 /he first part4 Section *4

consists of t+ent'Bfi)e multiple choice )ocabular' ?uestions9 /he second part4 Section B4 consists of fifteen multiple choice comprehension ?uestions on three te1ts9 CAE @ R%a"$n0 31 hour 1 mins5 /here are four te1ts follo+ed b' a total of appro1imatel' fift' matchin& and multiple choice ?uestions9
PAPER + CPE @ C!mp!s$t$!n 32 hours5 Kou must complete t+o +ritin& tas0s of

$ 0 +ords each out of a choice of fi)e topics9 /hese usuall' include a discussion of a topic4 a description of somethin& such as a festi)al or cit'4 a stor' and a letter9 Kou also ha)e the option to +rite about one of three prescribed readin& te1ts4 usuall' no)els9 CAE @ W $t$n0 32 hours5 Kou must complete t+o +ritin& tas0s usuall' includin& a letter4 report4 memo4 infomation sheet4 re)ie+4 article4 etc94 but not a stor'9 Section * is a compulsor' tas0 based on readin& information +ith a ma1imum of " 0 +ords9 Section P consists of one tas0 from a choice of four9
PAPER '

/his boo0 concentrates on &rammar and )ocabular' needed for Paper $4 althou&h this information is essential for all the other Papers in the e1ams9 CPE @ Us% !( En0l$s, 32 hours5 /he first part of this paper4 Section *4 consists of four different &rammar and )ocabular' tas0s based on a short te1t and sets of sentences9 /he second part4 Section B4 as0s 'ou to read a passa&e4 ans+er a number of comprehension and )ocabular' ?uestions4 and summarise a specified aspect of it9 CAE @ En0l$s, $n Us% 31 hour $0 mins5 /his paper focuses on &rammar4 )ocabular' and re&ister4 and includes tas0s such as &ap fillin&4 proof readin& and te1t completion9
PAPER CPE @ L$st%n$n0 C!mp %,%ns$!n 3appro1imatel' "0 mins5 CAE @ L$st%n$n0 C!mp %,%ns$!n 3appro1imatel' " mins5

Both (*E and (PE consist of recordin&s of three or four different spo0en situations4 such as con)ersations4 inter)ie+s4 e1tracts from radio pro&rammes4 recorded telephone messa&es4 etc94 and a )ariet' of matchin&4 completion and multiple choice tas0s9
PAPER / CPE @ Sp%a<$n0 3appro1imatel' 1 mins5 CAE @ Sp%a<$n0

3appro1imatel' 1 mins5 /his part of the e1am consists of a con)ersation +ith an e1aminer9 Kou are as0ed to tal0 about some photo&raphs4 &i)e opinions and discuss some issues9 /he e1aminer +ill assess 'our pronunciation4 fluenc'4 ran&e of )ocabular'4 &rammatical accurac' and &eneral abilit' to hold a natural con)ersation in En&lish9 (*E inter)ie+s are conducted in pairs B'ou +ill be as0ed to discuss thin&s both +ith the e1aminer and the other candidate9

37

INTRODUCTION

%hat t$pes o! Auestions can we expect in C*E>


PAPER ) Mult$pl% #,!$#%

Section * continues +ith si1 &apped sentences +here se)eral +ords are missin& in each &ap9 E1ample2 Fill each of the blan0s +ith a suitable +ord or phrase
IaJ Kou should 9999999999999999 that into account before 'ou

+ent and spent all 'our mone'9 3*ns+er2 Kou should ha'e ta&en that into account before 'ou +ent and spent all 'our mone'95 R *reas commonl' tested in this ?uestion include modal )erbs4 conditionals and idiomatic phrases9
W! " t ans(! mat$!n

In Section *4 there are t+ent'Bfi)e multiple choice )ocabular' items in a ?uestion li0e this e1ample2 In thi !"ti#n $#% &% t "h## ! th! '#() #( *h(+ ! 'hi"h ,! t "#&*-!t! !+"h !nt!n"!. On y!u ans*% s,%%t: in)i"+t! th! -!tt!( E: F: G #( D +/+in t th! n%&,!( #0 !+"h it!& ) t# +/ 0#( th! '#() #( *h(+ ! $#% "h## !. Gi1! !n% ans*% !nly t# !+"h 2%! ti#n.
) E1!n th! tini! t .................... #0 )% t "+n )+&+/! A *i!"!

Section * ends +ith ei&ht sentences +hich must be re+ritten usin& a &i)en +ord that cannot be chan&ed in an' +a'9 E1ample2 For each of the sentences belo+4 +rite a ne+ sentence as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% ! $0$nal s%nt%n#%: but usin& the +ord &i)en9 /his +ord must n!t b% alt% %" $n any *ay?
IaJ Nobod' else in the countr' possesses his s0ills on the trumpet4 unmat#,%"

)!-i"+t! !-!"t(i"+- !2%i*&!nt. F *#(ti#n G h(!)

D *!"3

3*ns+er2 1 %5 /his ?uestion tests 'our 0no+led&e of the different meanin&s of +ords4 collocations4 etc9
PAPER ' Cl!H% t%st

In Section * there is a short passa&e 3under 200 +ords5 in +hich t+ent' +ords are missin&9 Kou must decide +hat the +ords are9 E1ample2

3*ns+er2 8is s0ills on the trumpet are unmatched b' an$bod$5 else 3or an'one else5 in the countr$5 /his ?uestion tests 'our 0no+led&e of common phrases and chan&in& )erbs to nouns4 etc9

F*"" ea)+ o, t+e n$%#e(ed #"an-s *n t+e &assa.e /*t+ one s$*ta#"e /o(d0
T8E 8ERRING GULL

%hat t$pes o! Auestions can we expect in CAE>


/he (*E has been re)ised from %ecember 19999 In (*E4 specific &rammar and )ocabular' ?uestions are all in Paper $ B En&lish in Ase9 /he Paper includes si1 Parts and a total of !0 ?uestions9
MULTIPLE C8OICE CLOKE

Th! h!((in/ /%--4 +,i-it$ t# !+t +-&# t 315 9999999999999999999999999999999994 0(#& 0i h t# th! $#%n/ #0 it #'n 3in), h+ &+)! it #n! #0 th! 325 ..................... *!"i! in B(it+in t# ,! +"t%+--$ th(i1in/ +t thi ti&!. It 536 ........................... h+1! &%-ti*-i!) in (!"!nt $!+( ,!"+% ! #0 th! in"(!+ in/ 3"5 ................ #0 !)i,-! (!0% ! 'hi"h i a ,$7*(#)%"t #0 &#)!(n -i0!. ... 3*ns+ers2 eat +-&# t 315 an$thing 0(#& 0i h t#... #n! #0 th! 325 !ew *!"i! ... etc95 7ords t'picall' &apped include pronouns 3includin& relati)e pronouns54 articles4 determiners and lin0in& +ords such as howe'er( but( such...that. It can also test collocation and prepositions9
S%nt%n#% t ans(! mat$!n

/his consists of a passa&e +ith fifteen &aps9 For each &ap 'ou must choose one +ord from a choice of four9
OPEN CLOKE

/he onl' e1ercise that is similar to (PE is the cloJe test 3a &apped passa&e59 /here are fifteen &aps in the (*E e1am9
ERROR CORRECTION

In the second part of Section *4 there are ei&ht sentence transformations +hich as0 'ou to re+rite a sentence usin& a different be&innin&9 E1ample2 8ini h !+"h #0 th! 0#--#'in/ !nt!n"! in %"h + '+$ th+t it i as
s$m$la as p!ss$bl% t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? IaJ A-- th! *!#*-! I h+1! "#nt+"t 'ith )i +**(#1! #0 $ -

* te1t about si1teen lines lon& is pro)ided9 <ost lines ha)e either an e1tra4 unnecessar' +ord +hich 'ou must find4 or a spellin& or punctuation mista0e +hich 'ou must correct9
WORD FORMATION

th! "h+n/! . N#n! .............................................................................. 3*ns+er2 None o! the people I ha'e contact with appro'e o! the changes.5

/his ne+ tas0 is similar to F(E but the base +ords are more difficult and ma' in)ol)e more chan&es9 /here are t+o passa&es in +hich 'ou are re?uired to +rite the missin& +ord in the correct part of speech usin& the +ord &i)en9 For e1ample4 trans!orm becomes trans!ormation. .emember to chec0 +hether 'ou need to ma0e a noun plural4 an ad-ecti)e ne&ati)e4 etc9 /here are fifteen &aps9
INFORMATION TRANSFER

*reas tested include conditionals4 reported speech4 in)ersion4 chan&in& )erbs to nouns4 etc9
Gapp%" s%nt%n#%

/his consists of a &apped te1t in +hich 'ou are as0ed to re+rite information from another te1t in a different st'le or re&ister9 For e1ample4 'ou ma' ha)e to fill the &aps in an informal letter +ith information ta0en from an ad)ertisement9 Kou must ma0e an' necessar' chan&es in )ocabular' and &rammar so that the st'le is appropriate9 /here are thirteen &aps9

38

INTRODUCTION

DISCOURSE CLOKE

* te1t is pro)ided from +hich )arious phrases ha)e been omitted9 From a list of these phrases4 'ou are as0ed to put bac0 the correct phrase in each &ap9 there are si1 &aps and three distractors9

%hat about the other exercises and papers in CAE and C*E>
In addition to the abo)e tas0s4 'ou +ill need to be able to reco&nise and use a +ide ran&e of &rammar and )ocabular' in order to2 understand the readin& passa&es in Paper 3 +rite letters and compositions in the Paper 2 ans+er the ?uestions in Paper $ Section P understand +hat is bein& said in the Paper " understand and spea0 to the e1aminer and other candidates in Paper 9 /he &rammar and )ocabular' in this boo0 +ill be a &reat help9

Un*t

*roblem tenses
Entry test
1
8ini h !+"h #0 th! 0#--#'in/ !nt!n"! in %"h + '+$ th+t it i + i&i-+( in &!+nin/ + *# i,-! t# th! !nt!n"! *(int!) ,!0#(! it. I41! n!1!( h+) t# '#(3 +-- th(#%/h th! ni/ht ,!0#(!. Thi i the!wst time I41! had to wor& ait th(#%/h th! night.
a M# t #0 % ,!"+&! +-! &!n 'h!n '! -!0t %ni1!( it$.
EXAMPLE 9

'h!n th!$ h+) + *%n"t%(!,


" It4 +-&# t h+-0 *+ t nin!9 I '#%-) thin3 th!$ .............................

/#t th!(! ,$ n#'.


% M$ int!nti#n i .................... 0ini h!) &$ t%)i! ,$ =%n!. ' 8i-- !+"h #0 th! ,-+n3 'ith + %it+,-! '#() #( *h(+ !.
EXAMPLE 9

I h+1! been '(itin/ thi "#&*# iti#n +-- !1!nin/.

a ;h+t................ )#in/ 'ith $#%( !-0 #1!( th! -+ t

"#%*-! #0 )+$ >


b I ............. t# 0i< th! !n/in! +-- &#(nin/, ,%t 0in+--$

M# t #0 % h+1! .......................................................................
b O%( "%((!nt &+n+/!( t+(t!) '#(3in/ h!(! t!n $!+( +/#.

O%( "%((!nt &+n+/!( h+ ........................................................ : I h+1!n4t h!+() 0(#& S+(+h 0#( + "#%*-! #0 &#nth . Th! -+ t .................................................................................... " I % !) t# 0in) "#&*%t!( )i00i"%-t ,!0#(! I t+(t!) t+3in/ th! ! -! #n . Sin"! ........................................................................................ % Mi"h+!- O'!n i th! ,! t *-+$!( I41! !!n # 0+( in thi "#&*!titi#n. I41! $!t......................................................................................

h+) t# +)&it )!0!+t. : N!<t %&&!(, I ................. -i1in/ h!(! 0#( t!n $!+( . " ?! "-+i&!) ................. &!+nin/ t# t!-- &! +,#%t it ,%t #&!h#' 0#(/#t, % I '+ ................ + 3in/ h!( i0 h!4) -i3! t# "#&! t# th! (+"! #n S+t%()+$.

FOR CONTINUOUS TENSES: SEE SECTION '?

- 8i-- !+"h #0 th! ,-+n3 'ith + %it+,-! '#() #( *h(+ !.


EXAMPLE9

L##3 #%t@ ;!4(! going t# hit th! "+( in 0(#nt@

FOR PRESENT PERFECT: SEE SECTION )?

a At thi (+t!, '!4(!...................9. ,! !<h+% t!) ,$ th! ti&!

'! 0ini h.
b Th! &in%t! th! t(+in ....................

8i-- !+"h #0 th! ,-+n3 'ith + %it+,-! '#() #( *h(+ !.


EXAMPLE 1

AS ##n + h! +' 'h+t had h+**!n!), h! 'it"h!) #00 th! !-!"t(i"it$.


a ;h!n I t+(t!) '#(3in/ 0#( thi "#&*+n$, I ............................

+n +("hit!"t 0#( i< $!+( , t%)$in/ &+(in! ,i#-#/$ ,%t h! 0in+--$ )!"i)!) #n /!#/(+*h$, : Th!$............... #n th! (#+) 0#( + &!(! 0i1! &in%t!
b Sh!4) ...............

t+n) ti--, /!t #n +n) t($ t# 0in) + !+t, : B$ A!"!&,!(, h!4-- ................... '#(3in/ th!(! 0#( !i/ht!!n &#nth , " Th!$ "-+i& t# ,! 1i(t%+--$ #n ....................... +"hi!1in/ !1!($thin/ th!$ !t #%t t# )#. % ;! '!(! B% t +,#%t..................... th! h#% ! 'h!n S%! "+--!).

FOR FUTURE FORMS: SEE SECTION -?

FOR FUTURE PERFECT: PAST PERFECT AND OT8ER PERFECT FORMS: SEE SECTION +?

CROBLEM TENSES

OVERVIEW
1
USES OF PERFECT TENSES P %s%nt P% (%#t

7e use Past Perfect for somethin& that happened before somethin& else9 7e can onl' use it +ith another Past tense2 ' went to see him because his wi!e had as!ed me to. 7e omit will in time clauses 3see Sections 19" and "9252
D 07ll phone $ou as soon as wc will have arrived. ( 07ll phone $ou

as soon as we have arrived.

7e use Present Perfect to tal0 about thin&s that too0 place2 durin& a period that includes past and present2 he$'ve been waiting here !or an hour. in the past4 but +eLre not sa'in& e1actl' +hen2 )on7t tell me he's bought another new carB in the past +ith an effect or result in the present2 07m a!raid 0've forgotten m$ &e$. +ith the time ad)erb 8ust meanin& La short time a&oL 3*merican En&lish uses Past Simple here52 #he's just gone out.
Past P% (%#t

7e use Past Perfect to tal0 about thin&s that too0 place2 before somethin& else in the past 3see Section 29152 0 too& the decision a!ter 0 had s o!en to John. durin& a period before an e)ent in the past2 All da$ 0'd been feeling ner'ous but the !eeling 'anished as soon as 0 saw her.
Futu % P% (%#t

7e use Future Perfect to tal0 about2 somethin& that +ill be finished before a specified time in the future 3see Section 29252 0'll have signed nearl$ a hundred letters b$ tonight.
"or, since, already, yet, still, often, %t#?

7e often use Perfect tenses +ith these time +ords9 Note important )ariations in their position2 %e still haven't heard !rom /lga. %e'd still not heard !rom her b$ the time e'ening arri'ed. 3S more formal5 H haven't heard a con'incing explanation o! her absence "et. #he's honed alread". #as she honed alread"$ #he's alread" honed. #he hasn't alread" honed, has she>

USES OF CONTINUOUS TENSES

7e use (ontinuous tenses to tal0 about thin&s2 continuin& o)er a period4 and temporar'9 (ontinuous tenses sho+ that +e either )ie+ the e)ent as incomplete4 or that +e donLt 0no+ or donLt need to sa' +hen it started or finished2 %e're stud"ing #ha&espeare at school at the moment. 3S temporar' acti)it' durin& these +ee0s5 It was raining when we le!t the building. 3S +e donLt 0no+ or arenLt interested in +hen the rain started or +hen it +ill finish5 that are in the process of chan&in&2 %illiam7s piano pla$ing was i% roving e'er$ da$. 0 thin& 0'% getting more !orget!ul as 0 grow older. 7ith )erbs that describe a short action4 e9&9 hit4 &noc&( blin&( the action is repeated rather than continuous2 0've been ringing him all morning but he ne'er seems to be in. 7e often use Past (ontinuous and Past Perfect (ontinuous to set the bac0&round to narrati)e e)ents9 Because it ma' not be clear +hen the acti)it' be&ins or ends4 the' &i)e the impression 'ou are arri)in& in the middle of a scene2 Jo had been wor!ing all morning and was now s ending a happ$ hal! hour doing nothing more taxing than staring into space. #he was loo!ing forward to her holida$ in #cotland in a !ew da$s7 time.
' EDPRESSING T8E FUTURE

En&lish does not ha)e one future tense9 Instead4 +e use other tenses and modal )erbs to refer to the future 3see Section "52 his time next wee& we'll be sitting our exams. 3S +eLll be in the middle of them5 %hen $ou arrive, $ou are to go straight to the registration des&.

7e donLt use Present Perfect +hen an e1act past time is mentioned and there is no connection +ith the present2 D We've been to :ondon in +,,C. ; %e went to :ondon in +,,C. But +e can use the Present Perfect if the period mentioned includes the past and present2 %e've been here since half ast si&. 0 haven't done much wor& toda". 0t's been raining for ages.

1!

D E GRAMMAR

SECTION I
*resent *er!ect
Present Perfect often combines +ith other tenses in the same sentence9

+ill complain stron&l' about5 1ow $ou7'e done itB 3S KouL)e done somethin& seriousl' +ron&5 #he7s arri'ed. 3S SheLs achie)ed fame4 success4 acceptance4 etc9 at last5 He7s lost it. 3S 8eLs lost his patience or selfBcontrol5 Gou7'e got me thereB 3S =ood point2 IL)e no idea +hat the solution is5

USES WIT8 OT8ER PRESENT TENSES

7e use Present Perfect +ith other Present tenses2 +ith reportHcomment )erbs or phrases 4guess( imagine( suppose( etc952 ' rec!on Gloria7s been held u in tra!!ic. )o $ou su ose the$'ve forgotten the$7re meant to be here> +ith the phrase his is ; 0t7s ; hat7s the !irst; second ;onl$( etc9 time ...F This is the first ti%e he's been late It's the onl" ti%e 0've ever reall$ got angr$ with him. +hen an e)ent is unusual or uni?ue in 'our life 3often +ith a superlati)e and e'er or ne'er5F 0've never %et an$bod$ who is so absent-minded. 8o+e)er4 +e commonl' use a Past tense to refer to somebod' +ho is dead2 *rincess )iana was the most extraordinar$ person 0've ever read about. +hen commentin& on the present results of somethin& in the past 3usuall' +ith appear( seem( sound( etc952 He sounds as i! he has run all the wa$ here. 0t see%s the$'ve alread" decided without consulting us. (orrect these sentences9 a ItLs the third time he missed a meetin&9 b *s soon as he +ill finish4 heLs &oin& home9 T /his is the best lasa&ne I e)er ha)e9 d Since +eL)e 0no+n each other4 he al+a's sho+s impeccable manners4 e Since IL)e met her4 IL)e ne)er seen her lose her temper9

USES WIT8 PAST TENSES

7e use Present Perfect +ith Past tenses2 to describe states or e)ents that ha)e continued since a time in the past 3+ith since( e'er since( etc952 He's been a bit more care!ul since he had that warning. )ver since 0 !irst heard it 0've been tr"ing to !ind a recording o! that song. to describe lon&Bterm or repeated feelin&s and thou&hts about past e)ents2 0've o!ten wondered wh$ he decided to become a teacher. 0've alwa$s felt we did the wrong thing when we too! her on as an assistant.

USE WIT8 ANOT8ER PRESENT PERFECT

7e use Present Perfect +ith another Present Perfect2 to describe t+o states that ha)e e1isted since a time in the past2 #ince 0've !nown him( he7s alwa$s worn the same sweater.

USE WIT8 FUTURE FORMS

In time clauses 3after when( as soon as( until( be!ore( etc95 +e donLt use will( and so the Future Perfect will ha'e done is not possible9 In these cases +e use the Present Perfect to refer to the future2 %e'll continue the meeting when he's recovered his composure.

USE WIT8 S!#$E AND %ET

Note the position and emphatic uses of since and $etF here was no news this morning but we've since learned that she7s in "ome. 0 haven't %et an$one "et who can run as !ast as him. or2 0've "et to %eet an$one who ...

COMMON P8RASES

he$7'e made itB 3S /he'L)e succeeded5 07'e had enough. 3S ILm fed up9 I donLt +ant to do an' more5 Gou7'e had itB 3S KouLre in trouble5 hat7s torn itB 3S Kou4 +e4 etc9 ha)e done somethin& that someone else

30

Practice

= =
Tick 9:1 t"e sentences t"at are correct) Correct t"ose t"at are not) a %o 'ou thin0 @ic0'Ls al+a's 0no+n the truth about usD b /hatLs been the second time 'ouL)e for&otten to post somethin& for me9 T I ha)enLt seen Peter since he be&ins seein& his ne+ &irlfriend4 d E)er since +e met4 'ou ne)er as0ed me +hat I prefer to do9 e In all m' life4 I ne)er spo0e to someone +ho i so stupid9 f I donLt thin0 Paul and (arol ha)e seen much of each other of late4 & /his is the onl' occasion that IL)e seen him +earin& a tie9 h Since heLs li)ed here4 he +as usuall' e1tremel' friendl'4 i /he'Lll -oin us after the'Lll &et a bite to eat9 - 8e sa's he hasnLt 'et come to a final decision9

PRESENT PERFECT

;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" a suita#le

word or ("rase) ExampleF ILm not &oin& to &o out a&ain until the storm has blo+n o)er9 a ILll phone him -ust as soon as 9999999999999 t'pin& all these letters9 b I loo0ed for that boo0 e)er'+here but ILm afraid9999999999999999999999 across it 'et9 T /his isnLt the first time he999999999999999999999999999999999 a+a' from home4 d I spo0e to S'l)ia last ni&ht2 she sounds999999999999999999 had a hard time recentl'9 e I +ent to the ne+ piJJeria last ni&ht2 it does the999999999999999999999999 eaten9 f IL)e ne)er understood +hat999999999999999999999999999999999 football so popular4 & Since he &ot home from the camp4 he9999999999999999but sleep9 h IL)e 'et999999999999999999999 o)er the shoc0 of seein& her there9

2
word)

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"is (assage wit" one suita#le

IL)e often9999999999999999999315 that StefanLs success as a teacher is due to his eccentricit' as much as his 0no+led&e of the sub-ect9 From the first time he e)er999999999999999999999325 into a classroom4 students ha)e al+a's lo)ed him9 /he'L)e probabl'9999999999999999999999999993$5 met an'bod' +ho displa's such an e1traordinar' mi1ture of enthusiasm and &reat personal +armth9 It 99999999999993"5 also probabl' the first time the'L)e99999999999999999999999999999999999993 5 somebod' +ho al+a's +ears a leather -ac0et and a scarf e)en at the hei&ht of summer9

;inis" eac" o! t"e sentences in suc" a

wa' t"at it is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF <a0e sure 'ou finish this boo0 before 'ou start on the others9 %onLt start the other boo0s until 'ou ha'e !inished this one. a Nobod' has seen Uo for o)er a month9 Uo +as 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b Ber&0ampLs &oal +as the most e1traordinar' one I ha)e e)er seen9 IL)e 'et 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T No one has as0ed me that before9 /his is the first time 9999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /he -ourne' to Paris too0 much lon&er before the' built the (hannel /unnel9 Since the9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e ItLs almost a 'ear since I stopped smo0in&9 I &a)e99999999999999H9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /his cafe used to be a lot more popular before the' opened the ne+ one ne1t door9 Since 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999
N

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"is (assage wit" one suita#le word)

L7hen did 'ou reall' be&in to feel at home hereDL Paul as0ed9 L,h4 'ouL)e99999999999999999999 315 me thereNL Uohn replied9 LLetLs -ust sa' 'ou +onLt feel 'ou trul' belon& until 'ouL)e999999999999999999999999999999 325 out +ith 'our collea&ues and then made it up se)eral times9 ,)er the summer IL)e ............. 536 it +ith all of them countless times4 often o)er ?uite tri)ial thin&s9 IL)e lost999999999999999999999 3"5 of the times IL)e said to m'self B /hatLs itN IL)e had9999999999999999999 3 5N But I come bac0 the ne1t da'4 time after time9 IL)e often9999999999999999999 3#5 +h' I do9 *s far as the boss &oes4 -ust +ait until 'ou ma0e a ma-or mista0e9 Kour collea&ues +ill &o V,ooh4 no+ 'ouL)e 99999999999999 3:5 itNV or VAm4 thatLs99999999999999999999999999 3!5 itNV4 and the boss comes in and -ust smiles at 'ou9 /hen 'ouLll 0no+ 'ouL)e999999999999999999999999999999999 395 it9 /hen 'ouLll definitel' ha)e9999999999999999999999 31059

20

SECTION <
/ther *er!ect !orms
1
PAST PERFECT N!t al*ays n%#%ssa y

after phrases e1pressin& emotions and feelin&s2 I'% sorr" to have !e t "ou waiting. ,he was felt not to have %et the standards re/uired.

PERFECT -!#G FORMS

Past Perfect emphasises that +e are tal0in& about a period before a time in the past9 If the time se?uence is clear 3e9&9 because +e use after*, both Past Simple and Past Perfect are possible9 *t other times Past Perfect is essential to understandin& the se?uence4 and +e often add alread", as soon as, or until+ I got to wor! after ,i%on arrived ' had arrived. When I arrived, the"'d alread" started. -. the' started before I arri)ed5 When I arrived, the" started. 3S I arri)ed before the' started5
W$t, "%($n$t% t$m%

7hen tal0in& about results and time4 +e can use a Perfect 0ing form to emphasise that one thin& happens before another2 I didn't re%e%ber having %et her before. #aving finall" gras ed what I %eant, he got down to wor!.

Perfect passi)es can sometimes be confusin& because +e use both be 3S passi)e5 and have 3S Perfect5 as au1iliaries2 The refugees have been revented fro% entering the countr". This icture is thought to have been ainted b" a u il of 1e%brandt's.

Anli0e Present Perfect4 +e can use Past Perfect +ith a definite time reference2 ' arrived at nine o'cloc! but he had got there at eight.
W$t, b%(! %

/here is one e1ception to the time se?uence rules on Past Perfect9 7hen +e use before, the )erb in Past Simple can refer to somethin& that ta0es place before the )erb in Past Perfect9 /he first action ma' pre)ent the second from happenin&2 The waiter too! %" late awa" before I'd finished eating. I was bla%ed for it before I'd even had a chance to defend %"self.
Un(ul($ll%" plans

7hich of the points in this Section do these e1amples illustrateD a L8o+ did 'ou become a teacherDL /d intended to be an actor4 but thin&s didnLt +or0 out9L UBb I turned on the computer4 but before I had H mana&ed to lo& on there +as a po+er cut9 T *fter he told me +hat he +anted4 +e tal0ed W about the plans for the ne1t da'9 d /he e1hibition +ill ha)e finished b' the time I &et around to seein& it9 XL e /he' appear to ha)e accepted most of 'our terms9

7e use Past Perfect +ith report )erbs and +ith ho e, intend, e& ect, etc9 to tal0 about plans that ha)e not 'et been fulfilled9 #ad is usuall' stressed in speech +ith this use2 I had ho ed to tal! to hi% but he was too bus" to listen. I had thought of honing hi% but decided against it.

2
by

FUTURE PERFECT W$t,

7e can often use Future Perfect +ith the preposition b" or the phrase b" the ti%e meanin& Lat some point before the time mentioned or indicatedL2 It's ta!ing her so long to write that boo! that b" the ti%e she's finished it eo le will have forgotten the incident it's based on.
P %"$#t$n0

7e can also use will have done to sa' +hat +e thin0 has probabl' happened2 There's no oint honing+ the"'ll have gone out. 7e can use should ! ought to or %a" ! %ight instead of will if there is some uncertaint' about the prediction of present or future2 I should have finished %a!ing this ca!e b" the ti%e ,ue co%es ho%e. 3S I thin0 I +ill ha)e4 but ILm not sure9 See Anit "4 Section $92 for modal Perfects5

USES OF PERFECT INFINITIVES

7e use Perfect infiniti)es2 after lin0 )erbs li0e see% and a ear to refer to a pre)ious time period 3an ordinar' toBinfiniti)e +ill usuall' refer to the present or future52 There see%s to have been so%e sort of %ista!e.

Y ;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in

OT8ER PERFECT FORMS

=
1 1 1 1 1

suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar as (ossi#le to 6atc" t"e #eginnings 932=1 wit" a suita#le ending 9a2"1) ExampleF > ? i t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF %onLt use that mil0 until 'ouL)e finished this carton9 <a0e sure $ou7'e !inished this carton be!ore $ou use that mil09 a ILm sure he +ill arri)e before 'ou &et there9 B' the time 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b I rec0on the -ourne' to (orn+all is o)er 200 miles9 B' the time +e &et99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T *fter 0e'in& that report4 could 'ou perhaps chec0 this order for meD 7hen that 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d ILm sure 8elen +ill ha)e &ot there before e)er'one else9 8elen is9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e 7e +ill fa1 'ou further details on receipt of 'our completed application form9 8a)in&99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

a and had come to ensure that 30 *fter /d finished teachin& earlier that mornin&5 8e told me that I as0ed him 8e e1plained ho+ a 'oun& man Uohn had immediatel' assumed

So4 before the 'oun& man had had a chance to sa' an'thin& 1 Uohn4 +ho +as in a terrible hurr'4 then left the man to it4 1 It +asnLt until he returned ten minutes later

8e +as actuall' a school inspector

the school +as run efficientl'4 b he had made a terrible mista0e T that he +anted to enrol as a student4 d had come to reception4 e that the man +as able to e1plain there had been a misunderstandin&4 f +hat had happened4 & Uohn had &i)en him an application form4 h +onderin& +h' he loo0ed so puJJled4 3i I found Uohn standin& outside m' classroom95

' ;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" a suita#le


word or ("rase) ExampleF *ll the best thin&s +ill ha)e gone if +e donLt &et to the sale soon9 a I +as reall' happ' +hen the' announced99999999999999999999 decided to &et married9 b She proceeded to fi1 the fault' +irin&4 ha)in& first999999999999999999999999been s+itched off9 T It +asnLt until he mentioned the conference that I999999999999999999999999 met before9 d B' ne1t (hristmas +e99999999999999999999999999999 decoratin& the house4 e 8e is plannin&9999999999999999999999999 completed all his course+or0 b' ne1t +ee04 f ItLs si1 oLcloc02 I ima&ine the' 9999999999999for the airport b' no+9 & /he suspect is belie)ed99999999999999999999999999999 fled the countr'4 h *fter he had lost his &lasses4 he 9999999999999but to bu' another pair9

& Correct an' sentences t"at are unacce(ta#le)


a B' the time he is 04 he +ill li)e in this countr' for half his life4 b ItLs a surprise part' and the' +onLt 0no+ an'thin& about it until the' &ot here9 T /he'Lre probabl' plannin& a ?uiet e)enin& to&ether6 I 0no+ the' +onLt ha)e &uessed +hat +eLre doin&4 d /he other se)ent' &uests should be arri)ed before <i0is and <aria4 e B' the time +e +iff ha)e finished4 e)er'bod' +ill ha)e eaten and drun0 as much as the' can9

& Cross out and correct eig"t errors in t"is e,tract !rom a com(osition) A nint" error
"as alread' #een corrected)

Dea( S*(4 I +ad5(e)ent"! #een on a t/o6/ee- +o"*da! /*t+ !o$( )o%&an! to t+e *s"and o, T+assos0 I a% so((! to +a7e sa*d sa$ t+at *t /as t+e /o(st +o"*da! I57e e7e( +ad0 O7e( t+e !ea(s I /ent on %an! +o"*da!s to G(ee)e8 a )o$nt(! I +a7e no/ )o%e to -no/ 9$*te /e""0 I t+*n- I )an sa,e"! sa! t+at8 $nt*" t+*s !ea(8 a"" o, t+ose +o"*da!s /e(e /onde(,$"0 Fo( e:a%&"e I +a7e on)e s&ent s*: /ee-s on C(ete8 /+*)+ I +ad not 7*s*ted #e,o(e0 I +ad "o7ed t+at +o"*da! so %$)+ t+at I (et$(ned e7e(! s&(*n. ,o( t+e "ast ,o$( !ea(s0 T+*s !ea(8 +o/e7e(8 /as d*,,e(ent0 I +onest"! )ons*de( t+*s to +ad ;aeen t+e /o(st +o"*da! o, %! "*,e0 T+*s *s not t+e ,a$"t o, T+assos1 t+e ,a$"t "*es ent*(e"! /*t+ !o$( )o%&an! /+ose *na#*"*t! to o(.an*se t+e s*%&"est t+*n. *s 9$*te $n#e"*e7a#"e0 As #ot+ t+e o$t/a(d and (et$(n ,"*.+ts +a7e #een de"a!ed ,o( se7e(a" +o$(s8 t+e(e /as no#od! to %eet $s at t+e a*(&o(t o( t(ans,e( $s to o$( +ote"8 and /+en /e e7ent$a""! d*d (ea)+ t+e +ote"8 /e d*s)o7e(ed *t +ad #een #$*"t o7e( a %*"e ,(o% t+e #ea)+0 Read*n. !o$( #(o)+$(e )a(e,$""!8 /e ,ee" t+*s /as not /+at /e +a7e e:&e)ted0 1ext /ctober 0'll have been la"ing with this team !or ten $ears. He'd been driving !or hours and he needed a rest. 7e use Past or Present Perfect (ontinuous to tal0 about somethin& that is incomplete4 -ust finishin& or about to chan&e9 /he Past and Present Perfect Simple can su&&est the action is finished2 0'd been staring at the computer screen all e'ening when a solution suddenl$ struc& me. 0've been reading 7%ar and *eace7 again. 3S I ma' not ha)e finished5 0've read %ar and *eace again. 3S IL)e finished5 /he (ontinuous can emphasise the action6 the Simple focuses on the result2 %hat have "ou been doing$ 3S tell me about 'our acti)ities5 %hat have "ou done$ 3S tell me the result of 'our acti)ities5 /he difference bet+een choosin& (ontinuous or Simple ma' onl' be a matter of emphasisin& that somethin& is continuin& andHor temporar'2 0've been waiting here !or o'er an hour. 3S emphasisin& that I still am5

SECTION <
Continuous !orms
1
USES OF PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

Li0e other Perfect tenses4 Perfect (ontinuous tenses focus on a past period that leads up to a later one9 Perfect (ontinuous tenseI4 as +ith other (ontinuous tenses4 sho+ that an e)ent continues andHor is temporar'2 0've been %eaning to tell $ou about it since the wee&end.

USING PAST CONTINUOUS FOR PLANS

CONTINUOUS INFINITIVES

7e can use Past (ontinuous to tal0 about plans in the past2 %e were %eeting at - o7cloc& and 0 was alread$ late. 7e use was going to to tal0 about plans in the past that +e still ha)enLt carried out or that +e no lon&er intend to carr' out2 0 was going to phone $ou but 0 !orgot( 7e can use 0 was thin&ing... to introduce )a&ue future plans2 U was thin!ing o! going to :ondon this wee&end.

@erb and other structures that can be follo+ed b' a toBinfiniti)e can also be follo+ed b' a (ontinuous infiniti)e to emphasise that somethin& is still continuin& or is temporar'2 0t7s ridiculous !or him to be driving in central *thens at his age. #e'eral c$clists are thought to have been ta!ing drugs during the race.

USING PAST CONTINUOUS FOR POLITE RE=UESTS

PERFECT CONTINUOUS PASSIVE

7e often use Past (ontinuous to introduce polite re?uests4 su&&estions or in?uiries so that the'

/he Perfect (ontinuous passi)e is )er' uncommon because it in)ol)es t+o forms of beF he Iotle$ "oad has been being widened !or the past six wee&s.

become more an in)itation to discuss the sub-ect than a demand for a 'es or no ans+er2 I was thin!ing - would $ou mind swapping seats> I was wondering i! $ou wanted to go out this e'ening. Were "ou loo!ing for an$thing in particular>

<atch the e1ample sentences 31B 5 +ith the e1planations 3aBe5 of the uses of the (ontinuous9

1 1
filmD

I +as &oin& to tr' to finish this this e)enin&9 I +as +onderin& +hether 'ouLd thou&ht of &oin& to see that ne+ 8e +as blin0in& rapidl' in the unaccustomed sunli&ht9 I +as thin0in& of meetin& SuJette later9 IL)e been thin0in& a lot recentl' about 'our idea9

Note +e canLt use 0 was thin&ing +ith whether or i!F D I was thin!ing whether $ou7d li&e to come round to m$ place !or co!!ee> was thin!ing - would $ou li&e to come round to m$ place !or co!!ee> I was wondering whether $ou7d li&e to come round to m$ place !or co!!ee>

1 1 1

H(1

a repeated action b plans 'ou no lon&er ha)e or are no lon&er sure about T )a&ue future plans d polite su&&estion e emphasisin& the continuin& acti)it'

CONTINUOUS FORMS

Y Tick 9:1 t"e correct sentence& a or #)


ExampleF 7hich sentence +ould be said after one particular mealD a IL)e eaten too much9 @ # IL)e been eatin& too much9 1 7hich sentence refers to a temporar' ! KouLre sittin& situationD @ in sZat a /hat lamp sits on that table o)er there # KouLre sittin& in m' seat9 2 7hich acti)it' is probabl' not completedD a IL)e been +ritin& this essa' all e)enin&4 # IL)e +ritten to him as0in& for an appointment9 2 7hich is a &radual processD a /he increase in traffic noise is becomin& a real nuisance4 # Uohn becomes President of ,1ford .otar' (lub in Uul'9 2 7hich +ould 'ou sa' +hen 'ou loo0 out of the +indo+ earl' one mornin&D a ItLs been rainin&4 # It +as rainin&9 5 7hich is a more certain planD a I +as thin0in& of spendin& the +ee0end at m' sisterLs4 # ILm plannin& to spend the +ee0end at m' sisterLs9 6 Kou sa+ a collea&ue +aitin& for a bus on 'our +a' to +or09 7hich +ould 'ou sa' to 'our other collea&ues +hen 'ou &et to the office to e1plain +h' she +as thereD a She mi&ht ha)e &one to see her dentist9 # She mi&ht ha)e been &oin& to see her dentist9

+as that all the time their plans +ere bein& closel' monitored H +ere closel' monitored ^ b' the police9 Some+hat unpredictabl'4 ho+e)er4 the' &ot a+a' +ith it because the' chan&ed H +ere chan&in& c] their plans at the last minute9 It +as o0a' but ILm not thin0in& H I donLt thin0 3]_5 of &oin& a&ain9

Tick ( S ) t"e most suita#le underlined *er#) Sometimes #ot" ma' #e (ossi#le) T"e

!irst "as #een done !or 'ou) 3 donLt normall' &o to the cinema9 Not because I donLt li0e it but because itLs -ust a habit I ha)e ne)er &ot into9 8o+e)er4 on this occasion I decided (S) ! +as decidin& to &o because m' friends had been constantl' &oin& H had constantl' &one [ on about this film all +ee0 and e)entuall' +ore me do+n9 It starred H +as starrin& \)] some ephemeral 8oll'+ood actor +hom I had )a&uel' heard of but couldnLt put a face to9 7e &ot to the cinema earl' to find people +ere alread' +aitin& H alread' +aited XBL] outside +hich su&&ested that m' friends +erenLt the onl' ones +ho thou&ht it +as +orth seein& Balthou&h I could still thin0 of se)eral other thin&s I +ould rather ha)in& been doin& H do X"] at that moment9 In the end4 the film turned out H +as turnin& out X 5 to be not half as bad as e1pected4 thou&h I +ould ha)e preferred H +ould ha)e been preferrin& X#] somethin& +ith a bit more action9 /he plot centred on t+o men +ho +ere plannin& to carr' out some immensel' complicated robber'4 thou&h +hat the' completel' failed to realise H +ere completel' failin& to realise

=
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

6atc" t"e Auestions 31B!5 wit" suita#le answers 3aBh59 7h' didnLt 'ou callD 7hen do 'ou thin0 the'Lll be hereD 7h' did the' loo0 so hot and s+eat'D 7h' couldnLt +e use the roomsD 7h' are the' so e1haustedD 7h' didnLt the students respondD 7h' +ere the' apprehendedD 7hat time are the' settin& off tomorro+D

a /he' could be arri)in& at an' moment9 b I thin0 the'Ld been +or0in& out in the &'m9 T /he' must ha)e been doin& somethin& +ron&4 d I +as &oin& to4 but I clean for&ot4 e /he' +erenLt listenin&4 f 7ell4 the' hope to ha)e been dri)in& for fi)e hours b' lunch time4 & /he' +ere bein& cleaned4 h /he'L)e been +or0in& all da' up in the attic9

Write a new sentence as similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original

sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF <' ori&inal intention +as to dri)e all the +a'9 going I was going to dri'e all t"e wa') a It occurred to me that 'ou mi&ht li0e to come round this e)enin&4 wondering))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) b ,ur ar&uments o)er politics &o bac0 'ears9 arguing ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) T <' son has finall' come to accept that thereLs no such thin& as a free lunch9 0 dawning )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) d 7ho is the or&aniser of this e)entD running ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) e I thin0 heLs at last be&innin& to a&ree +ith me9 round ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

SECTION
he !uture
) WAYS OF REFERRINGLMN T8E FUTURE

/he follo+in& table summarises the different structures +e use to tal0 about the future9 ;orm will will be going to be going to Present Continuous Present Sim(le wi. ? Continuous will ? Continuous will ? Continuous will 2 Per!ect will 2 Per!ect Continuous be 2 to2in!initi*e E,am(le 0'll 8ust go and get m$ coat. Gou'll be sic& i! $ou eat more chocolate. 07m going to stop in a minute. :oo& outB %e're going to hit the car in !ront. %e're going to the ca!e. 7onLt $ou 8oin us> he coach leaves in ten minutes. )on7t phone too earl$ because 0'll be utting the bab$ to bed. %e'll be wor!ing on this until the end o! the $ear. 7 07ll gi'e $our letter to him - 0'll be seeing him later. %e'll have driven o'er !i'e hundred miles b$ the time we get there. %e'll have been living here !or ten $ears next Ma$. He is to be gi'en an award. Gou're to sta" here until $ou7'e apologised. 6eaning S an immediate decision about +hat 'ou are &oin& to do S a &eneral prediction ` a personal intention S a prediction after loo0in& at +hat is happenin& no+ S fi1ed plans H arran&ements S an unalterable arran&ement or fact S an action that +ill be in pro&ress some time in the future S an acti)it' that +ill be happenin& durin& a period in the future S an action that +ill happen because it is re&ular or decided S an e)ent that +ill be finished before a specified time in the future S a state of affairs in pro&ress for a period up to a specified time in the future S an official arran&ement or order

7e use shall +ith 0 or we +ith the same meanin& as will. 8o+e)er4 it is becomin& increasin&l' formal Bits most common current use is in polite offers or to as0 ad)ice 3see Anit $4 Section 19152 #hall I open the door !or $ou> %hat shall we do now>
+ &!'' IN TIME CLAUSES AND BF@CLAUSES

7e omit will in time clauses after when( as soon as( until( be!ore( etc2 07m not going to spea& to her until she7s apologised. 8o+e)er4 +ith conditional clauses 3after i!( unless( pro'iding( etc95 +e can use will( but onl'2 +hen +e +ant emphasis and will ma0es an intention or promise stron&er2 0! $ou will insist on the best( then $ou must expect to pa$ more !or it. in polite re?uests B will means Lbe +illin& toL2 0! $ou7ll hold these bags !or me( 0 can open the door. C 7e use would instead of will in reported speech and conditionals2 he$ promised the$ would wor! on it all wee&end. Harr$ as&ed me i! 0 would help him out.
' COMMON P8RASES

07m -just* about to go out. 3S in a )er' short time5 %e were on the oint of lea'ing when the bell rang. %e're due to meet in hal! an hour.

<atch the e1amples +ith the meanin&s in the table9 a b T d e *re 'ou &oin& to the match tomorro+D *re 'ou &oin& to &o out this e)enin& or notD <' dri)in& licence e1pires in 20$09 IL)e had enou&h9 ILll finish this tomorro+9 7eLll be sendin& 'ou more details in the post9

T?E 8UTUR E
;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"e !ollowing sentences wit" a

suita#le word or ("rase)

ExampleF I +as -ust about to ha'e a cup of coffee +hen Sue called9 Tick 9V1 t"e most a((ro(riate o! t"e underlined a 8e +as9999999999999999999999 resi&nin& +hen the ne+s of his promotion came throu&h4 b ,ur builder told me he9999999999999999999999999999999best to &et the materials as soon as he could4 T I thin0 +eLd better lea)e this restaurant as soon 9999999999999 the bill9 d If that little bo' carries on li0e that4 he999999999999999999999999999999999999999 accident before lon&9 Ce B' the time I ?ualif'4 I99999999999999999999999999999 la+ for si1 'ears9 f ,ur compan' is99999999999999999999999999 o)er b' a multiBnational9

words) a She loo0s )er' pale9 I thin0 sheLll H sheLs &oin& to fain-EB9 b a1 H ILm &oin& to do that for 'ou4 if 'ou li0e4 T ILll be H ILm &oin& to be a roc0et scientist +hen I &ro+ up9 d LSomebod'Ls at the door9L LILll H ILm &oin& to see +ho it is9L e I need to be home earl' toda' so I lea)e H am lea)in& at "9009 f 7eLll be in plent' of time pro)idin& the traffic is not H +ill not be too bad9 & She as0ed if I +ould H +ill be so 0ind as to &i)e her a lift9 h 7hat sort of -ob do 'ou thin0 'ou +ill do H +ill be doin& in a fe+ 'ears 1 timeD B' the time 'ou &et bac04 all the food +ill ha)e &one H +ill &o9 crisis9

A word is missing !rom most o! t"e num#ered (airs o! lines

in t"e (assage) 6ark t"e (lace wit" a line :& and write t"e missing word on t"e rig"t) I! a (air o! lines does not need a word added& (ut a tick ( S ) ( T"e !irst two "a*e #een done !or 'ou) %espite all the lessons +e ha)e learned from histor'4 J it is difficult to concei)e +hat people are li0el'Hbe doin&

- /he t+o Prime <inisters are to H shall discuss the current economic

3
word)

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered ga(s in t"is (assage wit" one suita#le L.emember are that b' the terms of the contract to lea)e before midda'L the )oice said9 325 about to pac0 +hen 'ou ran&9L 'ou

LKes9 Kes4 I 0no+9 I +as

L<idda'4L the )oice repeated9 LI 0no+9 *s I said4 I +as on the999999999999999999999999993$5 of lea)in& B pac0in&4 then lea)in&9L L/hat is999999999999993"5 'ou +ant to pa' for another +ee04L the )oice continued9 LNo9 No4 ILll 9 3 6 out b' t+el)e4L I stammered9

LIt does sa' )er' clearl' on 'our door that all &uests are9999999999999993#5 )acate their rooms b' midda'4L the )oice +ent on4 ?uite unnecessaril'4 I thou&ht9 LLoo09 IL)e told 'ou4L I shouted4 LILll ha)e9999999999999999999999999999999993:5 before the cloc0 stri0es t+el)eN ILm999999999999999999999999999993!5 in less than fifteen minutes9 /he flies4 ants and coc0roaches +ill soon999999999999999999999395 part'in& in a punctuall' )acated apartment9 8a)e no fear9L LMindl' remember that the ne+ occupants
y.

99999993105 in at 999L

LI 0no+N <idda'NL I screamed4 and thre+ do+n the phone9

a hundred 'earsHno+9 %urin& this centur'4 so man' chan&es ha)e 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 ta0en place that an' idea as to +hat ne+ in)ention is about become 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 an inte&ral part of our li)es has become more of a &uessin& &ame 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 than e)er9 For a start4 in ten 'earsL time4 toda'Ls 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 5 inno)ations +ill probabl' ha)e out of date9 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 6 /here little doubt that man' of our habitual4 ta0enBforB&ranted 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 7 acti)ities such as shoppin& and &oin& to school +ill disappeared b' 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D the 'ear 21004 lar&el' due to the &ro+th of electronic media9 But +hat 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 E +e ha)e little idea about is ho+ this affect our personal relationships9 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1F ,r rather4 not ours as this +ill be lon& after +e left this earth9 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 concerns us is ho+ our &reatB&reatB &randchildrenHbe li)in&9 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 7ill people stil- tal0in& to each other face to face4 or 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 13 onl' )ia computersD 7ill the' still be able to find a friendl' shoulder 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 to cr' on +hen the' feelin& lo+D In the lon& run4 +ho 0no+sD 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Un*t one

?ocabular$
SECTION =
#tati'e 'erbs
) NOT NORMALLY USED IN T8E CONTINUOUS

How man$ cars does ;is $our !amil$ own ; owning> 0 thin& what we need ; arc needing !or the trip depends ; is depending on the weather. %ho is- ; does this boo& belonging ; belong to> his dress !its ; is !itting me per!ectl$. %hat is-; does that lorr$ containing ; contain> 7e use can or could +ith see( hear( taste( smell( understand and remember to describe +hat is or +as happenin& at the time2 hat7s strangeF 0 couldn7t smell an$thing burning when 0 went to bed last night.
) Tick 9B:1 t"e *er#s underlined #elow i! t"e' are stati*e)

Some )erbs are not normall' used in the (ontinuous9 /he' describe states that sta' the same rather than actions or e)ents that chan&e9 /he most common stati)e )erb is be. ,thers include2 emotional states 3e9&9 lo'e( doubt( care5( and senses 3e9&9 smell5F 0 onl$ want to as& $ou a simple Auestion. )o $ou pre!er to tra'el b$ bus or b$ train> mental processes 3e9&9 belie'e( !eel( remember5F )o $ou realise ; Arc $ou realising what the$7re doing> 0 suspect ;am suspecting we7re not ma&ing as much pro!it as we should. 0 understand ;-atn-understanding e'er$thing $ou7re sa$ing. )erbs that describe a sense of permanence because the' are not actions2

a /he summar' included all the main points contained in the article4 b In m' opinion she deser)es all the criticism she &ets9 T I prefer to use m' old computer at home to the ones at +or09
+ W8EN STATIVE VERBS CAN BE USED IN T8E CONTINUOUS

7e can use some stati)e )erbs in the (ontinuous2 +hen the' ha)e an acti)e meanin&2 07m tasting this to see i! there is enough salt. #he7s being rather obstinate at the moment.

+hen the' emphasise chan&e or de)elopment2 More schools h'ill be including #ha&espeare on their s$llabuses. Sometimes usin& Simple or (ontinuous in)ol)es a chan&e in meanin&2 07m thin&ing about going to see Hamlet. 3S tr'in& to reach a decision5 H thin& #ha&espeare7s brilliant. 3S m' opinion5 07m seeing her later. 3 S I ha)e an appointment5 0 see what $ou7re on about. 3S I understand5 7e use )erbs that refer to ph'sical feelin&s 3e9&9 hurt( ache( !eel5 in the Simple or (ontinuous +ith little or no difference of meanin&2 M$ head aches ; is aching. How are $ou !eeling ; do $ou !eel now>
) Tick ( S ) i! t"e *er# !orms in t"ese sentences are acce(ta#le%

* small &roup of )erbs +ith meanin&s related to mental acti)it'4 e9&9 admit( agree( den$( promise( etc94 act li0e stati)e )erbs9 7e donLt use them in the (ontinuous e1cept for emphasis2 Are $ou actuall$ den$ing that $ou too& m$ pen>

Practice

=
1

In t"e !ollowing (airs o! sentences decide i! one or #ot"

are acce(ta#le) Tick ( S ) t"ose t"at are and (ut a cross >?@ #' t"ose t"at are not) ExampleF ILm o+nin& o)er 200 (%s9 ? I o+n o)er 200 (%s9 H a ILm not li0in& iceBcream4 # I donLt li0e iceBcream9 1 a /he )erdict depends on +hether the -ur' belie)ed the 0e' +itness4 # /he )erdict is dependin& on +hether the -ur' belie)ed the 0e' +itness9
STATIVE VERBS

a I thin0 ILm no+ reco&nisin& the e1tent of the tas0 ` +e ha)e ta0en on9 b Sha0espeareLs pla's are in)ol)in& a relati)el' small number of female parts9

a I can see somebod' mo)in& in the trees o)er there9 # I 0eep seein& somebod' mo)in& in the trees o)er there9 4 a 8e is belie)in& that aliens 0idnapped his dau&hter4 # 8e belie)es that aliens 0idnapped his dau&hter9 4 a She has a bab' bo'9 # SheLs ha)in& a bab' bo'9 6 a *re 'ou still feelin& sic0D # %o 'ou still feel sic0D 6 a IL)e been thin0in& about 'ou for some time4 # I thin0 about 'ou all the time9 6 a /his bo1 is containin& all the rele)ant documents4 # /his bo1 contains all the rele)ant documents9 6 a 8eLs an idiot9 # 8eLs bein& an idiot9 10 a Anderstandin& ho+ to use the computer is essential in this -ob9 # I understand ho+ to use computers and so I can do this -ob9

ExampleF I ma' &o to +or0 o)erseas9 t"inking IEm t"inking o! going to wor& o'erseas. a I +as +onderin& +hether to as0 .ichard to help me out9 su((ose )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) b .eadin& bet+een the lines4 I thin0 the hone'mooners are en-o'in& themsel)es9 sounds )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) T I canLt possibl' finish this +or0 +ithout 'our help9 de(ending))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) d /he ne+ receptionist certainl' has plent' of confidence9 lack)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) e <' 'oun& niece +as al+a's tired because she +as found to be +ithout enou&h iron4 lacking )))F))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

3
1

Tick 9:1 t"e word or ("rase t"at #est com(letes eac"

sentence) *fter so man' 'ears4 it is &reat to see him Q9999999999999999999999999999 his ambitions9 a &et # realise G possess d deser)e 2 /he re)ie+ committee9999999999999999999999 three practisin& la+'ers and a retired businessman9 a consists # comprises G is made up d encloses 3 %onLt +orr'2 this is nothin& that 'ou9 a matters # entails G concerns d complicates 4 *s al+a's4 I am9999999999999999+ith e)er'thin& 'ou sa'9 a a&ree # a&reein& G a&reeable d in a&reement 5 I999999999 doubt +hether he +ill actuall' carr' out his threats9 a hi&hl' # deepl' G absolutel' d seriousl' 6 It ma' be rainin&4 but ILm999999999999999999999999 en-o'in& m'self9 a thorou&hl' # hi&hl' G e1tremel' d desperatel' 7 I999999999 hope there +onLt be a repetition of these unfortunate e)ents9 a deepl' # stron&l' G sincerel' d thorou&hl' D /hat )oice sounds99999999999999999992 ILm sure I 0no+ her9 a 0no+n # usual G familiar d remembered E 8e finall' &ot the re+ard he so richl'99999999999999999999999999999999 a o+es # earns G deser)es d -ustifies 10 7hat happens ne1t9999999999999999999999999 entirel' on 'ou9 B0 a depends # re)ol)es G trusts d relies

Cecide w"et"er t"e underlined *er#s are in t"e #est tense) Tick

9:1 t"ose t"at are acce(ta#le and correct t"ose t"at are not)

To(ic% Cescri#e someone 'ou like or dislike


I donLt li0e to admit to disli0in& an'one4 but I ha)e to confess that there is one of m' classmates +ho I am particularl' disli0in& 3159 7e ha)e studied 325 to&ether in the same class for the last fe+ 'ears and I be&in 3$5 to feel that I ha)e been ha)in& 3"5 enou&h9 ItLs not that he is an unpleasant person4 in fact in other circumstances I am feelm& 3 5 sure that +e +ould &et on fine9 It is -ust that +hen 'ou ha)e sat 3#5 ne1t to someone for so lon& in such an artificial en)ironment as a classroom4 'ou find 3:5 that the smallest thin& can start to &et on 'our ner)es9 I thou&ht 3!5 about this onl' the other da' after the person in ?uestion B let us call him =eor&e4 thou&h that is not his real name B had been tr'in& 395 to help me +ith an e1ercise in our te1t boo09 I +as realisin& 3105 immediatel' that he reall' +asnLt 0no+in& 3115 +hat he tal0ed 3125 about9 /his +as not a problem but +hat anno'ed 31$5 me +as the fact that he refused 31"5 to listen to m' e1planations9 /he e1ercise +as consistin& 31 5 of readin& a te1t and ans+erin& ?uestions on it and I am not thin0in& 31#5 that he had been readin& 31:5 the te1t9 I didnLt 0no+ +hat to sa'9 I +as &oin& to tell 31!5 him to stop bein& so stupid but that +ould ha)e been soundin& 3195 rude9 So in the end I -ust sat 3205 and

said nothin&9 ;Dr eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& write a new sentence as

similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence #ut using t"e word gi*en) T"is word must not #e altered in an' wa') VOCABULARY

SECTION A
CollocationF an introduction

W8AT IS COLLOCATIONO

7ords that occur to&ether fre?uentl' LcollocateL9 7ords that donLt collocate ne)er occur to&ether9 If +e tr'4 the' sound unnatural and +ron&2 D ime speeds ; tra'els ; rides ; mo'es. 3S the' donLt collocate5

J ime !lies ;goes b$;wears on;passes. 3S the' collocate5 /here are no rules +e can use to learn collocations9 /here is often no lo&ical reason +h' some +ords are possible and others are not2 7e can tal& about an acade%ic "ear, 3but not a stud"ing "ear* )iscussions can be roductive or fruitful, 3but not proli!ic5 7e learn a collocation b' disco)erin& it4 learnin& it and usin& it B in the same +a' as other )ocabular'9

this 'ear9 a bumper # boom

FIDED COLLOCATIONS

In Lfi1edL collocations4 particular +ords occur to&ether4 and the combination has a special meanin&9 ,ther +ords are not possible and so +e can learn these compounds and common phrases as a combination of +ords9 7e can also thin0 of idiomatic e1pressions and dependent prepositions as t'pes of collocation2 0 had to go on a crash course to learn #panish. he children arri'ed safe and sound. M$ boss usuall$ arri'es at - o7cloc& on the dot. 07ll be bac& in a flash. 7e can sometimes choose bet+een fi1ed collocations that mean the same thin&2 #he was bac& in a flash or2 #he was bac& -as* /uic! as a flash. Fi1ed collocations can be chan&ed b' usin& different &rammatical forms or ma0in& additions2 Gou 7re in danger o! ricing "ourself out of the propert$ %ar!et. 0 want $ou bac& here on the precise dot o! ele'en. %ill the$ honour their election ledges$ 3 (ircle the onl' +ord that completes the fi1ed collocation in this sentence9 Please arri)e in99999999999999 time for the meetin&9 a fine # &reat T best d &ood
' OPEN COLLOCATIONS

In LopenL collocations4 +e can choose from a limited set of +ords to combine +ith another +ord9 7e need a full understandin& of the meanin&s of indi)idual +ords4 but there is often no lo&ical reason +h' some +ords collocate and others donLt2 %e can tal& about a fragile eace, or an uneas" eace, 3but not a tender eace, an unstead" eace or a wea! eace* C Sometimes choosin& +hich collocation to use depends on the position of the +ord in the sentence2 %e ma$ agree unconditionall", but unconditionall" agree. 2 (ircle an' +ords +e can combine +ith ti%ing in this sentence2 he police arri'ed with.............. timing 8ust as the gang were lea'ing the ban&. a best b perfect T immaculate d total e e1?uisite
- GRAMMATICAL FORMS

we

don7t

normall$

ad-ecti)e > noun2 0 remember m$ for%ative "ears. ad)erb > ad-ecti)e2 07m ho elessl" addicted to co!!ee. noun > noun2 he go'ernment ha'e 8ust un'eiled their olic" review. )erb > noun2 %e will honour our ledge to reduce unemplo$ment. dependent preposition2 *ersonall$( 0 thin& the$ should be asha%ed of themsel'es. part of a lon&er phrase2 0t7s alwa$s interesting to delve into the ast. 4 (ircle the +ord +hich fills the &ap9 1 People +ere9999999999999999 mo)ed b' the photo&raphs in the ne+spapers9 a &enuinel' # totall' T earnestl' d lo)in&l' 2 Nothin& 'ou sa' +ill ma0e a99999999999999999999999999 of difference to m' decision9 a fra&ment # scrap T &ram d &rain 3 Paul is a real intro)ert in contrast9999999999999999999999999999his brother *ndre+9 a +ith # b' T to d a&ainst

Practice

=
1 2

Anderline the +ords 3a or b5 that collocate in these sentences9

/hereLs a time99999999999for completin& this tas09 a barrier # limit 7ine &ro+ers in Bordeau1 recorded a99999999999999999999999har)est

3 3 5

ILd better 'ou on the latest de)elopments4 a update b ac?uaint I recall learnin& about such thin&s in the99999999999999999999999999 and distant past9 a dar0 b dim

19!9 +as a99999999 'ear for Europe9 a monumental b momentous 6 /he' all9999999 +atches before settin& off in different directions9 a standardised b s'nchronised 7 I99 9 a&ree +ith e)er'thin& 'ou said9 a +holeBheartedl' b unconditionall' D ILm satisfied9999999999'our pro&ress so far9 a for b +ith E I thin0 her performance +as9999999999999999999 affected b' the beha)iour of the cro+d9 a ad)ersel' b +ron&l' 10 ILm99999999999 committed to the idea of e?ualit' of opportunit'9 a lo)in&l' b passionatel' Put one of the follo+in& +ords in each of the sentences belo+9 next time-consuming matter surel$ twin&ling immemorial &ill long-standing time nic&

COLLOCATION9 INTROAUCTION

AN

For the past ei&ht 'ears or so4 Lecturer in boolo&' /im =uilford and his collea&ues ha)e spent H used 315 a lot of time an1iousl' scrutinisin& H scannin& 325 the horiJon4 stop+atch in hand4 +aitin& for the return of a pi&eon to the loft at the Ani)ersit' Field Station in 7'tham9 /he research is de)oted H allocated 3$5 to understandin& the clues that pi&eons use to enable them to na)i&ate around their home land H territor' 3"59 /he e1periments in)ol)e releasin& H dischar&in& 3 5 pi&eons from a )ariet' of sites up to $ 0ilometres a+a'4 and measurin& ho+ lon& it ta0es them to &et home H &o home 3#5 under different conditions9 /he' are not stud'in& the pi&eon for +hat itLs traditionall' famed inHfor 3:54 +hich is its na)i&ation abilities from unfamiliar areas9 .ather4 it seems there is a hu&e space H &ap 3!5 bet+een +hat +e 0no+ about birds and other lar&e )ertebrates mi&ratin& o)er )er' lon& distances4 and +hat +e 0no+ about ho+ rats and birds &et their bearin&s H positions 395 in small areas9 It seems +e do not 0no+ much about +hat most animals fill H pac0 3105 their time +ith B that is4 findin& their direction H +a' 3115 around their familiar area in relation to each other and to home9

LetLs lea)e it at that for the9999999999999999999999999bein& and continue tomorro+9 2 Slo+l' but999999999999999 the band is becomin& more and more popular9 3 In the9999999999999 of an e'e the s+indler had )anished4 ne)er to return9 4 In9999999999 to no time the' had become the best of friends9 5 /he 7hittin&ton famil' ha)e li)ed there since time99999999999999999999999 5 I arri)ed in the99999999999999999 of time to pre)ent a potential disasterI 7 I +andered around the cit' centre to9999999999999999999999999999999 time before m' appointment9 D (oo0in& &ood French food can be a )er'99999999999999999999999999999999 -ob9 E /he' had a a&reement to 0eep each other full' informed of de)elopments9 10 In a99999999999999999 of minutes the +hole buildin& had been raJed to the &round9

=
1 2 3

Anderline the +ord or phrase that best completes each

sentence9 /he team +on the championship four 'ears a runnin& b passin& T follo+in& d rotatin& I still see m' old classmates no+ and a occasionall' b then T sometimes d here

K In the follo+in& te1t4 circle the underlined +ord that collocates


+ith those around it9

<' +atch seems to be99999999999999999999999 se)eral minutes a da'9 a for+ardin& b &ainin& T pro&ressin& d mo)in& on 4 ILm afraid ILm reall'999999999999999999999for time at the moment9 a hurried b short T pulled d pressed 5 /his ini?uitous s'stem of ta1ation is unli0el' to chan&e in the999999999999999999999999999 future9 a far b close T predictable d foreseeable 6 /he music increases in9999999999999999999999 to+ards the end of the mo)ement9 a tempo b time T rh'thm d beat

7 D

8e +as +ounded in the999999999999999999999999 sta&es of the battle9 a closin& b middle T intermediate d end /he performance +ill start9999999999999999999999999 on si19 a e1actl' b punctuall' T dead d -ust

E&am p a#t$#% )

) Finish each of the sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la $n m%an$n0 as p!ss$bl% t! t,% s%nt%n#% b%(! % $t? a It's only after a few weeks that you begin to feel at home here. ou won't.......................................................................................... b !e's almost certain to lea"e before we #o. $y the time ....................................................................................... P Lucas was last hear# of a week ago. %obo#y ............................................................................................. " &heo is the most infuriating 'erson I'"e e"er met. I'"e yet............................................................................................... % %e"er before ha"e I seen Anita with her hair in such a mess. &his is ............................................................................................... ( &his ty'e of car use# to sell "ery well before the more mo#ern ()* was 'ro#uce#. Since ................................................................................................ 0 It a''ears that they sent us the wrong information. &hey .................................................................................................. , It seems we ma#e a mistake. +e..................................................................................................... $ &he Presi#ent clearly felt the ministers he sacke# ha# not acte# swiftly enough. &he ministers sacke# ....................................................................... , I'm gla# I got out of there- it was hell. I'm gla# to ......................................................................................... ' Fill each of the numbere# blanks with !n% suitable wor#. Many towns an# cities aroun# the worl# .............. 123 u' a 'articular image or memory as soon as they ....................... 143 mentione#0 whether it is #ue to a catastro'hic earth5uake that shattere# it0 an aero'lane that came #own ,ust outsi#e it0 or a ma#man with a gun ........................... 1(3 amok through the streets in the #im an# ............................. 163 'ast. 7lastonbury is now establishe# as ................................... 183 to this grou'. '!a"e you been to 7lastonbury9' will rarely be a 5uery as to whether you ha"e .............. 1*3 'asse# through the town on your + Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase. a .ur train ........................ if we #on't get to the station soon. b $y ne/t month we .............................. 'aying for the car. P !e is thought............................ #ee'ly #e'resse# at the time0 but reco"ere# later0 " As soon as he came through the #oor0 he realise# ................... to the wrong room. % &his isn't the first time 'eo'le....................................... aback by his beha"iour.

tra"els. Almost certainly it will be a reference to the twenty:o##: year:ol# Festi"al of Music whose home it is. +hat is ........................... 1;3 in the me#ia as 'an instant town the si<e of ./for#' a''ears there for three #ays in late =une an# ............................... 1>3 inhabite# by aroun# 2))0))) 'eo'le0 most of whom will ha"e.................. 1?3 u' to @2)) a ticket for the 'ri"ilege. In the last year or so0 a sometimes 5uite heate# argument has .......................12)3 out along the lines of 'Are you too ol# for 7lastonbury9' As we mille# yester#ay amongst the crow#s0 o'inion seeme# e"enly #i"i#e#. %e"er............................ 12 23 been to such a festi"al before0 2 ;:year:ol# %athalie +orsni' faile# to see why 6):somethings who .................................... 1243 ha# their #ay shoul# s'oil things for 'eo'le like her who .................. 12(3 going to 7lastonbury for the first time. She sus'ecte# the former woul# be '............... 1263 like ma# for mi##le:age# has:beens' an# ignore u':an#:coming young ban#s who ha# .............. 1283 to break into the big time. .n the other han#0 reforme# hi''ie an# uni"ersity lecturer0 Aa"i# Stone0 'ointe# out that it was his generation who ha# ..................... 12*3 7lastonbury on the ma'. &here ha# ..................... 12;3 nothing like it before0 an# he faile# to see why they coul# not follow through what they ha# ........................ 12>3 in the late se"enties. &he Festi"al's future an# its ethos seem uncertain. +ill gran#fathers still ............................ 12?3 atten#ing in ten years' time0 or will they.................................. 14)3 been banne# in the interests of to#ay's 1an# tomorrow'sB3 music9

- Circle a letter E: F: G or D that best fills each numbere# ga'. As time .................... 1230 the 'ower of news'a'ers seems to be on the ................................................ 3259 &his is o## because in the relati"ely.................................. 1(3 'ast 'eo'le were 're#icting that the influence of the written wor# woul# #iminish in ........................................ 163 'ro'ortion to the rate of increase of the s'oken wor# an# mo"ing image through &D an# "i#eo. &he Internet0 cable an# satellite tele"ision0 &elete/t an# multi:me#ia com'uters in ................................................. 183 other home shoul# surely ha"e ..................... 1*3 for news'a'ers by now0 'articularly alongsi#e a 'erce'tible resurgence in the au#iences for news:carrying ra#io stations. !ow ha"e these organs sur"i"e#0 let alone .......................... 1;30 'articularly on a Sun#ay9 +hy #o 'eo'le who ha"e seen a football or tennis ............................... 1>3 li"e or on the small screen rush the ne/t #ay to rea# a.................... 1?3 "ersion of it in four or fi"e columns which surely cannot mean more to the rea#er than that self:same "iewer of the 're"ious afternoon or e"ening9 +hy woul# anyone who has seen a film an# forme# a................................................ 12)3 im'ression of it the following #ay rea# a re"iew of the...................................... 1223 film in a news'a'er9 &o see if sEhe is right9 Isn't that what frien#s are for9 Aon't we ha"e colleagues for ,ust that 'ur'ose : to see if our i#eas on any ................................. 3125 song0 film or 'rogramme tally with others'9 +hat is this 'ro#uct that................................ 12(3 of not much more than outrageous hea#lines0 waywar# comment0 sub,ecti"e e#itorials an# hy'erbolic s'orts 'ages still #oing in our li"es9 It seems for the time ................................. 1263 to be lea#ing a charme# life. +hen it finally goes0 though0 many may come to mourn its ........................................... 1283. ) + ' / 2 3 4 5 )1 )) )+ )' ))/ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A flies increase latest e/act all #one flourishe# game curtaile# "i"i# abo"e:mentione# gi"en com'rises out 'erishing F F F Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 'asses rise #istant #irect any gone bloome# set cut coloure# aforesai# taken contains being #ying G G G P P P P P P P P P P P P goes e/'ansion imme#iate 'recise e"ery stoo# flowere# match re#uce# bright latter sub,ecte# consists gi"en falling D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D #rags buil# recent e5ual one set roote# meeting 'otte# #irect 're"ious written informs 'resent 'assing

n*t t/o

*assi'es
Entry test
) Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible to the sentence before it. a &he car com'letely #estroye# my motorbike. My motorbike........................................................................................... b Secon# 'ri<e was awar#e# to an unknown author from Patras. An unknown author from Patras ............................................................ P &he ,u#ge refuse# him 'ermission to a''eal against the #ecision. !e..............-............................................................................................ " $lur ha"e earne# se"eral million 'oun#s from their new album. $lur's new album .................................................................................... % &hey suggeste# we try a new metho# of checking how much we were s'en#ing. +e ...........................................................................................................
FOR STRUCTURES WIT8 GET AND *A+E, SEE SECTION '?

'a'ers.

Fill the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.

a &he "i#eo machine is beha"ing strangely but we're .............. fi/e# ne/t week. b &he lights kee' flickering- we must........................................ to look at the wiring for us. P lan's not the easiest 'erson to get on withG that's something you'll ha"e ............................ to. " I .................. car broken into the other #ay an# the ra#io stolen. % El#erly 'eo'le can get................................. in by conmen going from house to house.

Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as

similar as 'ossible to the sentence before it. a Lea"ing that #ress in the sun has ma#e it fa#e.

FOR OB6ECTS AND AGENTS WIT8 T8E PASSIVE: SEE SECTION )?

&hat #ress .............................................................................................. b +e watche# the men sail the boat into the harbour. +e watche# the boat ............................................................................. P I #ro''e# the glass an# cracke# it. &he glass cracke# .................................................................................. " I a##e# flour to the sauce an# thickene# it. &he sauce .............................................................................................. % &hey're selling a lot of co'ies of that new single. &hat new single ......................................................................................

+ Fill in each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase. a My 'ro'osals were re,ecte# an# I was .......................................... back #own. b I think he nee#s ............................ tol# to kee' his nose clean. P &he 'roblem was ............................. been tol# where the fire esca'es were0 " !is son is belie"e# .............................. ki#na''e# by se'aratist guerrillas0 % Fn#er the ol# 'ro'osals0 can#i#ates were ........................................... been gi"en an e/tra 2 8 minutes to com'lete their

FOR TRANSITIVE TO INTRANSITIVE WIT8OUT USING T8E PASSIVE: SEE SECTION -?

FOR INFINITIVES AND -!#G FORM PASSIVES: SEE SECTION +?

OVERVIEW
1
FORM OF T8E PASSIVE

7e form the passi)e usin& be in an appropriate tense or form > the past participle of a transiti)e )erb2 A small sum o! mone$ was stolen !rom the cash box. he$ ought to have been unished more se'erel$. #aving been beaten in the semi-!inal( she !lew home the ne&t da$. In spo0en En&lish4 +e sometimes use get instead of be in the passi)e2 The" got told off !or %a!ing so much noise. 8o+e)er4 get 6 -ed is more common +ith an acti)e meanin& similar to LbecomeL in phrases li0e get dressed( get married( etc9 3See Section $9259

REASONS FOR USING T8E PASSIVE

In En&lish4 the topic or sub-ect matter is commonl' at the be&innin& of the sentence4 and ne+ information about the sub-ect is normall' at the end9 In an acti)e sentence4 the La&entL 3the person or thin& that performs the action5 usuall' comes first and is the sub-ect of the sentence2 Su#Hect 9Agent1 Action Result 3l"% ia!os scored the first goal. /his acti)e sentence is principall' about ,l'mpia0os9 In the passi)e4 the result or thin& affected b' the action comes first and is the sub-ect of the sentence2 Su#Hect 9Result1 Action Agent The first goal was scored b" 3l"% ia!os. /his passi)e sentence is principall' about the &oal9 7e choose bet+een acti)e and passi)e because of the topic +e are tal0in& about4 especiall' +hen reportin& information9 *n En&lish ne+spaper4 assumin& its readers are interested in the En&land football team4 ma0es the En&land team the topic9 It is li0el' to report2 )ngland have been beaten b" 4er%an" in a enalt" shoot-out. * =erman ne+spaper4 more interested in their o+n national team4 is li0el' to report2 4er%an" has beaten )ngland in a enalt" shoot-out. ,ther reasons for usin& the passi)e include2 the a&ent is un0no+n or ob)ious 3see also Section 152 0 was born in +,-2. Co!!ee will be %ade available a!ter the meal. the a&ent is Lpeople or thin&s in &eneralL2 #ome 'erbs cannot be used in the Continuous. c the a&ent is a lon& phrase2 Helen was surprised b" all the %essages of s"% ath" that she received. d a)oidin& references to oursel)es and ma0in& a statement impersonal2 %e can't possibl$ co% lete this wor& o'ernight. becomes2 his wor& can't possibl$ be co% leted o'ernight. 3S the +or0 is the problem4 not us5 c a)oidin& L'ouL in orders and rules2 Gou must gi'e in $our application be!ore the end o! the wee&( becomes2 All applications %ust be given in be!ore the end o! the wee&. C in factual +ritin& +hen the focus is usuall' on e)ents4 achie)ements4 etc9 rather than a&ents2 ?accination had been ioneered two hundred $ears earlier. e Not all be 6 -ed forms are passi)e9 /he' ma' be ad-ecti)es2 0 was worried we would be late because o! the tra!!ic. C 7e a)oid passi)e constructions +ith be being or been being( althou&h the' sometimes occur in spo0en En&lish2 *)oid2 The road will have been being re aired !or months. J he$ will have been re airing the road !or months( or2 he road will have been under re air !or months.

44

GRAMMAR

SECTION I
Agents and ob8ects with the passi'e
1
T8E AGENT N!t m%nt$!n$n0 t,% a0%nt

In most passi)e sentences +e ha)e no interest in +ho or +hat performs the action9 7e are interested in the action itself4 +ho or +hat is affected b' the action4 or +hat is the result of it 3see ,)er)ie+59 In fact4 onl' about 20f of passi)e sentences mention the a&ent2 That window has been bro!en again5
M%nt$!n$n0 t,% a0%nt

7e mention the a&ent +hen +e thin0 the information is important4 especiall' if +e +ant to sa' more about it4 for e1ample +ith a relati)e clause2 I re%e%ber being ta!en to the fair b" %" father, who rarel" showed an" interest in such things. The survivors were ic!ed out of the water b" a cruise liner which had heard their distress call. /he a&ent is usuall' introduced +ith b" 3See Section #9$ for prepositions after passi)es59

(orrect the follo+in& sentences9 a <an and +ife the' +ere pronounced4 b I +as e1plained +hat I had to do9 T 8is pre)ious misdemeanours +ere for&i)en to him9 d 8e +Is earned a lot of mone' from his bettin&4 e 7e +ere su&&ested a &ood restaurant for lunch9

VERBS WIT8 TWO OB6ECTS

@erbs that ha)e t+o ob-ects 3usuall' a person and a thin&5 in the acti)e usuall' ha)e t+o passi)e forms because either of the ob-ects can become the ne+ sub-ect2 The" gave the award to an un!nown actress. 3S acti)e5 The award was given to an un!nown actress. 3S passi)e5 An un!nown actress was given the award. 3S passi)e5 7e usuall' add a preposition before the personal ob-ect9 /he preposition is usuall' to, but +e sometimes use for+ A note was handed to the %inister. A slice of ca!e was cut for hi%. 8o+e)er4 some )erbs4 e9&9 allow, as!, cause, forgive, den", donLt normall' ta0e a preposition before the personal ob-ect2 6er%ission was refused hi%.
' VERBS WIT8 LIMITED USE IN T8E PASSIVE

7e canLt use some )erbs as freel' in the passi)e as others9 7e canLt use intransiti)e )erbs in the passi)e because the' donLt ha)e an ob-ect that can be chan&ed into the sub-ect2 ? The Tas%anian tiger was died out earl" this centur". 7' The Tas%anian tiger died out earl" this centur". Some )erbs4 e9&9 suggest and e& lain, canLt chan&e the indirect ob-ect to sub-ect2 ? #e was e& lained the rocedure. We were suggested a new ti%e. J The rocedure was e& lained to hi%. A new ti%e was suggested for us. Some )erb phrases +ith t+o ob-ects canLt be passi)e at all2 I bear hi% no ill will. The boo! earned hi% a fortune. 8et %e wish "ou luc!. Some )erbs are follo+ed b' t+o nouns4 but the second is not reall' an ob-ect9 7e can see this if it is replaced b' an ad-ecti)e2 The" declared hi% 6resident. #e was declared 6resident. The doctor declared hi% dead. #e was declared dead.

47

GRAMMAR

8
R
;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"e !ollowing sentences wit" one o! t"e (assi*e *er# ("rases #elow) is deemed could soon be!itted were charged has been held has !inall$ been elected is expected being caused to be printed is auctioned being considered a 8i&hBtech Lle&BironsL99999999999999999999999999999 on )iolent suspects arrested b' the police4 under plans9999999999999999999999999b' chief constables9 b Last +ee04 police in Scotland called for the introduction of le&B restraints follo+in& concerns about the number of in-uries99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 durin& stru&&les in the bac0 of police cars and )ans4 G Four people999999999999999999999999 last ni&ht +ith public disorder offences after officers mounted da+n raids on suspected football hooli&ans4 d 8u&h 8efner4 founder of LPla'bo'L499999999999999999999999999999999999999to the *merican Societ' of <a&aJine EditorsL 8all of Fame4 e * first edition cop' of (haucerLs L(anterbur' /alesL4 the first boo0 999999999999 Lin En&land4 9999999999999999999999 to raise at least W 004000 +hen it99999999999999999999999999999999 in Uul'9 f * British +oman released earl' from an attempted murder sentence in the Anites States B a char&e +hich she has al+a's denied B 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 in prison because she99999999999999999999999999 an ille&al immi&rant9 Add t"e a((ro(riate e,tra in!ormation 9a2e1 to t"e (assi*e sentences 31B 59 /he ne+s +as lea0ed to the press b' the minister 999 /he minister +as attac0ed b' protesters4 999 I remember bein& sent a letter b' a man in *merica 999 /he +innin& &oal +as scored b' Fausto Ferrini 999 * man +as run o)er b' a car4 999

AGENTS AND OB6ECTS WIT8 T8E PASSIVE

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in

t"e !ollowing (assage wit" one suita#le word) /+ent'Bfour hours after arri)in& in the countr'4 I99999999999999999999 315 told to lea)e9 /he securit' police4 the countr'Ls lar&est emplo'er4 came to m' hotel4 politel' as0ed me +hat I thou&ht of the cit' and then recommended that I lea)e on the mornin& plane9 I as0ed them +h' I +as99999999999999999 325 e1pelled and the' said it +as not a ?uestion of m' bein& L999999999999999999 3$5 outL4 the' +ere simpl' recommendin& that I lea)e9 I refused and the problems started9 <' passport and plane tic0et 99999999999999 3"5 stolen from m' room after m' 0e' LdisappearedL9 /he police shru&&ed their shoulders and decided not to inter)ie+ the leatherB -ac0eted 'outh +ho 2........................ 183 been pressed up a&ainst in the lift9 For three da's I +as99999999999999999999999 3#5 b' t+o not )er' secret policemen e)er'+here I +ent9 I )isited a fello+B-ournalist +hose address I had99999999999999999 3:5 &i)en9 8e li)ed in a beautiful old house +hich +ould 99999999999999 3!5 demolished the follo+in& 'ear b' the &o)ernment to ma0e +a' for a bloc0 of LmodernL flats9 E)er'bod' +ould be 99999999999999 395 in it as soon as it +as read' but +here the' +ould li)e in the meantime had not been 99999999999999 3105 out9 <assi)e ta1ation +as99999999999999999 3115 imposed on the people to pa' for these supposed impro)ements9 I +ent bac0 to the hotel4 still9999999999999999999 3125 follo+ed b' the t+o policemen4 and felt )er' depressed9

2
1 1 1 1 1

a in his first appearance for the club9 b +ho had +aited outside the buildin& all da' to )oice their opposition to the policies4 G in a deliberate attempt to boost his popularit'4 d +ho complained m' article +as pre-udiced a&ainst his countr'4 e +hich +itnesses said +as bein& dri)en at )er' hi&h speed9

W"ere (ossi#le& rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in two di!!erent wa's&

using a di!!erent su#Hect eac" time) Some sentences ma' #e rewritten onl' one wa') a /he police sho+ed the )ictim a picture of the suspect9 b People used to sell the tourists fa0e anti?ues9 T 7h' didnLt the' offer the customers a refundD d /he' didnLt &uarantee e)er' participant a free lunch9 e /he' reported the incident to the police9 f People su&&ested to us that the Internet +ould be a &ood source of information9 & /he' promised us full compensation if the scheme fell throu&h4 h /he referee declared the bo1in& match a dra+4 i 7eLll &i)e the ne+ members of staff all the help the' need4 - /he incident earned him the reputation of bein& unreliable9

48

SECTION <
0n!initi'es and -ing !orm passi'es
) INFINITIVES AFTER CERTAIN VERBS

here7s so much to be done. his essa$ has got to be written be!ore @rida$. 0! it's going to be done b$ then( 07d better get a mo'e on. If the sub-ect is not the a&ent4 +e use a passi)e infiniti)e2 All s$stems are to be chec!ed as soon as possible. 7e can use some acti)e and passi)e infiniti)es +ith the same meanin&4 especiall' after hereF here are so man$ rooms to aint' to be ainted. But4 +ith something( an$thing and nothing > to do there can be a chan&e in meanin&2 here7s nothing to do in the e'enings. 3S +eLre bored5 07m sorr$( there7s nothing to be done. 3S thereLs no action an'one can ta0e5

Ma&e( see( hear( and help ha)e different patterns in the acti)e and the passi)e9 In the acti)e4 the )erb is follo+ed b' ob-ect > infiniti)e +ithout to9 In the passi)e4 +e use a toBinfiniti)e2 Acti*e Passi*e ' heard hi% shout at He was heard to shout at his brother. his brother. he$'ve %ade hi% ro%ise He's been %ade to ro%ise not to come be!ore six. not to come be!ore six.

REPORT VERBS

'et .? allow

7e canLt use let in the passi)e +hen it is follo+ed b' a )erb phrase9 7e use allowF M$ parents let me do what 0 wanted. 3S acti)e5 D 0 was let to do what 0 wanted. L0.was allowed to do what 0 wanted. C But +e can use let in the passi)e in phrases li0e2 he dog was let loose. 0 was badl$ let down.

7e often use report )erbs4 e9&9 claim( mention( reAuest( point out( +ith impersonal passi)e constructions9 /here are three main patterns2 It's thought b" the ress that the chairman earns too much. he chairman is thought b" the ress to earn too much. There are thought to be disagreements among senior ministers. 7e often introduce a statement +ith he$ sa$( thin&( belie'e( etc9 or 0t is said... ! /ne &nows...( etc9 meanin& LPeople &enerall' thin04 belie)e4 etc9 999L2 It's thought that carrots impro'e e$esight. 4M Carrots are believed to impro'e e$esight.5

4
+ PASSIVE INFINITIVES

PASSIVE -!#G FORMS

7e form the passi)e infiniti)e of )erbs b' puttin& to be 3sometimes to get5 in front of the past participle2 Acti*e Passi*e here7s so much to do. 0've got to write this essa$ be!ore @rida$. 0! 07m going to do it b$ then( 07d better get a mo'e on.

7e use passi)e -ing forms 4being 6 -ed5 and Perfect passi)e -ing forms 4ha'ing been 6 -ed5F after )erbs that are normall' follo+ed b' -ing forms 3see Anit 1 52 I love being given !lowers. #he recalled having been ta!en there when she was $oung. as participles4 usuall' +ith the meanin& of LbecauseL 3see Anit #4 Section 152 9eing aid monthl$( 0 !ind annual bills hard to pa$. #aving been stung b$ bees( she has no lo'e o! insects. as the sub-ect of a sentence2 9eing roved wrong is ne'er a com!ortable experience.

7e use Perfect passi)e infiniti)es to emphasise that somethin& is or isnLt completed 3See also Anit 14 Section 2 7atch outN52 M$ new car was to have been delivered toda$ but there was a problem with the paintwor&.
A#t$.% ! pass$.% $n($n$t$.%O

If the sub-ect is the a&ent4 the sentence is acti)e and +e use an acti)e infiniti)e2 07'e got so man$ librar$ boo&s to return.

Anderline the passi)es in these sentences9

1 1

/he' are belie)ed to ha)e left the countr'9 She is thou&ht to ha)e been smu&&led out of the countr' in the bac0 of a lorr'9 1 /he' +ere seen to lea)e the room to&ether9 1 8e is said to be reco)erin& +ell9 1 /he +hole place +as cleaned until there +as not a spec0 of dust to be seen an'+here9

2 IN8INITIVES ANA 7ING 8ORM CASSIVES


Bein&99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T Ste+art +as criticised for his e1tra)a&ance and +as more careful after that9 8a)in&99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d I reall' +ish I hadnLt been pushed into &i)in& a speech9 I reall' re&ret 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e Because I +as told it +as ?uic0er4 I naturall' too0 the mountain road9 8a)in&99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f I canLt tell 'ou +hat it feels li0e because nobod'Ls e)er &i)en me W10040009 Ne)er 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" a suita#le word)

ExampleF Ne+ measures to combat crime are to be introduced at the end of the 'ear9 a 7e9999999999999999999 stron&l' ad)ised99999999999999999999999 reconsider our position9 b 8e is 0no+n99999999999999999999999999999999999999999hidden lar&e sums of mone' in his orchard4 T /he' are understood999999999999999999999999999999 ha)e9999999999999999 offered o)er W 000 for their stor'4 d I999999999999999999 al+a's made999999999999999999999 apolo&ise to m' little sister after an ar&ument4 e ItLs too late no+2 thereLs nothin& more99999999999999999999999999999999999999999be f I left +ith the distinct feelin& of999999999999999999999999999999999999been 9999999999999 for &ranted9 & I used to steal +alnuts from m' &randfatherLs &arden and ne)er +orried about9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 out9 h /here are9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 an' sur)i)ors from 'esterda'Ls aircrash9

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" t a wa' t"at it is

as similar as (ossi#le to t"e sentence #e!ore it) ExampleF <an' people belie)e that Stonehen&e +as built as some 0ind of timeB0eepin& de)ice9 Stonehen&e is belie'ed #' man' people to ha'e been built as some &ind o! time2kee(ing de'ice. a /he' made me tell them e)er'thin& I 0ne+9 I9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b Nobod' e)er let me stud' the piano at school9 I 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T It is often said that Sha0espeare ne)er re)ised an'thin& he +rote9 Sha0espeare 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /here +ere once thou&ht to be canals on <ars9 It 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e From +hat +e understand4 there +as an attac0 last ni&ht in the )icinit' of the beach9 /here is 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f ItLs a +idespread assumption that =eor&e +as +ron&l' accused9 =eor&e999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & Kou ha)e to clean these football boots until the' shine9 /hese football boots are999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h Ander no circumstances should 'ou cross this line9 /his line is 9H999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

;or eac" o! t"e sentences& write a new sentence as similar as

(ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF * lot of people are sa'in& that heLs +or0in& underco)er4 rumoured ItLs rumoured t"at "eLs wor&ing underco*er) : .eLs rumoured to #e working underco*er) a She +ants it to be clear to people that sheLs fair9 seen ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) b 8e often sa's to people ho+ much of his success is do+n to 'ou9 "eard))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) T /he theor' is that she fell o)erboard at ni&ht and dro+ned9 !allen )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) d 7e certainl' donLt +ant an' repetition of such a ridiculous spectacle e)er a&ain9 re(eated ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) e /he plan +as ori&inall' to complete the buildin& b' Uune9 due )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) f 7hen I +as a child4 I +as ne)er allo+ed to pla' +ith the children ne1t door4 let ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it

is as similar as (ossi#le to t"e sentence #e!ore it) ExampleF 8e didnLt remember that he had been ordered to appear before the -ud&e9 8e had no recollection of #eing ordered to appear be!ore the 8udge. a She )a&uel' remembers that she +as 0noc0ed do+n b' a motorbi0e9 She has )a&ue memories of 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b ItLs ne)er )er' nice +hen people lau&h at 'ou9

Practice

SECTION <
#tructures with get and have
1
CAUSATIVES

:uc&$ *aul got ro%oted ' elected ' chosen ' a $esterda$. *oor ?assili B his dog got run over last night.

ointed

7e can use get and ha'e in both acti)e and passi)e patterns9 /he acti)e pattern4 meanin& Lcause or order someone to do somethin&L4 is get > person > toBinfiniti)e4 or ha'e > person > infiniti)e +ithout to2 0'll get the waiter to bring $ou the menu. 0'll have the waiter bring $ou the menu. Note that ha'e is much more common in *merican En&lish6 get is common in spo0en British En&lish9 /he passi)e pattern4 meanin& Larran&e for somebod' else to do somethin&L4 is get ! ha'e 6 ob-ect > past participle2 0'll have'get the menu brought to $ou. 0 had to get ' have m$ 8ac&et cleaned a!ter the part$. 0 must go and get ' have m$ photo ta!en !or m$ new passport. 0'll get ' have those copies %ade !or $ou immediatel$. #he's getting' having her teeth fi&ed.

Get meanin& LbecomeL is also common +ith a particular small &roup of past participles2 get dressed get %arried get used to get stuc! get lost get caught get burned get involved /he meanin& of these phrases can be acti)e2 0 got dressed as Auic&l$ as 0 could. 7e can use some of these acti)e phrases +ith an ob-ect2 0 ha'e to get the children dressed earl$ e'er$ morning. )on7t get "our fa%il" involved in the business.
' T8INGS T8AT 8APPEN TO YOU

7e use ha'e 6 ob-ect > past participle to describe thin&s that happen to us4 often misfortunes9 /he sub-ect is the person +ho e1periences +hat happened2 07'e had m$ car stolen. 3(ompare2 M$ car was stolen.* He's had his application !or citi2enship turned down. 3(ompare2 His application !or citi2enship has been turned down.* M$ mother's had her letter ublished in he imes. 3(ompare2 M$ mother7s letter has been ublished in The imes.5 In spo0en En&lish +e can sometimes use get instead of ha'eF #he's got another letter ublished in he imes. Note that sometimes onl' the conte1t +ill identif' precise meanin&9 (onsider2 he$ had their !ence ulled down. 3S either2 the' emplo'ed somebod' to pull it do+n 3causati)e56 or it +as pulled do+n +ithout their plannin& it4 e9&9 b' )andals95

GET , -E-. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

7e can sometimes use get instead of be in the passi)e9 /his is usuall' informal2 he$ got unished b$ the *rincipal !or ma&ing so much noise.

7hich of these sentences are causati)esD

I0 ^0#%4) ,(#%/ht tin! (i/ht &+*, ;6 '#%-)n4t h+1G /#t -# t@

8e tried to escape but &ot cau&ht9 /he' +ere aimin& to +al0 the entire route but &ot tired in the end9 r I need to &et m' hair cut9 I ILm &oin& to ha)e m' portrait painter I had m' car bro0en into last +ee0

$!

STRUCTURES ;IT? GET ANA ?AVE


b fin&erprints police 'our on 'ou ne)er had files ha)e can put 'ou ,nce9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999rela19 T somethin& &et &ot ha)e done -ust about this to Kou 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999office9 d 'our I not passport help +ould &ot ha)e m' for But 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 stamped9 e us or&anised &et at can the e)er'thin& of all same *ll99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 time9 f care an' ta0e to must such in)ol)ed dan&erous in famil' 'our not &et Kou99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 situations9 & arrested ta1ed if +ill &et 'ou car be almost and certainl' donLt 'our Kou999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 insured9 h interest &o)ernment seems to ne)er to brou&ht &et under able rates be /he9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 control9

Fill each of the numbered blan0s in the passa&e belo+ +ith a

form of have or be. It +as last <a'4 +hile +e +ere ta0in& our annual lateB sprin& brea0 on Lindos that +e9999999999999999999999999999999 315 our house bro0en into9 *ll our /@ and )ideo e?uipment 999999999999 325 stolen4 but +hat +as +orse +as +hen +e disco)ered that the final draft of m' husbandLs latest no)el9999999999999999 3$599999999999999 3"5 torn into pieces and the dis0s he99999999999999999 3 599999999999999 3#5 +ritin& it on9999999999999999999999 3:5 disappeared9 ,f course4 'ou hear about people +ho 999999999999 3!5999999999999999 395 their properties )andalised and others +hose most priJed possessions9999999999999999999999999999999999 3105 999999999999 3115 ta0en4 but itLs a terrible shoc0 +hen it happens to 'ou4 +hen 'ou 0no+ that 'our home 9B999999gh4 312599999999999999 31$5 in)aded4 and that 'ou 9 31"5999999999999999 31 5 'our most intimate belon&in&s handled and e1amined b' stran&ers9

Finish each of the follo+in& sentences in such a +a' that it is as

similar as possible in meanin& to the sentence before it9 ExampleF 8asnLt that film been de)eloped 'etD 8a)enLt 'ou had the !ilm de'eloped $et> a (an it be true that 'ouLre reall' &oin& to deli)er m' sofa toda'D (an it be true that ILm 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b ,ne of the others a&reed to post m' letters for me9 I &ot 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T <' dentist is supposed to be cappin& m' t+o front teeth this mornin&9 ILm999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d <' car reall' needs ser)icin&9 1 reall' 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e 7h' did 'ou let them &o +ithout si&nin& the receiptD 7h' didnLt 'ou 99L9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Y Fill the blan0s +ith a suitable +ord or phrase9


ExampleF 8is arm is in a slin& after he got it stamped on9 a I 0eep &ettin& headaches so ILm &oin&99999999999999999999999999999999999999 tested9 b ItLs unpleasant for children +hen the'99999999999999999999999999999999999999names b' other children9 T IL)e -ust99999999999999999999 ta0en for m' ne+ passport9 d <' handba& +as completel' flattened after it99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 on in the bus9 e <' husbandLs been to the hairdresser2 I reall' +ish he999999999999999 so short9 f I 0no+ 'ou donLt appro)e of m' ne+ hair colour but 'ouLll -ust999999999999999999999 to it9

Y For each of the follo+in& sentences4 +rite a ne+ sentence as similar


/he +ords must not be altered in an' +a'9 ExampleF (omputin& is -ust somethin& 'ou ta0e for &ranted after a +hile4 &et Com(uting is 8ust somet"ing 'ou get used to a!ter a while.

as possible in meanin& to the ori&inal sentence4 but usin& the +ord &i)en9

a /he +hole of m' sisterLs class spent last +ee0end redecoratin& her flat4 had b 7e couldnLt find our +a' out of the +oods4 &ot T %o 'ou thin0 thereLs an' chance of this ne+ part' +innin& the electionD &et d I canLt sa' I en-o' the teacher readin& out m' +or0 in front of the class4 ha)in& e ItLs ?uite simple for a loc0smith to cop' one or more of 'our 0e's4 copied

.earran&e the +ords to ma0e coherent sentences inside the first

and last +ords &i)en9 ExampleF film to has -ust be /hat999999999999999999999999999999999 seen9 hat !ilm 8ust has to be seen. a 'our e)er 'our house belon&in&s into an' and had bro0en of 'ou 8a)e9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999stolenD

SECTION
1ot using the passi'eF transiti'e to intransiti'e
1
C8ANGING T8E SUB6ECT WIT8OUT USING T8E PASSIVE

Her pencil bro!e because she was pressing too hard. #tir until the sugar has dissolved. A!ter the stoc& has si%%ered !or an hour( add seasoning. ,ther e1amples include2 begin var" decrease e& and increase o en close finish fade stretch crac! s%ash
D%s# $b$n0 m!.%m%nt

7ith some transiti)e )erbs +e can chan&e the sub-ect of a sentence +ithout usin& the passi)e9 7e donLt mention or e)en impl' an a&ent9 @erbs that allo+ us to chan&e the sub-ect to Lthe thin& affected b' the actionL +ithout usin& the passi)e are called Ler&ati)eL )erbs9 B' chan&in& the sub-ect of the sentence in this +a'4 the acti)e transiti)e )erb becomes intransiti)e2 The dog opened the door. 4N acti)e5 The door was opened b$ the dog. 3S passi)e5 The door o ened. 3er&ati)e B as if the door opened b' itself5 C 8ere are more e1amples of er&ati)e )erbs2 he whistle blew. hat 8umper does u at the nec&. he car crashed into a post. he soup thic!ened.

,ther )erbs that +e can use in this +a' describe mo)ement of some 0ind2 Transiti*e He reversed the car into the garage. he pilot landed the plane on onl$ one engine. He %oved his chair closer to hers. C ,ther e1amples include2 turn sto fill sha!e s in sail ti shift bounce
C!!<$n0

Non2(assi*e intransiti*e

MEANINGS OF T8ESE VERBS

D%s# $b$n0 #,an0%

<ost )erbs that +e can use in this +a' describe chan&e of some 0ind2 Transiti*e his boo& will change $our li!e. he sun had dried their clothes b$ the time the$ got home. #he bro!e her pencil because she was pressing too hard. Non2(assi*e intransiti*e

*nother &roup of )erbs that +e can use in this +a' relate to coo0in&2 Transiti*e Non2(assi*e intransiti*e :issolve the mixture in a little water. ,i%%er the stoc& !or an hour. C ,ther e1amples include2 ba!e boil coo! fr" %elt toast thic!en burn heat u down war% brown free;e thaw
' OT8ER EDAMPLES OF ERGATIVE VERBS

cool

His li!e changed completel$ when he mo'ed to )enmar&. heir clothes had dried b$ the time the$ got home.

#he hotogra hs 'er$ well. 3S she is photo&enic5 Her 'oice records well. 3S her )oice sounds &ood on tape5 %ill this stain wash out$ 3S 7ill the stain disappear +ith +ashin&D5 Gour composition reads well. 3S 'our st'le is )er' &ood5 Ilac& 8eans are selling well. 3S man' people are bu'in& them5 his s&irt creases so easil$. 4N the s0irt becomes creased )er' ?uic0l'5

7e canLt use all )erbs describin& chan&e in this +a'9 For e1ample4 destro$ and demolish must sta' transiti)e2 D he old building de%olished. J he$ de%olished the old building. he old building was de%olished. 7hich of the follo+in& sentences are incorrectD A car reversed round the corner. he plane landed on time. hat new restaurant has %oved. a b T d e f /he li&ht has destro'ed the photo&raph9 .aise 'our hand if 'ou 0no+ the ans+er9 /he photo&raph destro'ed because of the li&ht9 /he photo&raph +as destro'ed in the fire9 /he treasure +as raised to the surface9 /he hot air balloon raised ?uic0l' into the s0'9

NOT USING T8E PASSIVE> TRANSITIVE TO INTRANSITIVE

)S t"e !ollowing (airs o! sentences& a& # or #ot" are

correct) Put a cross >?@ ne,t to e*er' sentence t"at is incorrect) Write t"e correction) ExampleF a %rop a line +hen 'ou &et there4 # 8e +as upset to disco)er he dropped from the team9 >?@ 9"ad been;was dropped5

f Interest in Latin4 for e1ample4 has999999999999999999999999999999999999up9 & *nd competition +ith other colle&es has4 it must be admitted49999999999999999999999 h But4 the curriculum has9999999999999999999999999999999 into ne+ areas 1 such as media studies9 Interest in computer studies has99999999999999999999999999999999be'ond all e1pectations9

a /he /itanic +as sun0 b' an iceber&4 # /he boat san0 +ithout trace9 1 a /his shirt dries e1tremel' ?uic0l'4 # 8er hair soon dried b' the +ind9 1 a /he hole soon filled +ith +ater9 # /he room +as filled +ith hundreds of people9 4 a /he +estern shore +ashed b' +arm currents4 # Fertile soil +ashes do+n into the )alle's9 4 a <' dress ripped +hen it cau&ht in the car door4 # 8is ne+spaper had been ripped into shreds9 4 a /he sac0ed +or0ers compensated for the loss of earnin&s4 # 8e +as compensated for his in-uries9 7 a <' chair tipped bac0+ards until it fell o)er4 # *ll the leftBo)ers +ere tipped into a bin liner9 7 a Inflation +as increased o)er the last si1 months9 # <' salar' +as increased b' -ust o)er f9 E a /he'L)e e1panded production facilities at the old factor'4 # <etal is e1panded +hen heated9 10 a /he +hite <ercedes turned into the car par04 # /he si&n had been turned to face the opposite direction9

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences c"anging t"e o#Hect

to su#Hect wit"out using t"e (assi*e) Add an' (re(ositional ("rases necessar') ExampleF /he sun has melted the chocolate9 T"e chocolate has melted in t"e sun. a /he %U dimmed the li&hts durin& the last dance4 b %arren impro)ed his performance in the 100 metres b' a tenth of a second4 T *n iceber& san0 the /itanic in 19119 d /ears filled his e'es9 e /he committee &raduall' de)eloped the plan9

;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& write a new sentence as

similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF /he first act of 'our pla' is )er' +ell +ritten4 reads he !irst act o! $our pla$ reads 'er$ well. a Initiall'4 I thin0 'ou de)elop the plot )er' con)incin&l'4 un!olds b Kou step up the tension in the third scene4 increases T But then e)er'thin& seems different4 c"ange d Kou put in melodrama instead of real drama4 donLt 'ouD re(laces e 7h' do 'ou close the first act +ith onl' a )a&ue suspicion of murder in the airD does f 7h' donLt 'ou open the second act +ith the actual 0illin&D doesnEt & *nd +h' does the third act end on such an anticlima1D do h ItLs difficult to see tic0ets bein& bou&ht for a pla' li0e this4 selling

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"ese e,tracts !rom a re(ort wit" an

a((ro(riate word !rom t"e list) ExampleF /he amount +e can spend on technical e?uipment has fortunatel' increased( grown expanded !allen contracted widened intensi!ied !olded changed dried 4increased5 a ItLs sad that the number of students considerin& a career in teachin& has99999999999999999999999999 off a lot9 b (onse?uentl'4 the teacher trainin& facult' has 9999999999999 b' about 2 f9 T *ttitudes to+ards the teachin& profession ha)e 999999999999 considerabl'9 d 8o+e)er4 in other departments options ha)e 9999999999999&reatl'9 e Ine)itabl' some departments ha)e999999999999999999999999999999999999 completel'9

73

Un*t t/o

?ocabular$
SECTION =
?erbs we commonl$ use in the passi'e
) VERBS WIT8OUT AN AGENT

he get-out clause was written into their contract.

7e use some )erbs more often in the passi)e than in the acti)e because the a&ent is either un0no+n or ob)ious4 or not important to +hat +e +ant to sa'2 ' was born in 0tal$. M$ neighbour7s been arrested5 #he was fined D+00 !or dri'ing without insurance. #toc&holm has been dubbed the ?enice o! the 1orth. A reminder will be sent b$ post. he stadium was built in +,-O.
) Add one o! t"ese (assi*e *er#s to t"e sentences #elow) 6ake an'

necessar' c"anges) be deemed be earmar&ed be ba!!led be 8ailed be strewn a /heir +or0999999999999999999999 to be of the hi&hest standard9 b /he murderer should999999999999999999999999999for life9 T /he floor had9999999999999999999999 +ith ne+spapers and old ma&aJines9 d I99999999999999 completel'999999999999999999 and had no idea +hat had happened9 e /he buildin& has for demolition9
+ AD6ECTIVE OR PASSIVEO

Some )erbs are so commonl' used in the passi)e4 +ithout mentionin& an a&ent4 that the' +or0 in a similar +a' to -ed ad-ecti)es 3see ,)er)ie+4 7atch outN52 ; heard the news and was horrified. uscan tru!!les are particularl$ ri;ed !or their pungent aroma. 07m gutted5 3slan& ` ILm )er' upset5
' PREPOSITIONS

Some common passi)e )erbs collocate +ith particular prepositions9 8ere are some e1amples2 he threat was couched in the 'aguest possible terms. %e've been conditioned into accepting ? as essential. he athlete was acclai%ed as a national hero. he old man has been indicted as a war criminal. I don7t thin& an$ o! these remar&s could be construed as positi'e. I've been swa% ed with reAuests to do concerts all o'er Europe.
+ Add a suita#le (re(osition to t"ese sentences)

a /he factor' is scheduled999999999999999999999999999999 demolition ne1t 'ear9 b /he little bo' +as e)entuall' reunited9999999999999999999999999999999999999his parents9 T /hese three chapters could be subsumed9999999999999999999999999999999999999999 a ne+ headin&4 d IL)e been shortlisted999999999999999999999999999the Noble PriJe for LiteratureN

NO PREPOSITION

Some common passi)e )erbs4 e9&9 be called( be named( be deemed( be dubbed( are not commonl' follo+ed b' a preposition2 All his e!!orts were dee%ed a complete waste o! public resources. I've been called man$ things in m$ li!e but ne'er 7inspired7.

P8RASAL VERBS

7e also commonl' use particular phrasal )erbs in the passi)e2 his coat was handed down to me b$ m$ older brother. I was so caught u in m$ boo& that I !ailed to realise the time.

VERBS WE COMMONLY USE IN T8E PASSIVE

;i. eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" t"e most a((ro(riate word !rom t"e list)

;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences&

haunted touched loc&ed earmar&ed bu!!eted possessed hounded blessed doomed

write a new sentence as similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) T"is word must not #e altered in an' wa') a Since the ad)ertisement4 +eL)e had more applications than +e can deal +ith9 swam(ed b %o 'ou feel itLs +ron& that this site is &oin& to be rede)elopedD earmarked T /he <inisterLs response reall' too0 the inter)ie+er b' surprise9 a#ack d /he rain forced the protest march to be cancelled4 rained e /here is someone in the office t+ent'Bfour hours a da'9 sta!!ed f I +asnLt sure +hat to do +hen the berea)ed +oman started lau&hin&9 disconcerted & Each ne+ &eneration is told the secret recipe9 down h /he /rade (entre to+ers o)er the surroundin& buifdin&s9 dwar!ed i /he =o)ernmentLs fiscal polic' came in for sharp criticism in the press9 (illoried - Kou cannot easil' put all this information under one headin&9 su#sumed

2 M+t"h th! ,!/innin/ #0 th! !nt!n"! 5171F6 'ith + %it+,-! !n)in/ 5+7B6. 1Th! "#n)!&n!) &+n '+ +0#( "#&*-+inin/ t# th!(!*(i!1!)(!0!(!!.2I '+ "#&*-!t!-$ &! &!(i !),,$ !<*!(i!n"!) &+"hin!3Th! #-) &+n '+ *+(+-$ !)#*!(+t#( .4B#th *-+$!( '!(! *!n+-i !):+ +//(! i1!.5I41! ,!!n '+&*!))+t th! -+ t &#&!nt.6Th! &!!tin/ h+ ,!!n!0#( n!<t 8(i)+$. "h!)%-!)0,$ hi *!(0#(&+n"!.7I#+nni '+ #&!'h+t/,$ th! -+"3 #0 (! *#n !.)i "#n"!(t!)h'ith #00!( #0 h!-*.D?i ,!h+1i#%( '+ in )+n/!( #0i)#'n #n! i)! +0t!( th!,!in/ "#n t(%!) t(#3!.ESh! '+ h# *it+-i !)=0#( th(!! &#nth +0t!( th!1FTh! 0+"t#($ i t+00!)+""i)!nt.
destined handicapped dogged Uac04 heLs so unluc0'2999999999999999999999999 315 b' misfortune49999999999999999999999 325 b' fate at e)er' turn and999999999999999999999 3$5 b' memories of the past99999999999999999999999999999 3"5 in a battle +ith his famil'499999999999999999999 3 5 b' the police and se)erel'999999999999999999999999999 3#5 b' facial features strai&ht out of a horror mo)ie4 heLs9999999999999999999999999999999999999 3:5 to failure9 Uill is so different2999999999999999999999 3!5 +ith an abilit' to &et on +ith e)er'one4 9999999999 395 +ith &enius4 alread'99999999999999999999999999 3105 b' her compan' for a top -ob and99999999999999 3115 to be a success in +hate)er she does4 sheLs9999999999999999999999999999999999999 3125 of -ust about e)er' ?ualit' Uac0 lac0s9

Y ;i- eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"e !ollowing sentences wit" an a((ro(riate *er# !rom t"e list)
T"e *er#s s"ould #e used in t"e (assi*e) o'ercome deemed inundated dwar!ed dubbed shrouded scheduled ba!!led strewn shortlisted a /he e1Bchampion9999999999999999999999999b' heat e1haustion in the final and +as unable to finish the match9 b 8o+ the intelli&ence ser)ices +or099999999999999999999999999999999999 in secrec'9 T Since the film came out4 I999999999999999999999999999999 +ith re?uests for m' auto&raph9 d 8is house in the foothills99999999999999999999999999999b' the surroundin& mountains9 e /heir ne+ (% for release ne1t Uanuar'9 f *ll the doctors +e sa+9999999999999999999999999999b' the reason for her illness9 & ILm afraid 'our recent +or09999999999999999999999999999999totall' inade?uate for the tas09 h Belie)e it or not4 last month a ne+s reader999999999999999999999999999999999999999 the se1iest man on tele)ision9 2 <an' people thin0 a nineteenB'earBoldLs first no)el should9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999for last 'earLs National Literature priJe9 - 7hen the police arri)ed4 the )ictimLs clothes999999999999999999999999999999999999999 all o)er the room9 VOCABULARY

SECTION A
*hrasal 'erbs. 'erb 6 preposition
) P8RASAL VERB: OR VERB A PREPOSITIONO

his bro&en plate will ha'e to be aid for. %hat are $ou loo!ing at$
) W"ic" o! t"ese two sentences contains a ("rasal *er#I

Phrasal )erbs are )erbs +hich are al+a's follo+ed b' an ad)erb4 e9&9 cloud o'er( a preposition4 e9&9 come across sth;sb( or an ad)erb and a preposition4 e9&9 creep up on sth 0 sb. /he meanin& of a phrasal )erb is sometimes ob)ious from the meanin&s of its parts4 e.g. !all down. But the meanin& is often more idiomatic and so less ob)ious4 e9&9 put up with sb 0 sth. Phrasal )erbs can be either transiti)e or intransiti)e2 %hen $ou get to the next crossroads( turn off. %ould $ou turn off the radio( please. * preposition can sometimes follo+ a )erb +hich is not a phrasal )erb9 /he preposition is part of a prepositional phrase2 %ho li'es across the road$ Some prepositions commonl' follo+ certain )erbs because of meanin&s and collocation2

a /he marathon runners ran o)er the brid&e to+ards the finish line4 b <' friendLs cat +as run o)er b' an ambulance9
+ POSITION OF OB6ECT

7hen a phrasal )erb is transiti)e4 +e can place a noun ob-ect before or after the ad)erb2 *lease turn the radio off. *lease turn off the radio. 7hen the ob-ect is a pronoun4 it is al+a's placed before the ad)erb2 *lease turn it off. 7ith a )erb > preposition4 the preposition is placed before its ob-ect9 7e canLt put the ob-ect bet+een a )erb and a preposition2 IE*e co%e into mone$. 0 ca%e into it when m$ !ather died. @erbs > ad)erb > preposition beha)e in the same +a' as )erbs > preposition2

Gou7ll ha'e to ut u with them !or a little longer.


+ W"ic" o! t"ese sentences contains a ("rasal *er#I

Practice

a I thin0 somebod' has been &na+in& at this biscuit4 b If 'ou donLt mind4 +e need to thin0 this o)er9
' PREPOSITIONS AFTER PASSIVES

C"oose t"e (re(osition t"at #est com(letes eac" sentence)

Note that man' prepositions can follo+ passi)e )erbs9 8o+e)er4 the most common are b$ 3used to mention the a&ent54 with 3used to mention ho+ somethin& is done or +hat it is done +ith5 and inF he$7re being cared !or b" a neighbour. 0t was prepared with great patience. Man was !irst disco'ered in East A!rica. 7e use other prepositions +hen the meanin& or )erb > preposition collocation re?uires them2 Mone$ has been contributed towards the costs. $ C"oose t"e (re(osition w"ic" #est com(letes t"is sentence) *n' &ain must be balanced99999999999999999999999999999 an' potential loss9 a to+ards # to G a&ainst d for Some prepositions of mo)ement ma0e passi)e transformations difficult9 In these cases4 +e use other )erbs2 he$ all ran laughing into the room. D he room was run into. P; he room was soon filled with eo le laughing.

<' attention +as dra+n9999999999999999999999999 the picture on the far +all9 a +ith # to G for d on 2 /he stolen paintin&s +ere e)entuall' restored their ri&htful o+ner9 a for # b' G to d +ith 3 Ital' +ere 0noc0ed999999999999999999999 the 7orld (up9 a into # a+a' from G out of d for+ard to 4 /he ar&ument is centred9999999999999999999999999+hether or not to lo+er the a&e limit9 a on # to+ards G of d about 5 Emphasis is placed99999999999999999999 practical trainin&9 a o)er # +ith G b' d on 6 /he 'oun&er sons consider themsel)es to ha)e been robbed999999999999999999999999999 their ri&htful inheritance9 a b' b +ith G around d of 7 /he discussion +ill be di)ided999999999999999999999999999 three parts for the sa0e of clarit'9 a to b for G into d +ith D /he +hite *udi +as eliminated9999999999999999999999999999police en?uiries at an earl' sta&e9 a +ith b from G of d for
P8RASAL VERBSC VERB A PREPOSITION

9 * +hole host of criticisms ha)e been le)elled 999999999999the committee9 a a&ainst b to+ards T b' d for 10 /he final cost has been estimated99999999999999999999999999999999999 an'thin& bet+een four and fi)e million dollars4 a a&ainst b to T at d in

Fill each of the &aps +ith a suitable passi)e )erb in such a +a'

that the ne+ sentence is as similar in meanin& as possible to the sentence abo)e it9 a /he' mo'ed towards the piaJJa from all sides9 /he piaJJa999999999999999999999from all sides9 b /he t+o sides came to an a&reement after hours of ne&otiation9 *&reement999999999999999999999 after hours of ne&otiation9 T /he men poured concrete into the hole until it +as full9 /he hole99999999999999999999+ith concrete9 d People came into the room throu&h a sort of tunnel9 /he room999999999999999999999 throu&h a sort of tunnel9 e E)er'one got out o! the stadium as the fire spread9 /he stadium9999999999999999999999 as the fire spread9

b I donLt thin0 the' should ha)e pressure put on them to ma0e a decision9 I donLt thin0 the' should be 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T /he price is e1clusi)e of airport ta1es9 *irport ta1es 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /he +a' the mana&in& director beha)ed last ni&ht reall' shoc0ed me9 I 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e Se)eral people came up to me to con&ratulate me9 I 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f I &re+ up in a little )illa&e on the Scottish border9 I +as 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & /he letters +ill ha)e 'our name printed on them9 /he letters +ill be 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h /he couple didnLt tell the police about the theft until it +as far too late9 /he theft 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 i *n old +oman once tric0ed m' father into &i)in& her se)eral hundred pounds9 <' father +as once conned out999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 - =o)ernment &uidelines reall' do emphasise the importance of startin& education earl'9 * lot of emphasis 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Y Anderline the +ord that best fits the sentence9


1
%o 'ou thin0 he could be upon to ma0e a speech after the presentationD a pre)ailed b impelled T ur&ed d pressured 2 ILm afraid a penalt' clause has been +ritten 'our contract9 a out of b into T do+n d a+a' for 3 I +as completel'99999999999999999999 o)er b' their +arm reception9 a pushed b run T bo+led d thro+n 4 I thin0 the implications ha)e been rather ?uic0l' o)er9 a painted b remo)ed T spra'ed d &lossed 5 * number of )er' interestin& proposals ha)e been put a across b do+n T for+ard d throu&h

For each of the sentences belo+4 +rite a ne+ sentence as similar

as possible in meanin& to the ori&inal sentence4 but usin& the +ord &i)en9 a *n a+ful lot has been omitted from the final draft of the a&reement4 out b /here +ere thousands of sunbathers on the beach4 pac0ed T ,ur founder +as &i)en an honorar' doctorate in la+ b' Edinbur&h Ani)ersit'9 it conferred d <' uncle under+ent a fi)eBhour operation to remo)e the &ro+th that had been dia&nosed4 operated e <' +atch and tra)ellerLs che?ues +ere stolen +hile I +as abroad4 robbed f /he accused claimed he hit the police officer as a result of pro)ocation4 pro)o0ed & Both parties ripped the contract to pieces4 torn h <an' of us +ere shoc0ed +hen a former actor too0 the oath as President of the Anited States4 s+orn 2 /he present came as a complete surprise to me9 abac0 - /radin& acti)ities in the +arBstric0en area ha)e been reduced4 scaled

Finish each of the follo+in& sentences in such a +a' that it

is as similar as possible to the sentence before it9 a /he sports centre presents a certificate of attendance to e)er' student +hen the' lea)e9 *ll 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

E&am p a#t$#% +

I Circle a letter E: F: G or D that best fills each numbere# ga'. A 'o'ular character in the nation's to' tele"ision soa' is .................................................. 123 for something of which she was 'robably innocent. !a"ing been ........................................... 143 guilty of a series of frau#ulent acts0 she contem'lates months of incarceration. A goo# story:line0 but waitB +ithin hours the tele"ision station is being ......................................... 1(3 with calls of 'rotest. A national news'a'er soon ....................... 163 u' a cam'aign to ha"e her free#. &housan#s of &:shirts are 'rinte# with slogans .......................... 183 for her release. .ffices an# factory floors .......................................... 1*3 to the soun#s of animate# #ebate. It is e"en mentione# in Parliament. It's easy to ............. 1;3 off such i#iocies as 'a bit of fun'0 but there's surely a more serious si#e. A fair 'ro'ortion of "iewers were ob"iously......................................... 1>3 in by the story to such an e/tent that their 'erce'tion of fact an# fiction was clearly ............................................... 1?3. E"erywhere0 millions will ............. 12)3 o"er their ;:#ay &D gui#e to get a 're"iew of the week's soa's. If a character is ..................... 1223 to be 'ast his or her sell:by #ate0 an# the #ecision has been taken to.................... 1243 him or her out0 'ossibly to ha"e them ........................................... 12(3 off in s'ectacular fashion0 "iewing figures are likely to soar by u' to 48H. A life:threatening fire can be...................... 1263 u'on to a## millions to the ratings. A ma,or we##ing can fin# half of $ritain sitting ........................... 1283 to the screenB It's all "ery strange.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
II

A ,aile# A arreste# A bombe# A o'ens A #eman#ing A echo A laugh A thrown A blurre# A #eci#e#

F 'risone# F calle# F attacke# F starts F calling F ring F smile F carrie# F ham'ere# F go F resol"e# F cast F taken F construe# F stuck

G sentence# G foun# G streame# G 'uts G insisting G fill G take G in#ulge# G tam'ere# G 'ore G #eeme# G sort G #ri"en G relie# G 'aralyse#

D charge# D #isco"ere# D inun#ate# D establishes D soun#ing D #eafen D 'ut D taken D glosse# D sit D sus'ecte# D work D kille# D im'ro"e# D glue#

) 1 A flick )+ A write ) ' A ri##en

14 14

A leane# A swam'e#

+ Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the 'assage with !n% suitable wor#. After li"ing ................. 123 the threat of e/tinction for more than () years0 the national bir# of 143 grante# an official re'rie"e0 as the bal# eagle an# 1(3 remo"al 163 as the white:

the Fnite# States has .......................

twenty:eight other animal an# 'lant s'ecies ha"e been earmarke# .................................................. from America's list of en#angere# s'ecies. &he bal# eagle0 also ................................................ hea#e# sea eagle0 took 'ri#e of 'lace at the to' of a list of s'ecies likely to............................... 183 taken off the en#angere# register in the coming years. &he 'ro'ose# '#elistings' are ......... 1*3 'romote# ..................... 1;3 the FS interior secretary to counter a growing feeling among Ie'ublicans that en#angere#:s'ecies laws #o not work. Charges of ineffecti"eness ha"e been ........................

1>3 against these laws before0 but more recently it has 12)3 worse by

......... 1?3 been suggeste# that the situation may actually ha"e been ................................................... them. &he reco"ery of the bal# eagle follows thirty:one years on the critical list. Its numbers ha# been ..................... 1223 to fewer than fi"e hun#re# ..........................

1243 the use of

'estici#es that reacte# a#"ersely ............................. nesting 'airs is now estimate# .............................

12(3 its re'ro#ucti"e system. &he number of 1263 fi"e thousan#. &he interior secretary claims

78

EDAM PRACTICE +

that the new list was a "in#ication of the legislation un#er which the eagle0 a national symbol ................................... 1283 originally from the In#ians0 an# more than a thousan# other s'ecies .................. coinci#e ............... 12*3 'rotecte#. 1A s'okes'erson 12>3 of the #enie# that it was sim'ly a 'ublicity stunt time# to 12;3 the swearing ................. 'resi#ent for his secon# term.3 Fntil now0 few s'ecies ha"e ................. +hen they................. ha# become e/tinct. 12?3 been remo"e# from the list. 14)30 it was usually because they

( +e'll ha"e to make u' our min#s by the en# of the week0 won't we9 b% 0 It's ,ust 'ossible the hotel may nee# more staff in the summer0 ul%" , Surely nobo#y likes it when 'eo'le make fun of them in 'ublic0 b%$n0 $ %e"er forget that the customer is always right0 b! n% 7 &his school:lea"er's 5ualifications are not a#e5uate for such a #eman#ing ,ob0 are they9 su(($#$%ntly

Q<R<================

' Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible in meaning to the sentence abo"e it. a Ao not switch off unless the screen shows 'Iea#y for Shut#own'. &his machine is only ........................................................................ b It's o"er a year since anyone saw +illiam. +illiam .............................................................................................. P It's too early to sen# anything off to sharehol#ers. %othing ............................................................................................. " &he calculation woul# ha"e baffle# me com'letely if it ha# not been for your hel'. I ........................................................................................................ % +e want ,ustice an# we nee# to see it carrie# out. lust c-e must not ............................................................................... ( I'# ne"er let anyone use a 'hotogra'h of my chil#ren in an a#"ertisement. I'# ne"er ha"e .................................................................................. 0 &he #ri"er was fine# es'ecially hea"ily because of his se"eral 're"ious con"ictions. !a"ing been ..................................................................................... , &he manageress often ma#e us stay behin# after closing time to #o e/tra work. +e .................................................................................................... $ &he in"estigators think a fault in the fuel lines cause# the crash. A fault ............................................................................................... 7 &hey'"e ha# to fa/ the insurance com'any three times for a #ecision. &he insurance com'any ..................................................................

Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.

a &he origins of the tribe................................... in mystery. b E"eryone ....................... aback by the 'ublic reaction to the news about the Presi#ent0 P It's si/ months since the tests0 an# she still .............. the all:clear by her consultant. " Mr $ennett's office has ................................ 'the torture chamber' by his staff0 % In my family0 a lot of furniture ..................................... #own from generation to generation0 ( Look : it's all o"er the 'a'ers. ou shoul# ne"er .............. be 'hotogra'he# in such a com'romising situation.

For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as similar as

'ossible in meaning to the original sentence0 but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must not be altere# in any way. a &he accuse# became "ery emotional0 !.% #!m% b %aturally0 they will #e#uct 'oints if you arri"e late. p%nal$s%" P &he mo#el's clothes lay all o"er the floor0 st %*n " .ur new Airector wants you to call her 'Ma#am'0 a"" %ss%" % I can't say I en,oy it when 'eo'le tear my writing to 'ieces in front of me. ,a.$n0

5 n*t

t+(e

Modal 'erbs +
Entry test
S Fill each of the ga's in these sentences with an a''ro'riate wor# or
'hrase.
EXAMPLE-

if you're feeling ill9 ' Fill each of the ga's in these sentences with an a''ro'riate wor# or 'hrase.
EXAMPLE-

I think we had better lea'e soon as it's getting late.

It's highly unlikely that weTll get there much before

a Please0 you really............................. about clearing u' afterwar#s- I can #o it when you'"e gone. b ou will really.......................... a mo"e on if you're going to finish 'ainting that room to#ay. P In my o'inion0 you .............................. as har# on him as you were. " ou can't go on like this : you sim'ly............................................ a holi#ay sometime. % ou .................... gone to so much trouble ,ust for me. ( ou .................... to come an# see me off0 but I'm gla# you #i#. 0 All "isitors to this site are.................................... the rece'tion #esk on arri"al.

lunchtime. a +e .................... in touch until later this week regar#ing your estimate0 b Ao you think we ............................. allowe# to use calculators in the e/am9 P I'"e hear# there's a 'ossibility that the match .............. calle# off. " I #on't think anyone in their right......................................... concei"ably #oubt that he's guilty0 % =ohn 'hone# the bo/ office an# they say you .............. any trouble getting a ticket at the #oor. ( Presumably you ........................... wanting to go out tonight

FOR MODAL VERBS PREDICTING T8E FUTURE: SEE SECTION )?

Fill each of the ga's in these sentences with an a''ro'riate wor# or 'hrase.
EXAMPLE -

I su''ose you could ha'e a 'oint when you say wages are

low. ou ................. well think it's 'ossible0 but I #oubt it. ou won't...................... of me before but I use# to li"e ne/t #oor to your sister. ou're a bit o"erweightG you ................................ #oing more regular e/ercise. &hat................... Dangelis o"er there : hasn't he gone away for the week9 &hat's absur#G they really............................... taken your motorbike by mistake0 surely9 &hey got here so fast0 they................................. run all the way. I'"e been looking e"erywhere for you- you ......................................... me you weren't going to be hereB

FOR MODAL VERBS USED FOR TAL9ING ABOUT TRUE: UNTRUE: POSSIBLE> PRESENT AND PAST: SEE SECTION +? FOR MODAL VERBS USED TO EDPRESS NECESSITY: DUTY AND ADVICE: SEE SECTION '?

77

MOAAL VERBS 1

OVERVIEW
3For an alphabetical list of modals +ith their meanin&s4 see pa&es #"B #:95
) T8E BASICS

/he ten modal au1iliaries are2 can ma$ must will should could might ought to shall would <odals come before the infiniti)e form of a )erb +ithout to 3e1cept ought to52 ; ma$ meet her tomorrow( 3see 7atch outN opposite5 <odals ne)er chan&e form9 /he' do not ha)e -ed( -s( or -ing endin&s2 Maria ma$ 8oin us. <odals ne)er use do +hen formin& ?uestions or ne&ati)es9 /o form ne&ati)es +e use not after the modal and before the )erb2 Will $ou come> Gou mustn7t worr$ so much. 7e can use modals +ith the (ontinuous form of a )erb2 #he should be arri'ing soon. 7e can use modals +ith the passi)e form of a )erb2 he inter'iew can be arranged !or another da$. <odals are used in short ans+ers and ?uestion ta&s2 Gou will appl$ !or the 8ob( won7t $ou> %ell( 0 might. <odals usuall' refer to e)ents in the present or future2 ; can come immediatel$( i! $ou li&e. 3S present5 ; ma$ ring $ou later. 3S future5 8o+e)er4 some modals refer to the past2 ; could read be!ore 0 went to school. ,ther modals need the addition of ha'e to ma0e a modal Perfect2 ; should ha'e realised earlier. Sometimes itLs necessar' to choose another )erb2 ; was able to !inish be!ore 0 went out. %e managed to !ind the right address. 7e use other )erbs +ith similar meanin&s to modals9 /hese )erbs al+a's use to9 /he' include be able to( ha'e to( used to( are 0 is 0 was to( be allowed to( be supposed to( manage toF 07m supposed to ha'e let them &now m$ decision b$ toda$. %ill we be allowed to bring our own !ood> 3For 0e' difficulties +ith meanin&4 see the 7atch outN4 Anit "4 p99#$95 /ught to al+a's uses to9 ,ther modals ne)er use to2 D Gou oughtn7t spea& to $our mother li&e that. Gou must to go and see that !ilm. / Gou oughtn7t to spea& to $our mother li&e that. Gou must go and see that !ilm. )are and need sometimes act li0e modals +ithout to2 ; dare sa$. 0 ne'er need see her again. <ore often4 the' are ordinar' )erbs +ith to2 He dared me to 8ump o'er the edge. )o $ou need to &now now> 3For more on dare and need( see Anit 1 4 Section 29 5

+ MAIN USES OF MODALS )

8ere is a list of uses dealt +ith in this Anit +ith e1amples9 For other uses4 see Anit "4 ,)er)ie+9
P %"$#t$n0 See Section 1

; shall be in *iraeus next wee&. A li'e concert in Athens would be extremel$ popular. Gou won7t li&e this !oodF it7s 'er$ spic$. he$ ought to 0 should win the next game easil$.
T u%: unt u%: p!ss$bl% See Section 2

he !are ma$ not be cheaper on #unda$s but it7s worth chec&ing. 07m a!raid $ou ma$ ha'e bro&en $our wrist. %ell actuall$( $ou could be right. He ought to ha'e got home b$ now. Gou7ll all &now what 07m tal&ing about( 07m sure. #he won7t ha'e arri'ed $et.
D%"u#t$!n See Section 2

ft must be rightF there7s no other explanation.


N%#%ss$ty See Section $

hat can7t be MonicaF she7s in #pain. Gou couldn7t ha'e seen her - she le!t three da$s ago.

Gou must lea'e immediatel$. %e mustn7t be late. Gou needn7t pa$ me now. 0 didn7t need to ta&e so much mone$. 0 ha'e to get there!or eight o7cloc&.
Duty an" a".$#% See Section $

%hat shall 0 do> #hould 0 tell her she7s made a mista&e> Gou should alwa$s pa$ $our bills on time. Gou reall$ shouldn7t ha'e done that. /ught 0 to tell him 0 can7t come>

-4

GRAMMAR

C jk

SECTION I
*redicting
1
SAYING WE ARE SURE SOMET8ING WILL 8APPEN

Gou shouldn't have trouble with tra!!ic. 7e use should and ought to to predict fa)ourable e)ents2 D #he should !ail her dri'ing test. he weather should be horrible tomorrow. / #he'll probabl$ !ail her dri'ing test. #he should ' ought to do well in her dri'ing test. he weather will be horrible tomorrow. 0t should be !ine tomorrow.

7e can use will and shall to tal0 about +hat +ill happen9 3For other +a's of tal0in& about the future4 see Anit 14 Section "52 Exports will continue to rise o'er the next !ew months. 0 shall he sta$ing in o&$o !or the next three da$s. %e shan't sta$ longF we ha'e to be at Mar$7s b$ six. 7e can emphasise our certaint' b' addin& reall$( 4most5 certainl$ 0 de!initel$( almost certainl$( etc2 Gou definitel" won't li&e the exhibition. Gou'll certainl" li&e their new C). 7e can e1press doubt b' addin& presumabl$( 4most5 probabl$( etc2 Gou robabl" won't li&e their new single. Gou'll resu%abl" be wanting some more.
D$((% %n#%s b%t*%%n shall an" will

7hich of the abo)e points do these sentences illustrateD a <' mother +ill most certainl' ob-ect to m' &oin& a+a' o)er (hristmas4 b 7e should ?ualif' for the 7orld (up easil' ne1t time9 T I suppose it is -ust concei)able that +e could &et 0noc0ed out on penalties a&ain4 d Soula +ould be furious if she found out +hat 'ou +ere doin&9 e 7ill +e &et there before ni&htfall4 do 'ou thin0D

7e use shall +ith 0 or we. ItLs oldBfashioned +ith other persons2 0 shan't ha'e $our T-ra$ results until next wee&. Gou shall go to her part$( 0 promise. 7hen predictin& somethin&4 or e1pressin& determination 3see Anit "4 Section 154 there is little difference in meanin& bet+een shall and willF %e shan't ' won't arri'e much be!ore midnight( 07m a!raid. 3S predictin&5 0 shall ' will succeed( 8ust $ou wait and see. 3S determination5 But +e use onl' will( not shall( to as0 for predictions2 Will 0 get grade A( do $ou thin&> 7e commonl' use shall to ma0e polite offers 3see Anit "4 Section 19254 or to as0 ad)ice2 ,hall 0 turn the lights on> ,hall 0 wear the green or the blue tie>

SAYING IT IS POSSIBLE SOMET8ING WILL 8APPEN

7e use ma$( might and could to sa' that somethin& is possible 3See 7atch outN in Section 2 for ma$ not( might not and could not5F 0t %a" ' %ight ' could rain tomorrow. 8o+e)er4 +e commonl' use will rather than ma$ 0 might 0 could in ?uestions2 Will it rain tomorrow( do $ou thin&> 7e can also use would in conditional sentences to predict +hat +ould happen if somethin& else happened4 or to tal0 about thin&s that are )er' unli0el' to happen2 He would get 'er$ anno$ed i! $ou rang him now. A sunn$ holida$ in %ales> 1ow( that would be a miracleB 8o+e)er4 +e can use will if other +ords in the sentence sho+ that somethin& is unli0el'2 I doubt if we'll ever again experience a winter Auite as cold as this one. 7e can emphasise the de&ree of probabilit' b' addin& other +ords2 #he could conceivabl" come along a bit later. 3S itLs -ust possible5 #he %a" ' %ight ver" well come along a bit later. 3S itLs ?uite li0el'5 /he situation4 stress and intonation4 and other +ords +e use in the statement can affect the de&ree of probabilit' more than the modal itself2 ; suppose she %ight come( but 0 doubt it. 3S itLs doubtful5 Actuall$( 0 thin& she %ight ver" well come. 3S hi&h probabilit'5
' IN MY OPINION???

7e can use should and ought to to ma0e sub-ecti)e predictions9 3See also Section 2925 In the ne&ati)e4 +e a)oid oughtn7t to( and prefer shouldn7tF he$ ought to ' should win the next round easil$.

70

SECTION <
rue( untrue( possibleF present and past
Tick ( /) t"e sentences t"at are acce(ta#le) Correct t"e
)

CREAI CTING
Sometimes +e speculate about +hat happened +ithout 0no+in& e1actl' +hat did happen2 Gou %a" ' %ight ' could have done 8ust enough to scrape through.

R
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

ot"ers) ExampleF Kou mi&ht as +ell come +ith us if 'ouL)e nothin& better to do9 / I +onLt be in the countr' +hen 'ou t+o are t'in& the 0not9 8o+ much lon&er do 'ou thin0 that noise +ill be &oin& onD I donLt thin0 I shall be able to -oin 'ou until !9$09 Shall I loo0 ,M if I +ear thisD Kou shall ha)e to put t+o firstBclass stamps on this en)elope9 I thin0 a +ee0end a+a' +ould be a &ood idea9 Presumabl' +e +ould be lau&hed at if +e tried it in public9 If he maintains his current rate of pro&ress4 he should sail throu&h the e1am9 1 Loo0in& li0e that4 he should compare unfa)ourabl' +ith the other candidates9 10 *ccordin& to statistics4 smo0ers shouldnLt li)e as lon& as nonB smo0ers9

T R U E B U N T R U E

IN MY OPINION???

7e use should and ought to to &i)e our sub-ecti)e opinion about +hether +e thin0 somethin& is possible or true 3see Section 19$ for should 0 ought to for predictions52 07'e !ixed $our 'ideo and it should' ought to be wor&ing all right now. 8o+e)er4 +e use should and ought to more commonl' to &i)e our opinion about +hether somethin& is ri&ht or not 3see Section $9252 hat table shouldn't be here. 0t should be o'er there. here ought to be another pac&et o! sugar in that cupboard.

3
W"ic" o! t"e (ro!essions said w"atI Write t"e num#er o! t"e (ro!ession ne,t to t"e letter !or t"e statement) T"en& write w"at 'ou t"ink t"e EitE re!ers to w"ere itEs underlined) ExampleF i It ma' be necessar' to ta0e it a+a' to put more memor' in9 Kou +rite2 i 0 3computer5 30 computer en&ineer5 1 la+'er 2 barman $ hotel receptionist " &ardener sailor # dentist : teacher ! pilot a It ma' ha)e to come out6 +e mi&ht +ell not be able to sa)e it9 b It should onl' be about ten minutes6 then +e e1pect the allBclear for ta0eBoff9 T 7ith an' luc0 +eLll &et a centimetre or t+o o)er the +ee0end9 7e could certainl' do +ith it9 d @er' li&ht no+4 'es4 but it mi&ht -ust &et up later on4 in +hich case999 e 7e ma' be able to &et it o)erturned on appeal4 f It certainl' +onLt be read' until the maid has been in9 & Is that 04 or +ill 'ou be +antin& anotherD h It +ill certainl' impro)e if 'ou tr' harder to imitate the patterns that nati)e spea0ers use9 3i It ma' be necessar' to ta0e it a+a' to put more memor' in95

% s % n t

DEDUCTION

-nderline t"e o(tion t"at can #est com(lete eac" o! t"e

!ollowing sentences) Sometimes onl' one& sometimes #ot"& are (ossi#le) ExampleF /he' won7t most certainl$ 0 most certainl$ won7t appro)e of the scheme9 a He7ll no doubt be 0 He should be late for the meetin&4 # #he shall 0 #he will &o on to &reater thin&s4 I ha)e no doubt9 T /he +hole team ma$ as well 0 might as well &i)e up and &o bac0 to carpentr'4 d %ill 0 #hall I in an' +a' be e1ploited in this ne+ positionD e I rec0on the' ought to 0 might -ust do+n tools and &o home9 f It shall 0 will be touch and &o +hether she sur)i)es4 & /he outcome might 0 can rest on this last handful of )otes9 h I ha)e to sa' that I won7t de!initel$ 0 de!initel$ won7t attend the meetin&9

In addition to predictin&4 +e use ma$( might( could and will to sa' +hether +e thin0 somethin& is true or li0el' in the present2 Gou %a" ' %ight ' could ver" well be right. 4 N itLs li0el' no+5 Gou %a" ' %ight ' could conceivabl" ' ossibl" ha'e a point there. 3S itLs not impossible5 hat'll be m$ mother on the phone. 3S ILm ?uite sure5 1i&os'll be arri'ing in Irighton about now( 0 should thin&. 3S itLs probable5 #urel$ he won't be there alread$> 3S I donLt belie)e he is5
Past

7hen +e &i)e &ood reasons for thin0in& somethin& is true or untrue4 +e use must and canLt as opposites2 He goes to #cotland e'er$ $ear !or his holida$s. He %ust li&e it. 3S ILm sure he does5 John can't possibl$ be se'ent$B He doesn7t loo& a da$ o'er !i!t$. 3S ILm sure it isnLt true5 7hen +e &i)e reasons for ma0in& lo&ical assumptions about the past4 +e use must ha'e and can7t ha'eF Gou loo& 'er$ relaxed - it %ust have been a good holida$. %here7s )ominic> He can't have le!t alread$( can he> 7e can also use couldn7t and couldn7t ha'eF he$ couldn't be as&ing !or me - no one &nows 0 li'e here. 4 N disbelief5 He couldn't have ta&en it b$ mista&e( could he> 3S doubt5

;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& write a new sentence as

similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF ItLs pointless &oin& home no+2 it +ould be simpler to sta' the ni&ht4 well Kou mig"t as well sta' t"e nig"t) a 8eLs unli0el' to ha)e the common sense to as0 for directions4 su((ose b I +ouldnLt ha)e thou&ht thereLs much chance of the pac0a&e bein& here before Frida'4 dou#t T I donLt thin0 +e could e1pect that much of him9 asking d I suppose itLs possible that she +ill brea0 the +orld record at the ne1t meetin&4 concei*a#l' e I canLt see them findin& the tas0 insurmountable4 oug"t f I thin0 itLs reall' ?uite li0el' that attitudes to+ards sunbathin& +ill ha)e to chan&e soon4 well & <i&ht it be an idea if +e pa' the deposit for 'ouD like h I donLt foresee there bein& an' ma-or problems4 t"ink

7e use could ha'e( will ha'e( ma$ ha'e and might ha'e to speculate about the possibilit' of somethin& happenin& in the past 3see Anit "4 Section 2 for modals in the past52 he$ %a" have !inished alread$( !or all 0 &now. he doctor won't have had a chance to loo& at $our T-ra$ $et. Sometimes +e speculate about somethin& that didnLt happen but +e feel there +as potential for it to happen2 hat wasn7t a good idea $ou %ight have hurt him. C 7e use ma$ not 0 might not to e1press possibilit' 3see also Section "59 7e use could not to tal0 about deduction 3see $ belo+5 and abilit' 3see Anit "4 Section 252 ' %ight'%a" not ha'e her new phone number. let me chec&. 4 N possibilit'5

EDPRESSING ANNOYANCE

7e can use might ha'e and could ha'e to e1press anno'ance about somethin& that happened2 He could'%ight at least have o!!ered to pa$B 3S but he didnLt5

He couldn't be there alread$ it7s o'er thirt$ miles awa$. 3S deduction5 7How !ar is to :ondon !rom here>7 70 couldn't sa$.7 3S abilit'5

7hich

one

of

these

sentences does not illustrate one of the points abo)eD a 8eLll probabl' be &ettin& off the plane no+9 b /he' must be en-o'in& themsel)es6 -ust listen4 T Kou could ha)e done the car a lot of dama&e4 d 8e ma' +ell come alon& later4 e I thin0 that soc0et should +or0 no+9

couldnLt come9

TRUE, UNTRUE, COSSIBLE9 CRESENT ANA CAST

/ic0 ( /) the pairs of sentences that e1press appro1imatel' the

same idea9 Put a cross >?@ b' those +here there is a clear difference in meanin&9 ExamplesF 1 I ma' +ell ha)e been a little bit late in arri)in&9 ItLs ?uite possible I +as a little bit late9 / l 7e ma' not &et there in time for the speeches9 7e couldnLt &et there in time for the speeches9 ? a /his could be the chance +eL)e all been +aitin& for9 /his mi&ht be the chance +eL)e all been +aitin& for9 b /his ma' )er' +ell be the last chance for peace9 /his mi&ht )er' +ell be the last chance for peace4 T /hatLs probabl' the postman droppin& in the +ee0l' free ne+spaper9 /hatLll be the postman droppin& in the +ee0l' free ne+spaper4 d /he' +onLt ha)e read our fa1 'et9 I doubt if the'L)e read our fa1 'et9 e /he e1am results should be here b' no+9 /he e1am results should be here an' da' no+9 f /he' must ha)e ta0en a short cut to &et here9 /he' had to ta0e a short cut to &et here4 & Kou could ha)e done 'ourself a nast' in-ur'9 Kou mi&ht ha)e done 'ourself a nast' in-ur'4 h /he +ashin& machine shouldnLt be ma0in& such a stran&e noise9 /he +ashin& machine couldnLt be ma0in& such a stran&e noise9

/ic0 3H5 the modal )erbs that complete each of the sentences in

this passa&e9 ,ne4 t+o or all of them ma' be possible9 /here shouldn7t;might not;ought nor 315 be a comma before the L+hoL in this sentence4 Mostas9 ,h 'es4 'ou ma$ well;might well;will well 325 sa' that +ritin& En&lish is not important for 'ou9 But 'ou could;ma$; might 3$5 ha)e to +rite a dissertation in En&lish one da'9 Punctuation and spellin& should; could; ma$ 4 A 5 be ?uite a serious problem for 'ou9 But it can;should;could 3 5 al+a's be possible for 'ou to &et fullBstops in the ri&ht place9 *nd it can7t;7shouldn7t;7mustn7t 3#5 be that difficult to spell most short +ords more or less correctl'9 Kou ma$;must;might 3:5 not ha)e realised ho+ fle1ible En&lish is9 For e1ample4 'ou ma$;should;can 3!5 find 6 Lor&anisationL spelt +ith anLsL or a LJL9 It ma0es life easier4 doesnLt itD

(ombine each ?uestion and ans+er usin& for to ma0e one

sentence9 ExamplesF L7as it a serious crimeDL L7ell4 the police ha)e put ?uite a lot of men on the case9L 0 t must ha'e been Auite a serious crime !or the police to ha'e put so man' men on the case. L%oes he +or0 man' hoursDL LI donLt 0no+4 but I do 0no+ his +a&es are )er' lo+L 8e can7t wor& 'er$ man$ hours !or his wages to be so low. a L7as )er' much stolenDL L7ell4 the ban0Ls offerin& a re+ard of W 040009L b L7as it an e1citin& matchDL L7ell4 half the spectators left at halfBtime9L T LIs it a &ood sho+DL L7ell4 people ha)e tra)elled an a+full' lon& +a' to see it9L d LIs it a bi& schoolDL L7ell4 there are o)er si1t' teachers +or0in& there9L e L8as somethin& serious &one +ron&DL L7ell4 the boss is rantin& and ra)in& li0e a madman9L f L7as it a ma-or operationDL L7ell4 the' let her out of hospital the follo+in& da'L

Fill each of the blan0s +ith a suitable +ord or phrase9

ExampleF I thin0 'ou ma' 'er$ +ell ha)e put 'our fin&er on the problem there9 a ,ur nei&hbours must999999999999999999999999999999 fortune on that ne+ &arden furniture of theirs9 b It couldnLt99999999999999999999999'ou spo0e to6 I +asnLt e)en in the countr' at the time4 T ItLs +ell past dinnerBtime6 surel' the conference should999999999999999999b' no+9 d She canLt9999999999999999999999)er' +ell to ha)e left the part' so earl'9 e I mi&ht9999999999999999999999li0e this +ould happen9 f Kou could999999999999999999999990no+ beforehand that 'ou

SECTION <
1ecessit$( dut$ and ad'ice
1
NECESSITY

OT8ER VERBS FOR EDPRESSING NECESSITY AND ADVICE

7e use must and mustn7t +hen +e decide for oursel)es +hatLs necessar'2 Gou %ustn't &eep as&ing !or m$ help all the time. 3S I donLt +ant 'ou to5 U reall$ %ust be goingF it7s getting late. 3S I thin0 I must5 7e can also use must and mustn7t for impersonal necessit'2 he lead %ust be connected properl$ or it won7t wor&. /he stren&th of necessit' )aries +ith the situation2 All Auestions %ust be answered. 3S order5 Gou %ust see the !ilm B itLs reall$ good. 3S ad)ice5 %e %ust get together sometime and tal& this o'er. 3S su&&estion5
have to

,ther )erbs e1press necessit' or ad)ice2 Hard hats are to be worn on this site. 3S necessit'5 Oa &uests will 'acate their room be!ore ++ o7cloc&. 3S necessit'5 0 wouldn't do that i! 0 were $ou. 3S ad)ice5 Gou'd better phone home - the$ ha'e news o! $our sister. 3S ad)ice5 7e use had better for ad)ice in a particular situation9 #hould and ought to can be more &eneral2 < Emplo$ees had better gi'e three months7 notice. / Emplo$ees should gi'e three months7 notice. Gou'd better gi'e in $our notice i! $ou plan to lea'e. For other +a's of e1pressin& necessit'4 see Section 9

*lthou&h not a modal )erb4 +e often use ha'e to and ha'e got to 3more informal5 before )erbs to tal0 about necessit'9 Ha'e to usuall' su&&ests that someone else decides +hatLs necessar'2 he notice sa$s we have to report to the manager7s o!!ice. 0've got to go or m$ boss will wonder where 0 am. Because ha'e to isnLt a modal4 it has a past form4 -ing form4 infiniti)e form4 etc9 /his means +e can use it in more situations than mustF %e had to brea& in because we7d !orgotten our &e$. he$'ll have to hurr$ i! the$7re not going to be late. 0 don7t li&e having to wear a suit and tie. He pretended to have to lea'e earl$.

7hich one of these sentences does not contain the idea of necessit'4 dut' or ad)iceD a KouLd better ha)e a &ood e1cuse or 'ouLre in trouble9 b /his film should be reall' &ood2 itLs had &reat re)ie+s9 T Kou must tr' harder than that if 'ouLre &oin& to ma0e the team4 d Kou should ha)e &ot up earlier B then 'ou +ouldnLt be late4 e 7e ma' ha)e to &i)e in to their demands9

DUTY AND ADVICE

7e use should and ought to to e1press our opinion about +hatLs ri&ht and +ron&2 )ri'ers ought to be more considerate to other road users. 3S itLs their dut'5 Gou should ta&e this responsibilit$ 'er$ seriousl$. 3S itLs 'our dut'5 Gou reall$ shouldn't be li!ting hea'$ !urniture at $our age. 3S stron& ad)ice H criticism5 /o tal0 about the past4 +e use should ha'e and ought to ha'e. /he' su&&est +hat happened in the past +as +ron& or unfortunate2 he Go'ernment ought to have listened. 3S the' didnLt5 Gou shouldn't have wor&ed so hard. 4 N 'ou did5 7e use shall as +ell as should and ought to to as0 for ad)ice2 W"at shall 0 do> )o $ou thin& 0 should tell her>

NOT NECESSARY

/o sa' there is no obli&ation to do somethin& +e use needn7t( don7t need to or don7t ha'e to. In man' instances there is little or no chan&e in meanin&4 but2 7e &enerall' use needn7t +hen the authorit' comes from the spea0er2 Gou needn't come this e'ening i! $ou don7t want to. 7e &enerall' use don7t need to and don7t ha'e to +hen the authorit' doesnLt come from the spea0er2 Gou don't need to ' don't have to carr$ an identit$ card. /o tal0 about the past4 +e use needn7t ha'e or didn7t need to 0 didn7t ha'e to. 1eedn7t ha'e means L'ou did4 but it +asnLt necessar'L2 Gou needn't have coo&ed so much !ood. 7ith didn7t need to 0 didn7t ha'e to onl' the conte1t tells us +hether it actuall' happened2 0 didn't need to go shopping( but 0 did( 8ust !or !un. 0 didn't have to do an$ extra shopping( so 0 didn7t.

NECESSITY: DUTY AND ADVICE

Y Tick 9:1 t"e sentences #elow w"ic" e,(ress necessit'& dut' or


ad*ice) ExampleF It must be hard +or0 on an oil ri&4 mustnLt itD ? I must be on m' +a' if 'ou donLt mind9 H a /he filler must be hard before 'ou can paint o)er it9 # Kou must be -o0in&9 T It must ha)e been offside because the &oal +as disallo+ed9 d 8a)in& to &et up so earl' e)er' mornin& is reall' &ettin& me do+n4 e * bi0e is sometimes +orth ha)in& to beat traffic -ams in to+ns4 f %o 'ou thin0 I ou&ht to &i)e %ad a rin&D & Should 'ou ha)e an' problems +ith 'our computer4 &i)e me a call4 h %octors should respect their patientsL +ishes4 i *re 'ou sa'in& +e neednLt ha)e &one to all this trouble an'+a'D - 8eLd better not be late a&ainN

- I find I lon&er and lon&er on m' home+or0 at the moment -ust to 0eep up9

Tick 9:1 eac" o! t"e sentences in w"ic" didn't need to can

#e re(laced wit" needn't have 2 0ed. a ItLs s+eet of 'ou4 but 'ou reall'

-U c)Io didnLt need to bu' me flo+ers9 123 VE=$>?@ b


! UJ
0

ItLs a &ood -ob T It +as

+e didnLt 4cf5161 75l 8 9 : ] need to be here earlier9 3L 3LLISIDDIII97B stran&e that +e )*))+))%)),didnLt need to sho+ 4!L LL! LLoL

B7

Le

our passports9

i9

;i- eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" %ust or a !orm o! have to !ollowed

d Kou didnLt need to /, come and pic0 me 3L H UIIm]B up2 I could ha)e &ot a ta1i9 LU r cH e /here +as a sofa in the other room2 'ou didnLt need to sleep on the floor4 f I didnLt need to use cash6 I had m' credit card +ith me after all9

H(HHI I -TL#L ;W

#' a suita#le *er#) ExampleF I reall' disli0e ha'ing to go shoppin& at the +ee0end9 a Uust recentl' I9999999999999999999999 do+n on m' spendin&9 b Kou reall'99999999999999999999 me to 'our +ife9 T 7e99999999999999999throu&h the +indo+ because I had left m' 0e' inside9 XEm d ,ne da' i BH-EBi Bn H 8 e)er'one9999999999999999 U&(? B at the a&e of fift'4 +hether the' li0e it or not9 e /his e1ercise is so difficult one 9999999999 a &enius to do it9 f I didnLt ta0e the -ob because I

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in two di!!erent

wa's so t"at t"e' are as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore t"em) ExampleF If I +ere 'ou4 ILd ha)e the lobster9 a I thin0 'ou ou&ht to ha)e the lobster4 # Kou reall' should ha)e the lobster9

7h' e)er did 'ou &o to so much trouble +ith the refreshmentsD a Kou reall' neednLt 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 # It reall' 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 /here is to be no tal0in& +hatsoe)er durin& the e1amination9 a (andidates +ill not999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 # Silence is to 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 I reall' must be &oin& no+9 a IL)e absolutel' 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 # I reall' mustnLt 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 She should ta0e some form of identification +ith her4 shouldnLt sheD a SheLd 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 0 hours a +ee09 & (ome on4 'ou me dri)e 'ou home4 h Kou at 'our des0 at nine sharp or else part of 'our salar'9999999999999999999999 1 Kou9999999999999 for 2# +ee0s in the pre)ious 'ear to ?ualif' for unemplo'ment benefit9

5 6

# It mi&ht be 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 It ma' be possible for 'ou to &o there +ithout a )isa after all9 a It ma' not 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 # Kou mi&ht not 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 %onLt 'ou thin0 itLs time +e made our e1cuses and leftD a 8adnLt 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999D b ,u&htnLt 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999D

Un*t t+(ee

?ocabular$
SECTION
*ossibilit$( probabilit$ and certaint$
Instead of usin& modals 3see Section 254 +e can e1press ideas of possibilit'4 probabilit' and certaint' in other +a's9
) LI9ELI8OOD

ad-ecti)es and ad-ecti)al phrases2 He7s highl" unli!el" to arri'e be!ore ,. He7s bound ' certain ' sure to arri'e at some point. noun phrases2 The chances are that interest rates will !all in the near !uture. There's ever" chance ' li!elihood o! interest rates coming down. There's a strong'a distinct ossibilit" that interest rates will be reduced. ad)erbs and ad)erbial phrases2 6resu%abl", he7ll be bac&. In all robabilit", toda$. Aa"be e'en this morning - conceivabl" within the next hal! an hour. :oubtless he7ll ring !irst.
) W"ic" o! t"ese sentences suggest t"at somet"ing is li!el" to

"a((enI a SheLs hardl' li0el' to tell us +hat reall' happened4 is sheD b /hereLs an outside chance of a tornado hittin& this re&ion9 T I presume +eLll be ha)in& our +ee0l' meetin& on Frida'9 d I canLt see +h' the' shouldnLt all pass9
+ IMPROBABILITY

7e can use a number of +ords and phrases to sa' ho+ li0el' it is that somethin& +ill happen9 8ere are e1amples2 )erbs and )erbal phrases2 I bet $ou ne'er write to her. I'd sta!e %" life on his honest$. I don't doubt that he could d o the 8ob. I can't see the situation changing much in the !oreseeable !uture. I assu%e he &nows what he7s doing.

7e use a number of +ords and phrases to sa' ho+ unli0el' it is that somethin& +ill happen9 8ere are some e1amples2

)erbs and )erbal phrases2 I wouldn't bet on her coming !irst. I doubt i! we7ll meet again. 0n situations li&e that( climbers don't stand a chance o! sur'i'ing. He hasn't got a cat in hell's chance o! winning. 3S informal5 ad-ecti)es and ad-ecti)al phrases2 #he's highl" unli!el" to ha'e sur'i'ed the earthAua&e. noun phrases2 The ros ects o! them sur'i'ing are sli%. I have %" doubts. There's ver" little'no chance'li!elihood that the exchange rate will impro'e. There's a slight' sli% ossibilit" o! her coming bac&. #o es are fading ' Bears are growing as to their chances o! sur'i'al. The odds are against them coming out o! their comas.
+ W"ic" o! t"ese sentences suggest t"at somet"ing is unli!el" to

"a((enI a It seems odds on their &ettin& married before the end of the 'ear4 b /hereLs not much chance of us catchin& a bus at this time of ni&ht4 T /hereLs e)er' li0elihood of the &o)ernment doin& a ABturn9 d %onLt bet on him sta'in& until the end of the +ee09

Practice

Tick 9:1 t"e sentences in w"ic" t"e s(eakers are o(timistic

t"at t"e (roHect will go a"ead) a I ha)e little doubt that the pro-ect has &reat potential9 b I must confess to a fe+ reser)ations concernin& the ultimate success of the pro-ect4 T I ha)e m' doubts as to the +isdom of &oin& ahead +ith such a pro-ect4 d /hereLs e)er' chance that the doubts bein& e1pressed about the pro-ect +ill be unfounded4 e /he odds are a&ainst such a pro-ect &ettin& off the &round9 f ItLs odds on that the pro-ect +ill fall flat on its face4 & I do belie)e that4 contrar' to public opinion4 the pro-ect has e)er' chance of success4 h /hereLs no +a' this pro-ect is &oin& to see the li&ht of da'4 I assure 'ou9

COSSIBILITY, CROBABILITY CERTAINTY


i I +ouldnLt bet a&ainst this pro-ect bein& the best thin& to happen to us since the Euro9 - Barrin& a miracle4 this pro-ect is bound to hit the dust almost immediatel'9

ANA

ExampleF in item a2 T"e odds are against him passing. .e (ro#a#l' wonEt pass. k I donLt thin0 heLll pass9 odds probabl$ unli&el$ li&elihood doubt doubts T I doubt if +eLll e)er see him a&ain9 li&el$ surprise chances chance prospects well b ILm prett' confident of her passin&9 odds probabilit$ doubt bound prospects surprised d No one can be at all sure of the outcome9 !ar uncertaint$ unpredictable certaint$ lap o! the gods tell

Tick ( S ) w"ic" two o(tions in eac" item are (ossi#le to

com(lete t"e sentences) ExampleF I rec0on thereLs a &ood possibilit$ (! chance ( ! li&elihood ! odds the match +ill be cancelled9 a KouLll ha)e the chance ! possibilit$ ! occasion ! opportunit$ to loo0 o)er the house tomorro+4 b I ha)e m' doubts ! uncertainties ! belie!s ! reser'ations as to this applicantLs suitabilit'4 T /he chances ! odds ! possibilities ! probabilities are she +ill re-ect him9 d ILd sta&e ! o!!er ! bet ! in'est m' mort&a&e on the fact that sheLs honest4 e ,ur ne+ &ardenerLs bound ! con'inced ! hoped ! certain to ma0e a &ood -ob of cuttin& the hed&e4 f /he ne+ studentLs bound ! li&el$ ! sure ! con!ident of passin& the initial test4 & SheLs in an$ ! little ! no ! !ull doubt as to the identit' of the intruder4 h It doesnLt loo0 as whether ! though ! how ! i! the meetin&Ls &oin& to ta0e place9 1 /hereLs a distant ! remote ! !ar ! distinct possibilit' that ILll be able to help after all9 - /here +ill almost ine'itabl$ ! probabl$ ! certainl$ ! inconcei'abl$ be some teethin& troubles initiall'9

& Write !ull sentences !rom t"e (rom(t words& adding an'
necessar' words and (utting t"e *er#s into a suita#le !orm) 9All t"e sentences contain t"e word chance4s5( not alwa's e,(ressing likeli"ood)1 ExampleF I H ne)er H chance H &o H uni)ersit' 0 0 0 'our a&e9 I ne*er had the chance to go to uni*ersit' when I was uour age. a 8e H no chance H e)er H persuade H her H marr' H him9 b /he' H stand H much chance H * &rade H as H1 H become H Prime <inister4 T /here H a chance H that H m' compan' H send H Anited States H for a 'ear4 d /here H little chance H of H mana&ement H a&ree H emplo'eesL demands4 e NoBone H ha)e H a chance H 'et H predict H outcome H this dispute H certaint'4 f Is H there H chance H of m' borro+ H 'our bic'cle H half an hourD & /he chances H that H the match H cancel4 h 'ou H a chance H spea0 H the Personnel <ana&er H 'esterda'D

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word)

/his +ill no+ almost99999999999999999999 315 pro)e to ha)e been the driest *pril since the calamitous drou&ht of 192" and forecasters sa' the current spell is )er'999999999999999999999999 325 to continue +ell into ne1t +ee0 and ?uite99999999999999999999999999 3$5 be'ond9 * <et9 ,ffice spo0esman su&&ested there +as a sli&ht9999999999999999 3"5 of rain -ust after the +ee0end but admitted there is e)er'999999999999999999999 3 5 that rain headin& across the *tlantic99999999999999999999 3#5 miss Britain completel'9 If it does499999999999999999 3:5 of further rain +ithin the ne1t fortni&ht are thou&ht to be slim9 Uohn Field of the National FarmersL Anion said that man' farmers +ere clearl'9999999999999999 3!5 for the ban0ruptc' courts9 L/he past fe+ months999999999999999999 395 ha)e been eas' for an'bod'4L he commented 'esterda'9 LBut here in the north4 itLs been +ithout999999999999999999 3105 the +orst time an'one can remember9 I ha)enLt &ot the official fi&ures but losses 99999999999999 3115 run into tens of millions of pounds9 *nd thatLs99999999999999999 3125 to affect prices in the supermar0ets )er' soon9L * ban on hoseBpipes in all &ardens no+ loo0s )irtuall'99999999999999999 31$5 and the suppl' of &eneral household +ater ma' )er'9999999999999999999999 31"5 ha)e to be rationed in some areas9 /he =o)ernment +ill4 in all 99999999999999 31 54 issue an official statement sometime in the ne1t t+ent'Bfour hours9

Rewrite t"ese !our sentences si, times& eac" time

incor(orating one o! t"e words listed #elow it) 6ore t"an one sentence ma' #e (ossi#le)

VOCABULARY

SECTION =
/bligations
1
LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL OBLIGATIONS

7e can e1press moral and le&al obli&ations +ith )erbs9 Note that +e often use the passi)e2 ?isitors are not allowed ' er%itted to picnic on the grass. #mo&ing on these premises is strictl" forbidden. Chewing gum has been banned !rom the canteen area. Jose has now been barred !rom !i'e di!!erent clubs. Guests are re/uired to 'acate their rooms b$ midda$. Gou're brea!ing the law. 7e can e1press obli&ation or permission +ith ad-ecti)es2 Militar$ ser'ice is still co% ulsor" in man$ countries. Is her evidence er%issible in court> Joining the union is not obligator". 7e also use man' prepositional phrases to e1press le&al obli&ation2 0s this wit"in or outside the law$ #ome people thin& the$ are above the law. Gou7re under no obligation to sa$ an$thing i! arrested. 0t7s in "our contract.

T ItLs999999999999999999 for children to bu' ci&arettes9 d /he dri)er +as found to ha)e abo)e the99999999999999999999999999999999999999 le)el of alcohol in his blood4 e 7ere9999999999999999999 affairs more or less common centuries a&o than the' are no+4 do 'ou thin0D f /here are three99999999999999999999999999 ?uestions in the e1am9 & %o 'ou thin0 LI didnLt see him 'etL +ould be in a compositionD h Is the use of h'phens in Lt+oB'earBold childL99999999999999999999999999999999999999i

/ic0 3H5 the underlined +ords or phrases that can complete each

of the follo+in& sentences9 Sometimes one +ill be possible4 sometimes both9 a /his sort of beha)iour is not acceptable H unacceptable4 b ItLs al+a's dan&erous to ta0e on un?ualified H dis?ualified staff T /he &oal +as disallo+ed H not allo+ed because of handball9 d (ontributions to the pension scheme are nonBcompulsor' H not obli&ator'9 e Smo0in& is disallo+ed H not permitted in the school9 f /his son& has been barred H banned b' se)eral radio stations9

MORAL OBLIGATION

7e can e1press obli&ation usin& nouns2 0t's $our dut" to help them. Gou ha'e an obligation to support $our !amil$. There's no need to !eel guilt$. 7e can also e1press moral obli&ation usin& ad-ecti)es2 8e was sent o!! !or illegiti%ate use o! the elbow. here has been tal& o! an illicit liaison. heir demands were 4totall$5 unreasonable. 7e can also use )erbs2 Gou're su osed to smile at all o! $our clients. Gou're not e& ected to lea'e a tip. Gou're not obliged to pa$ to go into the galler$.

PERSONAL OBLIGATION AND FREEDOM OF C8OICE

7e use man' common phrases to e1press personal obli&ation2 It's "our job to ma&e sure the$ all get bac& sa!el$. Isn't it "our turn to coo&> It's u to "ou to tell him. a!ter all( he7s $our brother. It's all down to "ou to decide i! $ou7re going. 3S 'ou must decide5 C 7e also use a number of common phrases to su&&est +e ha)e freedom of choice2 It's u to "ou what $ou wear. Cou choose. :o as "ou wish. It's "our choice. Dobod"'s forcing "ou. Do one's telling "ou what to do. 1 7hich point abo)e B ): 2 or $ B do these sentences relate toD a Please 'ourself4 b %o as 'ou thin0 fit9 T Kou neednLt feel obli&ed to sta' more than a fe+ minutes4 d ItLs entirel' 'our decision9 e Par0in& outside this e1it is prohibited at all times4 f ItLs 'our life9

Practice

=
!orbidden

Fill in each of the follo+in& sentences +ith an appropriate

+ord from the list9 compulsor$ obligator$ illegitimate permissible illicit permitted illegal a Ps'cholo&ists maintain +e are all tempted b' the concept of9999999999999999999 fruit9 b /he referee deemed the punch9999999999999999999999999999999999 and dis?ualified him9

OBLIGA TIONS
& /he e)enin& acti)ities are entirel' optional H compulsor'9 h It is e1tremel' un+ise H forbidden to touch these +ires9 i 8e +as dis?ualified H banned from dri)in& for t+o 'ears9 - If 'ou did but 0no+ it4 'ouLre brea0in& the la+ H the rules9

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences using t"e two

(rom(ts t"at !ollow t"em so t"at it is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted a#o*e it) ExampleF Kou are responsible for ensurin& that 'our e?uipment is in full +or0in& order4 down : make ItLs down to 'ou to make sure 'our equi ment i! in "ull +or0in& order9 a No one is &oin& to force 'ou to do an'thin& 'ou donLt feel capable of9 com(elled : u( b If heLs bro0en the la+4 he can e1pect to be punished9 somet"ing : (unis"ment T Kou donLt ha)e to pa' no+ if 'ou +ould rather not9 under : (re!er d LKou mustnLt pic0 thin&s up and 'ou reall' shouldnLt touch an'thin& at all4L the curator told us9 allowed : su((osed e /he choice of restaurant for toni&htLs meal is entirel' 'ours4 w"ic" : u( f Nobod'Ls &oin& to push 'ou to decide here and no+ +hich colle&e to &o to9 (ressure : c"oice & 100f attendance on the course is not somethin& +e as0 of 'ou9 e,(ect : all h /here are se)eral bars that .ichard is not allo+ed into an' more9 num#er : #arred i /he entertainin& of &uests in pri)ate rooms is strictl' prohibited9 'ou : allowed - Because 'ouLre the senior member of staff here4 'ou should ma0e the presentation9 #eing : u( 1 ILm99999999999 to be outside the theatre before se)en thirt'9 a supposed # e1pected G ha)in& d permitted 2 Kou are no obli&ation +hatsoe)er to respond9 a in # on G under d +ith

3 %onLt 'ou feel 'ou ha)e a99999999999999999999999 to 'ourself to K ;(it! + *(!0i< th+t &+3! th! 0#--#'in/ '#() n!/+ti1!. Th!n '(it! th! n!/+ti1! '#(), 5 !! Unit 5, S!"ti#n 6 0#( &#(! in0#(&+ti#n #n *(!0i<! 6 -!/+-i- Hi--!/+-+ E<+&*-!9 -+'0%-/(+ti#n+-&! !nti+-, *!(&i i,-!h"#n i t!ntn+""!*t+,-!: (!+ #n+,-!i&+n+/!+,-!I-#$+-) (!-i+,-!B*+()#n+,-!Cn+t%(+-! &#(+-Jn!"! +($0 -!/iti&+t!1!thi"+L Un)!(-in! th! '#() th+t "+n "#&*-!t! !+"h !nt!n"!. E<+&*-!9 R!0!(!! &% t 0in) it h+() t# )!"i)! 'h+t i +n) i n4t -!/iti&+t! % ! #0 th! !-,#', + -!/+- , i--i"it : -!/iti&+t! ) /-+(in/

0eep &oin&D a dut' # pressure G reser)ation d compulsion 4 7hat is 'our attitude to the of performanceBenhancin& dru&s for athletesD a le&alisin& # le&alit' G permission d allo+ance 5 /here reall' is no999999999999999999for this 0ind of o)erBtheB top reaction9 a obli&ation # need G compulsion d re?uirement 6 In future 'ou +ill do as 'ou are99999999999999999999999999999 a said # obli&ed G told d re?uired 7 7e donLt +ant to be seen to be999999999999999999999999999999 a compulsor' # optional G obli&ator' d infle1ible D Far be it from me to999999999999999999999 do+n the la+4 but I thin0 +e need to pull our soc0s up9 a put # la' G +rite d set

E&am p a#t$#% 3

) Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the 'assage with !n% suitable wor#. !ow can you criticise somebo#y so that they .............. 123 #o as you ask9 &he.................................. 143 are that yelling at them is ne"er going to work while constant com'laining0 on the other han#0 .............. 1(3 "ery ....................... 163 soun# like a "ictim: like0 'oor:me moan that gi"es no incenti"e for change. .f course0 if you #o feel .................................... 183 to ha"e a go at someone0 go ahea#0 but it is rarely 'ro#ucti"e. %ot only is it more or less......................................... 1*3 to en# in a row or a sulk0 there's also the .............. 1;3 'ossibility it.............................. 1>3 be ignore#. Constructi"e criticism really ............................... 1?3 to be a#ult0 rational an# reasonable. %o won#er so many of us struggle with it- there's no................................. 12)3 it's much easier being unreasonable. $ut e"en if you .............. 12 23 manage to gi"e criticism like an a#ult0 it................. 1243 mean the reci'ient will feel un#er any.................. 12(3 to take it in the same way. In all .............. 1263 you will be met by hurt eyes0 slum'e# shoul#ers an# a sa# face. An# when it comes to being on the recei"ing en# yourself beware of being too har# on yourself afterwar#s. &here is0 a#mitte#ly0 only a remote .................................... 1283 that you will go o"er the to' by saying something like '.h #ear0 I ma#e a mistake0 my legs are too fat0 I can't cook an# my chil#ren will ....................................... 12*3 fail at school an# I might as................................... 12;3 go an#

li"e in the gar#en an# eat worms.' &his0 to 'ut it mil#ly0 is self: in#ulgent. A##e# to which you may .............. 12>3 'ersua#e other 'eo'le that you are right. It's absolutely............................ 12?3 to learn from the e/'erience of being criticise#. &hat way0 when it's your turn to #ish it out0 you will0 ..................................... 14)30 make a better ,ob of it. + Finish each of the sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la $n m%an$n0 as p!ss$bl% t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? a 7etting the com'any to change their stan# is 'robably beyon# our ca'abilities. I #oubt .............................................................................................. b &here's e"ery chance of in#ustrial action being taken by the union. &he union ......................................................................................... P As he's ,ust gone on holi#ay0 it looks as if the managing #irector isn't taking it seriously. &he managing #irector can't ............................................................ " A lengthy #is'ute #oesn't seem ine"itable. It may ............................................................................................... % An early solution is a''arently not beyon# the boun#s of 'ossibility. It might ............................................................................................. ( Financial har#shi' is certainly on the car#s for thousan#s of workers. &housan#s of workers ..................................................................... 0 It's 'ossible the looming crisis won't e"er actually materialise. It's not beyon# ................................................................................. , It will come as no sur'rise0 I'm sure0 to learn that there's strong 'ressure to call it off.

I'm sure you ..................................................................................... $ &he only e/'lanation for him being so late is that his train was #elaye#. !is train ........................................................................................... 7 &here is no way he got the news from me as we ha"en't s'oken. !e ....................................................................................................

Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.

EDAM PRACTICE '

a &he Prime Minister really ............................... something now before unem'loyment gets too high. b &here's only an outsi#e............................... match will be cancelle#. P Aominic...................... 'ossibly get home in un#er half an hour0 coul# he9 " % ( , $ 7 ou really...................... out more- you can't stay in with your com'uter all the time. ou'# ................... me a call later to tell me how it's going. I'm afrai# I absolutely.............................. : I'm late as it is. ou really will ........................ work a lot har#er if you want to stan# any chance of 'assing. $ut I'"e ,ust been cooking for you. ou ......................................... me you'# eaten alrea#yB It was "ery kin# but you really .................................... to so much trouble ,ust for me.

0 It's so col# in here- someone .................................. the heating off.

4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D E

Circle the wor# or 'hrase which best com'letes each sentence. &he 'ros'ects of 'icking u' any sur"i"ors are now................................................ A thin F narrow G slim D restricte#

She may win an# sur'rise us all but I woul#n't........................................... on it. A guess F back G stake D bet

!o'es are .................. of fin#ing the missing boat. A #arkening F going G fa#ing D #raining

&he mayor e/'resse# strong ............................. as to the necessity for the new ring roa#. A scru'les F reser"ations G hesitation D 'ro"iso

!is ha''y:go:lucky attitu#e means that on the fiel# he e/hibits a....................................................... #isregar# for the rules. A re5uire# F glaring G 'ermissible D flagrant

&he sil"er me#allist was later............................... for running outsi#e her lane. A banne# F #is5ualifie# G #isallowe# D outlawe#

.wen's secon# goal was............................ because he was off:si#e. A banne# F #is5ualifie# G #isallowe# D outlawe#

All commercial kitchens must satisfy the stringent........................................... of the health authorities. A re5uirements F nee#s G terms D 5ualifications

I think that &olstoy shoul# be............................... rea#ing for anyone intereste# in literature. A necessary A concei"ably F com'elle# F cre#ibly G re5uire# D legal G imaginati"ely D belie"ably

) 1 I su''ose he coul# .............................. ha"e reache# the summit on his own0 but I #oubt it.

Un*t ,o$(

Modal 'erbs 2
Entry test
1
Fill each of the ga's with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.
EXAMPLE G

(Si#
FOR &!'', &O;'- AND OT8ER MODALS EDPRESSING INTENTION: WILLINGNESS: FRE=UENCY AND 8ABIT: SEE SECTION )?

Aes'ite all our encouragement0 the horse would not come

Fill the ga's with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE-

out of the bo/. a I really .................... you back soon0 I 'romise. b Iather annoyingly0 my teenage son .................................... insist on 'laying lou# music first thing in the morning0 P My gran#father always .............................. think that rea#ing books was a waste of time. " ou ................. a han#0 coul# you9 % If I were to 'ay you more0 ................................. to #o the ,ob then9 ( +oul# ................... as to 'ass me that s'anner9

I might be able to try an# sort things out0 if I get time.

a Fnfortunately0 I ........................ to get what I wante# in the su'ermarket. b I'# like .................... to cook as well as my father. P My mother........................ me some money if she'# wante# to0 but she #i#n't0 " E"en if I ha# known what time you were arri"ing0 I ............ get to the station to meet you. % &he stu#ents aske# if.............................. let off lessons that afternoon. ( I won#er...................... ha"e e"erybo#y's attention for a moment0 'lease.

1 ! _ _
FOR $A#, $O;'- AND OT8ER MODALS EDPRESSING ABILITY AND PERMISSION: SEE SECTION +?

' Fill each of the ga's with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE -

If you ask me0 we oug"t to have got there by now- we must

be lost. a I #on't really think it is absolutely...................................... all of us shoul# be there0 b +e cleare# all the furniture off the balcony for ............ shoul# rain in the night. P =ust in ................... think that the ,ob is finishe#0 may I 'oint out that there's all the washing u' to #o. " I #i#n't..................... tall as you are. % &hat was a close sha"e- it................................. com'lete #isaster if she'# foun# out. ( ou really....................... me you weren't going to be there- I waite# for you for ages0 0 It turns out we........................... about missing your a''ointment as it's not until ne/t week0 , $y the time we lan#0 I reckon we ..................................... in the air for about fourteen hours. jTtlfl:
FOR SPECIAL USES OF S*O;'- AND MODALS IN T8E PAST: SEE SECTION '?

MOAAL VERBS 2

OVERVIEW
For basic &rammar information for modals4 see Anit $4 ,)er)ie+9
MAIN USES OF MODALS +

8ere is a list of uses dealt +ith in this Anit +ith e1amples9 For other uses4 see Anit $4 ,)er)ie+9
$nt%nt$!n: *$ll$n0n%ss See Section 1

0! $ou would step this wa$. Shall 0 help( or can $ou manage> 0$ll gi'e $ou a hand with that. 0 will !inish this( 0 promise. Gou couldn$t gi'e me a hand( could $ou> he horse wouldn$t 8ump the !ence. 0$ll resist their attempts to ta&e o'er !or as long as 0 ha'e to.
F %;u%n#y: ,ab$t See Section 1

He will o!ten stop to chat and see how we are. %hen 0 was at uni'ersit$( 0 would sometimes wor& all night. 0 u!ed to lo'e coo&ing( but 0 ne'er get the time nowada$s.
Ab$l$ty See Section 2

%an $ou swim> 0 could i! 0 tried. he$ thought the$ could persuade me( but the$ can$t.
P% m$ss$!n See Section 2

&ay 0 go' Ges( o! course $ou can. %ould 0 possibl$ use $our phone. 07m sorr$( $ou can$t.
Sp%#$al us%s !( should See Section $

0 suggested the$ !hould tr$ again later. 0 !hould imagine we7ll be home in time !or dinner. 3For an alphabetical list of modals +ith their meanin&s4 see pa&es #"B #:95

Me' difficulties +ith meanin&s2 /he same modal can e1press different meanin&s or perform different functions2 Gou mu!t phone me as soon as $ou get bac&. 3S &i)in& orders5 He7s not here - he mu!t ha'e le!t. 3S e1pressin& certaint'5 %ifferent modals can e1press similar meanin&s2 Shall 0 carr$ that !or $ou> 3S +illin&ness5 (ould you like me to carr$ that !or $ou> 3` +illin&ness5 /he e1act meanin& can chan&e accordin& to conte1t or intonation2 (ould $ou open the window !or me( please> 3S polite re?uest5 (ould $ou stop ma&ing that noise immediatel$B 3S order5 <odals can affect the le)el of formalit' and politeness 3see Section 252 $&ay 0 lea'e earl$ toda$>7 7/! course $ou can.$ %ould ) o!!ibly use $our phone> ) wonder i" ) might ha'e $our attention !or a moment. * sentence can ha)e t+o possible meanin&s accordin& to the +a' it is spo0en4 or the 0no+led&e people ha)e of the situation2 Gou might have told me. 3S LPerhaps 'ou did4 I canLt rememberL or2 L7h' didnLt 'ouD Kou should ha)eL5

<

GRAMMAR

MEANINGS OF MODAL VERBS

8ere is a ?uic0 reference to the meanin&s of modal )erbs9 For basic &rammar information4 see Anit $4 ,)er)ie+6 for 0e' difficulties +ith meanin&4 see the 7atch outN4 Anit "4 p9#$9

M#)+-M!+nin/ M U !E<+&*-!"+n+,i-it$ th!#(!ti"+- *# i,i-it$ *!(&i i#n (!2%! t #00!( C+n $#% *-+$ th! *i+n#> An$#n! "+n &+3! + &i t+3!. C+n I -!+1! !+(-$, *-!+ !> C+n $#% /i1! &! + h+n)> C+n I h!-* $#% #%t>"+n4t 1 "+nn#tin+,i-it$ *# i,i-it$ *(#hi,iti#n )!)%"ti#nI "+n4t *-+$ th! *i+n#. C+n4t $#% "#&! +n$ !+(-i!(> 5H i n4t it *# i,-!6 Y#% "+n4t -!+1! %nti- I +$ #. Thi ,i-- "+n4t ,! (i/ht."+n4t h+1!)!)%"ti#nSh!4 /#n! t# th! '(#n/ )##( 7 h! "+n4t h+1! !!n th! i/n."#%-)*+ t +,i-it$ *# i,i-it$ (!2%! t + 3in/ 0#( *!(&i i#n *!(&i i#n in th! *+ t )!)%"ti#n i)i#&+ti"Th! h#* h+) n#thin/ th+t I "#%-) +00#(). Th!(! "#%-) ,! t(#%,-! i0 th! /#1!(n&!nt t(i! t# 0#("! thi &!+ %(! th(#%/h. C#%-) $#% /i1! &! + h+n)> C#%-) I -!+1! + ,it !+(-$ t#)+$> ;h!n I '+ $#%n/, I "#%-) t+$ %* -+t! +t '!!3!n) i0 I *(#&i !) t# ,! /##). Th+t "#%-) ,! =#hn4 "+( I "+n h!+( 7 h! +i) h! '+ "#&in/. Y#% "#%-) +t -!+ t t!-- &! 'h+t th!$ +i). 5H I thin3 $#% h#%-)...6"#%-)n4t*+ t in+,i-it$ i&*# i,i-it$ (!2%! t *(#hi,iti#n in th! *+ t )!)%"ti#n i)i#&+ti"I "#%-)n4t '+-3 %nti- I '+ n!+(-$ t'#. I "#%-)n4t !+t +n#th!( thin/@ C#%-)n4t $#% t($ +/+in> M$ &%& % !) t# in i t th+t '! "#%-)n4t /# #%t %nti- '!4) ti)i!) #%( ,!)(##&. It "#%-)n4t ,! =#!, "#%-) it> I th#%/ht h! '+ +'+$ #n ,% in! . I "#%-)n4t +/(!! &#(!@ 5 N I t(#n/-$ +/(!!6"#%-) h+1!*# i,i-it$ in th! *+ t +nn#$+n"!Y#%( +"ti#n "#%-) h+1! h+) !(i#% "#n !2%!n"! . Y#% "#%-) h+1! t#-) &!@ 5 N I 'i h $#% h+) t#-) &!6 I "#%-) h+1! &%()!(!) hi&@ 5H I '+ 1!($ +n/($ 'ith hi&6"#%-)n4t h+1!i&*# i,i-it$ in th! *+ t i)i#&+ti"?! "#%-)n4t h+1! t+3!n $#%( "+( ,$ &i t+3! ,!"+% ! h! )i)n4t h+1! th! 3!$ . It "#%-)n4t h+1! ,!!n ,!tt!(. 5H It '+ *!(0!"t6&+$*# i,i-it$ !<*(! in/ h#*! *!(&i i#n #00!( "#n"! i#n;! &+$ /# t# 8(+n"! n!<t $!+(. M+$ $#% ,#th ,! 1!($ h+**$. Y#% &+$ /# 'h!n $#%41! 0ini h!). M+$ I ,! #0 +n$ + i t+n"!> Th!$ &+$ -i1! n!<t )##( ,%t '! h+()-$ !1!( !! th!&.&+$ n#t*# i,i-it$ *(#hi,iti#n "#n"! i#n;! &+$ n#t /# t# 8(+n"! thi $!+(. Y#% &+$ n#t /# %nti- $#%41! 0ini h!). I &+$ n#t ,! 1!($ int!--i/!nt ,%t I "+n '#(3 #%t th! +n '!( t# th+t 2%! ti#n.&+$ h+1! 1 &+$ n#t h+1!*# i,i-it$ in th! *+ t "#n"! i#nTh!$ &+$ n#t h+1! -!0t $!t. ?! &+$ h+1! '(itt!n ,##3 #n th! %,B!"t, ,%t th+t )#! n4t &!+n h!4 +

'#(-) !<*!(t.

MEANINGS O8 MOAAL VERBS M#)+-M!+nin/ M U !E<+&*-!&i/ht;! % ! &i/ht + th!?! +i) h! &i/ht "#&! 'ith % .*+ t 0#(& #0 &+$ +0t!(C+ t t!n ! 1!(, *# i,i-it$Thi !<*!)iti#n &i/ht ,! 2%it! )+n/!(#% . %//! ti#n Y#% &i/ht t($ *h#nin/ )i(!"t#($ !n2%i(i! .(!2%! t Mi/ht I ,#((#' #&! &#n!$>+nn#$+n"!Y#% &i/ht +t -!+ t +$ $#%4(! #(($@"#n"! i#n?! &i/ht !!& (%)!, ,%t h!4 n#t (!+--$.&i/ht n#t;! % ! &i/ht n#t + ?! +i) h! &i/ht n#t "#&! 'ith % th! *+ t 0#(& #0 &+$ n#t+0t!( C+ t t!n ! 1!(, *# i,i-it$Y#% &i/ht n#t -i3! it."#n"! i#n?! &i/ht n#t '!+( /-+ ! , ,%t hi !$! i/ht i n#t *!(0!"t !ith!(.&i/ht h+1!*# i,i-it$ in th! *+ tTh!$ &i/ht h+1! ,!!n t($in/ t# "#nt+"t % .+nn#$+n"!Y#% &i/ht h+1! t#-) &!@ 5H I 'i h $#%4) t#-) &!6"#n"! i#nSh! &i/ht h+1! '#(3!) h+(), ,%t $#% '#%-)n4t 3n#' it 0(#& h!( (! %-t .&i/ht n#t h+1!*# i,i-it$ in th! *+ tTh!$ &i/ht n#t h+1! n#ti"!) th! i/n."#n"! i#nSh! &i/ht n#t h+1! )#n! +-- th! '#(3, ,%t h! "!(t+in-$ /#t /##) (! %-t .&% t)!)%"ti#n;h+t4 th+t n#i !> It &% t ,! (+inin/.#,-i/+ti#nY#% &% t t+3! $#%( h#! #00 in h!(!.n!"! it$Th! 'i(! &% t t#%"h #( it '#n4t '#(3.&% tn4t*(#hi,iti#nY#% &% tn4t '#(($ 7 $#%4-- ,! 0in!.&% t h+1!)!)%"ti#n in th! *+ tI &% t h+1! -!0t &$ '+--!t in th! "+(.n!"! it$ in th! *+ tIn #()!( t# 2%+-i0$ 0#( th! B#,, $#% &% t h+1! h+) !1!(+$!+( 4!<*!(i!n"!.&% tn4t h+1!n!"! it$ in th! *+ tY#% &% tn4t h+1! h+) +n$ )(i1in/ "#n1i"ti#n #( $#% '#n4t /!t th! B#,. h+--*(!)i"ti#n 5I +n) '!6I thin3 '! h+-- /!t ,+"3 !+(-$ n!<t '!!3.int!nti#n 57 +n) '!6;! h+-- /i1! #%( 0in+- )!"i i#n t#&#((#'.#00!( 57 +n) '!6Sh+-- I /i1! $#% + h+n)>#00i"i+- #()!( A-- th! "+n)i)+t! h+-- (!&+in in th!i( !+t %ntith! !n) #0 th!!<+&in+ti#n.+ 3in/ 0#( +)1i"!;h+t h+-- '! )# n#'> h+n4t*(!)i"ti#n;! h+n4t /!t ,+"3 &%"h ,!0#(! t!n.int!nti#nI h+n4t -!t hi& )# th+t +/+in. h+-- 1*(!)i"ti#n;! h+-- h+1! 0ini h!) ,$ thi !1!nin/. 5H 8%t%(! C!(0!"t6 h+n4t h+1!;! h+n4t h+1! +n#th!( #**#(t%nit$ i0 '! )#n4t 'in t#)+$.

5"#ntin% !)6

<odal !hould + ought to

<eanin& H Ase 3those uses mar0ed e are also appropriate to ought to5 &i)in& 'our opinione e1pressin& doubt ad)icee obli&atione 3dut'5 instructions conditional 3see Anit 4 Section $9"5 +ith thatBclauses after certain )erbs +ith thatBclauses after ad-ecti)es in purpose clauses e1pressin& doubt

E1ample

he tra!!ic !hould + ought to be lighter toda$. 0 !hould thin& it will rain toda$. Gou !hould / ought to go out more o!ten. *eople !hould / ought to treat each other better. All 'isitors !hould report to reception. 0! an$one !hould phone ; Should an$one phone( tell them 07ll be bac& this a!ternoon. 0 suggested that he !hould ta&e a brea&. 0t is essential that $ou !hould contact us. he$ spo&e Auietl$ so that nobod$ !hould hear what the$ were sa$ing.

!houldn$t + oughtn$t to

3those uses mar0ed e are also appropriate to oughtn7t to5 ad)icee obli&atione 3dut'5 &i)in& 'our opinione +ith thatBclauses after certain )erbs e1pressin& doubt Gou !houldn$t/ oughtn$t to dri'e so !ast. *eople !houldn$t / oughtn$t to be so aggressi'e. he tra!!ic !houldn$t / oughtn$t to be too bad toda$. 0 suggested that he !houldn$t wor& so hard. 0 !houldn$t thin& he7d en8o$ it. Gou !hould have told me be!ore. he tra!!ic !hould have/ought to have been lighter earlier toda$. 0 !houldn$t have thought he7d ha'e en8o$ed it. Gou !hould have / ought to have been there hours ago. he$ !houldn$t have dri'en so !ast.

!hould have + !houldn$t have + ought to have + oughtn$t to have

ad)ice in the past &i)in& 'our opinione about the past e1pressin& doubt about the past obli&atione 3dut'5 in the past

#"

GRAMMAR +ith thatBclauses after certain )erbs will prediction predictin& the present truths and facts obli&ation H orders habits anno'in& habits +illin&ness intention won$t prediction predictin& the present truths and facts refusal intention will have/ won$t have prediction predictin& the past 0 suggested that he !hould have ta&en a brea&. he$$ll be here soon. he$$ll be there b$ now. his car will onl$ run on unleaded petrol. All passengers will proceed to Gate C immediatel$. #he$ll alwa$s tr$ to help $ou whene'er she can. He will smo&e when 07m tr$ing to eat. 0$ll gi'e $ou a hand i! $ou li&e. 0$ll put the letter in the post this e'ening. he$ won$t be here !or a while. he$ won$t be there $et. his car won$t start. He won$t 8oin in unless he7s !irst. 0 won$t come this e'ening( 07m a!raid. 0 won$t have !inished this boo& b$ this e'ening. he$$ll have easil$ got there b$ now.

MEANINGS O8 MOAAL VERBS


<odal would <eanin& H Ase prediction predictin& the present describin& ima&inar' situations 3For would in conditionals and after wish( see Anit 5, Sections $9$4 "9295 habits in the past anno'in& habits in the past re?uests intention in the past 3+e use would as the past form of will( e9&9 in reported speech5 t'pical 3anno'in&5 beha)iour ad)ice prediction predictin& the present describin& ima&inar' situations refusal in the past re?uests intention in the past 3+e use wouldn7t as the past form of won7t( e9&9 in reported speech5 ad)ice e)ents in the past +hich didnLt happen or +hich did happen tentati)e thou&hts deductions in the past 3+e use would ; wouldn7t ha'e as the Past form of will ; won7t ha'e( e9&9 in reported speech after Past tense )erbs5 he$ said the$ would be here soon. 0 thought the$$d be there b$ now. Gou$d loo& better with $our hair shorter. E1ample

wouldn$t

would ha'e; wouldn$t ha'e

#he would alwa$s tr$ to help $ou. He would smo&e when 0 was tr$ing to eat. (ould $ou open the door !or me> He said he$d put the letter in the post later.

0t would start raining 8ust as we went out. 0$d tal& to him about it i! 0 were $ou. he$ said the$ wouldn$t be here !or ages. 0 thought the$ wouldn$t be here $et. Gou wouldn$t sa$ that i! $ou7d met him. He wouldn$t do what 0 as&ed. Gou wouldn$t open the door !or me( would $ou> He said he wouldn$t be coming tonight.

0 wouldn$t do that i! 0 were $ou. 0$d ha'e met $ou at the station i! 07d &nown $ou were coming. 0 wouldn$t ha'e told $ou i! 07d &nown $ou7d be so upset. 0$d ha'e thought he7d ha'e 8umped at the chance. 0 !irst went to 0tal$ when 0 was at 9ni'ersit$. that would ha'e been in +,-2. He promised he would ha'e posted it be!ore !i'e o7cloc&.

SECTION I
0ntention( willingness( !reAuenc$( habit
1
INTENTION AND REFUSAL

7hen stressed4 will and would e1press the spea0erLs anno'ance at the habits2 #he will pla$ her music loudl' when )7m tr$ing to wor&. he$ would &eep tal&ing when ) 8ust wanted to go home. 9sed to is similar to would. Note that +ords such as ne'er( alwa$s( etc9 commonl' chan&e position2 M$ dad would alway!/alway! u!ed to read me a stor$ be!ore ) went to bed. But4 +e onl' use used to( not would( to tal0 about states2 T ) would be much slimmer what ) was a $oung child. + ) u!ed to be much slimmer when ) was $ounger.

7e use will and would 3past or conditional5 to e1press +illin&ness or intention to do somethin&9 /he precise meanin& )aries accordin& to the conte1t2 ) reall$ will be good( ) promise. 3S promise5 )$ll lea'e i! $ou sa$ that again. 3S threat5 H will get there in time i! it7s the last thing ) do. 3S determination5 / won$t be sta$ing long. 4M intention or promise not to5 7:end me !i'e pounds.7 71o( ) won$t.$ 3S refusal5 M$ !ather wouldn$t help me out !inanciall$. 3S past refusal5 )$d gi'e $ou a hand with the washing up i! ) wasn7t rushed o!! m$ !eet( 3conditional +illin&ness5 7e occasionall' use shall +ith H and weF ) told $ou )7d succeed and ) !hall* 3S stron& intention5 7e use won7t and wouldn7t to tal0 about machines Lrefusin&L to +or0 properl'2 his programme won$t wor& with $our computer. M$ car wouldn$t go this morning -> thin& it7s the batter$.

7rite 3I5 ne1t to an' sentence +hich refers to intention or refusal4 3,5 ne1t to an' +hich contains offers or re?uests4 and 3F5 ne1t to an' +hich refers to fre?uenc'9 a If all &oes +ell4 ILll be there -ust before si19 b Shall I open the +indo+D T /omorro+4 as al+a's4 ILll &et up and do m' home+or0 before brea0fast4 d /his door simpl' +onLt open4 e Ian said heLd &i)e us a hand to clear up9

OFFERS AND RE=UESTS

7e can use will and would to offer to do somethin&2 )$ll do that !or $ou - it7s no problem. 3S offer5 Mar&us said he would help me. 3S past offer5 7e also use other modals to ma0e offers2 %an ) help> (ould $ou li&e a hand with $our luggage> Shall ) carr$ that !or $ou> &ay ) be o! an$ assistance> 3S formal5 7e can also as0 if someone else is +illin& to do somethin& b' ma0in& re?uests2 Gou wouldn$t mind gi'ing me a hand( would $ou> 3S tentati)e5 (ould $ou mind gi'ing me a hand> Gou couldn$t gi'e me a hand( could $ou> )o $ou thin& $ou could gi'e me a hand> %an $ou gi'e me a hand> Gi'e me a hand( would $ou> 4N more direct5 Note that +e donLt use Ma$ $ou... or #hall $ou... to ma0e re?uests9 7e can as0 )er' politel' or formall' usin&2 (ould you be !o kind a! to hold this !or me> (ould you be kind enough to hold this !or me> 7e can also use be willing to( especiall' if thereLs the possibilit' that the intention +onLt be carried out2 T ) will help( but ) don7t ha'e time. + )$m willing to help( but ) don7t ha'e time. 7e use ma$( might( and would +ith be willing to( be prepared to( etc9 to ma0e )er' tentati)e offers2 / might be willing to ma&e a !ew contacts !or $ou( at a price. 7e can use would and might +ith be willing to( etc9 to ma0e re?uests2 (ould / &ight $ou be willing to do the 8ob i! ) o!!ered $ou another ten percent>
' FRE=UENCY

7e use will to tal0 about habits and t'pical beha)iour in the present2 he$$ll spend hours on the phone to each other e'er$ night. 3S the' often do5 7e use would to tal0 about past habits and t'pical beha)iour in the past2 E'er$ morning ) would get up at the crac& o! dawn and ta&e the dogs !or a wal&.

GRAMMAR

INTENTION: WILLINGNESS: FRE=UENCY: 8ABIT

Put a tick ( + ) #eside t"e sentences in

w"ic" would could re(lace u!ed to. Put a cross

IDJ #eside t"e ot"ers)

6atc" t"e direct s(eec" 31B#5 wit" t"e re(ort 3eBf59 g She offered to 999 Kou +rite2 0 g 8e be&&ed me to 999 /he' +arned me not to She -ust as0ed me to 999 She promised to 999 8e threatened to 999 She refused to 999

ExampleF 0 ILll &i)e 'ou a lift9

ExampleF S+itJerland used to be part of *ustria9 D In the past se)eral families used to li)e in the same house9 + a Famil' )alues used to be ?uite different in those da's4 b It used to be ?uite normal for cousins to marr'4 T =enerall' spea0in&4 these marria&es used to succeed as +ell as an' others4 d People used to ha)e different ideas about famil' relationships then4 e /he father used to farm and hunt and the mother used to loo0 after the home9

30 ILll &i)e 'ou a lift95

1 1 1 1 1

I4-- '(it! t# $#% !1!($ )+$.


No4 I +onLt pa' and thatLs that9 ILll report 'ou to the authoritiesN KouLll be sorr' if 'ou touch that9 (ould 'ou ta0e the other end of this for meD 3& She offered to

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences

using t"e two (rom(t words (rinted underneat" it) ExampleF ILd li0e to help but unfortunatel' itLs not possible4 wis" :) I i*is" I could hel but un!ortunatel' I canEt) a (ould 'ou possibl' help me +ith the dishesD (ossi#le : "and b ,ur pre)ious cat +ould onl' &o out if the door +as opened speciall' for him9 used : unless T 8e threatened to tell m' +ife unless I admitted to e)er'thin&9 said:i! d Shall I pa' b' che?ue or +ould 'ou rather I paid cashD like : (re!er e ILd #e )er' &rateful if 'ou could for+ard an' letters to the abo)e address9 a((reciate : kind

(ouldnLt 'ou possibl' for once turn a blind e'e4 pleaseD

K In eac" item #elow one or two o(tions ma' #e (ossi#le to com(lete t"e sentence) -nderline t"ose t"at are (ossi#le) ExampleF I ma' H might ! +ill be +illin& to spare 'ou half an hour this afternoon9 a <i&ht H Can ! %ould 'ou mind liftin& 'our feet for a moment +hile I hoo)erD b Ma$ ! Could ! %ould 'ou be so 0ind as to &i)e me some ad)iceD T Shall H 7ill H Can I carr' that rather hea)'Bloo0in& case for 'ouD d %ill ! Could ! Can 'ou possibl' come bac0 a little laterD e Ma$ ! %ould ! Might 'ou be +illin& to refund the mone' +e ha)e alread' paid 'ouD f %o 'ou thin0 'ou will ! ma$ ! could stand a little further a+a'D

;i- eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" t"e a((ro(riate animal !rom t"e list) Write w"ic"

use o! will or would t"e sentences illustrate) ExampleF Eels +ill often s+im thousands of miles in the course of a 'ear9 ,y ical #e"a*iour 4eels5 pigeons bees whales rhinoceroses a Poachers +ill do almost an'thin& to &et hold of the horn of +hite999999999999999999 b 99999999999999 +ill usuall' lic0 their 0ittens almost nonBstop in the earl' da's of their li)es4 T 8undreds of 'ears a&o4 passen&er 9999999999+ould blac0en the s0ies of H North *merica4 d 99999999999999 +ill occasionall' be found beached on a shore4 ha)in& lost the rest of the school4 e /hereLs a theor' that9999999999999999999999999999+ill ne)er stin& 'ou unless pro)o0ed9

"+ t

SECTION <
Abilit$( permission
1
ABILITY IN T8E PRESENT AND FUTURE

7e use can and could as +ell as other modals to &i)e and as0 for permission2 Can 0 go now> 1o( $ou can7t. 0 won7t let $ou. he$ as&ed i! the$ could go.

POLITENESS AND FORMALITY

Can is the most common modal +e use to tal0 about abilit'2 ; can gi'e $ou a li!t this e'ening i! $ou li&e. Can $ou pic& up spiders>
$A# OR <E A<'E TO=

7e sometimes use be able to +ith the same meanin& as canF 0 can$t/am not able to gi'e $ou an answer at the moment. 7e use modals li0e will +ith be able to as a future form of canF /ne da$ people will be able to go !or a holida$ on the moon. 0 might be able to help $ou. 7e also use be able to in the infiniti)e and Yng form9 7e sometimes use )erbs li0e !eel and seem instead of beF 07d li&e to be able to write as well as that. 0 li&e being able to do exactl$ what 0 please. 0 don7t !eem able to !ind the energ$ !or pla$ing !ootball these da$s. 7e commonl' use can( not be able to( +ith the meanin& L0no+ ho+ toL4 and +ith )erbs related to the senses li0e see( hearF Can $ou read music> 0 can smell something burning. Could( and sometimes would be able to( are common in conditional sentences9 Could is more tentati)e than canF 0 could come a bit earlier i! that would be help!ul.

7hen &i)in& or as0in& for permission4 or ma0in& re?uests or offers4 the de&ree of politeness or formalit' depends stron&l' on the situation4 stress and intonation4 and +ho is spea0in& to +hom9 *s an appro1imate &uide4 ma$ and might are more polite and formal6 could and would are more polite than can and willF 7Can 0 lea'e earl$ toda$>7 7/! course $ou ma$.7 Could 0 possibl$ use $our phone> ?isitors to the college ma$ not enter pri'ate rooms. 7e often use might +ith wonderF 0 wonder i! 0 might ha'e $our attention !or a moment. 8o+e)er4 because ma$ and might are formal4 the' can sound a&&ressi)e or sarcastic2 Might 0 suggest that $ou tal& to the manager about it> And where ha'e $ou been( ma$ 0 as&>

7hich of these sentences does not e1press abilit'4 theoretical possibilit' or permissionD a b T d e Kou ma' lea)e the room +hen 'ou ha)e finished9 <a' I be of an' assistanceD I canLt open this door2 itLs stuc09 I could ha)e told him last +ee0 if heLd as0ed me9 Belie)e it or not4 crocodiles can ma0e &ood pets9

T8EORETICAL POSSIBILITY

.ather than e1pressin& abilit'4 +e sometimes use can to sa' that somethin& is possible in theor'2 #pea&ing in public can be Auite traumatic !or man$ people. 0t can still be 'er$ hot in Eg$pt in #eptember.

ABILITY IN T8E PAST $ould

7e often use could as a past form of canF 0 could hear a noise and went outside.
$ould have or was able to=

7e use could ha'e to sa' +e +ere able to do somethin&4 but in fact +e didnLt2 He could ha'e helped me( i! he7d tried. 3S but he didnLt5 For &eneral abilit' in the past +e also use was able to( thou&h could is more common2 ; could ; was able to swim when 0 was !i'e $ears old. For a specific e)ent sho+in& success after tr'in&4 +e use was ! were able to( managed to or succeeded in( but not couldF 0 was able to;managed to sol'e her problems !or her. 7e can also e1press conditional past abilit' +ith would ha'e been able toF 0 wouldn7t ha'e been able to !ind her in that crowd e'en i! 07d &nown she was there.
$ouldn8t have

7e use couldn7t ha'e to sa' +e +ere not able to do somethin& so +e didnLt2 He couldn7t ha'e helped me an$wa$. 3S he didnLt5

PERMISSION

= =
(ossi#le) ExampleF Is there an' chance of me borro+in& 'our 7al0man tomorro+ afternoonD %an/%ould/ & a y I #orrow 'our (alkman tomorrow a!ternoonI a Is it all ri&ht if I miss the first fe+ minutes of tomorro+Ls meetin&D b I +ish m' +ritin& in En&lish +as better9 T ,ne da' soon4 Internet access is sure to be a)ailable to e)er' schoolchild9 d I 0ne+ ho+ to s+im before I +as three4 e * +asp stin& +as sometimes a cause of death in those da's4 f /hese photocopiers ha)e pro)ed to be ?uite temperamental4 & /he -ourne' here too0 us t+ice as lon& as it needed to9 h E)en if the'Ld +anted to land at 8eathro+4 it +as impossible because of the fo&9 i *nd +hat is this bab' doin& sittin& on m' des04 if 'ou donLt mind m' as0in&D Rewrite t"e !ollowing sentences using a modal) 6ore t"an one modal ma' #e

ABILITY, CERMISSION
T"e outgoing President is in #ullis"

mood) Com(lete "is claims wit" could, wa! / were able to, have been able to or could have (lus an a((ro(riate *er#) ExampleF No one could "a*e done more than I ha)e to increase this countr'Ls standin& in the +orld9 a In m' first term of office I999999999999999999999999999999 this countr' bac0 on its feet after m' predecessorLs mista0es4 b In this second term I999999999999999999999999999 in the most e1citin& ne+ le&islation this countr'Ls seen for decades4 T 7ith an'one else in po+er4 there 9999999999 economic chaos9 d I999999999999999 m' head up hi&h throu&hout m' presidenc'4 e I999999999999999 an' alle&ations 'ou care to ma0e a&ainst me9 f I999999999999999ne+ measures +hich +ill e)entuall' ma0e the +orld a far better place9

Arrange eac" o! t"e !ollowing comments using can$t into !i*e grou(s according to

t"eir #asic meaning) One grou( will "a*e !i*e comments& t"e ot"ers two eac") Two "a*e #een gi*en as e,am(les)

5I "+n4t ,!-i!1! it.6 5I "+n4t t+3! it in.6 I "+n4t %n)!( t+n) it. I "+n4t &+n+/!. I
1 3 canEt #elie*e it) 3 canEt take it in)

B I "+n4t *%t it #%t #0 &$ &in).


o I canLt stand it9 1 I canLt face it9 m I canLt put up +ith it9

K Rewrite t"e sentences twice using t"e


words gi*en) ExampleF 8e +as onl' able to thro+ a tantrum li0e that because he +as the boss4 couldnEt wouldnEt .e couldn$t "a*e t"rown a tantrum like t"at i" he "adnEt #een t"e bo!!--e wouldnEt "a*e #een a#le to t"row a tantrum like t"at i" he "adnEt #een t"e bo!!k I hope one da' +e can meet a&ain in more fa)ourable circumstances4 (ossi#le a#le b Some supermar0et beef tends to be rather tou&h4 can tendenc' T 7ould 'ou be so 0ind as to send this out to all 'our ma-or clientsD enoug" wonder d <a'be I could ha)e helped 'ou9 a#le (ossi#le e In the end +e +ere able to communicate +ith si&n lan&ua&e4 managed succeeded

d I canLt &et o)er it9 e I canLt stop m'self4 f I canLt +or0 it out9 & I canLt bear it9 h I canLt cope4 i I canLt ta0e it9 2 $ "

Y ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" a !orm o! be able to !ollowed #' an a((ro(riate *er#)
ExampleF I donLt thin0 I will #e a#le to dri*e 'ou to the airport9 a I999999999999999999 ne)er99999999999999999 out the difference bet+een a PC and a <ac9 b I +ould reall' lo)e999999999999999999999999999 m'self more interestin&l' on paper9 T Kou9999999999999999999him on this number4 but I ha)e m' doubts9 d /he'99999999999999999999-ust999999999999999999the dro+nin& man to safet'4 than0 &oodness9 e If 'ou donLt feel99999999999999999999999999 a contribution4 -ust sa' so9

he$ spo&e Auietl$ so that nobod$ should hear what the$ were sa$ing. He disguised himsel! lest he should be recognised. 7e also use should before certain )erbs4 e9&9 imagine( thin&( sa$( hope( to e1press concepts about +hich +e are not certain2 0 should imagine we7ll be home !or dinner. 3See Anit 4 Section 191 for Present sub-uncti)e and alternati)e should.5

SECTION <
#pecial uses o! !hould. modals in the past
1
SPECIAL USES OF S*O;'-

MODALS IN T8E PAST $ould,

would, mi ht

7e often use should in thatBclauses after )erbs connected +ith su&&estions4 re?uests or orders2 0 suggested that he should ta&e a brea&. he$ insisted 0 should ta&e a pa$ cut. ,ther )erbs +e often use +ith should include2 demand propose urge reAuire recommend decide maintain warn In more formal En&lish4 +e can omit should in thatBclauses9 3See Anit 4 Section 1915 7e also use should in thatBclauses after ad-ecti)es connected +ith importance4 e9&9 0t is important that...( or personal reactions4 e9&9 0 was surprised that... . 7e use should ha'e to tal0 about the past2 0t7s essential that $ou should contact us as soon as $ou ha'e an$ in!ormation. He !ound it astonishing that an$one should ha'e wanted to bu$ such an ugl$ present. ,ther ad-ecti)es +e commonl' use +ith should in this +a' include2 important necessar$ surprising normal sorr$ horri!ied interesting worried *&ain4 +e can omit should. 7e sometimes use should in purpose clauses 3see Anit #4 Section 25 after con-unctions li0e so that( in order that( in case( !or !ear that( lestF

Could and would are the onl' t+o modals +e commonl' use on their o+n to refer to the past2 ; could dri'e a tractor be!ore 0 &new how to dri'e a car. 3S abilit'5 %e couldn7t lea'e the building during the lunch brea&. 3S permission5

E'er$ morning 0 would get up earl$ and !eed the chic&ens. 3S habitual beha)iour5 0 wouldn7t do what 0 was told. 3S refusal5 7e also use might occasionall'2 0n those da$s( the$ came !or lunch and might sta$ on !or supper. 4N possibilit'5
M!"al P% (%#ts

,ther modals ma' refer to the past +hen used +ith the Perfect 4ha'e 6 -ed5. 7e use modal Perfects in three +a's2 to speculate about e)ents4 or ima&ine the opposite had happened2 0 would ha'e tal&ed to him but 0 didn7t ha'e time. Gou should ha'e told me $ou were coming. he$ ought to ha'e in!ormed us o! the change. %e were luc&$ - the whole thing could ha'e ended in

disaster. Gou needn7t ha'e gone to so much trouble. Gou might ha'e warned me. to tal0 about past e)ents +hen +e are not sure +hether the' happened or not2 0 can7t !ind m$ diar$ an$where - 0 suppose 0 could ha'e le!t it at home. 4N itLs possible5 #he ma$ ha'e phoned m$ o!!ice a!ter 0 le!t. 3S itLs possible5 #he can7t ha'e le!t alread$B 4M I donLt thin0 she has5 #he must ha'e gi'en it to someone else. 4M ILm almost certain5 he$ might ha'e gone home b$ now. 3S itLs possible5 he$ should ha'e got there b$ now. 3S I thin0 so5 to tal0 about possibilit' in the present and future9 /his is a form of the Future Perfect 3see Anit 14 Section 29252 Gou should ha'e alread$ gone through immigration b$ the time 0 get to the airport.

Identif' these uses of should in the follo+in& sentences9 7rite the appropriate number9
) after ad-ecti)es 2 after a )erb $ after con-unctions " referrin& to the

past

before a )erb

a For fear that the' should as0 him a&ain4 he pretended to be deaf4 b ILm +orried that the' should thin0 IL)e not been tellin& the truth4 T I maintain +e should continue for the time bein&4 d I should thin0 it &ets ?uite cold at ni&ht here4 doesnLt itD e I should ha)e 0no+n 'ouLd be in)ol)ed someho+9

2
1

.e+rite each of the follo+in& sentences in each pair 3aBb5 usin& !hould and one of the

.e+rite each of the follo+in& sentences

+ords listed9 Kou ma' +ant to chan&e the form of )erbs9 ExampleF incredible a /he ne+ trainer +ants to hand in his notice alread'D I -ust donLt belie)e it9 It '5 incredible that the new trainer should want to hand in i! notice already.

usin& the t+o prompt +ords &i)en9 ExampleF 8e promised to be here b' ten oLcloc0 SCECIAL USES O8 S?OULAO +ithout fail4 saidH definitel' MOAALS .e IN T?E CAST !aid he would de"initely be here b y ten oEclock) a %onLt 'ou re&ret reactin& in the +a' 'ou didD thin0 H should b I bet she felt a bit of a fool +hen she realised +ho she had been spea0in& to9 must H da+ned T I e1pect 'ouLll be at 8eathro+ before me9 should H do d %o 'ou thin0 I should ha)e &i)en her a set of 0e'sD ou&htHleft e ,ur stubborn 'oun& son al+a's refused to treat )isitors to the house +ith respect9 +ould H respectfull' f ItLs possible that she put those &oods in her ba& accidentall'9 ma'Hmista0e

important normal a Some students tend to feel a little homesic0 in their first +ee0 here9 I can understand that4 b (hildren must be tau&ht the difference bet+een ri&ht It4 in"(!)i,-! th+t th! n!' and t(+in!( h#%-) i '+nt t# +ron&9 I belie)e that stron&l'9 h+n) in hi n#ti"! odd be+ilderin& +-(!+)$ = a 7h' has he complained no+4 ri&ht at the end of his courseD I -ust canLt +or0 it out9 b I +onder +h' she left +ithout sa'in& an'thin&9 ILd reall' li0e to 0no+9 insisted +arned a L%onLt let 'our feelin&s run a+a' +ith 'ou4 +ill 'ouDL said the 'outh club leader4 b L7e simpl' must &o to the police about this latest attac04L said a b'stander9 <atch each of the halfBsentences 93B#5 +ith 3aBf5 and connect them usin& one of the

follo+in& con-unctions9 ExampleF 0 50 that g lest so that in case 30 <an' people +ant to be pop stars5 a 999 female fans should become -ealous4 b 999 someone should tr' to come in9 T 999 fans should reco&nise them9 d 999 nobod' should be able to &uess +ho he is9 e 999 no one should 0no+ +here the'Lre headin&4 f 999 the' should read a bad re)ie+4 3& 999 people +ill reco&nise them in the street95

Fill each of the &aps +ith a suitable +ord

or phrase9 a It shouldnLt9999999999999999999999us more than half an hour to &et to the airport4 b Last ni&htLs match could99999999999999999999999999999 into a complete fiasco4 T /he chairman insisted that all shareholders should99999999999999999999999 of the boardLs decision in +ritin&4 d She -ust9999999999999999999 mind despite all our pleas4 +ould sheD e Kou should999999999999999999999that into account before 'ou +ent and spent all 'our mone'9

1 1 1 1 1 1

But the Spice Bo's don dis&uise +hen the' &o out ,ne &roup sin&er &oes around in a <ic0e' <ouse mas0 /he' al+a's loc0 their bedroom doors at ni&ht /he' ne)er announce their immediate plans =irlfriends are out of the ?uestion /he'Lre not allo+ed to read the papers

Un*t ,o$(

?ocabular$
SECTION
@reAuenc$
*s +ell as usin& modal )erbs and used to 3see Section 19$54 +e can e1press fre?uenc' in man' +a's9

"ollow the late!t trend! in !ashion> *arisian designers !et the trend !or others to !ollow.
) W"ic" o! t"e t"ree sections a#o*e do t"ese !i*e sentences

illustrateI a ,ne to be ta0en three times a da'9 b Interest rates seem to be &oin& up +ith alarmin& fre?uenc'9 T /hereLs nothin& unusual about +antin& a pa' rise4 is thereD d /hereLs normall' ne)er this much traffic on the hi&h street9 e %onLt ma0e a habit of loc0in& 'ourself out4 +ill 'ouD

Practice

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL P8RASES

7e most commonl' e1press the idea of ho+ oftenL +ith ad)erbs of fre?uenc'2 0 rarely / !eldom go into the centre o! town i! 0 can help it. John regularly / normally / o"ten smo&es more than a pac&et a da$. %e were con!tantly / regularly being criticised. 07'e told $ou re eatedly not to tip $our chair bac&. 7e can also use ad)erbial phrases B usuall' in different positions in the sentence2 0 still see m$ !irst girl!riend now and then / now and again / every !o o"ten. %e were being attac&ed all the time/again and again. 0t7s been raining on and o"" all da$. /rom time to time 0 chec& m$ e-mails. 07'e been wor&ing non-!to since @rida$. 7e can e1press fre?uenc' more precisel' in man' +a's2 his happens every "our year! / twice a month/ on a daily ba!i!/01 time! a minute. Iuses lea'e every hour on the hour. 0 coo& once in a blue moon.

R
1

Two or t"ree o! t"e o(tions can com(lete t"e sentences)

-nderline t"em) I do ?uestion +hether a se)enteenB'earBold +ill be able to stand up to the pressure of the -ob9 a nonBstop b relentless T constant d liable 1 I9999 ha)e problems +hen it comes to decidin& +hether thereLs a h'phen or not9 a all the time b un+a)erin&l' T in)ariabl' d fre?uentl' 3 It is999999 for babies to be born +ith hair4 isnLt itD a relati)el' rare b not unusual G ?uite often d )er' seldom 4 I +ish I could99999999999 the habit of drin0in& coffee late at ni&ht9 a brea0 b stop G a)oid d &et out of 5 /he fi&ures ha)e to be calculated on a3n5999999999999999999999999999 basis9 a dail' b fortni&htl' G annuall' d monthl' 6 SpotBchec0s can be made an'thin& up to three times9999999999999999 'ear9 a per b the G in a d a 7 SheLs999999 tellin& me +here IL)e &one +ron& in m' life9 a fore)er b all the time T on and off d constantl' D 7e still meet up for a drin0 and a chat once99999999999999999999999999999999 a in a blue moon b at a time T in a blac0 mood d in a +hile E 7e +rite to each other999999999999999999 but not )er' often9 a occasionall' b re&ularl' T no+ and then d rarel' 10 8eLs in the habit of999999999999999999999999 a interruptin& me all the time b hummin& to himself G ma0in& me happ' d not sa'in& +hat he means
FRE=UENCY

AD6ECTIVES

7e can often e1press fre?uenc' usin& ad-ecti)es2 0t7s uncommon/ unu!ual/ rare !or an$one to disown his parents. #ome people are rone to headaches. %e are all !u!ce tible to !latter$. 07m liable to get sunburnt. He won how much> hat7s unheard-o"2

8ABITS AND TRENDS

@erbs4 and )erb and noun phrases4 can e1press habits and trends2 Man$ people tend to tal& too much. #ome are in the habit o" tal&ing to themsel'es. /thers have a tendency not to listen to other people. he underlying trend is towards low in!lation. )o $ou

eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"ese e,tracts !rom studentsE end2o!2'ear re(orts wit" an

a((ro(riate word !rom t"e list) ExampleF Anfortunatel'4 she re?uires constant super)ision9 again !rom un!ailingl$ occasion prone 4constant5 consistentl$ sporadic !ortnightl$ regularl$ now too course inter'als uncommon tendenc$ regularit$ cloc&wor& a She is99999999999999999 cheerful and coBoperati)e9 b 8is attendance at classes has been 4 to sa' the least9 T 8e has a3n5999999999999999999999 to drift off into his o+n dream +orld9 d 8is +ritten +or0 has earned him99999999999999999999999999999999999hi&h &rades9 e time to time his po+ers of concentration +ane9 f E)er'999999999999999999 and then he comes to life and contributes9 & 8e is to lapses of concentration9 h 8er performance in the tests has been impressi)e9 2 8e has been +arned time and time999999999999999999999999999999999 about his beha)iour9 - ,n the odd9999999999999999999999 +hen home+or0 is handed in it is unsatisfactor'9 o It is not99999999999999999999 for his +or0 to be handed in e1tremel' late9 1 She is still999999999999999999 late for lessons4 despite fre?uent +arnin&s9 m She is missin& classes +ith alarmin&999999999999999999999999999999999999 n She deli)ers her assi&nments as re&ular as9999999999999999999999999999999999999999 [ She is able to produce in the9999999999999999999999999999999 of a sin&le lesson +hat man' students re?uire a +ee0 to produce4 p *ll often she is slo+ to respond and appears not be

concentratin&4 ? 8e needs a fairl' stern +ord at re&ular99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in

t"is s"ort letter wit" one suita#le word) T"e !irst one "as #een done !or 'ou)

Cear 6arie& T"ank 'ou !or arranging t"is !ortnig"t "ere !or me) I know "ow #us' 'ouE*e #een wit" t"e da'2)))to99999 9O12da' running o! t"e o!!ice) )))))))))))) 931 usual& 'our c"oice o! course !or me "as #een ins(ired) I !eel m' con!idence is increasing da' ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 9<1 da' #ut ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 941 time

)))))))))))) 971 time I do still wonder w"at IEm doing "ere) I know itEs a once2)))))))))))))))) 9812a2li!etime o!!er #ut da')))))))))))))))))))))) 9 1 da'))))))))))))))) 971& weEre su#Hected to sessions in w"ic"& )))))))))))))))))))))))) 9=1 now and t"en& I !eel like screaming) Ca')))))))))))))))))) 901 da'& t"e' tr' to get 'ou to o(en u( and )))))))))))) 93>1 in a w"ile I !eel I mig"t #e a#le to& #ut t"en)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 9331 o!ten t"an not& I clam u() T"e (ressure is not Hust)))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 93<1 and o!!& itEs constant)))))))))))))))))) 9341 t"e odd occasion w"en we are !ree to rela, 2 like now 2 e*er'))))))))))))))))))) 9371 o!ten someone comes #' and asks E;eeling all rig"tIE)))))))))))))))) 9381 and t"en I !eel like sa'ing% ENo& IEm t"inking o! lea*ingE& #ut so !ar IE*e Hust sto((ed m'sel!) T"anks again) Lots o! lo*e

Y Rewrite eac" o! t"e sentences using t"e


two words gi*en in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar in meaning as t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF E)er' no+ and then there tend to be )iolent storms in this area4 lia#le : intermittent T"ere LMN lia#le to #e intermittent *iolent storms in this area. a E)er' t+o months there +ill be 6 spotBchec0 on ho+ the business is bein& run9 second : carried b /errorist attac0s are happenin& increasin&l' fre?uentl'9 (lace : !reAuenc' T *n emplo'er stri0in& an emplo'ee is almost unheardBof9 e,tremel' : ("'sicall' d Such assaults almost in)ariabl' lead to criminal proceedin&s9 would : rare e ItLs not normal for people to insure themsel)es a&ainst minor accidents9 usuall': serious f /here are fre?uent occasions on +hich the a&e of the offender should be ta0en into account9 times : #orne & /he pressure for the emplo'ees here is nonBstop9 working : under h Emplo'ees are normall' entitled to t+o tenBminute brea0s a da'9 rule : twice i ItLs &ettin& monotonous ho+ re&ularl' -un0Bmail arri)es on ou2 doorstep9 recei*e: regularit' - ItLs unheardBof for a student to &et a refund if the' curtail their course9 un(recedented : gi*en

3ulie

:$

VOCABULARY

SECTION =
Abilit$( Aualit$ and achie'ement
*s +ell as usin& modal )erbs and other )erbs such as be able to( managed to( succeed in( 3see Section 254 +e can e1press abilit'4 ?ualit' and achie)ement in other +a's9
) DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

8ere are some t'pical collocations describin& people +ho sho+ &reat s0ill or abilit'9 3For an introduction to collocation4 see Anit 14 Section #52
' CONNOTATION

ItLs important to 0no+ if a statement has a positi)e4 ne&ati)e or neutral meanin&9 For e1ample2 Her mar&s were very rea!onable. 3S positi)e5 0t7s a moderate achievement. 3S a 0B 0 statement5 0t was a mediocre er"ormance. (4 ne&ati)e5 4 -nderline t"e sentences t"at are de!initel' negati*e) a SheLs a hasBbeen4 b 8eLs a hi&hBflier4 T /he'Lre o)er the hill d SheLs definitel' one for the future9
- METAP8OR

Prepositions often collocate +ith certain nouns or ad-ecti)es9 For e1ample2 #he has a talent ; a gi!t ; a !eeling ; an aptitude ; a !lair "or languages. He has a head "or !igures ; a nose "or a deal ; an ear "or accents; an e$e "or an opening. #he is a person o" rare charm ; abilit$ ; grace.

<etaphor pla's a bi& part +hen tal0in& about abilit'4 talent and achie)ement9 For e1ample4 +e can spea0 of a blossoming talent( !ading powers and a tarnished reputation. 3For an introduction to metaphor4 see Anit 4 Section 95
- T"ree o! t"e !ollowing meta("ors "a*e a negati*e connotation)

Add a((ro(riate (re(ositions to t"ese e,am(les) a 8e has a sense99999999999999999999999timin& H a +ealth99999999999999999999999 0no+led&e H a ran&e99999999999999999999999 s0ills9 b SheLs brilliant H fantastic H &reat H hopeless H terrible9999999999999999ma0in& arran&ements9 T 8eLs hi&h H lo+9999999999999999999999 confidence H stron&9999999999999999999999 oneBtoBone contact4 d /he'Lre e1perts99999999999999999999999 human relations H 8eLs an e1pert999999999999999 19th centur' histor'9

Tick 9:1 t"em) a a buddin& pianist f a meteoric rise to fame b a flourishin& business & +anin& po+ers T a promisin& student h a shootin& star d a fadin& talent i a +ooden performance e a roc0etin& success

COLLOCATION

Practice a ?ualit' performer

a top law$er a leading 8ournalist

+n !00!"ti1! "#&&%ni"+t#( + *(#&in!nt "#n %-t+nt + +n !<*!(t t#*7"-+ *(int!( "##3 + t+( *-+$!( + 0i( t7 "-+ #(+t#( + /(!+t %(/!#n + +n i&*#(t+nt '(it!( + "#&*!t!nt CA ! ?!4 #n! t# '+t"h, 0 Sh!4 )! tin!) 0#( /(!+t thin/ . / It4 #n th! -i**!($ -#*!, h ?!4 h!+)in/ 0#( + 0+--. + n+t%(++n !<*!(i!n"!) !<+&in!( "#&!)i+n + t+-!nt!) in/!(
+ ;ill t"e ga(s #elow wit" one o! t"ese adHecti*es)

R
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F 1F 1F

a b T d e f

seasoned born polished e!!icient eminent strong a3n59999999999 historian a3n59999999999 lin&uist a3n59999999999 campai&ner a3n59999999999 spea0er a3n59999999999 s+immer a3n59999999999 99999 secretar' W"ic" o! t"ese sc"ool re(ort comments would (arents #e% A

(leased wit"& F satis!ied wit"& O dissatis!ied wit"I Put letter& P& F or O #eside eac" ("rase) moderate pro&ress reasonable attainment outstandin& achie)ement mediocre test results satisfactor' +or0 subBstandard assi&nments passable effort e1ceptionall' producti)e considerabl' more effort needed +ell abo)e e1pected standard has achie)ed )irtuall' nothin& -ust fulfils minimum criteria

11

ABILITY, LUALITY ANA AC?IEVEMENT


We can use adHecti*es to descri#e

t"e Aualit' o! somet"ing& !or e,am(le a

deliciou! drink, a gri ing !tory or an .ere are e,cer(ts !rom !our re*iews o! a (la'% en5oyable day. -nderline t"e adHecti*e w"ic" we do not use wit" t"e noun gi*en) ExampleF F food a delicious G tasteful

Re*iewer 3 the costumes +ere out of this +orld9L 3S lo*ed it1 Re*iewer < L999a &allant attempt to &et to &rips +ith the lan&ua&e9L 9Q liked it #ut "ad reser*ations1 Re*iewer 4 uncon)incin& performances9L 9Q didnEt like it *er' muc"1 Re*iewer 7 pathetic attempts at humour9L 3S "ated it1 unri)alled artistr' rather hea)'Bhanded treatment T ine1cusable sloppiness d dreadful li&htin& e lamentable actin& f a barel' +or0manli0e displa' & an undistin&uished portra'al h a second half that dra&&ed a little i a tremendous ran&e of emotion - a bra)e attempt to dem'stif' 1:th (entur' En&lish o a plot that +as unfortunatel' on the predictable side 1 a fairl' decent stor'Bline m unbelie)abl' mo)in& n fabulous sets [ hilarious e1chan&es p unbeatable )alue ? an amusin& subBplot r appallin& dialo&ue s a some+hat corn' endin& t unfor&i)able lapses

# mouthB+aterin& d inedible

1 2 3 4

Write 3& <& 4 or 7 #eside t"e !ollowing comments !rom re*iews) ab

5 6

Y -nderline t"e o(tions t"at #est com(lete t"e sentences) One& two or t"ree mig"t !it)
ExampleF I thou&ht it +as &oin& to be a3n5999999999999999999999999999999999endin&4 but there +as a cle)er t+ist in the final scene9 a predictable # appealin& G nailBbitin& d thrillin&

a drin0 a refreshin& # thirstB?uenchin& G +armin& d fillin& a roomLs decor a stri0in& # soothin& G tasteful d tast' a football match a e1citin& # stri0in& G thrillin& d tedious a film a &rippin& # mo)in& G &raspin& d touchin& a performance a daJJlin& # blindin& G sta&&erin& d flashin& a3n5 talent a natural # innate G =odB&i)en d +ealth'

2 3 4 5 6

1 ,nl'999999999999people in their chosen profession are in)ited to attend this presti&ious e)ent9 a prominent # infamous G fadin& d eminent <' mother has a peculiar999999999999999999999999for ma0in& people feel at home9 a talent # present G &ift d flair <arta has de)eloped a9999999999999999999999 of e1perience o)er the past fe+ 'ears9 a feelin& # +ealth G ran&e d sense Kou must ha)e99999999999999999 success and failure in 'our time9 a 0no+n # made G tasted d sounded /he999999999999 to listen +hile not bein& listened to should not be underestimated9

a corn' G catch' an artist a buddin& G &ifted

a piece of music # s0illed d hauntin&

a aptitude # abilit' G techni?ue d s0ill Uust because heLs &ettin& on for se)ent' doesnLt mean heLs999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 a lost it # past it G up to it d o)er the hill 7 SheLs999999999999 of reducin& a +hole roomful of people to stunned silence9 a able # talented G capable d li0el' D ,ur top scorer is -ust a little bit9999999999999999999999999999 on confidence at the moment9 a lac0in& # lo+ G missin& d needin& E /he President +as a man of )ision4 +asnLt heD a rare # fre?uent G distant d seldom 10 KouLll be &lad to 0no+ that Ku0iLs +or0 is sho+in& a9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 impro)ement9 a mar0ed # mediocre G minimal d pronounced

# +ouldBbe d blossomin& 9 a3n5 -ournalist a prominent # eminent G presti&ious d leadin& 10 a business a flourishin& # successful G thri)in& d

shootin&

78

8888L

E&am p a#t$#% -

) Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the 'assage with !n% suitable wor#. Most 'eo'le I know ......................... 123 ne"er go to a martial arts mo"ie0 e"en if you 'ai# them0 but I #efy anyone not to en,oy ;) minutes in the #ark with =ackie Chan. For a start0 Chan is sim'ly intereste# in e"a#ing the bullies who want to #o him o"er : an# if he bum's into someone as he's running away0 he's ....................... 143 a'ologetic. !is screen 'ersona is ne"er............................ 1(3 to bombast. Chan is a likeable0 bumbling E"eryman who tries to e/tricate himself from scra'es with his astoun#ing athletic ................. 163- as he lea's u' the si#e of a buil#ing0 you .................... 183 swear he was on wires. +ith the kin# of........................ 1*3 an# agility....................... 1;3 limite# to monkeys an# flies0 Chan seems ............ 1>3 of scuttering u' any surface. An# it is e/tremely................... 1?3 for him to go on the offensi"e. &he films of lesser action stars like =ean:Clau#e Dan Aamme 'ro"i#e a #iet of relentless "iolence0 'unctuate# ......................... 12)3 now an# ............ 1223 by some semi:moronic 'witticism'0 but Chan's balletic altercations with his enemies are as a.............. 1243 oriente# aroun# the art of comic e"asion. &rue0 nobo#y.......................... 12(3 e"er win a screen:writing .scar for one of his films- they're the sort of film where "illains................................. 1263 fre5uently #eli"er lines like 'I'm sorry we #i#n't get the ta'e0 four of our guys got blown u''. &hey ............ 1283 to be a series of stunt se5uences0 all #e"ise# by Chan himself0 wra''e# aroun# the most tenuous of 'lots. !e uses no stunt #ouble or state of the art technology or com'uter: generate# tricks. !e is sim'ly a 'erson of.............................. 12*3 charm with an enormous flair........................ 12;3 'hysical come#y. An# what is so ....................... 12>3 is that this ........................ 12?3 cam'aigner.................... 14)3 still be making such films at the age of fifty.

+ Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la $n m%an$n0 as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? a Ao you think you coul# take charge of the catering9 ou .................................................................................................... b E"ery morning0 my gran#father woul# always get the >.2 8 train to work. E"ery morning0 my gran#father always ........................................... P I su''ose it's ,ust 'ossible that I can hel' you out. I might ............................................................................................... " &he #octors coul#n't sa"e her as they #i#n't ha"e the right e5ui'ment. &he #octors woul#n't ........................................................................ % I wish you'# tol# me you were comingB ou .................................................................................................... ( Coul# you 'ossibly get here before lunch9 Is there .............................................................................................

' Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase. a +oul# you ...................... enough to ste' this way0 'lease9 b &he actor claime# he............................. !amlet if he'# wante#0 he sim'ly ne"er got roun# to it. P If I 'romise# to gi"e you a lift home0 ........................................ to meet me in town9 " My son aske# if........................... me back what he owe# the following week0 % It's a goo# ,ob our com'etitors #i#n't #isco"er our 'lans0 or..................... #isastrous conse5uences. ( +e s'ent hours 're'aring the re'ort but it turne# ................. ha"e bothere# as nobo#y rea# it. 0 I #on't think I ........................ so much- I'm so full I feel a bit sick. , I ................ better than to ha"e aske# you for moneyB

For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as similar as 'ossible in meaning to the original

sentence0 but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must not be altere# in any way. a Coul# you 'ossibly close all the #oors as you go9 <$n" b I sai# I was ha''y to len# a han# 'ro"i#e# I coul# fin# the time0 *$ll$n0 P It's not unusual that 'eo'le shoul# feel #iscourage# by their first attem't at woo# car"ing0 t%n" " I bet they felt silly when they realise# they were at the wrong church0 must % &he chances are you'll get laughe# at if you go out looking like that0 l$abl% ( %obo#y takes time off in this com'any0 un,%a "

5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D

Circle the wor# or 'hrase that best com'letes each sentence. !e has a................ talent for mime. A wealthy A satisfactory A eminent A for A woul#:be A me#ium A fulfille# towar#s the en#. A thrilling F natural G born D me#iocre D skilful !e was selecte# to 'lay #es'ite a string of....................................... recent 'erformances. F reasonable G outstan#ing F e/'ert F on F succee#ing G bu##ing F me#iocre F met G minimal G reache# G 'rominent !e is a1n3 ................. authority on the sub,ect. D 5uality G of D blossoming D marke# D gaine# D at She has a talent for all the things I'm ho'eless........................................... !is 'arents like to think their eight:year:ol# is a......................................... concert 'ianist. ou'll be 'lease# to know that turno"er is showing a............................................ im'ro"ement. &hey wante# to know if our kitchen ................................ the re5uire# stan#ar#s of hygiene. I thought the film woul# ha"e a1n3 ................................ finish0 but there was a cle"er twist F a''ealing G 're#ictable D nail:biting

It was her................. 'owers at the keyboar# rather than her age which e"entually F waning F rocketing G sli''ery G eminent D negati"e D hea"y:han#e#

force# her retirement. A meteoric A im'eccable )1 She ga"e aEan ........................... rea#ing of the sonata that ha# the au#ience on their feet.

t ,*7e

#ub8uncti'es and *ast. Conditionals


Entry test
) Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar in meaning as 'ossible to the sentence before it. a It's getting late- I think we ought to lea"e. It's time

9nreal

% E"en if what you say is true0 there is still no reason to think it isn't her money. $e that .................................................................................................. ' Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar in meaning as 'ossible to the sentence before it. a It's lucky I know you or I'# be #ee'ly offen#e#. If ........................................................................................................... b Fortunately0 they're on e:mail0 otherwise they'# ne"er ha"e recei"e# the news in time. +ere ..................................................................................................... #eman#ing that P Coul# you hol# my briefcase a minute so I can mo"e this table9 If you woul# be .................................................................................... he be " &hey may change their min#s0 in which case they'll let us know. Shoul# ................................................................................................... % I #on't think we will0 but if we #i# sell this flat0 how much #o you think we'# get9 +ere ......................................................................................................

............................................................................................................... b &he 'olice are #eman#ing the imme#iate remo"al of all "ehicles from the area. &he 'olice are

............................................................................................................... P +hat ha''ens if the ,ury think he is guilty9 +hat ha''ens if

............................................................................................................... " It #oesn't matter what ha''ens0 we'll still go somewhere nice for your birth#ay. Come ...............................................................................................................

+ Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar


FOR SUB6UNCTIVES AND UNREAL PAST: SEE SECTION )?

in meaning as 'ossible to the sentence before it.

77

a +e can get goo# seats 'ro"i#ing it's 'ossible for you to get there early enough. As ............................................................................................................ b It seems we are lea"ing so I'# better get my coat. If .............................................................................................................. P +e'll see you at se"en0 unless we run into "ery hea"y traffic. Pro"i#e# ................................................................................................. " &hose are Aominic's keys0 aren't they9 !as he forgotten them9 If those .................................................................................................... % Ari"ing as fast as you normally #o0 it's not sur'rising you ha# an acci#ent. If you will .................................................................................................
FOR UNLI9ELY CONDITIONALS IN T8E PRESENT AND FUTURE: SEE SECTION '?

- Fill each of the ga's with a suitable wor# or 'hrase. a E"en if you ....................... hel' you0 I #on't think I woul# ha"e been able to. b I ................ u' so early this morning if I'# known you weren't coming until after lunch0 P If you'# known then what you know now0 .......................................... #one9 " !a# .................. your timely inter"ention0 they'# ha"e gi"en nearly all their money to that con man. % If only..................... to my father's a#"ice0 I'# be a successful lawyer by now.

EE6BBB
FOR PAST CONDITIONALS: SEE SECTION -?

FOR LI9ELY CONDITIONALS: SEE SECTION +?

GRAMMAR

SUB=UNCTIVES ANA UNREAL CASTO CONAITIONALS

OVERVIEW
1
SUB6UNCTIVES

Included in li0el' conditionals are +hat +e call false conditionals9 /hese are called LfalseL because the spea0er 0no+s that the condition has alread' been fulfilled 3see Section 29 52 )" you don$t like opera( wh$ are $ou here> )" you didn$t like the !ilm( $ou should ha'e le!t. 70t7s loc&ed.7 7%ell i" that$! the ca!e we7ll ha'e to go round the bac&.7
Unl$<%ly #!n"$t$!nals

/he sub-uncti)e has limited uses in En&lish9 /he Present sub-uncti)e consists of the infiniti)e +ithout to in all persons 3see Section 19159 In British En&lish4 it is often )er' formal2 ; suggest he !to as soon as he becomes tired. /he Past sub-uncti)e e1ists onl' in were in all persons B H were( he were( we were( etc9 3see Section 19252 ; wish she weren$t so sh$. 3S but she is5

Anli0el' conditionals also refer to the past4 present and future 3see Sections $ and "59 /he' include +hat +e call LSecondL and L/hirdL conditionals2 0t would be easier i" 6eed! were on a direct rail link to 7#"ord. 3S present5 )" you were going to travel to ,ibet, when would be the best time to go> 3S future5 )" )$d li!tened more care"ully to hi! direction!, 0 wouldn7t ha'e got lost. 3S past5
&hen an" if

UNREAL PAST TENSES

/he Anreal Past is similar to the Past sub-uncti)e9 It in)ol)es usin& Past tenses to propose impossible4 unli0el' or h'pothetical conditions4 to discuss ima&inar' situations4 to e1press +ishes4 and to ma0e proposals and polite re?uests 3see Section 152 ; wish he wa!n$t so sh$. 3S but he is5 ; wish 0 didn$t have to go to wor&. 3S but I do5 )" onl$ ) hadn$t li!tened to $ou. 3S but I did5

/hese +ords are similar in some lan&ua&es but )er' different in En&lish2 )" #all$ comes this e'ening( we7ll tal& it o'er with her. 3S she ma' come5 (hen #all$ comes this e'ening( we7ll tal& it o'er with her. 3S she is comin&5 7e sometimes use i! and when as a phrase to sa' +e are fairl' certain a condition +ill be fulfilled2 %e7ll bu$ it i" and when our income impro'es.
Alt% nat$.%s t! if $n #!n"$t$!nals

CONDITIONALS

7e commonl' e1press a condition usin& an tfBclause +ith a main clause9 (onditional sentences are often cate&orised as2 bero Present )" $ou re!! this button( the engine !to !. First will )" she ring! this e'ening( )$ll let $ou know. Second Past > would %hat would $ou do i! $ou became *resident> /hird Perfect > would ha'e )" ) hadn$t !een her( she$d have drowned. Note2 the Past and Past Perfect in Second and /hird conditionals are LAnrealL Pasts9 /hese are useful patterns to learn +hen stud'in& conditionals4 but the' are not the onl' patterns9 In this Anit4 conditionals are cate&orised as2
L$<%ly #!n"$t$!nals

Present > Present >

Past

So / 8! long a! $ou promise not to tell( $ou can come too. Gou can dri'e this car rovided / roviding (that) $ou7re !ull$ insured. Su o!e/Su o!ing something goes wrong( what then> 0 thin& 07ll accept it( a!!uming the o!!er7s still there. Mario can7t come with us( even i" he is $our best !riend. )" only we7d got there sooner( the accident would ne'er ha'e happened. Gou can come in on condition that $ou don7t sta$ long. 9nle!! *eter changes his attitude( he7s going to !ind himsel! in trouble.

/hese refer to past4 present and future 3see Section 259 /he' include LberoL and LFirstL conditionals2 0! you were working late last night( how come 0 didn7t see $our light on> 3S past5 0! you "eel disappointed( that7s natural. 4M present5 0! you do that again( 07m going to tell mum. 3S future5 0! you can meet me at the car( that7s easiest !or me. 3S future5
Fals% #!n"$t$!nals

9nless is close in meanin& to Lif 999 notL9 7e canLt al+a's use it as an alternati)e to i! notF D 07d !eel happici7 unle!! she tal&ed so much. + 07d !eel happier i! she didn$t tal& so much. 7e often use i" onl$ +ithout a result clause2 0! only we7d got there soonerB /ar be it "rom me... So be it. :e that a! it may... Su""ice it to !ay... %ome what may... -eaven "orbid* 6ong live the ;ueen.

PAST SUB6UNCTIVE

SECTION I
#ub8uncti'es and 9nreal *ast
1
PRESENT SUB6UNCTIVE

7e use the Past sub-uncti)e 4were in all persons5 in formal En&lish2 0! the minister were here( he would no doubt re!ute the allegations. 3S formal5 8o+e)er4 itLs more common to use was and were in their usual +a's2 ; wish he wa!n$t such a big-head. 3S informal5 %ere is more common onl' in the phrase i! 0 were $ou( and for all persons in the pattern were 6 sub-ect > infiniti)e2 0 wouldn7t argue with her i" ) were you. (ere the 'ote to go against me( 07d resign.

Present sub-uncti)e 3see ,)er)ie+5 is common in formal British En&lish9 In less formal En&lish4 +e use a Present tense form 3but not if the rest of the sentence is in the past54 and +e can also use should. 3/he e1amples belo+ &i)e alternati)e forms95 7e use Present sub-uncti)e2 in thdtBclauses after report )erbs4 ad-ecti)es or nouns to e1press plans4 ur&enc'4 intentions or su&&estions2 ,he police insisted the car (!hould) be moved immediatel$. he police insist the car i! / be moved immediatel$. 7ords often follo+ed b' a Present sub-uncti)e are2 @erbs2 insist( suggest( reAuest( order( recommend( propose( thin& *d-ecti)es2 ad'isable( essential( desirable( pre!erable Nouns2 decision( insistence( demand( reAuirement( condition after i!. 0! he (!hould) be "ound/i! "ound guilt$( he7ll be 8ailed !or ten $ears. after whether. %hether she (!hould) agree/agree! or not( we7re going to ha'e to go ahead. after whate'er. %hate'er his reasons be / are, the$ are insu!!icient to excuse him. /he Present sub-uncti)e is common in particular phrases2

' UNREAL PAST

7e use Anreal Past 3includin& Past Perfect5 to discuss ima&inar' situations4 to e1press impossible +ishes4 and to ma0e proposals and polite re?uests9 7e can also use Past sub-uncti)e2 after i! +hen +e thin0 it is unli0el' or impossible that the condition +ill be fulfilled2 0! she were to eat/ ate !ish more o!ten( she might get to li&e it. to replace an tfBclause +hen +e ima&ine past4 present or future e)ents bein& different2 -ad he agreed, he7d ha'e become the team captain. (ere he to agree, he7d probabl$ become the next coach. after i! onl$ to e1press re&rets and frustration2 0! onl$ he were/ wa! more ad'enturous. 0! onl$ 0 hadn$t drun& so much co!!eeB 3S but I did5

70

after wish +hen +e are +ishin& for the )irtuall' impossible9 For more reasonable +ishes4 +e commonl' use would or couldF 0 wish 0 weren$t / wa!n$t having the in8ection tomorrow. 3S but I am5 0 wish 0$d li!tened to $ou. 3S but I didnLt5 0 wish $ou wouldn$t shout all the time. after would rather and would sooner to e1press preferences2 <o $ou mean $ou7d sooner 0 weren$t/ wa!n$t here> 07d rather $ou hadn$t ! oken so rudel$ to him. *fter as i! and as though +e use Present and Present Perfect forms to su&&est somethin& is li0el' to be true9 Past forms su&&est it is unli0el' or untrue2 he man spea&s a! i" he ha! / had never heard o! the place. He acts a! though he own! / owned the place. after imperati)e suppose and imagine 3Present tense is also possible52 0magine he were to tell you / told you / tell! you his most personal secrets. #uppose she were to have "ollowed / had "ollowed $our ad'ice. 3S but she didnLt5

after it7s time...F 0t7s time 0 wa!n$t here. 3Past sub-uncti)e is not possible5 0t7s time we le"t. ; 0t7s time to leave.

7hich sentence does not contain a Present or Past sub-uncti)e4 or Anreal Past tenseD a b T d e I propose that this street be closed to cars9 If I +as in his shoes4 ILd &i)e up9 ILm su&&estin& that he reconsider m' proposals9 Ima&ine 'ou are &oin& to fall asleep9 Kou tal0 as if 'ou reall' meant it9

Practice

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" one suita#le

SUB=UNCTIVES ANA UNREAL CAST

word) 9In t"is e,ercise& words suc" as didn$t and weren$t count as one word)1 ExampleF Ima&ine +e hadnLt met all those 'ears a&oN a I canLt tell 'ou ho+ much I +ish the architect9999999999999999999 here to see the results of his +or04 b ItLs time 'ou99999999999999999999999 able to ta0e full responsibilit' for 'our o+n actions9 T If he99999999999999999 so selfBri&hteous4 heLd realise he +as +ron&4 d Ima&ine 'ou9999999999999999999999 completel' blind2 ho+ +ould it affect 'our lifeD e 8e loo0ed for all the +orld as thou&h he999999999999999999been sleepin& in his clothes4 f I reall' +ish 1999999999999999999999 al+a's in so much of a hurr' these da's4 g If onl' she999999999999999999999 so impossibl' beautiful4 h ILd rather 'ou999999999999999999999tal0 so loudl'4 if 'ou donLt mind9

Add one o! t"ese common ("rases to eac" o! t"e sentences) su!!ice it to sa$ be that as it ma$ God !orbid so be it !ar be it !rom me

come what ma$

a If499999999999999999 4 'ou +ere to die4 +hoLd run the businessD b I donLt +ant to e1plain99999999999999999999999999999*unt Sarah is comin& to sta' after all9 T If 'ou reall' +ant to drop out of colle&e4 then99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d 999999999999994 ILm determined to finish decoratin& m' room this +ee0end9 e 99999999999999 to tell 'ou +hat to do4 but 'ouLd be mad to marr' him9 f L/his medicine tastes horribleNL L9999999999999999999999999999999994 it +ill cure 'our cou&h9L

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar as (ossi#le

in meaning to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF ILll &et anno'ed if 'ou 0eep as0in& me e)er' time 'ou ha)e a problem9 ILd rather you didn$t kee a!king me every time you have a problem9 a Should the' stri0e the consultant off4 sheLll ne)er +or0 a&ain9 If she be 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b ,ur nei&hbour tal0s as if he o+ned half the count'4 doesnLt heD /o hear our 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T /hat coc0' ne+ bo' tal0s li0e someone +ith 'earsL e1perience9 /hat coc0' ne+ bo' tal0s as 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d (ould 'ou +or0 this out +ithout that calculatorD Suppose 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e ItLs 'ou not thin0in& carefull' that caused us to ha)e these problems9 If9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences

using t"e Present su#Huncti*e) ExampleF /he commandin& officer &a)e the order for them to &o for+ard9 /he commanding o""icer gave the order that they go "orward. a /heir decision that he should be promoted is a &ood one9 b It is essential that +e are 0ept full' informed of an' de)elopments4 T /he ANLs insistence that he accepts the terms of the ceaseBfire seemed infle1ible4 d 7hether the referee is ri&ht or not4 the decision cannot be o)erturned4 e 7hate)er she decides4 +e cannot chan&e our plans4 f She insisted that I didnLt tal0 to an'one else about +hat I sa+9

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assages wit" one word) 0B Uust99999999999999 315 'ou 99999999999 325 not eaten for a +ee0 or t+o and 99999999999 3$5 absolutel' star)in& and the onl' food that999999999999999163 a)ailable to 'ou +as a trapped rat that 'ou 999999999999 3 5 no +a' of coo0in& an'+a'4 +ould 'ou be temptedD T"ank 'ou !or 'our e2mail) I agree t"at it is essential 'ou #e !ull')))))))))))))))))))))))) 931 wit" t"e !acts o! t"e case) T"e' are as !ollows) It was agreed si, mont"s ago t"at& come w"at)))))))))))))))))))))) 3254 t"e a#o*e residence ))))))))))))))))) 3$5 decorated inside and out #e!ore t"e end o! $une) T"is "as not "a((ened and m' solicitor "as recommended I)))))))))))))))))))) 971 wit" legal action !ort"wit") 6a' I suggest t"at 'ou ))))))))))))))))))))) 981 me as a matter o! some urgenc')

.c/ Cear 6aria&


IEm a!raid IE*e got some #ad news) I know we agreed it was ad*isa#le t"at Sta*ros))))))))))))))))) 931 t"e summer "olida's wit" 'ou) -n!ortunatel' m' (arents "a*e c"anged t"eir minds and are now insisting "e 999999999999 325 to At"ens to sta' wit" Aunt Sotiria))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 3$5 it to sa'& t"e' are not allowing an' discussionR At"ens it is& alt"oug" "e reall' wis"es "e))))))))))))))))) 971 at least s"are t"e (eriod #etween 'ou and "is aunt) Cimos is going to England !or t"e summer) I! onl' li!e))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 981 so sim(le !or all o! us) /ind regards&

=>

SECTION <
:i&el$ conditionals in the past( present and !uture
1
VERB FORMS IN T8E BF@CLAUSE P %s%nt ! (utu %

Gou can do it that wa$ i! $ou li&e( but 0 wouldn7t recommend it. going to for predictions or intentions2 0! $ou do that again( 0$m going to leave.

MIDING TIME REFERENCES

/o tal0 about conditions in the present or future that +e thin0 are li0el' to happen4 +e use Present tenses or modals9 /his is the most common form of conditional sentence2 0! he come! into the room( don7t mention the part$ this e'ening. 7Can 0 lea'e earl$ toda$>7 70! $ou mu!t.$ /o tal0 about the future4 +e can also use going to in the ifBclause9 E'en i! we$re not going to go swimming( we7d still better ta&e a towel. Can for abilit' is also common in ifBclauses2 Assuming $ou can leave wor& earl$( we7ll be able to ma&e the 3.O0 per!ormance.
Past

It is sometimes possible to ha)e an ifBclause referrin& to the present or future4 and a main clause referrin& to the past4 especiall' +ith must ha'e and can7t ha'e for deductions2 0! he$! here alread$( he mu!t have !et o"" 'er$ earl$.

FALSE CONDITIONALS

False conditionals 3see ,)er)ie+5 are )er' common +hen mi1in& time references2 don7t eat red meat.7 7%ell( i! that$! a problem we$ll have to "ind another restaurant.7

/ic0 3iH5 the sentence that is incorrect9 a 7eLd better &et read' if heLs comin& round soon4 b If I ha)e to4 ILm &oin& to tell him +hat I thin0 of him9 T If the film +ill be uninterestin&4 +e can lea)e before the end9 d If 'ou donLt understand4 +h' didnLt 'ou as0 meD e If 'ouLll -ust +ait a moment4 ILll see if heLs in9

/o tal0 about e)ents in the past4 +e can use Present Perfect or Past Simple H (ontinuous9 /his su&&ests that either +e are not sure if somethin& happened4 or +e are assumin& it did and +ant to dra+ a conclusion from it 3see ,)er)ie+ for false conditionals4 and see Section " for unli0el' conditionals in the past52 0! he$! read that report( he7ll &now what all the !uss is about. 0! $ou$ve been telling the truth( we need to act Auic&l$. *ro'ided that she caught her !light( she7ll be landing an$ moment now.

&!'' 0 &O#8T IN T8E BF@CLAUSE

7e sometimes use will and won7t in the i! clause( +ith the meanin&s of refusal 3+onLt54 polite re?uest 4will5( or stron& disappro)al at someoneLs insistence on doin& somethin& 4will5F 0! he +onLt go, there is nothing $ou can do about it. 3S refusal5 0! $ou$ll hold this end( 07ll ta&e the other one. 3S re?uest5 0! $ou will drive so !ast( $ou must expect to ha'e accidents. 3S insistence5

*part from the meanin&s abo)e4 +e donLt normall' use will in ifBclauses to indicate the future2 D 0! the weather will be !ine tomorrow( we can go !or a wal&. ; 0! the weather i! !ine tomorrow( we can go !or a wal&.

VERB FORMS IN T8E MAIN CLAUSE

@erb forms in the main clause follo+ the normal rules for tense and modal use9 Some of the most common are2 Present to indicate certaint' of the result2 Simple 0! $ou mix blue and red( $ou get purple( will to predict future e)ents4 ma0e promises4 etc2 *ro'ided 0 see him( 0$ll tell him. will have to predict +hat +ill ha)e happened2 he train will have le"t i! we don7t get there soon.
can

to e1press abilit'4 permission4 etc2

Practice

LI9ELY CONDITIONALS IN T8E PAST: PRESENT AND FUTURE

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences

in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar as (ossi#le

eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& cross out an' o! t"e underlined *er# !orms t"at

in meaning to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF 8a)in& been to London4 'ou should be able to tell us +hat itLs li0e9 If you$ve been to 6ondon, you hou3d be able to tell u! what it$! like. a *ssumin& e)er'thin& &oes accordin& to plan4 +eLll be +ith 'ou b' si1 oLcloc09 Anless 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he Finn is almost certain to +in4 unless his en&ine blo+s out durin& the race9 /he onl' +a' 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T ILll lend 'ou m' car for 'our holida' on condition 'ou &et it ser)iced after+ards9 If 'ouLll pa' for 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d Kou &i)in& him 'our number su&&ests 'ou did +ant to see him a&ain9 7h' did 'ou 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e KouLll find 'our dinner in the o)en9 If 'ou 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /hereLs clearl' nothin& I can do to stop 'ou lea)in&9 If 'ouLre determined 9999999999999999999999999999999999999 & I thin0 ILll &o s+immin& after school4 despite the li0elihood of rain at that time9 E)en if99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

we cannot use) a If 'ou lea)e H +ill lea)e 'our thin&s l'in& around4 'ou shouldnLt be surprised if 'ou lose H +ill lose them4 b If 'ou +ait H +ill +ait here a moment4 ILll tell <r Bro+n 'ouLre here B assumin& he-] H +ill be in9 T If 'ou trust H +ill trust me4 I ta0e H +ill ta0e the mone' to him4 pro)idin& 'ou ha)e H +ill ha)e it +ith 'ou no+9 d If the unit fits H +ill fit in the corner there4 I thin0 it is H +ill be the best place4 unless 'ou can H +ill thin0 of an'+here else4 e If 'ou help H +ill help me +or0 out +hether +e need to ma0e another order at the moment4 I spend H +ill spend some time tomorro+ helpin& 'ou +ith 'our statistics4 if 'ou li0e H +ill li0e9

Eit"er two or all t"ree o! t"e main clauses 3aBc5 can com(lete t"e sentences 31B

#59 Put a cross >?@ ne,t to t"ose t"at cannot) 1 %o that a&ain and a ILm lea)in&9 # I canLt help 'ou9 T 'ou +ould be sorr'9

2 A %&in/ $#%4(! /#in/ t# !! hi&, 2 2 2


a # T a # T If the boss is feelin& rela1ed4

If PaulLs been to *ustralia4 If 'ouLre still not sure4 tell him about the meetin&9 +ill 'ou &i)e him a messa&e from meD he canLt be a complete recluse9 +e all feel the same +a'9 the inspection +ill &o all ri&ht9 it +ould be a bad si&n9

3
a # T a #

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit" one word) S

I0 $#% 'i-- /# i* +,#%t #th!( *!#*-!,

heLll probabl' ha)e ac?uired an accent9 I thin0 'ou should &o there9 he +ould certainl' &o to Ne+ bealand9 'ou hadnLt been follo+in&9 'ou canLt ha)e been concentratin&9 T

itLs clear 'ou +erenLt listenin&9

a 'ouL)e &ot to e1pect people to &ossip about 'ou9 # people are &ossipin& about 'ou9 T 'ou canLt e1pect others not to &ossip about 'ou9 L* catD 999 *ll ri&ht4L I said4 Lon9999999999999999999999999 315 that 'ou loo0 after it4 9999999999999 325 that 'ou feed it and as999999999999999999999999 3$5 as 'ou donLt e1pect me to clear up after it9L If999999999999999999999 3"5 I had been more firmN /he animal is ne)er fed9999999999999999 3 5 I do it6999999999999999999 3#5 for me4 it +ould ha)e star)ed to death months a&o9999999999999999999 3:5 I 0no+n that the childrenLs interest in the beast +ould +ane as soon as it arri)ed4 I +ould ha)e ans+ered differentl'9 /he poor thin& is i&nored b' them999999999999999999999999 3!5 if it sprin&s into their laps9 9999999999999 395 I to 0idnap the thin&4 I donLt thin0 the' +ould notice9 Should the'9999999999999999 3105 as0 for a do&4 I thin0 IL)e &ot m' ans+er read'9

GRAMMAR

SECTION <
9nli&el$ conditionals in the present and !uture
1
VERB FORMS IN T8E BF@CLAUSE P %s%nt

7e use be to in a fairl' formal +a' to e1press conditions9 It su&&ests that the spea0er has no influence o)er +hether the condition +ill be fulfilled or not9 Are to( am to( and is to su&&est the condition ma' be fulfilled9 %ere to 3or4 informall'4 was to5 emphasises that the condition is )er' unli0el'2 0! we are to get rid o! him( who will tell him> #upposing $ou were to win the lotter$( how would $ou spend the mone$> 7e can omit i! or other conditional +ords and start the sentence +ith %ere. /his is not possible +ith areF (ere we to ta&e on more sta!!( how could we a!!ord to pa$ them>

7hen +e tal0 about unli0el' or impossible situations in the present4 +e use Past sub-uncti)e or Anreal Past 3see Sections 192 and 19$5 in the ifB clause to indicate that the opposite is true2 0! 0 didn$t know $ou so well( 07d sa$ $ou were l$ing. 3S but I do 0no+ 'ou +ell5 0! onl$ he weren$t so stubborn( he7d agree with us. 3S but he is stubborn5
Futu %

7hen tal0in& about the future4 +e use an Anreal Past tense in the ifB clause to indicate that +e are tal0in& h'potheticall' and thin0 the condition is unli0el' to be fulfilled2 0! $ou told him( he7d ne'er belie'e $ou. 3S I donLt thin0 'ou +ill tell him5 #uppose $our car broke down, what would $ou do>

VCBBBBBBBBBBB
7hich of the follo+in& sentences refer to conditions in the present 3P54 and +hich to the future 3F5D present future a If 'ou as0ed him nicel'4 heLd let 'ou ha)e the da' off9 b If 'ou +ere a bit more considerate4 'ouLd offer me a seat4 T Should 'ou chan&e 'our -ob4 +hat +ould 'ou doD pp d If I +ere to sa' +hat I reall' thin04 ILd upset a lot of people4 e If I thou&ht he +as dishonest4 I +ouldnLt ha)e offered him the -ob9

VERB FORMS IN T8E MAIN CLAUSE

7e commonl' use would and could in the main clause +hen there is an Anreal Past or Past sub-uncti)e in the ifBclause2 0! 0 weren7t so bus$( 0$d ta&e a long holida$. 0! $ou lent me D+0( 0 could buy it toda$. C 7e also use mi&ht2 #he might !tay longer i! $ou as&ed her nicel$.

&O;'- IN BF@CLAUSES

7e use would and wouldn7t in ifBclauses for polite re?uests and stron& +ishes that someone +ould do somethin&2 0! $ou would be &ind enough to lend me a hand( we could !inish this 'er$ Auic&l$. 0! $ou would 8ust calm down !or a moment( $ou7d see what 07m tal&ing about.

7e donLt use would in ifBclauses to indicate simple future2


D 0 thin& $ou7d be mad i! $ou. would give u $our 8ob. P; 0 thin&

$ou7d be mad i! $ou gave u $our 8ob.

S*O;'- IN BF@CLAUSES

7e can use should in ifBclauses instead of a Present or Anreal Past9 It su&&ests that the condition is possible but unli0el'9 7e use will or would or other modals in the main clause2 0! the$ !hould agree the contract( we$d ha'e to wor& twice as hard. /his structure is formal and rou&hl' e?ui)alent to the phrase b$ an$ chanceF 0! by any chance the$ do turn up( we7d better tell them what happened. In more formal conte1ts +e can also omit i! or other conditional +ords and start the sentence +ith #houldF Should $ou change $our mind( please let me &now.

!" ((( A>E TO ! &E>E TO

!$

Practice

UNLI9ELY CONDITIONALS IN T8E PRESENT AND FUTURE

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word)

I&+/in! PB#% '!(! t# 'in th! Q#tt!7(7i 7 1ih+t 1i#%Q) ^#% )#>

In accordance +ith 'our recent re?uest4 +e are pleased to suppl' the follo+in& reference9 <iss Baiocci 999999999999 3154 I am sure4 be a real asset to 'our or&anisation4 0no+in& as she does a &reat deal about the +a' a compan' such as 'ours operates9 /here are )er' fe+ duties here that I could9999999999999999999999 325 confidentl' entrust her +ith4 and if she +ere999999999999999999999999 3$5 -oin 'ou4 'ou99999999999999 3"5 soon come to999999999999999999 3 5 her or&anisational and interpersonal s0ills9 If it999999999999999999999999 3#5 not clear that she is determined to mo)e a+a' from this area4 +e +ould999999999999999999 3:5 e)er'thin& +e999999999999999999 3!5 to 0eep her here9 *ssumin& +e9999999999999999999999 395 to lose her4 I 999999999999 3105 be happ' to 0no+ that she9999999999999999999999999 3115 bein& ta0en on b' a compan' +ith a reputation such as 'ou en-o'9999999999999999 3125 an' further information be re?uired4 please do not hesitate to contact me9 to do 'our -ob499999999999999999999 reactD d (onsiderin& his a&e and the seriousness of the operation4 it +ould be a99999999999999999999999999 sur)i)ed it9 e Should 'ou e)er999999999999999999999999 of a helpin& hand4 remember +here I am9 f If that +isdom tooth is &i)in& 'ou trouble4 I9999999999999999999999999999999999999999

i Th+n3 $#%. B Y! ,
out9 & If b' an'99999999999999999999 into <rs 8ebden +hile 'ouLre out4 could 'ou &i)e her this noteD

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is

as similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF I donLt 0no+ if +eLre late because I donLt ha)e a +atch9 If I had a +atch4 )$d know +hether +e +ere late9 a NicoLs not )er' &ood at maths so he canLt become an accountant9 7ere 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b Should an'thin& happen to ma0e 'ou chan&e 'our mind4 let me 0no+9 If b'9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T Supposin& the +orld +as &oin& to end tomorro+4 +hat +ould 'ou do toni&htD 7ere 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d Mindl' calm do+n so I can e1plain +hat I mean9 If 'ou +ould 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e I canLt &o and +or0 in France #ecause I canLt spea0 French )er' +ell9 If999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 ! I thin0 'ou should complain to the mana&er9 I!)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) & Supposin& +e do &o ahead +ith the buildin&4 it

;!--, +"t%+--$, I4) (+th!( '! )i)n4t. I 'i h $#% h+). I0 #n-$ I h+)@ I %**# ! it i . I4& %(! $#% '#%-). 8+( ,! it 0(#& &! t# )i "#%(+/! $#%. O0 "#%( ! I 'i--.
Perhaps I +ould9 h If +e999999999999999999 Frida' deadline4 some o)ertime ma' be necessar'9

6atc" a sentence !rom t"e le!t 31B!5 wit" a res(onse on

t"e rig"t 3 a h 5 9 ExamplesF [ > 8 q > i 9 7ould it be all ri&ht if +e sat hereD 10 Should 'ou need me4 ILll be ne1t door9

^jjSj^

GRAMMAR

SECTION
*ast conditionals
1
VERB FORMS IN T8E BF@CLAUSE

-ad 0 believed her !or one moment( 0 wouldn7t ha'e re!used to help. ,ccasionall'4 somethin& that is &enerall' true Balthou&h +e +ish it +asnLt B can ha)e results in the past2 0! 0 wa!n$t/ weren$t such an idiot( 0 wouldn7t ha'e done that.
!f it hadn8t been for(((

7e use Anreal Past Perfect in the ifBclause to indicate that +e 0no+ +hat happened but are speculatin& about +hat +ould ha)e happened if the opposite had been true9 /his is sometimes called the L/hirdL conditional2 0! she$d known m$ number( she would ha'e phoned. 3S but she didnLt 0no+ it5 0! 0 hadn$t been !tanding out!ide the supermar&et( we might ne'er ha'e met. 7e can omit i! and start +ith HadF

/his phrase means L+ithout her4 'our4 etc9 help4 interference4 etc9L9 7e can use the phrase 0! it weren7t ! wasn7t !or... to refer to the present4 thou&h if the time reference is clear4 it can occasionall' refer to the past2 )" it wa!n$t "or the par&ing problem( 07d dri'e to wor&. )" it hadn$t been "or $ou( we7d ne'er ha'e got there on time. -ad it not been "or %agner( modern classical music would sound 'er$ di!!erent.

=7

)" it wa!n$t "or / hadn$t been "or those dela$s on the motorwa$ we7d ne'er ha'e missed the wedding.
&ere

In formal En&lish +e can use conditional structures be&innin& +ith %ere > Perfect infiniti)e2 (ere $ou to have !to ed and con!idered, $ou7d ha'e seen the error o! $our wa$s.

VERB FORMS IN T8E MAIN CLAUSE

For Past conditionals that ha)e results in the past4 +e use modal Perfects 4would ! could ! might ha'e( etc952 Had $ou told me earlier( 0 could have done something about it. For Past conditionals that ha)e results in the present or future4 +e use mainl' would( could or mightF 0! $ou7d listened more care!ull$ to his directions( $ou wouldn$t be lost now. 0! onl$ 07d entered politics earlier( 0 could be *rime Minister now. 7ith false conditionals in the past4 +e use Past tenses in the main clause9 7e donLt use Anreal Past Perfect in the ifBclause2 0! $ou were in the area( wh$ didn$t you come and 'isit>

&O;'- *A+E ((( &O;'- *A+E

/he use of would ha'e in both ifBclause and main clause is becomin& )er' common in spo0en and e)en +ritten En&lish9 ItLs still considered incorrect b' some people2 0! 0$d have known how expensi'e it was( 0 wouldn$t have gone. ItLs sometimes difficult to hear Past conditionals spo0en at speed because of short forms2 0$d$ve come at once i! onl$ $ou$d$ve rung me.

PAST CONDITIONALS WIT8OUT CONDITIONAL WORDS

7e often use a Past conditional structure +ithout usin& a con)entional Lconditional +ordL li0e i! or unlessF Iut !or $our help( we7d ne'er ha'e managed. %e7d ha'e been completel$ lost without $ou. Gou should ha'e come - $ou7d ha'e lo'ed it. he !ilm would ha'e been 8ust as e!!ecti'e in blac& and white.

/ic0 3H5 the sentence that has both an ifBclause and a main clause +hich refer to the past9 a If I +asnLt so tired all the time4 I +ouldnLt ha)e made such an elementar' mista0e4 b If 'ou had dri)en faster4 +eLd be there b' no+9 T ILd ha)e run& 'ou if ILd 0no+n 'ou +ere at home4 d I +ouldnLt be &oin& to London if 'ou hadnLt told me about the e1hibition4 e If 'ou +ere ri&ht about the +eather4 +eLre &oin& to &et +et9

CAST CONAITION ALS

2
1

f /urnin& left at the li&hts +ould ha)e &ot 'ou here ten minutes earlier9 7ere 'ou 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 ;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& sa' w"et"er a or #& or #ot"& can com(lete t"e & /he onl' reason the child hasnLt been prosecuted is the fact that heLs onl' t+el)e9 7ere it9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h /he police sho+ed &reat restraint and a)oided a potentiall' )er' u&l' incident9 /here could 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

sentence) Tick ( S ) an' t"at we can use& (ut a cross >?@ !or an' t"at we cannot use) ExampleF If President Menned' hadnLt been assassinated in 19#$ a the (old 7ar mi&ht ha)e ended sooner4 # *merica +ill be )er' different9 ? If it hadnLt been for the a+ful +eather4 1 If ILd realised 'ou +erenLt comin&4 1 If he had told 'ou the truth4 1 If 'ou li0ed =reece4 +eLd ha)e spent more time sailin&4 # +e +ould &o there a&ain9 a I +ouldnLt be so an&r'4 # I can do somethin&9 a 'ou shouldnLt ha)e &ot an&r' +ith him9 # 'ou +ouldnLt be in this predicament9 a 'ou should ha)e come +ith us to Na1os9 # +h' didnLt 'ou come +ith us to Na1osD 5 8ad the' e1plained a the'Lre stupid4 their reasons4 # 'ouLd understand9 K ;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" a suita#le word or ("rase) a If9999999999999999 for the postal stri0e4 the che?ue +ould ha)e arri)ed toda'9 b In those da's 'ou +ould ha)e been brea0in&9999999999999999999999999999999999999999 I% card on 'ou at all times9 T If 'ou had been in m' shoes499999999999999999999999999999999 doneD d 8ad +e99999999999999999999 misinformed about the bus times4 +e +ouldnLt ha)e been late9 e In retrospect 'ou mi&ht ad)ised to &et a la+'er9 f If Ioannis sta'ed that lon& at the part'4999999999999999999999999999999999999been ha)in& a &ood time9 & But99999999999999999fire alarm alertin& us4 the buildin& +ould ha)e &one up in flames9 a

Write sentences t"at are a (art o! a

c"ain& as in t"e e,am(les) ExamplesF I cheated from him in the Entr' /est9 7e finished up in the same class9 i" ) hadnLt cheated "rom him in the =ntry 3e!t, we wouldn$t have "ini!hed u in the !ame cla!!-7e used to do our home+or0 to&ether9 >" we hadn$t "ini!hed u in the !ame cla!!, we wouldn$t have done our home+or0 to&ether9 a 7e started to find out ?uite a lot about each other9 3Be&in2 0! we ... homewor& together( ...5 b 7e disco)ered that +e had a lot in common4 T 8e in)ited me to &o to the National =aller'4 d 7e sa+ the most incredible paintin&s4 e ILm a true artBlo)er no+9 f I +ent to the National =aller' a&ain 'esterda'4 & I met another artBlo)er there4 h ILm &oin& out to dinner toni&ht9 1 I didnLt phone 'ou9 - Kou ha)enLt +arned me 'et about &oin& out +ith artBlo)ers9

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar as (ossi#le in

meaning to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF /he 'oun& lad +asnLt loo0in& +here he +as &oin& and tripped o)er that +ire9 )" the young lad had been looking where he wa! going, he would not have tri ed over the wire. a /he onl' thin& that made the sho+ +orth +atchin& +as the )isual effects9 If it999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b I +ould ne)er ha)e &ot so far if m' parents hadnLt encoura&ed me9 8ad it99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T KouLre l'in& in this hospital bed because 'ou for&ot the most basic rule of Safet' First9 If 'ou 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /a0in& that -ob +ould ha)e meant her +or0in& from ! till ! e)er' da'9 She999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e But for the &oal0eeperLs brilliance4 +e could ha)e lost b' man' more9 If the 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Un*t ,*7e

?ocabular$
SECTION =
Metaphor
* metaphor is a combination of )ocabular' items +e use to e1press a particular feelin& or encoura&e ima&ination4 e9&9 her sunn$ smile( ha'e a big head( purr with delight( a sun-drenched beach( pull strings.
) COMPOUND AD6ECTIVES AND NOUNS AS METAP8ORS

C 8ere are some e1amples2 0t7s a case o! swings and roundabouts. Ma&ing mista&es is part and parcel o! growing up. 07ll mo'e hea'en and earth to achie'e m$ goal. his selling season is ma&e or brea& !or the car industr$. #he ma$ act strangel$( but li'e and let li'e is what 0 alwa$s sa$. 4 -nderline an' o! t"e !ollowing com#inations in w"ic" t"e two words are gi*en in t"e wrong order) !lesh ... blood ins ... outs hell... hea'en blac& ... white shoulders ... head lows ... highs dance ... song downs ... ups

Some compounds are al+a's metaphorical B the' ha)e a meanin& that each part of the compound doesnLt ha)e9 * bloodbath is ne)er La bath full of bloodL6 the compound has onl' the meanin& of La massacreL9 ,ther e1amples of compounds that are al+a's metaphorical include2 mindgame! nutca!e thought-reader !un-tra !inbin wine-lake narrow-minded warm-hearted bone-dry hard-bitten green-"ingered !oul-!earching

a SheLs been floatin& on air since her en&a&ement4 # ILd be o)er the moon if I scored one &oal4 let alone three4 G SheLll be in se)enth hea)en if sheLs passed9

-nderline t"e words t"at we alwa's use meta("oricall') clampdown summit dead-end roc&-bottom cold-blooded worldshattering

SINGLE WORDS USED METAP8ORICALLY

7e can also use man' sin&le +ords in metaphorical conte1ts2 0 hope this will ha'e cu!hioned $our loss. #eeing him on stage "ired m$ enthusiasm. #he 8ust "ro?e when she saw her exbo$!riend. 0 didn7t thin& she7d ha'e the bottle to as&.

-nderline t"e *er#s t"at #est com(lete t"e sentence) 7Get outB7 the boss bar&ed ; thundered ;cooed ; sAuea&ed ; purred ; roared ; snapped ; bleated.

IDIOMATIC P8RASES

Some idiomatic phrases are combinations of t+o +ords connected +ith and or or( for e1ample come rain or shine. /he pairs ha)e a fi1ed order2 Z #he was the !oul and li"e o! the part$. ; #he was the li"e and !oul o! the part$.

Practice

=
1 2

7rite do+n the theme that the metaphors in each set of

sentences share9 a * +a)e of emotion spread throu&hout the countr' on the ne+s of her death4 # 7e +ere met b' a sea of faces4 T Perhaps the tide has turned for our econom'9 a 8eLs no+ at a crossroads in his life9 # Successful business+oman and compan' o+ner4 sheLs in the fast lane no+9 T I +ish he +ould stop &oin& from one deadBend -ob to the ne1t9 a I thin0 this attitude stems from the 19!0s9 # But -u)enile rebellion has its seeds in the #0s9 G I rec0on our presentBda' 'outh culture has its roots in the 0s9

3 4

a *lternati)e medicine is a flourishin& business4 # <' 'oun& nephe+ is a buddin& pianist9 T ,ur ne1tBdoor nei&hbourLs dau&hter is reall' blossomin& at secondar' school9 5 a It +ould be easier if the boss didnLt al+a's +ant to be at the hub of thin&s4 # 7e need to &et to the heart of the matter4 G ItLs time +e reduced the siJe of our coreBstaff9 6 a If onl' heLd see the li&ht and &et a haircutN # /he tra&ic ne+s cast a shado+ o)er the e)enin&Ls e)ents4 G *fter 'ears of recession4 thereLs li&ht at the end of the tunnel9

a If 'ou pla' 'our cards ri&ht4 'ou could end up *rea <ana&er4 # ILd rather +e didnLt sho+ our hand 'et6 letLs 0eep them &uessin&4 G 7eL)e &ot one last ace up our slee)e9 a 8eLs rarel' out of the spotli&ht no+ada's9 # Meep scorin& &oals6 there are some &ood 'oun& pla'ers +aitin& in the +in&s4 G Kou ne)er 0no+ +hatLs happenin& behind the scenes in politics9 -nderline t"e word or ("rase t"at #est com(letes

META C?OR 4
/hereLs been a99999999999999999 of public s'mpath' since her death9 a +a)e # sea G ri)er 5 I could ha)e been one of the9999999999999999999999999 of the &ame of &olf9 a monsters # mountains G &iants 6 <umLs so &ood to us6 sheLs an absolute9999999999999999999999999999999999 a fair' # an&el G nurse 7 <' brotherLs been a99999999999999999999 of stren&th throu&h all the problems IL)e had9 a to+er # heap G mountain D I +ish 'ou +ould be absolutel'99999999999999999999999999 +ith me9 a bent # croo0ed G strai&ht E /he (hancellor is tr'in& to put the99999999999999999999999999999 on the econom'9 a accelerator # bra0es G &ears 10 /he bo' in the flat abo)e ours is becomin& a real 9999999999 for his parents9 a bac0ache # toothache G headache

eac" sentence) 7hat happened in 19!9 +as a99999999999999999999999999 in European political histor'9 a +atershed # borderline G +aterfall 2 /hat &hastl' concrete bloc0 of flats is a real99999999999999999999999999999999999 a e'eBsore # e'eBstrain G e'eBcatcher 3 /he bottom end of our &arden is a real99999999999999999999999999999999999 a sunshade # sunBtrap G sunsee0er 4 /here +as a3n599999999999999999 moment +hen the lorr' suddenl' )eered to+ards us9 a earBsplittin& # earthBshatterin& G heartB stoppin& 5 /o succeed in this -ob 'ou ha)e to be utterl'999999999999999999999999999999999 a hotBblooded # sin&leBminded G 0indBhearted 6 /he poor bo' +as absolutel'9999999999999999999999999+hen she left9 a le)elBheaded # shortBsi&hted G bro0enBhearted 7 8a)in& to re+rite a report that 'ou thou&ht +as prett' &ood can be rather999999999999999999999999999999999999 a bac0Bbrea0in& # soulBdestro'in& G mindB blo+in& D If 'ou +ant a halfB+a' decent standard of li)in&4 thereLs no escape from the999999999999999999999999999999999999 a ratBrace # bratBpac0 G -etBset E /he authorities had been accused of conductin& a a&ainst nonBconformists9 a manhunt # +itchBhunt G treasureBhunt 10 7eLll ha)e to +ait and see if thereLs a999999999999999999999999999999999 after this temporar' peace a&reement9 a bac0hand # bac0lash G bac0drop

C"oose t"e word or ("rase w"ic" #est

com(letes eac" sentence) KouLll ha)e to be on 'our9999999999999999999999 if 'ou +ant to beat her9 a fin&ers # feet G toes 2 /hese &irl pop &roups are headin& for a9999999999999999999999999999999999 a drop # fall G trip 3 * rise in interest rates at the time +ould ha)e thro+n our plans out of99999999999999999999999999999999999 a place # half G &ear 4 7ith all these scandals4 sheLs ne)er off the9999999999999999999999999999999999 a front pa&es # headlines G tabloids 5 7h' do 'ou al+a's +al0 at a9999999999999999999999999paceD a snailLs # tortoiseLs G sna0eLs 6 I +ouldnLt marr' him B not in a9999999999999999999999999999'earsN a hundred # million G billion 7 8eLd ha)e been o)er the if heLd been selected for that mana&ement course9 a +orld # moon G sun D *im for the999999999999999 and 'ouLre bound to be a success9 a planets # moon G stars E If 'ou set 'our si&hts too hi&h4 'ou ma' fall flat on 'our 999999999999999999999999 a bac0 # nose G face 10 Sac0ed from one -ob4 offered a better one6 it loo0s as if heLs landed on his999999999999999999999999999 a&ain9 a feet # bac0 G face underweight *er#s undercut underestimate undergo understate under'alue
) -nderline t"e words t"at do not contain t"e idea o! E#eneat"E or

=
1 2

-nderline t"e word or ("rase t"at #est com(letes eac"

sentence) /he bride suddenl' turned on her heels and9999999999999999999999999999999999 out of the church9

a soared # accelerated G fle+ %onLt 'ou thin0 the British sometimes ha)e a rather999999999999999999999 sense of humourD a creased # +arped G chipped 3 /here +ould be a9999999999999999999 of protest if the' sho+ed the )ictims on /@9 a sea # stream G storm

ElessE) a undercut # undergo e underta&ing T understa!!ed ! underwrite

SECTION
%ord !ormationF pre!ixes and su!!ixes
) PREFIDES C8ANGE MEANING

d under!oot

+ SAME PREFID @ DIFFERENT MEANINGS

<an' prefi1es can ha)e more than one meanin&9 Before ad-ecti)es4 un- means LnotL2 unaware uncommon unconscious undecided unimportant Before nouns4 un- can indicate L+ithoutL2 untidiness un&indness unemplo$ment Before )erbs4 un- means Lto do the oppositeL2 uncurl undo unplug unloc& unwrap un2ip 0n- and im- can sometimes indicate LnotL2 indecisi'e in!inite in!allible impenetrable impolite /he' can also meanLinHinsideL2 inta&e indoors implant imprison < -nderline t"e words t"at mean Enot)))E) a un!aith!ul # unpac& G inhospitable d impractical e impound ! inside ' PREFIDES IN FRONT OF TNON@EDISTENTT
WORDS

* prefi1 at the be&innin& of a +ord has a meanin& of its o+n that chan&es the meanin& of the +ord it is -oined to9 Mno+in& +hat the prefi1 means can help us to understand the +ord9 For e1ample4 if 'ou read unpremeditated and 0no+ that meditate means Lthin0 about somethin&L B 'ou can +or0 out the meanin& of unpremeditatedF un- is a prefi1 meanin& LnotL6 predenotes LbeforeL6 meditated means Lthou&ht aboutL9 Kou can no+ +or0 out that unpremeditated means somethin& li0e Lnot thou&ht about in ad)anceL9 7e can use prefi1es in front of2 nouns underclothes underpa$ment undersigned understud$ underta&ing adHecti*es underde'eloped underground undernourished underpri'ileged

7e use prefi1es in front of man' +ords +here the base form doesnLt e1ist b' itself9 For e1ample4

!!

incessant means L+ithout stoppin&L but there is no such +ord as LcessantL 3althou&h there is the )erb cease5. 8ere are more e1amples2 in!lect intact immune disparage repeat impeccable impede un&empt unscathed $ -nderline t"e words t"at "a*e no #ase !orm t"at e,ists #' itsel!) indirect inept untie in!init$ unprompted impromptu und$ing undue undul$ insipid
- SUFFIDES T8AT S8OW T8E PART OF SPEEC8

danger 3noun5 becomes2 dangerous !orget 3)erb5 becomes2 !orget!ul -ise -i!$ -en form )erbs2 intense 3ad-5 becomes2 intensi!$ !lat 3ad-5 becomes2 !latten 7 Write num#ers ne,t to t"ese su!!i,es according to w"ic" (art o! s(eec" t"e' usuall' indicate) * !ew #elong in more t"an one categor')
) ad-ecti)e + noun ' )erb

Bist Bhood Bor Bese Brr Ben Bision Bsome Bship Bise Bical Bif' Bible B' Bant Bi)e Bness
/ SUFFIDES T8AT 8AVE MEANING

* suffi1 chan&es the meanin& of the +ord it is -oined to onl' b' chan&in& its part of speech6 e9&94 +e can add -it$ to the ad-ecti)e national to ma0e the noun nationalit$. 7e often need to chan&e the spellin&4 for e1ample4 urgent becomes urgenc$. 8ere are some e1amples of suffi1es2 -ation !-ition -ance -c$ -er -ment -ness -it$ -ist form nouns2 in!orm 3)erb5 becomes2 in!ormation dance 3)erb5 becomes2 dancer sweet 3ad-5 becomes2 sweetness tour 3)erb5 becomes2 tourist -ous -able -!ul -ing -ical -less -$ form ad-ecti)es2

* fe+ suffi1es4 particularl' at the end of ad-ecti)es4 ha)e meanin&6 e9&9 -less al+a's indicates L+ithoutL2 meaningless useless homeless hopelessl$ remorselessl$ C 8ere are more e1amples2 -li&e -proo! -tight -!ul -worth$ -able as in2 childli&e childproo! watertight respect!ul trustworth$ understandable

;ORA 8ORMATION9 CRE8IRES ANA SU88IRES


K Com(lete t"e #lanks wit" t"e corrected !orm o! t"e #ase word gi*en 31B#59 t"e !irst 305 is gi*en as an e,am(le) 305 Anderstand 315 Impress 9<1 .ele)ant 941 (onsult 971 (onsider 981 @alue 3#5 7orth

K 6atc" a (re!i, wit" a word to make a new word) T"en c"oose t"e a((ro(riate meaning !or t"e (re!i, !rom t"e list) =#am le@ 1 anti-the"t/ again!t 30 1 < 4 7 8 # 7 ! 0 10 antiB5 intersuperexminiabo'ercoarchtransprepower author hi-!i normal cit$ continental 'iew enem$ wi!e spend 4the!t5 3a&ainst5 not main too much )er' bi& before pre)ious bet+een small to&ether across

T"e Crusades
/he medie)al crusades4 +hen 7estern European 0ni&hts and ad)enturers attempted to seiJe Uerusalem from the hands of the Sel-u0 /ur0s4 are +idel' under!tood 305 b' most people in the 7est4 +ho thin0 of them as &lamorous and heroic9 /rue4 the le)el of heroism +as occasionall' 99999999999999999 3154 but in fact the crusaders +ere i&norant and mis&uided9 For e1ample4 the' )ie+ed the B'Jantine Emperor4 throu&h +hose lands the' had to tra)el4 as an anno'in&99999999999999999999999 1430 den'in& him e)en so much as a ............ 1(3 role in the proceedin&s9 In realit'4 his lon& e1perience of the Saracens had &i)en him a not99999999999999999999999 3"5 0no+led&e of their fi&htin& methods and politics9 8is ad)ice4 had the crusaders chosen to follo+ it4 +ould ha)e been absolutel'9999999999999999999999 3 59 Instead4 the' repeatedl' dismissed it as99999999999999 3#5 +ith the result that4 despite initial success4 the crusades e)entuall' d+indled to i&nominious failure9

T"e solutions to all t"e crossword clues

are (re!i,es) Write t"em into t"e grid #elow)

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences using t"e two (rom(t words gi*en)

ExampleF /he pro&ramme +ould onl' +or0 if it +as selfBfinancin&4 +ouldnLt itD *ia#le : itsel! T"e rogramme would onl' be viable i" it could "inance it!el", wouldn$t it' a Anfortunatel' the optimism +e all felt didnLt last )er' lon&4 did itD o(timistic: s"ort2li*ed b 8er outstandin& performance put e)er'one else bar none in the shade9 outs"one : e,ce(tion T I donLt thin0 'ou can ha)e &rasped +hat I +as &ettin& at9 misunderstood : tr'ing d /his has absolutel' nothin& to do +ith +hat +e are discussin&9 irrele*ant : under

A)(oss 2 not a #ilingual dictionar' 2 Hust "al! a circle 8 talented in lots o! wa's = not as w"ite as w"ite could #e 1F s"e isnEt a #elie*er 1F (er"a(s we rate "er too "ig"l' 1F t"is centenar' 2 a <>>t" anni*ersar' 1F not (aid enoug"

clot"es not discriminating #etween t"e se,es 7 t"e (rocess is still going 0 a taste in ad*ance 3< make a !riend o! 14 "e a((eared and t"en "e was gone 14 "eat it u( again 14 i! (enultimate is second !rom t"e end& w"atEs t"irdI 14 not as intellectual as "e a((ears 2F in !a*our o! 2F two roads or ri*ers coming toget"er << a #ic'cle wit" an e,tra w"eel <7 "ours to wra( t"e (resents& ten seconds !or t"is

17 17 17 17 17

courses !or graduates not a *er' sensiti*e t"ing to sa' "e s(elt EaccommodationE wit" oneEmE #e!ore t"e war it wonEt #e (roducti*eS Auite t"e re*erse <4 t"e' (la'ed so muc" #etter t"an us 25 a new kind o! Romantic 25 t"is is not rele*ant Do/n 1 get rid o! t"e !rost in t"e !ridge 1 itEs not !unctioning rig"t 1 tem(eratures #elow Tero 1 not (ractical or (ossi#le #igger t"an t"e national c"am(ions"i(s

!9

Practice

W?

E&am p a#t$#% /

) Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means e/actly the same as the one 'rinte# before it.
EXAMPLE-

&he only way they're going to re,ect this offer is if the 'rice is

too high. &hey will certainly acce t thi! o""er i" the rice i! not too

high. .r- &hey will certainly acce t thi! o""er unle!! the rice i! too high.
a Let me know when you're coming an# I'll be able to book the seats. Fnless ............................................................................................... b +ithout your hel' we coul#n't ha"e got the car starte#. If it ..................................................................................................... P So long as you #ri"e carefully0 you shoul# ha"e 'lenty of 'etrol to get you home. Ari"e carefully or .............................................................................. " 'Aon't kee' #oing that or I'll lea"e0' she tol# him. She tol# him she ............................................................................... % ou won't get there before four o'clock howe"er fast you #ri"e. E"en if ............................................................................................... ( +e'll start at three as long as you're all on time. Pro"i#e# ............................................................................................ 0 $ut for his bra"ery0 se"eral 'eo'le might ha"e been kille#. If it ..................................................................................................... , E"en if you #isagree with her0 she'll still carry on. ou .................................................................................................... $ If you ha#n't come at the right time0 we'# ha"e been in trouble. !a# ................................................................................................... 7 +e must be 're'are#0 in case the worst ha''ens. Shoul# ............................................................................................... J +e really shoul# be lea"ing0 shoul#n't we9 It's high ............................................................................................. I It's a 'ity you tol# e"eryone what we were u' to. I'# rather ........................................................................................... m An a''eal against her con"iction might change e"erything. +ere ................................................................................................. n In"iting him to #inner woul# ha"e meant my cooking all afternoon. If ........................................................................................................ K Shoul# there be no 5ualifie# 'arame#ic on the 'remises0 call this number. In the ...............................................................................................

+ Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE-

If it ha#n't been for the 'ostal strike0 the letter would have

arrived to#ay.
a All the best bargains.............................. sol# if we #on't get to the market soon0 b If you #on't call me before *.)) '.m.0 I ......................................... you are no longer intereste#0 P It's high time ........................ clean about what you were #oing last night0 " If you ................... socks u'0 you're going to fail the entrance test0 % I wish .................... my father's a#"ice because with hin#sight he was ob"iously wrong. ( I wish I ..................... foot in this horrible city. 0 If I'"e 'romise# to #o something for you0 you can be sure I ..................... out of it. , !a# .................. your timely inter"ention0 we coul# ha"e lost a lot of money0 $ E"en if.................... to 'ay for her ticket0 she woul#n't ha"e gone with me. 7 It's high time they ........................... min#s on whether to sack her or not. J I ................ tol# you what &ony sai# if I'# known you were going to gossi' about it. I If I ha# known they weren't really getting marrie#0 I .................. time 're'aring my s'eech. m If you ha# been in my shoes0 ................................. sai#9 n If only ................... while the iron was hotB It's too late now.

0>

' Fn#erline the wor# or 'hrase that best com'letes each sentence.

1 2 3 4 5 6

=ulia 'laye# a.................. role in the 'lanning of the millennium e/hibition. A consultation F consulting A infallible A unworthy A im'risone# A im'resse# A hea# F unfailing F "aluable F im'oun#e# F im'oun#e# F min# G consultati"e G fail:'roof G in"aluable G im'ale# G im'eache# D im'elle# G brain D intelligence D consulte# D falsifie# D im'ecunious D interne# E"en the best me#icines are not.................................. In the e"ent0 we foun# your a#"ice absolutely.......................................... I 'arke# in a restricte# area an# the 'olice ..................................... my car. !e has been ................. for gross miscon#uct. In the en#0 I ,ust lost my........................... an# starte# gabbling incoherently.

- Circle a letter E: F: G or D that best fills each numbere# ga'. &he e/am'le 1)3 is gi"en. ./for# is a city with such a................................ 1)3 re'utation that many who come here fin# themsel"es intimi#ate# by the 'lace an# can't wait to lea"e0 while others0 taking to it like a................. 123 to water0 fin# themsel"es returning again an# again. &he college lawns 'ro"i#e a gorgeous ........................ 143 to serious stu#y0 an# in the right light0 on a sunny winter's morning say0 one feels as if one is......................................... 1(3 on air0 such is the sense of unreality. ./for# may like to.............................. 163 that it is at the intellectual ................................. 183 of things0 but in many ways it is no more than a slee'y........................................... 1*3 where0 to mi/ meta'hors0 transitory stu#ents0 the ........................... 1;3 of their generation0 wait in the..................................... 1>30 allowing their talents to....................... 1?3 before mo"ing off into the in#ustrial or 'olitical .............................................. 1L3' Much of this is a myth0 of course. !ar#shi' an# har# work are "ery much 'art an# ............ 1223 of stu#ent life. &he ............................... 1243 get through the three years' har# ............ 12(3 by sim'ly 'utting their shoul#ers to the.............................................. 1263 before going on to fairly a"erage ,obs. .nly for the tiny minority is ./for# the first...................................................... 1283 on the la##er to fame an# fortune. 1 IAJ min#:blowing ) A fish + A back#ro' ' A flying - A 'reten# / A wheel 2 A backwater 3 A froth 4 A 'a"ilion 5 A flourish )1 A 'eak )) A 'ackage ) + A le"el:hea#e# ) ' A 'ush ) - A cart ) / A ste' F F F Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q clear:hea#e# #uck curtain gli#ing act engine stream cream #ressing room o'en abattoir section hot:hea#e# 'ull wheel 'osition G G G P P P P P P P P P P P P P backhan#e# boat scene floating #issemble s'oke tributary fat wings s'rea# #ea#:en# 'ro"ince hot:bloo#e# grin# engine ele"ation D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D broken:hearte# swimmer screen swimming 'ro#uce hub watershe# ca"iar foyer float fast:lane 'arcel kin#:hearte# roughage boat ascent

'ROGRESS TEST 3

P !0 %ss t%st )

1testing contents of Fnits 2:83

Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the 'assage with !n% suitable wor#. Many cities can arouse e/citement an# a 'assionate res'onse ................................................. 123 their "isitors but Florence is almost guarantee# to bowl ............................... 143 all but the most worl#:weary tra"eller. Its countless museums an# galleries........................... 1(3 be o"erwhelming at first0 an# many 'eo'le fin# it #ifficult to ............ 163 in an# absorb the "isual bombar#ment from the 'ast. It is home to buil#ings that ha"e ............ 183 famous ...................... 1*3 o"er the worl# an# ............................ 1;3 now easily recognise# by any tourist0 but you ................. 1>3 to look further than the ob"ious symbols of the city to #isco"er its real character. &rue0 nowhere .......................... 1?3 the relationshi' between the sacre# an# the worl#ly more elo5uently .................. 12)3 than in Florence's ma,or churches an# 'alaces0 but the whole city is a 'henomenon ne"er again to be ............................... 1223 an# one you will ne"er................................ 1243. &he Ponte Decchio0 which ............................ 12(3 the Ii"er Arno at its narrowest 'oint0 was once the most im'ortant thoroughfare between the two si#es of the city. ................................................. 1263 in 2 (68 to re'lace the earlier twelfth:century woo#en structure...................................... 1283 away by floo# waters0 the bri#ge is line# with ,ewellers' sho's which ........................... 12 *3 acte# as a magnet for "isitors .................................. 12 ;3 this #ay. Few ............12>3 #eny that if any city in Euro'e is worth "isiting0 Florence........................................................ 12?3 be "ery near the ............ 14)3 of the list.

Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t?
EXAMPLE-

Maria shoul#n't ha"e many 'roblems with the a#ministrati"e si#e of the ,ob. It's unlikely that Maria, will, have, many

problems, with .the. g.dminjstrg.tiye. .side of. the job. .

+ , " ) ! 0 / h

&hey only reimburse# us because we took legal a#"ice. +e woul#n't ..................................................................................................................................................................................... &here's a "ery goo# chance that the com'any ran u' those #ebts intentionally. &he com'any coul# ........................................................................................................................................................................ My salary is half what it woul# be in the ,ob I was offere# in =anuary. If I ha# ............................................................................................................................................................................................. It's a long time since anyone ga"e my car a 'ro'er ser"ice. I ha"en't .......................................................................................................................................................................................... It woul# ha"e been common courtesy to let me know you were coming. ou might ........................................................................................................................................................................................ She went before I realise# what was ha''ening. $y the .............................................................................................................................................................................................. It's time we were 'lanning our ne/t holi#ay0 isn't it9 Aon't you think we ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9 +e'"e ha# lots of arguments with that 'articular harbour master before. &his isn't ..........................................................................................................................................................................................

Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE-

$ut for the authorities' recent inter"ention0 the cou'le WQUJd have sorted out their #ifferences together.

+ + + + + + 4

+hen he came in0 his han#s were co"ere# in oil an# grease because he....................................................... on his car. +ere the ne/t +orl# Cu' ........................ in your country0 woul# you a''ro"e9 &hat's the last................... anything from a mail:or#er catalogue0 I assure you. !a# there ............... a s'ecial offer on that month0 I woul# 'robably ne"er ha"e ,oine# the club. &hese 'roblems ha#...................... out before the Annual 7eneral Meeting ne/t month. M Fortunately0 there is little ........................ such a mistake being ma#e again.
UV) W V) 7 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% ! $0$nal s%nt%n#%: but using the

wor# gi"en. &his wor# must n!t b% alt% %" $n any *ay?
EXAMPLE-

I'# like to make a few suggestions0 (! *a "

I'd.like to. p t forward.g few s ggestions.. IaJ It was wrong of you to take what he sai# for grante#0 s,!ul"nTt

IbJ !is e/am results will #etermine what choice he has for further e#ucation0 "%p%n"%nt

I#J If by chance you're arreste#0 you #on't ha"e to say anything0 un"%

I"J &he new minister seems to be e/cellent at fiel#ing awkwar# 5uestions0 (la$

I%J Peo'le often fin# their first e/'erience of sky:#i"ing rather sickening0 #!mm!n

I(J +e coul#n't hear most of what he sai#0 $nau"$bl%

I0J &heir e/clusion from union meetings stems from their shocking beha"iour at the last one. s$n#%

I,J 7enerally0 the ma,ority of the au#ience is ma#e u' of school chil#ren0 #!mp $s%

2,.E A

04

'ROGRESS TEST 3

/ Choose the wor# or 'hrase which best com'letes each sentence. Circle the letter E: F: G or D for each sentence

31:483. 7i"e !n% ans*% !nly to each 5uestion.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D E 1F 11 12 13 14

I'm afrai# you may fin# the truth somewhat.......................................... A ine#ible F unmanageable G in#igestible D un'alatable

&he youth team really....................... themsel"es in the semi:final. A surmounte# F e/celle# G beat D e/cee#e#

I 'ersonally #on't belie"e you can .............................. of his su''ort. A count F #e'en# G rely D be sure

!e o'ene# the account with a1n3 ............................... to running u' a healthy o"er#raft. A aim F "iew G 'ur'ose D 'lan

&he ........... feeling at the meeting was that we shoul# go ahea#. A 're#icte# F 're:eminent G 're#ominant D 'refabricate#

&he estate agent assure# us that we coul# .................................... the house at any time. A look o"er F o"erlook G o"ersee D see through

&here is little #oubt that your #aughter has a real ......................................... with animals. A affinity F intuition G a'titu#e D flair

our 5uery unfortunately #oes not................................ into this category. A fall F take G set D work

&here is e"ery................... of things going horribly wrong. A o''ortunity F chance G 'robability D o'ening

our work falls well ................. the re5uire# stan#ar#. A un#er F below G short D off

She came back with an answer as 5uick as a1n3 ........................................ A twinkling F lightning G flash D e/'ress

&he go"ernment was finally....................... #own by a minor scan#al. A brought F taken G come D 'ulle#

It a''ears that the hostages were not.............................. to any unnecessary suffering. A sub,ugate# F sub,ecte# G subsume# D sub"erte#

&he........ are against her winning a fourth consecuti"e gol# me#al. A chances F bets G 'ros'ects D o##s

)/ !er 'erformance in the last scene was 5uite.............................................. A #escribable F remarkable G notable D noticeable

'ROGRESS TEST 3

16 17 1D 1E 2F 21 22 23
A to

!a"e you e"er really................... u' to your 'arents9 A s'oken F reache# G worke# D stoo#

For years now it seems he has been ............................. by ba# luck. A bugge# F #oome# G #ogge# D haunte#

Fnem'loyment figures ha"e...................... since the last election. A lifte# F raise# G flown D soare#

At last0 I ........... on him to hel' us out of our #ilemma. A 'ersua#e# F 're"aile# G laboure# D con"ince#

&he earth5uake................ *.8 on the Iichter scale. A weighe# F measure# G achie"e# D counte#

ou shoul# be .............. ashame# of yourself for what you'"e #one. A thoroughly F ho'elessly G entirely D earnestly

+oul#n't you agree that the balance of 'ower has ..................................... recently9 A affecte# F swe't G shifte# D weighe#

&he referee's attention was #rawn .......................... a 'layer lying 'rostrate in the centre circle. F by G on D for

24 25

Aes'ite a string of................... 'erformances he retaine# his 'lace in the si#e. A 'romising F reasonable G satisfactory D mo#erate

%obo#y from the Presi#ent #own shoul# imagine they are........................................... the law. A beyon# F o"er G within D abo"e

ii'Mlti'liU

08

*t s*:

:in&ing clauses
Entry test
) Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible to the sentence 'rinte# before it. a Fncle Eric fell #own the stairs a few years ago an# hasn't felt right since. E"er ........................................................................................................ b +e might as well go for a coffee as the film won't start for another hour. Since ...................................................................................................... P As soon as solemn music starte# to 'lay on the ra#io0 I realise# the Presi#ent ha# #ie#. .n .......................................................................................................... " &he ki#s finishe# breakfast an# ran to the beach. .nce ...................................................................................................... % ou coul# gi"e me a han# as you'"e nothing better to #o. Seeing .................................................................................................... ( our comments on the hotel are "ali# as far as the 'oor 5uality of the ser"ice is concerne#. In that ..................................................................................................... So that .................................................................................................... % &he #rug has such a 'owerful effect that many #octors refuse to 'rescribe it. So .......................................................................................................... ( %ews of the e/'losion was co"ere# u' for fear of u'setting the negotiations. ' Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible to the sentence 'rinte# before it. a &he accuse# still claims she was frame#0 though all the e"i#ence 'oints to the contrary. Aes'ite ................................................................................................... b It may be #ifficult to un#erstan# book:kee'ing0 but it's certainly useful when it comes to running a business. Aifficult .................................................................................................... P As an actress she is e/traor#inarily talente#0 but she still #oesn't get the roles she #eser"es. &alente# .................................................................................................. " My mother is well into her eighties0 but is still remarkably acti"e. E"en .......................................................................................................
FOR TIME AND REASON CLAUSES: SEE SECTION )?

% ou can try all you like to 'ersua#e me otherwise0 but I still think fashion is a waste of time. !owe"er ................................................................................................. ( our shoes are fine0 but your clothes look a com'lete mess. +hile ....................................................................................................... 0 &he #octors coul#n't agree on a suitable course of treatment for me0 howe"er much they #iscusse# it. %o ........................................................................................................... , I a#ore ol# films0 but that one was a real turkey. Much .......................................................................................................

+ Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible to the sentence 'rinte# before it. a Many 'eo'le fell aslee' #uring the e/tremely boring s'eech. &he s'eaker was so .............................................................................. b &he 'erformance was so #rea#ful we left before the inter"al. It ............................................................................................................. P !er formi#able re'utation meant that most 'eo'le were in consi#erable awe of her. Such ....................................................................................................... " I think we shoul# establish clear aims in case we all get confuse#.

FOR CONCESSION CLAUSES: SEE SECTION '?

8OR RESULT ANA CURCOSE CLAUSES, SEE SECTION 2.

Iecause this ? is old( we7re ha'ing problems with it. Gou tr$ to !ix it since $ou thin& $ou7re so cle'erB
R%sult #laus%s

OVERVIEW
) TYPES OF LIN9ING CLAUSES

.esult clauses state the result of a situation9 7e use so( such( etc9 3see Section 29152 M$ mobile phone wouldn7t wor& in the mountains !o we had to !ind a callbox. His reputation is !uch that his competitors are in awe o! him.
Pu p!s% #laus%s

*part from conditional clauses 3see Anit 4 ,)er)ie+ $54 there are other t'pes of clause +e can use to sho+ the relationship bet+een statements in a sentence9
T$m% #laus%s

/ime clauses are ad)erbial clauses +hich state +hether one thin& happened after4 before or at the same time as another9 7e introduce them usin& a con-unction4 e9&9 when( a!ter( while( once( etc9 3see Section 3)31% As soon as 07'e !inished reading the newspaper( 07ll wash up. 07ll ma&e the salad while $ou7re getting on with the pasta.
R%as!n #laus%s

Purpose clauses sho+ +h' people do thin&s4 or +hat their intention is +hen the' do them9 7e use a toBinfiniti)e4 or a con-unction e9&9 in order to( so as to( etc9 3see Section 29252 he$ stopped to loo& at the map. ?ehicles ha'e been !itted with catal$tic con'erters in order to reduce pollution.
C!n#%ss$!n #laus%s

.eason clauses are ad)erbial clauses +hich state +h' somethin& is the case9 7e introduce them usin& a con-unction4 e9&9 because( since( as( etc9 3see Section 19252

(oncession clauses lin0 statements +hich contrast +ith one another in a surprisin& +a'4 often e1pressin& somethin& une1pected9 7e use con-unctions such as howe'er( although( etc9 3see Section $52 E'en though it7s !ree2ing cold( *am insists on wearing a minis&irt. 0 lo'e tra'elling( though 0 !ind airports tiring.
-in #laus%s

7e can also use -ing clauses to e1press time and reason relationships 3see Section 31% %atching the ad'ert !or digital ?( Ien wondered about the technolog$ in'ol'ed. Ha'ing realised that $ou were going to be late( $ou should ha'e phoned to change $our appointment.

REASONS FOR USING LIN9ING CLAUSES

Asin& different structures to sho+ the relationship bet+een e)ents allo+s us to be more precise about the relationship9 It also adds )ariet' to simple or dull lan&ua&e9 (ompare the follo+in& e1amples2 a #he wal&ed into the room with the stolen picture and loo&ed around care!ull$. #he established that she was alone and wal&ed o'er to the window. #he opened it and immediatel$ it started to rain hea'il$. b %al&ing into the room with the stolen picture( she loo&ed around care!ull$. /nce she had established that she was alone( she wal&ed o'er to the window. Hardl$ had she got it open when it began to rain hea'il$.

POSITION OF LIN9ING CLAUSES

/he order of the t+o clauses can chan&e as lon& as the relationship remains clear9 7e commonl' place the more important information at the end2 0 carried on wor&ing( although 0 !elt reall$ tired. 3S focus on feelin& tired5 Although 0 !elt reall$ tired( 0 carried on wor&ing. 3S focus on +or0in&5

7e donLt normall' use will after +ords li0e when( as soon as( until( once and in case in time clauses2 D ITll wait hcrt until the repair man will come. 07ll wait here in case he will turn up later. + 07ll wait here until the repair man comes. 07ll wait here in case he turns up later. 7e can sometimes use the same +ord to introduce different t'pes of lin0in& clauses4 for e1ample2 W"ile $ou ha'e a point( we can7t alter $our contract( 07m a!raid. 3S concession5 %hile $ou7re on the phone( let7s tal& about next wee&end. 3S time5

07

DE

GRAMMAR

SECTION I
ime and "eason
) TIME CLAUSES

%e7re expecting a bus$ summer in!o"ar a! boo&ings are alread$ up !or August. his product is guaranteed ina!much a! we7ll replace it i! $ou return it within thirt$ da$s.

"or

7e can use different lin0in& +ords and phrases in time clauses to be more precise about2 +hen thin&s started 4since( e'er since5F =ver !ince she read an article on dishonest hotel owners( @otini has !ound things to complain about. thin&s happenin& at the same time 4as( while( whilst( when5F (hile the bath was running( she chec&ed the state o! the towels. 8! she was doing so( she noticed a hole in one o! them. (hil!t she waited !or the bath to !ill( she switched on the ?. 3S formal5 one thin& follo+in& another 4a!ter( be!ore( as soon as( when( once( etc952 #he began to get more irritated when she realised the ? wasn7t wor&ing. #he decided to ring reception a! !oon a! she7d !inished her bath. 7nce she7d had her bath( she was !eeling much better. Bow that she was relaxed( she could cope better with the problems. 8"ter she7d waited hal! an hour !or someone to mend the ?( she became edg$. one thin& follo+in& another )er' ?uic0l' 4no sooner...than( the moment;minute...( etc952 7n phoning reception $et again( she was told that the repairman was on his wa$. #he7d hardly put down the phone when there was a &noc& on the door. )mmediately he7d !inished( the repairman le!t. #he7d no !ooner switched on the ? than there was an enormous explosion. e)er' time 4when( whene'er( e'er$ time5F (hen she sent letters to the hotel( the$ ne'er replied. (henever she went bac& in person( the$ said the owner was una'ailable. +hen thin&s finish 4until( b$ the time...( etc952 @otini wrote and phoned !or three months( at which oint she lost patience. #he was determined to !ight on until she got some satis!action. #he !inall$ contacted a solicitor( by which time the hotel had closed down.
-!#G CLAUSES

is used in )er' formal or literar' conte1ts onl'2 He was 'er$ ner'ous "or he was being 'ideoed.

-ing clauses are used to e1press reason relationships2 %e Aueued !or o'er two hours( ho ing to get tic&ets to the concert. -aving a!!ed m$ dri'ing test( 0 thought 0 could hire a car.

7hich of the phrases can be&in the sentenceD a Immediatel' he sa+ her b ,n seein& her T 8e had no sooner seen her d Seein& that she hadnLt noticed e /he moment he sa+ her

he tried to attract

her attention4 him

7e can use an -ing form after 4e'er5 since( a!ter( be!ore( while( when( whene'erF Since reading that article( Colin7s re!used to eat red meat. 8"ter waiting !or ages !or a table( we decided to tr$ another restaurant.
+ REASON CLAUSES

7a's of introducin& reasons2 becau!e is much more common than the others4 especiall' to ans+er %h$...>F 0 didn7t sa$ an$thing becau!e $ou7d ha'e been angr$. :ecau!e 07ll be in tonight( 07ll bab$-sit. !ince, a! pi22a( let7s bu$ !ish and chips. 8! $ou7'e seen the !ilm( let7s go somewhere else( (5u!t) in ca!e is used to tal0 about thin&s that ma' possibl' happen2 )on7t lea'e him alone in ca!e something happens( !eeing that meanin& LsinceL2 Seeing that we7re agreed( we might as well go ahead. in that, are used in fairl' formal En&lish to in!o"ar a!, -ustif' +hat +e ha)e -ust said4 often b' ina!much a! indicatin& +h' the statement is true2 He7s rather untrustworth$( in that he con'enientl$ !orgets that he owes $ou mone$. often introduce reasons that the listener or reader alread' 0no+s2 Since $ou don7t li&e

54

GRAMMAR

TIME ANA REASON


K Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences using t"e words gi*en in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e K Write a correct *ersion !or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences) ExampleF *s soon as I +ill &et the ans+er4 ILll let 'ou 0no+9 As soon as I get the answer( 07ll let $ou &now. a *fter 199:4 e1ports ha)e been boomin&4 b 7hen ILll &et bac04 ILll tell 'ou all about it9 T 7hen e1aminin& it more closel'4 he realised that the tic0et +as for the ne1t da'9 d ,nce she +ill ha)e understood the procedures4 sheLll +or0 much faster9 e ILd no sooner ta0en m' seat +hen the fire alarm +ent off9 f *s our bus didnLt lea)e for another hour4 so +e didnLt ha)e to rush9 K 6atc" t"e !irst "al*es o! sentences 31B 5 wit" t"e second "al*es 3aBe5 and connect t"em wit" one o! t"e linking words listed #elow) ExampleF > #' w"ic" time! while on now that the minute once 4b$ which time5 sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF /he trainin& co)ered all the techni?ues and +as therefore prett' comprehensi)e4 9inso!ar1 /he training was prett$ comprehensi)e inso!ar as it co'ered all the techni?ues9 a ILm half =erman and so can spea0 the lan&ua&e fluentl'4 9#eing1 b /he traffic ma' be hea)' on the motor+a' so letLs a)oid it9 9in case1 T KouLre not bus' so come and &i)e me a hand4 9seeing1 d /heir failure to implement e)en one item in their manifesto +ould seem to indicate that this &o)ernment is ineffecti)e9 9inasmuc"1 K ;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in

5F 7e pla'ed tennis from three until si145 1 1 1 1


I understand +h' 'ou donLt li0e her I thin0 I must ha)e dropped m' 0e's She +as bound to contact the police 8e phoned his +ife immediatel' chapters4 b hearin& the result of the tests4 T I +as +al0in& to +or0

a I had read the first fe+

suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF 7hen she finds out +hat 'ouL)e done4 sheLll immediatel' inform the police9 /he moment she !inds out what $ou7'e done( she7ll in!orm the police. this mornin&4 d IL)e finall' met her9 e she disco)ered her diamonds missin&4 3f I +as e1hausted95 a %aniel +as bus' +ith his computer &ame4 &i)in& me time to loo0 round his room9 7hile 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b Finish eatin& first9 /hen 'ou can +atch tele)ision9 Kou canLt 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T /he missin& bo' +as last seen -ust before (hristmas9 Nobod' 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d *fter the first fe+ minutes4 I be&an to en-o' the film9 ,nce 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e I turned on the /@ and the doorbell ran& a moment later9 ILd no 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

I be&an to en-o' the no)el K ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word) I had no99999999999999999 315 sat do+n and opened the menu than she came in4 smilin&4 sli&htl' s+a'in&4 her arm outstretched99999999999999999999999999999 325 catchin& si&ht of her4 I realised that all the time I had been halfBhopin& for this4 999999999999 3$5 since I boarded the plane9 *nd the9999999999999999999999999999 3"5 she sat do+n4 it +as as if she had been e1pectin& me4 as if +e had arran&ed to meet the ni&ht before9 7e had99999999999999999999 3 5 e1chan&ed openin& pleasantries +hen behind me I heard the +aiter4 +ith remar0able intuition4 as0 +hether he should brin& champa&ne9 7e be&an tal0in& +ildl'4 ?uestionin& and ans+erin&4 lau&hin& bet+een smiles99999999999999999999999999 3#5 I complimented her on her En&lish4 she pouted499999999999999999999 3:5 it +as no+here near as fluent as it had been9 It +as not99999999999999999999 3!5 the first bottle of champa&ne had been emptied that the con)ersation drifted ine1orabl' to the past and it +as onl' 999999999999 395 that a+0+ardness and tentati)eness crept in999999999999999999999999999999999 3105 time passed4 an air of unrealit' seemed to descend upon the proceedin&s9 B' the 999999999999 3115 +e had finished our starters4 our bursts of con)ersation had become shorter4 less animated4 and the pauses bet+een them correspondin&l' lon&er9 7e finished the second bottle in resi&ned silence4 at99999999999999 3125 point her e'es +ere clearl' fillin& up +ith tears9

00

Practice

SECTION <
"esult and *urpose
1
RESULT CLAUSES

7e use !or !ear o!! that 3and lest in )er' formal En&lish5 to introduce possible conse?uences that +e are tr'in& to a)oid2 /he' le!t at night "or "ear o" being !ollowed. He loc&ed his drawer le!t somebod$ should loo& in it o'ernight. See Section " for other +a's of e1pressin& purpose9

%a$s o! introducing result clauses includeF !o...(that) #o comes at the be&innin& of the result clause2 here were nine o! us !o we had to bring more chairs. 7e also use so before ad-ecti)es and ad)erbs follo+ed b' a tharBclause 3+e can omit that5F He was !o !ed up (that) he threatened to resign. So disgusted were the$ b$ the bad language (that) the$ wal&ed out. 3S formal5 !uch...(that) 7e use such before a noun or an ad-ecti)e > noun4 follo+ed b' a thatBclause 3+e can omit that52 he$ had !uch a great time (that) no one +anted to go home. Such was our anno$ance (that) we re!used to cooperate !urther. 3S formal5 7e use in such a wa$ that and in such a wa$ as to meanin& L+ith the result thatL2 He designed the room in !uch a way that it loo&ed bigger than it actuall$ was. he cit$ centre is signposted in !uch a way a! to completel$ con!use most tourists. ,ther +a's of e1pressin& result include2 here!ore( conseAuentl$( and as a result are ad)erbials that help to e1press result2 #ales are down. ,here"ore there7ll be no pa$ rise this $ear. %e didn7t eat the shell!ish and con!equently weren7t as sic& as e'er$one else. here was a shortage o! li!eboats on the itanic and 0 # 00 people died a! a re!ult. 7e can use other+ise and or else to e1press the conse?uences of not doin& somethin&2 %e need to speed up( otherwi!e we7ll be late. :et7s put the price up or el!e we7ll ma&e no pro!it at all.

<ar0 3P5 ne1t to sentences that contain a purpose clause4 and 3.5 ne1t to those +ith a result clause4 a Such +as their confusion that m' parents ended up &ettin& totall' lost4 b So brilliant a footballer +as he that he pla'ed for his countr' at the a&e of 1!9 T I +or0ed hard so that m' mother +ouldnLt complain9 d 7eLd left earl' to ma0e sure +e &ot there in time4 e /he' pla'ed loud music e)er' e)enin&4 so the nei&hbours be&an to complain9

PURPOSE CLAUSES

7a's of introducin& purpose clauses include2 to2in!initi*e /he most common +a' to e1press purpose is to use a toBinfiniti)e 3called an Linfiniti)e of purposeL54 especiall' to e1press one particular purpose2 0 phoned to "ind out i! he was still there. 0 didn7t do it to annoy $ou. in order to and !o a! to 7e use in order to and so as toF to emphasise intentions or re?uirements2 ; arri'ed earl$ !o a! to / in order to appear &een. to e1press a ne&ati)e moti)e or purpose2 )n order not to be misunderstood( let me put it another wa$. 0 told him when he was alone !o a! not to embarrass him in public. to a)oid confusion +ith other uses of toBinfiniti)e2 ; helped him in order to ma&e sure he arri'ed sa!el$. 0 helped him to get the answer. 4 N not an infiniti)e of purpose5 in order that and !o that 7e use in order that and so that +hen the second sub-ect be&ins +ith a noun or pronoun2 D 07'e drawn a map !or $ou in order to !ind the house. + 07'e drawn a map !or $ou in order that $ou can !ind the house. ,ther +a's of e1pressin& purpose include2 7e use !or in front of nouns to e1press purpose2 /he' did it "or a laugh. 7e often use !or 6 -ing +ith a similar meanin& to a toBinfiniti)e2 %e use this Allen &e$ "or tightening the screws. %e use this Allen &e$ to tighten the screws.

)11

GRAMMAR

RESULT ANA CURCOSE


demand +hen an' hea)' +or0 is re?uired9 Such999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T Bill had a )er' stron& personalit' and man' of us +ere fri&htened of him9 So 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d ILll call 'ou Phil4 and 'ou Philip4 so that +e donLt &et totall' confused9 So as to 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e /he ille&al immi&rants &a)e false names because the' didnLt +ant to be identified9 For fear 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

=
gi*en)

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences using t"e word

ExampleF IL)e left this because I +ant 'ou to finish it9 9!or1 07'e le!t this !or 'ou to !inish. a I felt reall' ill and had to lea)e4 9t"at1 b It +as a reall' borin& film and I +al0ed out half +a' throu&h4 9suc"1 T If +e donLt &et there soon there +onLt be an' seats left4 9ot"erwise1 d LetLs meet tomorro+ to sort out an' remainin& difficulties4 9in order t"at1 e I too0 the countr' roads because I didnLt +ant to &et stuc0 in traffic4 9so as1 K A word is missing !rom most o! t"e num#ered (airs o! lines in t"e (assage) 6ark t"e (lace wit" a line: and write in t"e missing word on t"e rig"t) I! a (air o! lines does not need a word added& (ut a tick ( S 1) T"e !irst two (airs "a*e #een done !or 'ou) =one are the da's +hen local inhabitants +ould treat ne+s that forei&n in)estors +ere intent H startin& up operations in their area +ith suspicion9 No+ such 99D9V9 1 announcements are &reeted +ith -o' b' the lon&Bterm unemplo'ed see li&ht 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 at the end of a lon& tunnel9 /he immediate and most si&nificant is a +a&eB 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 pac0et9 /he second is a li&htenin& of the depression that descends 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 on the to+n a result of 'ears of sta&nation9 Shops lon& boarded up 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 start reBopenin&4 hi&h streets become filled +ith people B people 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 smilin&9 Ased to empt' streets and halfBempt' shoppin& ba&s are 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 the citiJens that the' assume this +ill &o on for e)er9 %iscos +ith 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D stran&e names open4 restaurants ser)in& delicious Italian food that locals 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D dream the' are in Ambria4 do thri)in& business4 cinema o+ners lose their 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

1F 11 12 13 14 15 16

fro+ns9 E1citement is +idespread that pubs4 ha)in& been used to three or four 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 customers4 ta0e on e1tra staff9 *nd this is all as result of these +onderful 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 forei&ners +ho decided to mo)e here that +e could ma0e more mone' and 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 lead a normal sort of life9 *nd the'L)e done it in such a that e)er'one has 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 benefited9 7hen the' then sa' that4 a result of a stron&er currenc'4 hi&h 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 interest rates4 etc9 the'L)e decided that the' ha)e to shed -obs else 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 close do+n completel'4 it comes as a shoc09 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" a suita#le word or ("rase)

a /he minister +as forced to resi&n4 such9999999999999999999999999999999999999 +ei&ht of public opinion a&ainst him9 b 7e need to +in at least one of our last three matches or else999999999999999999999 to %i)ision $9 T <' brother onl' dressed up as a &irl999999999999999999999999999999999999bet9 d /he PresidentLs e1planation +as phrased in such 9999999999 to )arious interpretations9 e Such fun99999999999999999999b' all that +e decided to ha)e another part' the follo+in& Saturda'4 f ILll &i)e 'ou this microphone in999999999999999999999999999999999 sa' can be heard b' e)er'one9 & I al+a's ta0e m' mobile phone so as99999999999999999999999999999999999lost9 h /he -ud&e &a)e him so lon&999999999999999999999999999999 out of prison until he +as 110 'ears old9

;inis" eac" sentence in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar in

meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF Nicholas hadnLt +or0ed there for lon&4 so not man' people 0ne+ him9 Nicholas had been there for so short a time that not man' people &new him9 a LetLs remind oursel)es of the a&enda before +e for&et the purpose of this meetin&9 In order that 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he elephantLs stren&th means that itLs in &reat

3>3

Practice

SECTION <
Concession clauses
(oncession clauses &i)e information that contrasts +ith or opposes the facts in the main clause in an une1pected +a'9 /hese clauses can be introduced +ith con-unctions such as although( 4e'en5 though( howe'er( etc9 Some of these +ords and phrases introduce the 0no+n or bac0&round information6 others introduce the une1pected contrast9
) POSITION OF LIN9ING WORDS AND P8RASES

7e use a ran&e of ad)erbs and ad)erbial phrases to introduce a second sentence that introduces a contrast9 /he' follo+ a fullBstop4 a semiB colon or a dash 3B52 0 !elt reall$ tired. 1e'ertheless 0 continued dancing. 0 !elt reall$ tired. E'en !o, 0 went on dancing. 0 !elt reall$ tired - howe'er( 0 carried on dancing. 0 !elt reall$ tired. all the same( 0 re!used to stop dancing.

(orrect the follo+in& sentences9 a /here +ere minutes left to the deadline4 e)en thou&h +e refused to panic4 b ,ur pro-ect is meetin& +ith considerable success4 much as +e mi&ht li0e it9 T I spent hours on the Internet e)en so I 0ne+ I +as +astin& m' time4 d %espite of his 'outh4 he had a )er' mature approach to life4 e Fines are a &ood +a' of punishin& people4 ho+e)er the' are of no use if the' cannot be paid9

(oncession clauses can come as the first or second part of a sentence2 0 sta$ed until the end( although 0 was 'er$ bored. 3S focus on bein& bored5 8lthough 0 was extremel$ bored( 0 sta$ed until the end. 3 ` focus on sta'in&5

ItLs important to use the con-unction +ith the ri&ht part of the sentence2 T ! t was much too hot( e'en though 0 went out. ; E'en though it was much too hot( 0 went out. 7e often e1press contrast or opposition b' startin& a second sentence +ith an ad)erbial2 he weather was terrible. 1e'ertheless( we decided to go ahead with the picnic. *ersonall$( 07m dead against the plan. Howe'er( 0 thin& 07m in the minorit$. Some ad)erbials and phrases can come at the end of the second sentence2 ; saw m$ ex-!iance last night. %e didn7t spea&( though. 07m a!raid 0 can7t come. 0t was nice o! $ou to in'ite me( all the same.
+ INTRODUCING BAC9GROUND INFORMATION

7e use man' different patterns and structures to e1press concession9 7e use the con-unctions although( though and e'en though follo+ed b' a )erb phrase2 Although she &new about his past( she couldn7t help lo'ing him. #he7s decided to tra'el alone( e'en though she7s been warned. %hile and whilst 3formal5 can replace althoughF %hile 0 see $our point( 0 still thin& $ou7re wrong. W"ilst Anne7s usuall$ pleasant( she can o!ten be bad-tempered.

7e use the pattern ad-ecti)e H ad)erb > as or though > sub-ect > )erb in emphatic sentences2 Hard as the$ tried( the two sides couldn7t agree a peace settlement. )i!!icult though it was( the$ !inall$ managed to reach a compromise. 7e use much as( meanin& Lalthou&hL4 +ith )erbs such as li&e( hate( etc9 to tal0 about stron& feelin&s2 Much as 0 detest the idea o! punishing children( 0 can see it has its uses. /he prepositions in spite o! and despite can be follo+ed b' a noun phrase or -ing form2 )n spite o" the price( 07'e decided to bu$ the car. )espite !eeling dread!ul( Max went swimming. 7e use a famil' of +ords endin& -e'er( e9&9 howe'er( whate'er( whoe'er( to e1press the idea Lno matter ho+4 +hat4 +ho4 etc9L2 Howe'er man$ times $ou as& me( 07m not mo'ing. %hiche'er da$ $ou 'isit( 0 won7t be at home.
' INTRODUCING T8E UNEDPECTED CONTRAST

In e)er'da' En&lish4 but is the most fre?uent +ord to introduce a contrast2 #he ma$ be anno$ing sometimes( but 0 lo'e her. 7e often add another +ord or phrase to stren&then the contrast2 He le!t me in the lurch( but still 0 ha'e tender !eelings !or him. 0 &now standards ha'e changed( but even !o such scenes on ? aren7t acceptable.

3><

CONCESSION CLAUSES
No9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f <' car still runs surprisin&l' +ell considerin& it is o)er ten 'ears old9 E)en 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & I li0e the l'rics4 despite the fact that I thin0 the music is dreadful9 7hile 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h 8is dau&hter has startlin& intelli&ence4 thou&h she +astes most e)enin&s pla'in& computer &ames9 Intelli&ent 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences using t"e words

gi*en) 6ake an' necessar' c"anges to (unctuation) a 7eL)e &ot no mone'4 but +eLre )er' happ'4 9e*en1 b /he +ind ble+ all the time4 but +e still mana&ed to en-o' oursel)es4 9ne*ert"eless1 T I li0e her ne+ bo'friend but I donLt trust him9 9"owe*er1 d I 0no+ thereLs an economic recession4 but our profits should still be hi&her4 9all t"e same1 e .eor&anisation is a &ood idea but it +ould cause friction in this department4 9w"ile1 f I lo)e Stin&Ls music4 but I still thou&ht his latest (% +as disappointin&4 9muc"1 & In spite of her ine1perience4 I still thin0 +e should ta0e her on9 9and 'et1 h <' &randadLs o)er ninet'4 but still mana&es to remain acti)e4 9e*en so1

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit" one

suita#le word) 8uman nature is a stran&e thin&9 /his summer I +or0ed for a man m' famil' 0no+ to be pleasant4 the t'pe +hoLd a&ree to ha)e coffee +ith 'ou e)en999999999999999999999999999999 315 he +as terribl' bus'9 E)en99999999999999999999999 3254 he turned out to be the most impossible person to +or0 for999999999999999999999999999999 3$5 'ou do is al+a's unsatisfactor'499999999999999999999999 3"5 hard 'ou +or0 and99999999999999999 3 5 matter ho+ man' hours of C o)ertime 'ou do4 itLs ne)er enou&h for him9 %espite 999999999999 3#5 a ?uiet man4 he mana&es to pro-ect such an a&&ressi)e ima&e in his cafe9 8is emplo'ees tr' to do their best4 out of fear or a &enuine desire to do a &ood -ob4 and9999999999999999 3:5 he tears them off a strip e)er' hour of the da'9 Kou ma' thin0 ILm e1a&&eratin&999999999999999999999999999 3!5 9 ILm not9 %urin& the hei&ht of the season he forced fi)e +aitresses to hand in their notice9999999999999999999999999395 thou&h the' +ere perfectl' competent9 *ll the99999999999999999999999999 31054 I carried on +or0in& there e)er' e)enin&9 *nd he reall' missed the staff +ho left99999999999999999999999 31154 heLd ne)er admit it9 I didnLt 0no+ +hat to do99999999999999999999999999 3125 as ILd ha)e li0ed to4 I didnLt thin0 confrontin& him about his temper +ould +or04999999999999999999999 31$5 'ou mi&ht put that do+n to co+ardice9 Incredible999999999999999999999999 31"5 it ma' seem4 in9999999999999999 31 5 of him4 the cafe has a reputation

for bein& a )er' friendl' place9 Stran&e4 isnLt itD Com#ine eac" (air o! sentences using t"e linking word

gi*en) ExampleF *lanLs beha)ed terribl' to+ards me9 Ne)ertheless4 I still feel somethin& for him9 e*en I still "eel somet"ing "or 8lan even t"oug" "eEs behaved terri#l' towards me) a /here has been stron& European competition9 7e ha)e secured the order4 all the same4 'et b /he future for rain forests loo0s blea09 8o+e)er4 no one is &i)in& up9 alt"oug" T /here are man' dissenters4 'es9 *t the same time4 there are man' +ho thin0 as +e do9 des(ite d IL)e al+a's been honest about m' feelin&s9 Kou4 on the other hand4 ha)e not9 w"ereas e I 0no+ there is a moral code +ith re&ard to customers9 E)en so4 I thin0 in this case +e mi&ht &o ahead4 s(ite K ;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) a =re' is this 'earLs colour9 E)en so4 I loo0 dull in it9 *lthou&h 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b It didnLt matter ho+ hard +e tried4 +e still couldnLt &et him to lo+er the price9 8ard 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T I lo)e chips4 but m' doctor sa's the'Lre bad for me9 <uch 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /he'Ld ne)er a&ree to sell their land e)en if 'ou offered them substantial sums9 8o+e)er999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e ILm not +or0in& o)ertime4 ho+e)er often the' as0 me9

10$

Practice

Un*t s*:

?ocabular$
SECTION
Expressing purpose and e!!ect
*part from lin0in& clauses4 +e can e1press purpose and result in other +a's9
) PURPOSE AND INTENTION

< ;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" one suita#le word) a /he'Lre9999999999999999999 to sell +ith a )ie+9999999999999999999999 ma0in& a ?uic0 profit +hile the &oin&Ls &ood4 b IL)e e)er'9999999999999999999 of completin& the course because ILm intent999999999999999999becomin& ?ualified9 T ILm of a9999999999999999999 to tell him that IL)e no thou&hts 9999999999&i)in& in m' notice9
+ RESULT: CAUSE AND EFFECT

@erb and noun structures4 as +ell as ad)erbial phrases4 can e1press result4 cause and effect9 Ver# Noun &oney ha! an e""ect on attitude!. &oney a""ect! attitude!. Deer re!!ure in"luence! teenager!. Stati!tic! will !ha e/ determine / mould / dictate olicy. ,hi! will entail / involve/ nece!!itate "urther re!earch. Deer re!!ure ha! an in"luence on teenager!. Stati!tic! will have a bearing on olicy. ,here will be a need "or "urther re!earch a! a re!ult / in con!equence. ,hi! will have longterm re ercu!!ion! / "ar-reaching im lication!. Stre!! ha! it! root! in many thing!.

7e can use )ocabular' items +ith meanin&s related to purpose and intention in different parts of speech9 7e often e1press purpose and intention usin& )erbs2 / mean / lan / intend / aim / ho e to retire be!ore 07m 0C. 7e can also use nouns2 M $ goal / dream ; 4short-term5 lan / (sincere5 ho e / 4ultimate5 aim ; 4stated5 intention ; 4o'erriding5 ambition is to 8ump o'er +3 metres. *d-ecti)es can also e1press such ideas2 07m eager/ keen /determined/ re!olved / tem ted to see the world be!ore 0 settle down. Noun and )erbal phrases can li0e+ise e1press aims and intentions2 *am ha! high ho e! o! winning. he$$ve no intention o" bac&ing down. John has no thought! o" marr$ing. 0$ve hal" a mind to resign. 0$m toying with the idea o" mo'ing. 0$ve made u my mind to lea'e. He7s !et hi! heart on getting a moped. #he harbour! a dream o" getting married in the #e$chelles. Prepositional phrases can also e1press purpose and moti)e2 #he did the course in the ho e o" getting/ with a view to getting/ with the aim o" getting a 8ob in graphic design. 3 ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s #elow wit" one o! t"ese nouns) aim point reason a Surel' the +hole99999999999999999999999 of learnin& a lan&ua&e is to be able to use itD b /he99999999999999999for this broadcast is to announce chan&es in ta1ation for the comin& fiscal 'ear4 T /he ultimate9999999999999999999999 of the or&anisation is to promote international understandin&9

E W"ic" o! t"ese words is not #ot" a noun and a *er#I in!luence result stem a!!ect e!!ect Stre!! !tem! "rom many thing!. need mould

Practice

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit" a *er#

!rom t"e list) causes results means leads a!!ects 2 /he recent rapid &ro+th in the tourism industr' 6 9999999999999 315 that man' beautiful to+ns and )illa&es ha)e ceased to belon& to their inhabitants9 /his naturall' 999999999999 325 the +a' local people re&ard their )isitors4 and the latterLs arro&ant dismissi)e beha)iour often i 99999999999999 3$5 friction9 Indeed4 this friction sometimes 999999999999 3"5 to open hostilit' bet+een Lnati)esL and Lin)adersL +hich9999999999999999999 556 in an inhospitable atmosphere that is to neither sideLs ad)anta&e9

ERCRESSING CURCOSE E88ECT


Tick 9Y:1 t"e *er#s and ("rases #elow t"at e,(ress cause) Put a stems from + brin&s +ith it en&enders breeds has its ori&ins in brin&s about sprin&s from ori&inates from

ANA

cross >?@ against t"ose t"at descri#e result) ExamplesF sets off ? spar0s 3off5 can be traced bac0 to &i)es rise to is due to deri)es from dates bac0 to so+s the seeds of has its roots in is the source of + fosters ?

d /hereLs not much point999999999999999999999999999999if heLs not at home9 e /he latest directi)e from abo)e ma' &i)e99999999999999999999999999999999999999 a certain amount of discontent4 f ILm to'in&9999999999999999999999 a ban0 loan9 & But surel' the +hole point9999999999999999999999999999999lose some +ei&ht9 h 8is arro&ance probabl' stems99999999999999999999999999999999father is a diplomat9 1 8is rebelliousness dates9999999999999999999999999 mother left home9 - 8is interest in actin& can99999999999999999999999999999+hen he +as at school9

;or eac" o! t"e sentences #elow& write a new sentence as

similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) T"is word must not #e altered in an' wa') ExampleF Pa'in& for the dama&e seems to be the last thin& on his mind4 t"oug"ts 8e seems to ha'e no thou&hts o! pa$ing !or the damage. a She &a)e in her notice4 plannin& to start her ne+ -ob in Uanuar'4 *iew b If I offended 'ou4 it +as certainl' unintentional4 (ur(ose T /he trouble all came about because our computers crashed4 stemmed d Stra' &oats on the motor+a' didnLt in itself cause the massi)e tailB bac04 due

Com(lete eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences wit" a suita#le

word or ("rase) a I ha)e no intention99999999999999999999999999 out of m' o+n home b' 'ou or an'one4 b *fter his stupidit' I ha)e half999999999999999999999999999999 lend him an' mone'9 T In the hope99999999999999999999999her mind4 he sent her some flo+ers9

3>7

e /he chan&es in climate should ha)e no effect +hatsoe)er on our coastline4 a!!ected f /he lar&e amount of cash in his poc0et is totall' unconnected +ith the matter in hand4 #earing & /he ?uestion of medical costs often ma0es old people become an1ious4 common h E)en further confusion +as caused b' the +itnessLs latest statement4 led i /he conse?uence of chan&in& the )enue for the e)ent +as absolute chaos4 resulted - /heir insular attitudes date bac0 to medie)al times4 roots

2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D

-nderline t"e o(tion& a& #& G or d& t"at #est com(letes eac" 7as it -ust poor timeB0eepin& that resulted999999999999999999999999999999999 his dismissalD a from # to G of d in 7here do 'ou thin0 his ne+ enthusiasm99999999999999999999999999999999 fromD a sources # leaps G sprin&s d traces 7hat +ere some of the thin&s that brou&ht99999999999999999999999999999999999 the French .e)olutionD

sentence)

a up # about G around d on /he +hole problem has its999999999999999999999999in the late 19!0s9 a stem # roots G cause d sprin& /he &roupLs had fi)e consecuti)e No9 1 hits4 as a3n5 of +hich the'Lre e1tremel' rich9 a cause # reason G effect d result (an 'ou shed an' li&ht on the reason999999999999999999999999999999 his appallin& beha)iourD a +h' # for G of d about .eferences can ha)e a considerable999999999999999999999999999 on emplo'ment prospects9 a cause # decision G +ei&ht d bearin& *ccessin& information from the 7orld 7ide 7eb basic computer s0ills9 a en&enders # arouses G entails d accompanies

10

VOCABULARY

SECTION =
Agreeing or not
) NOT GIVING IN

07ll allow you that. Just this once we7ll make an e#ce tion !or $ou. Gou7re being treated a! a ! ecial ca!e. %ell( have it your way. 0 give in. Gou win. 0 admit de"eat. #he7s thrown in the towel. 0 suppose $ou want me to write you a blank cheque.

8ere are phrases +e use to sho+ +e are un+illin& to ma0e concessions9 /here are man' others2 !tanding "irm not taking no "or an an!wer holding out "or all you can get remaining adamant re5ecting com romi!e !taying ut 3 ;ill t"e ga(s wit" one o! t"ese words) guns ground blan& inch !oot heels a stic0in& to 'our99999999999999999999999 e di&&in& in 'our99999999999999999999999 b not &i)in& an9999999999999999999999 f puttin& 'our9999999999999999999999 T standin& 'our9999999999999999999999 do+n d refusin& point9999999999999999999999 to bud&e
+ WEIG8ING T8INGS UP

W"ic" one *er# do we use in all o! t"ese e,(ressionsI 9999999999 him 'our blessin& 99999999999999999999999999999999999999up 9999999999the &reen li&ht 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999the &oBahead 9999999999clearance for somethin& ILll9999999999999999999999999999999'ou that 9999999999&round 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 and ta0e 9999999999them an inch and 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999+a' the'Lll ta0e a mile

;ill eac" ga( wit" one o! t"ese words& let lea'e allow issue concede a 9999999999999 someone a free hand d 9999999999999999999999999999&round b 9999999999999 a blan0 che?ue e 9999999999999 the door T 9999999999999someone off the hoo0 open

' GIVING IN

Phrases +e use to sho+ +e are undecided and are considerin& issues include2 0$m !itting on the "ence. > must weigh thing! u /weigh u the argument!/!ee both !ide! o" the i!!ue/get an overview. %e mu!t bear in mind his lac& o! Auali!ications( but we should take his experience into account / con!ideration. %e should also make allowance! "or his $outh. %on!idering his age( he7s done remar&abl$ well. He7s suitable( albeit rather $oung( !or the 8ob. 4!ormal5 /or a $oung salesman his trac&-record is good. %e can$t ignore the speci!ic reAuirements o! the 8ob( and certainly not rule out the need !or computer s&ills. *erhaps we need to com romi!e. %e need to balance the ro! and con!. :et7s !lee on it/ onder a while. E'entuall$ we$ll reach/make a deci!ion, and 07m sure we7ll arrive at a mutually !ati!"actory !olution.
) ;ill t"e ga(s wit" one o! t"ese words)

8ere are some phrases +e use +hen +e decide to a&ree9 /here are man' more2

Practice

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences using #ot" (rom(t

words so t"at it is as close as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF I donLt +ant to be do&matic4 but I donLt thin0 +e can &i)e +a' on this point4 wis"ing : stand Wit"out wis"ing to be dogmatic& I t"ink we "a*e to !tand "irm on t"is oint. a 7hen 'ouLre -ud&in& him4 'ou ha)e to remember heLs onl' fourteen9 assessment : allowances b E)er'one is +elcome4 no matter +hat nationalit'9 irres(ecti*e : w"ere T *ll sorts come to these e)enin& classes4 from pupils to &raduates9 regardless : educational d 7eLll treat 'our child as a special case as he alread' has a sister in our school9 e,ce(tion : grounds e I must ha)e an en suite bedroom4 in this hotel or an' other 'ou can find me9 insist : w"et"er f ILm undecided as to +hether I should stand firm on this matter or not9 make : guns & Be a+are at all times of e)er'oneLs need for occasional pri)ac'9 reAuire : #orne

in up between at I canLt ma0e9999999999999999999 m' mind9 ILm99999999999999 t+o minds9 ILm99999999999999 a loss9 ILm99999999999999 a dilemma9 e ILm torn999999999999999999 sta'in& until midni&ht and &oin& no+9 f ILm99999999999999999 a ?uandar' as to +hat to do9

no
AGREEING OR NOT

h Kou ha)e to remember that not e)er'one is a football fanatic9 account : mad i 7e mustnLt for&et the bad e1periences he had as a child9 W"at : o*erlooked - Belie)e it or not4 +e still li0e each other in a +a'9 Strange : a!!ection K ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word)

*s 'ou can ima&ine4 m' first da' in m' first fullBtime -ob e)er +as some+hat less than id'llic9999999999999999999999999999 315 all the preparator' mental +or0 I had done4 I arri)ed at the office so ner)ous I +as almost speechless9 For the first fe+ hours I remained totall' at9999999999999999999999999 3259 I had i 9999999999999 3$5 a mind to run out there and then9 B' lunchtime I +as absolutel' sha0in& +ith ner)es4 but I refused to9999999999999999 3"5 in the to+el9 1 had studied hard for this career6 I -ust couldnLt brin& m'self to9999999999999999999999999999

3 5 up ?uite 'et49999999999999999999 3#5 unli0el' m' prospects of sur)i)al appeared9 /hree da's later thin&s +ere still at a lo+999999999999999 3:5 but I refused point999999999999999999999 3!5 to admit defeat9 It +as clear m' ne+ collea&ues +ere 999999999999 395 allo+ances for me and &i)in& me the benefit of the999999999999999 31059 /he' probabl' thou&ht I +as on m' last99999999999999 3115 an'+a'9 /he second +ee0 passed ?uite une)entfull' and999999999999999999 3125 it or not4 at the end of it I +as actuall' be&innin& to rela19 Loo0in& bac0 after se)enteen 'ears4 ILm &lad I99999999999999999999999 31$5 it out and didnLt buc0le999999999999999999 31"59 ILm pleased and proud to hold the position of %irector =eneral in this multiB national compan'49999999999999999999 31 5 onl' the third bi&&est in the +orld9

It seems to me that such radical proposals should be 99999999999999999out from the be&innin&9 a +iped # ruled G remo)ed d underlined 10 ILm not &oin& to ma0e an999999999999999999999999999999-ust because 'ou are much 'oun&er than the others9 a impression # e1ception G upset d ar&ument

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is

as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF 7e canLt be totall' confident that +e +onLt be defeated9 /he possibilit' o" our being de"eated cannot be di!counted. a I canEt decide +hether to splash out on a holida' abroad or not9 ILm in99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he part she has pla'ed in this pro-ect mustnLt be o)erloo0ed9 7e must bear9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T IL)e al+a's thou&ht itLs best to stand 'our &round +hen thereLs a dispute9 IL)e ne)er belie)ed 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /o e)er'oneLs amaJement4 both teams +on places in the (hampionLs Lea&ue9 /otall' a&ainst 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e SheLs onl' t+el)e4 but sheLs remar0abl' mature9 For a 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"is s"ort (iece wit"

one suita#le word) Ladies and &entlemen4 bo's and &irls4 friends B If +e can stand99999999999999999 315 and not &i)e99999999999999999999 325 to pressure4 if +e can 0eep standin& up999999999999999999999999999 3$5 +hat +e belie)e in and not ca)e99999999999999999999 3"5 to their demands4 if +e can hold99999999999999 3 5 to our beliefs and not99999999999999999999999999 3#5 li0e trees in the +ind4 if +e can stand our999999999999999999999999999999999 3:5 and not &i)e an999999999999999999 3!5 to those oppressors do+n belo+4 +e +ill sa)e this tree4 belie)e me9

=
1

-nderline t"e o(tion& a& #& G or d& t"at #est com(letes eac"

sentence) No matter ho+ much pressure 'ou put on Simon4 he +onLt bud&e a3n599999999999999999999999999999999 a mile # inch G foot d metre 2 7e canLt possibl' ma0e an'99999999999999999999999 for her4 ho+e)er s+eetl' she as0s9 a allo+ances # licence G permissions d liberties 3 *bsolutel' an'one is +elcome here49999999999999999999999999999 of their a&e4 se1 or creed9 a mindful # considerin& G re&ardless d de)oid 4 /he uni)ersit' mi&ht accept 'ou4999999999999999999999999999of 'our disappointin& e1am results9 a irrespecti)e # pendin& G e1pectant d dependent 5 8e +as reluctant to meet her parents after all this time for9999999999999999999999of sa'in& somethin& stupid9 a fear # chance G feelin& d ris0 6 ILm in a99999999999999 as to ho+ to use this (% .om9 a loss # difficult' G ?uandar' d mindB&ame 7 /here are still4 ho+e)er4 rather a lot of obstacles to a o)ercome # come o)er G sol)e d resol)e D %onLt 'ou feel the problem needs to be99999999999999999999999999999999 headBonD a sol)ed # +or0ed out G ironed out d tac0led

E&am p a#t$#% 2

correct.

5uch ) In most lines of the following te/t0 there is one unnecessary wor#. It is either grammatically incorrect or it #oes not fit in with the sense of the te/t. For each numbere# line 2:2*0 write the unnecessary wor# in the s'aces. Some lines are In#icate these with a tick 1E3. &he e/ercise begins with two e/am'les. &here is a "ery outs'oken grou' of 'eo'le who want to ban hunting wil# animals. &heir argument is such that killing animals

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

is cruel an# unnecessary0 while es'ecially in those cases where animals are hunte# more for s'ort than for eating or for 'ur'oses of such conser"ation. +hile there are others who fin# this total o''osition an e/am'le of blin# 're,u#ice0 the ma,ority of 'eo'le "iew the #ebate with somewhat mi/e# feelings such as the issue can 5uickly become a moral minefiel#. Is hunting animals because of they are 'ests0 like fo/es0 less acce'table than killing them for foo#9 An# where #oes fishing fit into the #iscussions9 %ot so that much as those who catch a few fish to eat or sell0 but rather those 'eo'le who s'en# hour after hour imme#iately sitting on the ri"er bank with no intention of the killing or eating their catch. .n to a fish being caught0 the 's'ortsman' weighs it0 'hotogra'hs it if it is large enough an# worth boasting about0 an# then returns it to the water0 often with a so nasty woun# in its mouth from the hook0 in or#er that to be caught again another #ay. Shoul# this 'astime of millions of 'eo'le0 bi<arre e"en though it may be0 also be banne#9

+ Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la $n m%an$n0 as p!ss$bl% t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? a +e may as well start the meeting0 now that we're all here. As............................................................................................................................................................................................ b +e'"e ma#e some 'rogress in that we now ha"e all the me#ical recor#s on #isk. Inasmuch ............................................................................................................................................................................... P As soon as Su<ette hear# the news0 she rang all her frien#s to tell them. .n .......................................................................................................................................................................................... " &he train was so slow we might as well ha"e gone by car. +e ma#e ................................................................................................................................................................................ % It may be a goo# i#ea to arrange a ren#e<"ous or we might get lost. So ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ( &he main s'eaker s'oke with enormous con"iction an# carrie# the au#ience with him. Such ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 0 Anne staye# u' to finish the work0 e"en though she was e/hauste#. Aes'ite ................................................................................................................................................................................... , &he mountain route is ob"iously #angerous0 but there is no alternati"e. Aangerous ............................................................................................................................................................................. $ ou can increase your offer by 4)H but I'm afrai# I still won't sell. E"en ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 I'm sorry but I #on't un#erstan# your 'osition0 though I'# like to. Much ...................................................................................................................................................................................... tii'liil

Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.

a So................ #eman# for tickets that they were all sol# within minutes. b Much ................ like to hel' you with your homework0 I'm afrai# I'm not allowe# to. P &he boys claime# they'# only ki#na''e# her #og ............................................ laugh. " &he soil is carefully sifte# ............................. of archaeological interest is not misse#. % =ust............... it's summer #oesn't mean you can sto' stu#ying. ( I think she's toying .......................... of setting u' her own business. 0 Far................ with what you say0 I actually ha"e 5uite strong reser"ations. , E"en ................ his #ri"ing test some time ago0 I still think he is too young to #ri"e. $ 7 I think my insecurity stems............................... I was sent away to school when I was only eight. $earing ................. traffic at this time of #ay0 I think we shoul# lea"e now. For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% ! $0$nal

s%nt%n#%: but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must n!t b% alt% %" $n any *ay?
EXAMPLE -

7etting marrie# seems to be the last thing on his min#0 t,!u0,ts !e !eem! to have no thoughts o" getting

married.
a I #on't think the 'olice are going to #ro' your case so 5uickly. ,!!< ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? b $efore you #ismiss her0 I think you shoul# bear in min# her age. #!ns$"% at$!n ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? P Aon't ignore those less fortunate than yourself. spa % ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? " &he Presi#ent was im'eache# because of his financial miscon#uct. 0 !un"s ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? % &he new manager may be rather ine/'erience#0 but he is highly 5ualifie#. alb%$t ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ( &he miners #eci#e# against a strike because it might lose them 'ublic su''ort. (%a ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0 I think we nee# time to consi#er the 'ros an# cons of the arrangement. *%$0, ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Fn#erline the wor# or 'hrase which best com'letes each sentence. I'm in a bit of a..................... as to what to wear to the we##ing. A loss F 5uan#ary G 'roblem D bewil#erment It seems our a''lication has been refuse# ....................................... A 'oint blank F bull's eye A clearance A stem A brought on A link A 'ur'ose F aim F groun# F moul# F coming about G taken u' F ser"e G strike G ho'e G carte blanche D about face G inch G root D han# D trigger D 'ut through D inten# D intention It was a long #is'ute with neither si#e gi"ing ....................................... easily. &he............. of the trouble was the #ecision to allow non:members into the club. Dan 7ogh suffere# from #e'ression ............................... by o"erwork an# ill:health. &he current crisis shoul# ......................... as a warning not to be o"erconfi#ent in the markets. &he sho'lifter claime# she ha# e"ery................................. of 'utting the goo#s back.

)15

n*t se7en

Ad8ecti'es and ad'erbs


Entry test
) For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as similar as 'ossible in meaning to the original sentence0 but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must not be altere# in any way.
EXAMPLE-

%ot since ................................................................................................ b I refuse# to belie"e I'# won until the finishing line came into sight. %ot until ................................................................................................. P !er first book succee#e# in making a serious 'oint while at the same time being hysterically funny. %ot only ................................................................................................. " &he manager came through a 'erio# of sustaine# criticism only to be im'licate# in financial mis#ealings. %o sooner ............................................................................................. % It's not often that the me#ia #e"ote so much time an# s'ace to one to'ic. Iarely..................................................................................................... ( +hate"er you #o0 #on't trust insurance salesmen. Fn#er no circumstances ....................................................................... 0 !e broke e"ery rule in the book but it ensure# he won the contract. .nly ....................................................................................................... , ou must ne"er lea"e the 'remises without letting the su'er"isor know. .n no.....................................................................................................

I un#erstan# his 'osition in the ci"il ser"ice is far from high:

ranking0 l!*ly I under!tand he occu(ies a rat"er lowl' (osition in

t"e ci*il !ervice. Z I think the meeting shoul# in"ol"e e"erybo#y who
will be affecte# by any #ecisions. #!n#% n ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? b Sales ,ust faile# to reach their target. s,! t ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? P She felt so 'rou# knowing he was the ne/t Presi#ent. %l%#t ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? " In my o'inion they are sure to get the gol# me#al. #!n($"%nt ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? % !er lawyers ensure# that she coul# not be 'rosecute#. $mmun% ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ( &his bus ser"ice may ha"e unannounce# changes ma#e to the timetable. sub7%#t ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0 I really #on't want to em'loy anyone with so few 5ualifications. l!at, ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

FOR INVERSION AFTER NEGATIVE ADVERBS: SEE SECTION +?

' Fill each ga' with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE-

I ha"e always 'referre# 'laying music to li!tening to it.

a +illiam #oesn't eat anything ................................ as his el#er brother. b &he longer his s'eech went on0 ................................... animate# the crow# became. P !is tastes in music are much ................................. as mine. " I thought the film was great0 as..................................... else I s'oke to about it. % .n full s'in0 our washing machine soun#s a............................................ 'lane taking off.

FOR AD6ECTIVE STRUCTURESC AD6ECTIVE OR ADVERBO: SEE SECTION )?

+ Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible in meaning to the sentence 'rinte# before it.
EXAMPLE %

I ha"e ne"er before been so o"erwhelme# by a 'iece of music. %e"er before "a*e I #een so o*erw"elmed #' a (iece o" mu!ic.
a &he last time there was such a huge festi"al was half a century ago.

FOR MA9ING COMPARISONS: SEE SECTION '? AD6ECTIVES AND ADVERBS

OVERVIEW
1
AD6ECTIVES

7e can turn most ad-ecti)es into ad)erbs b' addin& -ly 3see Section 19$59 /here ma' be spellin& )ariations2 !low !lowly quick quickly o!!ible o!!ibly automatic automatically ea!y ea!ily !ati!"actory !ati!"actorily true truly "ull "atty 7e can also form some ad)erbs from nouns b' addin& -ly@ hour hourly art artly
A"7%#t$.%s an" a".% bs *$t, t,% sam% (! m

*d-ecti)es describe nouns9 7e normall' use ad-ecti)es in t+o positions B before nouns and after Llin0L )erbs (be, !eem, a ear, become, "eel, look, ta!te, !ound, !mell, get, etc952 (hat a lea!ant man* -e !eemed lea!ant. 7e can use man' ad-ecti)es in both positions4 but +e use others in either one position or the other2 )t wa! an outright victory. )$m glad you could come. 8ere are more e1amples of ad-ecti)es commonl' used before nouns2 countle!! indoor neighbouring ma#imum northern 8ere are e1amples of ad-ecti)es used after )erbs2 awake a!lee aware glad a"raid alive !ure alone alike content

Some ad-ecti)es ha)e the same form +hen the' are ad)erbs2 *d-ecti)e *d)erb 0 was the "ir!t person there. 0 arri'ed "ir!t. hat7s a "ine distinction. hat suits us "ine. he truc& hit the low bridge. he plane swooped low. Some ad-ecti)es end in -l$( li0e monthl$ and earl$( and ha)e the same form as ad-ecti)e and ad)erb9 ,thers canLt be transformed into ad)erbs9 Instead +e ha)e to use a phrase2 He had a "riendly attitude. He beha'ed in a "riendly way. ,ther ad-ecti)es li0e this include2

FORMING ADVERBS FROM AD6ECTIVES

co!tly cowardly deadly likely lively lonely !illy ugly lovely

ADVERBIAL P8RASES

*n ad)erbial phrase 3an Lad-unctL5 is a &roup of +ords that +or0s li0e an ad)erb to sa' +hen4 ho+4 etc9 somethin& happens9 /he' can be2 prepositional phrases2 %h$ don7t $ou lea'e all that on the table' noun phrases2 0 wouldn7t ha'e put it that way. ad)erb phrases2 0 thin& $ou7'e all done very well indeed.

POSITION AND ORDER OF ADVERBS

7e usuall' put an ad)erb after an ob-ect2 D 0 pla$ very well the piano. + 0 pla$ the piano very well. *d)erbs and ad)erbial phrases usuall' &o at the end of the sentence4 and usuall' in the order Lho+L L+hereL L+henL2 he$ were pla$ing quietly in the garden la!t night. 7e can mo)e one of these ad)erbs to the be&innin& of the sentence for emphasis or focus2 6a!t night the$ were pla$ing quietly in the garden. 3S focusin& on L+henL5 )n the garden, the$ were all pla$ing quietly. (S focusin& on L+hereL5 *d)erbs of manner can also &o before the )erb2 he 'illagers !lowly wal&ed round the sAuare.
OT8ER ADVERBS

7e usuall' put ad)erbs of fre?uenc' 4alwa$s( o!ten( etc95 before the )erb or at the end of the phrase2 0 quite o"ten dri'e past their house. 0 dri'e past their house quite o"ten. /hese ad)erbs usuall' &o after the first au1iliar' )erb2 07'e 5u!t seen )ominic. 07'e "requently been swimming with him. Note the )ariet' of positions of still( alread$( and $etF 0 !till ha'en7t !inished. 07'e !till not !inished. 0s she !till here> he$7'e already been here. he$7'e been here already. Are the$ here already' Are the$ already here> 0 ha'en7t !inished yet. Ha'en7t $ou !inished yet' 0 ha'en7t yet !inished. 7e use onl$ and e'en in t+o main positions2 before the sub-ect the' focus on2 0 thin& only John reall$ understands thi! point. =ven #imon is a bit con!used. before the )erb2 0 only li&e the green ones. 0 even thin& that the red ones are ugl$.

333

Practice

SECTION I
Ad8ecti'e structures. ad8ecti'e or ad'erb>
1
AD6ECTIVES AFTER NOUNS

7e use some ad-ecti)es after lin0 )erbs 3see ,)er)ie+4 159 7e can normall' distin&uish bet+een an ad-ecti)e4 +hich describes the noun4 and an ad)erb4 +hich usuall' adds information about the )erb2

It '+ (+inin/ hard.


0 li&e di'ing dee . Gou7'e got it all wrong. AdHecti*e Ad*er# 0 got the answer right. 0 thin& $ou7re wrong. Close the lid tight. #he loo&s retty. 1ow wipe it clean. 0t7s eas$( as $ou rightly sa$. He was wrongly con'icted. Hold on tightly. #he sang 'er$ rettily. 0t bro&e clean in two.

7e can use some ad-ecti)es before and after nouns9 * chan&e in position in)ol)es a chan&e of meanin&2 the re!ent circumstances 4M no+5 the people re!ent 3S +ho are here5 an involved explanation 3S complicated5 the people involved 3S +ho too0 part5 a concerned expression 3 S +orried5 the people concerned 3S affected5 a re! on!ible person 3S sensible5 the people re! on!ible 3S +ho did it5 /here are a )er' fe+ ad-ecti)es that +e can onl' use after nouns2 presents galore the *resident elect the *rime Minister de!ignate

STRUCTURES AFTER AD6ECTIVES

Some ad)erbs ha)e t+o forms2 an -l$ form and one that loo0s li0e an ad-ecti)e9 /hese t+o forms ma' ha)e different meanin&s2 He arri'ed late. 3S not on time5 0 ha'en7t seen him lately. 3S recentl'5 %e7re !l$ing direct. 3S b' the shortest route5 07ll tell $ou directly. 3S immediatel'5 he dancer leapt high. He7s highly thought o!. 0t hardly matters now. %e dee ly regret the mo'e. he letter was wrongly addressed. 0 was !har ly reprimanded. Ie there at +2 !har . In informal spo0en En&lish4 +e use some ad-ecti)es as ad)erbs +ith no chan&e of form4 althou&h an -l$ )ersion e1ists2 he bo$ shouted as loud as he could to a passing $acht. *d-ecti)es +e commonl' use in this +a' include2 chea kind real quick !low

7e use a toBinfiniti)e after some ad-ecti)es follo+in& Llin0L )erbs4 e9&9 be( !eel( etc2 0t7s bound to rain later. 07m willing to try. 07m loath to commit m$sel!. 07m inclined to agree. he situation is liable to change. he$ don7t seem able to hel at the moment. %e7re due to arrive soon. 07m re ared to com romi!e. 7e use a thatBclause after some ad-ecti)es referrin& to peopleLs beliefs and feelin&s9 3*s is normal in thatBclauses4 +e can omit that5F 07m lea!ed (that) $ou7'e !ound a good 8ob. 8ere are more e1amples of these ad-ecti)es2 aware certain a"raid !orry !ur ri!ed u !et worried !ad an#iou! !ure "rightened con"ident 7e use a prepositional phrase after some ad-ecti)es9 /he preposition collocates +ith the ad-ecti)e2 1obod$ is immune "rom criticism. 8ere are more e1amples2 a!hamed o" devoid o" integral to !ub5ect to de!cended "rom lacking in com atible with intent on "illed with characteri!tic o"
' AD6ECTIVE OR ADVERBO

8ere are some common phrases that use ad-ecti)es after )erbs2 He !ell "lat on hi! "ace. His 8o&es "ell "lat. He7s still going !trong. -old tight* /eel "ree to loo& around. ,ake it ea!y* urn !har right.

/ic0 \H5 the sentences that contain ad-ecti)es9 a <alaria can be a deadl' disease4 b 8e cau&ht the ball cleanl' and passed it to the +in&9 T I hit him as hard as I could9 d 7hen are the results due to arri)eD e I thin0 an'one in)ol)ed in that deal should resi&n9 [

33<

AD6ECTIVE STRUCTURESC AD6ECTIVE OR ADVERBO

Put one of these +ords in each of the

&aps belo+4 usin& each as man' times as 'ou Fill each of the blan0s +ith a suitable ad-ecti)e from the list9 +ant to9 that to with at o! on !or in b$ a I am relie)ed9999999999999999999999 see that the' are pleased999999999999999999 their accommodation9 It seems entirel' compatible9999999999999999999999their +ishes9 b I am almost embarrassed99999999999999999999999999999 admit that I feel e1tremel' ashamed99999999999999999 m' fello+B countr'men on occasions such as this4 particularl' +hen the' seem utterl' de)oid99999999999999999999 an' manners at all9 T ILm afraid999999999999999999999 spea0 to her about this because ILm fri&htened 9999999999 upsettin& her9 d It is probable9999999999999999999999he +ill pro)e to be the most li0el' person 9999999999 the -ob and the one most li0el'99999999999999 do it properl'9 e I am a+are999999999999999999999'our deficiencies and the areas 'ou are lac0in& practice99999999999999999999-ust as I am a+are99999999999999999'ou share these +ea0nesses +ith man' others9 f I 0no+ heLs )er' sure9999999999999999999999999999 himself and is intent99999999999999999999999 pro)in& he can pass4 but +e are not con)inced99999999999999999999his success can be ta0en for &ranted9 & I +as interested999999999999999999999999 read that man' fans had e1pressed amaJement9999999999999999999 the result9 IsnLt it amaJin&999999999999999999 so man' people ta0e an interest999999999999999999999 such obscure sportsD h I 0no+ I should be ashamed 9999999999 admit that I am saddened 9999999999'oun& PaulaLs bein& +ritten out of m' fa)ourite soap9 ItLs a prett' a+ful thin&9999999999999999999999999 ha)e to admit4 but I reall' am upset sheLs lea)in&9

de'oid !ree certain inclined liable concerned !illed elect a /hose9999999999999999999+ith the political implications of the ne+ polic' are )er' +orried9 b /he out&oin& President +as accompanied b' the President9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T ILm999999999999999999 to thin0 that it +ould be better to finish this later9 d /hese buildin&s are99999999999999999999999999 to collapse in a stron& earth?ua0e9 e I +as absolutel'999999999999999999999999 ILd left it on the table9 f /he landscape +as completel'999999999999999999999999999999999 of an' si&n of human habitation9 & Please feel999999999999999999999to use the phone if 'ou need to9 h /he e1Bprisoner is9999999999999999999999999+ith remorse for +hat he has done9

2
a b T d e f

Anderline the appropriate ad-ecti)e or ad)erb9

=
1 2 3 4

/he' dro)e under a low ! lowl$ brid&e4 She has tra)elled wide ! widel$. <a0e sure 'ouLre here at se)en oLcloc0 sharp ! sharpl$. She lo)ed him dear ! dearl$. 7eLll be there short ! shortl$. /hreeBtoed sloths li)e deep ! deepl$ in the *maJon forest9 (ircle the ad-ecti)es listed a4 b4 T or d4 that can fill each &ap9 ,ne4 t+o4 three or

all of them ma' be possible9 /he99999999999 child +as comforted b' his aunt9 a sic0 b afraid G fri&htened d ill /he' had stories999999999999999999 about their tra)els throu&h India9 a unli0el' b &alore G aBplent' d countless * speed' solution is99999999999999999999999 a main b principal G chief d crucial 8e +as ta0en99999999999999999b' the ferocit' of the criticism9 a abac0 b una+ares G surprised d unaccustomed

+ -+ t , -+t! : !+(-$ ) t#**in/ 6 Thi i .. (!'+() 0#( t'!nt$ $!+( #0 -#$+!(1i"!.

/he99999999999train is almost ne)er on time9

SECTION <
0n'ersion a!ter negati'e ad'erbs
3For in)ersion in conditionals after should( had( etc9 see Anit 4 Sections $9" and "9 For in)ersion in result clauses after such( so( see Anit #4 Section 2915

7nly in thi! way do we stand an$ chance o! success. and +e can also use phrases +ith noF )n no way should this be regarded as an end o! the matter. 7n no account are $ou to repeat this to an$one. 9nder no circum!tance! can we accept the o!!er.
? NOT USING INVERSION

W8AT IS INVERSIONO

7hen +e be&in a sentence +ith a ne&ati)e ad)erb or ad)erbial phrase4 +e sometimes ha)e to chan&e the usual +ord order of sub-ect and )erb 3often usin& an au1iliar' )erb such as do5F 0 had never seen so man$ people in one room. 3S normal +ord order5 Bever had 0 seen so man$ people in one room. 3S in)ersion5 s 1ot onl$ he wa! good loo&ing( he was also 'er$ intelligent. ; 1ot onl$ wa! he good loo&ing( he was also 'er$ intelligent.

7e use in)ersion +hen the ad)erb modifies the )erb4 and not +hen it modifies the noun2 Farely !een during the da$( the badger is a !amousl$ sh$ animal. 3S no in)ersion5 -ardly anyone &nows about it. 3S no in)ersion5

/ic0 3fH5 the sentences +hich do not contain in)ersion9 a No+here ha)e I seen an'thin& li0e this4 b Ne)er &i)e up until 'ou ha)e tried all the alternati)es9 T ,nl' b' pa'in& the fees in full can +e &uarantee a place on the course4 d 8ardl' an'one applied for the -ob9 e Not since the 19"0s has there been such po)ert'9

W8EN WE USE INVERSION

7e use in)ersion +hen +e mo)e a ne&ati)e ad)erb 4ne'er( nowhere( not onl$( etc95 to the be&innin& of a sentence9 7e do this because +e +ant to emphasise the meanin& of the ad)erb9
T$m% %lat$!ns,$ps

7e use in)ersion after Lne&ati)eL ad)erbs +hich emphasise a time relationship at the be&innin& of a sentence2 Bo !ooner had 0 put the phone down than it rang again. -ardly / Scarcely / :arely had 0 got m$ breath bac& when it was time to go again. 7e use in)ersion +ith phrases that use notF Bot until he apologises will 0 spea& to him again. Bot !ince 0 was little ha'e 0 had so much !un. Bot "or one minute do 0 imagine the$7ll come bac&. 7e use in)ersion +ith some time phrases that use onl$F 7nly a"ter se'eral wee&s did she begin to reco'er. 7nly later did she realise what had happened. 7nly then did he remember he hadn7t got his &e$s. 7nly when 07'e !inished this will 0 be able to thin& about an$thing else. 8ere are more e1amples2 only recently only in the la!t "ew day! only la!t week only "ive minute! earlier

*fter not until( onl$ when and onl$ a!ter( the in)ersion is in the main part of the sentence2 s 1ot until did ) !ec him ) remembered we had met be!ore. ; 1ot until ) !aw him did ) remember we had met be!ore.
F %;u%n#y

7e also use in)ersion after Lne&ati)eL ad)erbs +hich emphasise fre?uenc' at the be&innin& of a sentence2 Bever ha'e ) been so ta&en abac&. Farely do the$ !ail to get awa$ !or a holida$. Seldom is that pop group out o! the news. -ardly ever did he wear a suit. 7e can also use in)ersion after Lne&ati)eL ad)erbs at the be&innin& of a sentence to emphasise ho+ infre?uentl' thin&s happen2 6ittle did she realise what was about to happen. Bowhere was a replacement to be !ound.
G%n% al %mp,as$s

7e often use in)ersion for &eneral emphasis +ith phrases that use onl$F 7nly by patience and hard wor& will we !ind a solution.

INVERSION A8TER NEGATIVE AAVERBS


as possible amon& their peers9 ,n99999999999999 3#5 account can such beha)iour be allo+ed to continue9 *nd not for one99999999999999999999999 3:5 should the -nderline all t"e ("rases 3aBi5 t"at can start sentence 3 rin&leaders thin0 the' +ill not be punished9 ,nl' 999999999999 3!5 such punishment is carried out +ill confidence return to the student bod' and9999999999999999999999999999 395 then +ill school life return to some 0ind of normalit'9 Ander no circumstances999999999999999999999 3105 +e allo+ the present state of affairs to continue9

=
#elow)

a .arel' if e)er b Not onl' T ,nl' if itLs con)enient d 8ardl' an'one e1pects that e Ander no circumstances f Ander such circumstances & ,nl' b' as0in& her directl' h No +a' i Anless somethin& unusual happens 3 9 9 9 she +ill come9 -nderline all t"e ("rases 3aBi5 t"at can start sentence < #elow) a b T d e f & h Little did an'one notice ,nl' if he +asnLt a)ailable Barel' had I sat do+n +hen ,n no occasion I recall ,nl' +hen it +as con)enient Not until +e +ere all read' Ne)er did she 0noc0 before ,nl' then 1 It +as then that

9 9 9 did she come in9

K ;inis" eac" o! t"e sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) ExampleF /he full stor' did not emer&e until somebod' lea0ed information to the press9 ,nl' +hen somebod' lea0ed in!ormation to the press did the !ull stor' emerge. k 8e +al0ed throu&h the door and +as immediatel' met b' a barra&e of ?uestions9 No sooner 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b 8e +ouldnLt a&ree to the chan&es until I pointed out that his -ob depended on them9 Not until 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T Kou donLt often hear of such selfless actions9 Seldom 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d I ha)e ne)er been so insulted9 Ne)er 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e /he onl' +a' he could &et in +as to brea0 a +indo+9 ,nl' 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f Kou must ne)er tal0 to the press about this4 +hate)er happens9 Ander 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 6i

K 6atc" t"e !irst >1612@ and second 3aB-5 (arts) ExamplesF i ? 8


Inconsistent ad*ice a#out a new "us#andR

31 ,n no account should5 32 Not onl' should he be allo+ed to &i)e his opinions45 3 Ander no circumstances is he to 3 ,nl' b' constantl' na&&in& +ill he be 3 ,nl' after +ee0s of ri&orous trainin& +ill he 3 .arel' +ill a man respond to a re?uest the first time unless 3 No +a' should his laundr' be done for him unless 3 ,nl' )er' rarel' should a &arment be ironed for him 3 In e1ceptional circumstances 10 But4 onl' if he seems reall' desperate a learn ho+ to s+itch on the )acuum cleaner4 b should 'ou tr' to sol)e his problems for him9 T +ithout the assurance that ne1t time he +ill do it himself9 d 'ou ma' ta0e +hat he sa's seriousl'4 e it is in his o+n interests to do so9 f he is prepared to lend a hand +ith the +ashin& up9 & be disturbed +hile +atchin& a football match on tele)ision9 h persuaded to pic0 his clothes off the floor9 3i he should also be deluded into thin0in& 'ou a&ree +ith him95 3 - 'ou let him realise he isnLt the boss95

Y ;ill eac" #lank wit" a suita#le word)


6emo to teac"ing sta!! 7e ha)e a problem9 .arel'999999999999999999999 315 +e had a student population li0e this one9999999999999999999999 325 since the 19!0s can I remember so man' troublesome students in our school at an' one time9 Not onl'999999999999999999999999 3$5 some of them treat the staff +ith absolute scorn4999999999999999999999999999 3"5 the' are also clearl'99999999999999999 3 5 on causin& as much trouble

SECTION <
Ma&ing comparisons
1
FORMING COMPARATIVES

he$ get up earl$ e'er$ morning like 0 do. P; He loo&s like me. he$ get up earl$ e'er$ morning( a! 0 do.

AS !" AND AS T*O;G*

7e can ma0e ad-ecti)es and ad)erbs comparati)e +ith -er... than or more ! less > ad- H ad) 999 thanF He was much older than 0 remembered him. 3S comparati)e ad-ecti)e5 He dro'e !ar le!! care!ull$ than he should ha'e. 4 N comparati)e ad)erb5 Some ad)erbs4 ha)e an -er comparati)e2 Gou should ha'e come earlier. *d)erbs endin& in -l$ 3formed from ad-ecti)es5 use more or lessF He started to wor& even more hurriedl$. i

7e use as if and as though to sa' +hat seems to be true4 happenin&4 etc2 He loo&s a! i"/ a! though he7s going to be sic&. 7e can use Anreal Past or sub-uncti)e 3see Anit 4 Section 31 after as i! or as though to emphasise that the comparison is ima&inar'2 #he loo&s a! i" she knew what7s going to happen. 3S she doesnLt5 #he loo&s a! i" she know! what7s going to happen. 3S ma'be she does5 7e can use 8ust or exactl$ 6 as i! ! though to emphasise the comparison9 Much or almost 6 as i! ! though +ea0ens the comparison2 He loo&s 5u!t a! though he7d won a million dollars. he$ loo& almo!t a! i" the$ didn7t want to be here.

SAME OR DIFFERENT

7e can use the follo+in& structures and phrases to sa' that one thin& is the same as4 or different from4 another2 Ien has much the !ame mannerisms a! his !ather. He has di!!erent mannerisms "rom his sister. he$7re not a! intelligent a! their !ather. 1either are an$thing like a! intelligent a! 0 am. his is nothing like a! cold as it is in Januar$. Gour !irst attempt is nowhere near a! good. In the positi)e +e onl' use as...as. In the ne&ati)e4 +e can also use so...asF Grandad doesn7t get about !o easil$ a! he used to. 7e use such > noun > as in ne&ati)e sentences9 Note the chan&e in position of a ! anF 0 didn7t ha'e !uch a good time a! last wee&. 4M 0 didn7t ha'e a! good a time a!...) 7e can use as in a form of in)ersion +ith an au1iliar' )erb2 *eople can no longer climb the tower at *isa( a! wa! possible until a !ew $ears ago. 7e can also use superlati)es +ith the. +e often follo+ these +ith a t*atB clause2 his is the be!t burger that 07'e e'er tasted. 7hen the superlati)e isnLt follo+ed b' a noun or tlidtBclause4 +e can omit theF 0 thin& this one is (the) be!t.

<atch the t+o hal)es of these sentences9

1 1 1 1 1

I donLt thin0 this is much different do9 IL)e ne)er seen such a borin& match others9 Kou seem to prefer bein& independent help9 ILd sooner be unemplo'ed It seems as if

a than do +hat 'ou b to ha)in& to rel' on T 'ou needed a lot of d from +hat happened last time9 e as this one9

DOUBLE COMPARATIVES

7e use double comparati)es +ith the to sa' that one thin& results in another2 ,he more we discuss this( the le!! 0 understand it. ,he longer 0 carried the box( the hea'ier it became.

PREFERENCES

/here are )arious +a's to e1press preference2 0 re"er 4pla$ing5 bas&etball to !ootball. 0 would re"er to sta$ here than go out so late. 0$d sooner die than ha'e to go through all that again. 0$d "ar rather do it now than lea'e it till later. Father than watch rubbish on ?( 0$d re"er to go out.

AS AND '!@E

7hen follo+ed b' a noun4 +e use as to &i)e a description4 and li&e to ma0e a comparison2 *eter wor&s a! a waiter. 3S heLs a +aiter5 He wor&s like a !arm horse. 3S comparison5 7hen +e ma0e comparisons4 li&e is follo+ed b' a noun phrase9 As is a con-unction and is follo+ed b' a )erb phrase9 *lthou&h li&e is used )er' informall' +ith )erb phrases4 it is best a)oided2 D He loo&s a! me.

2 MASING COMCARISON S

X Correct t"ese sentences)

a /he' are ?uic0er doin& this as I am9 b I &ot there more earlier than e)er'one else4 T /he' are not as &ood at usin& a computer than me9 d I donLt thin0 this no)el is so &ood than his last one9 e I ate prett' the same much as the last time I +ent to his restaurant4 f /he lon&er I sit here4 less I feel li0e mo)in&4 & I prefer /arantinoLs films than ,li)er StoneLs4 h 8e ran as the +ind9 i 8e has +or0ed li0e a cler0 for the same ban0 for most of his life4 - /he' seemed as the' didnLt reall' understand +hat +as &oin& on9

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" a suita#le word)

a I +ent to the conference but for most of the time I felt99999999999999 315 a fish out of +ater9 I 0ne+ nobod' there and e)er'one else beha)ed999999999999999999999999999999325 if the' had all 0no+n each other for 'ears9 I left -ust 9999999999 3$5 soon as I could and arri)ed home 9999999999 3"5 than planned9 b IL)e al+a's preferred classical music999999999999999999999999999999999 315 pop music9 ILd much999999999999999999999 325 listen to a " Bminute s'mphon'999999999999999999 3$5 a threeBminute son&9 Pop son&s seem so99999999999999999999 3"5 less interestin&4 harmonicall' and melodicall'4 and the insistent4 repetiti)e drummin& is about99999999999999999999999999999 3 5 much fun 9999999999 3#5 ban&in& 'our head a&ainst a +all9 T <' father +as a -ac0 of all trades in those da's4 as 9999999999 315 all )illa&e school headmasters2 di&&in& holes for s+immin& pools99999999999999999999999999 325 a fullBtime labourer4 mar0in& out athletics trac0s in the manner99999999999999999 3$5 a professional4 teachin& arithmetic to the top class in9999999999999999999999999999 3"5 time as he had free9 /he99999999999999999999 3 5 he did4 the more +as e1pected of him b' the )illa&e communit'4 as if he should9999999999999999 3#5 e)er' +a0in& hour to the +ellB bein& of his pupils9 *nd he did9 No+ada's one hears people tal0 of headmasters as if the' 9999999999 3:5 accountants4 balancin& their999999999999999999999999999999 3!5 as

efficientl'99999999999999999 395 the' can9 I thin0 ILd 9999999999 3105 ha)e been a headmaster in the old da's9 ;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it

is as similar as (ossi#le to t"e sentence #e!ore it) a /he *lps are a lot hi&her than the Pindus ran&e9 /he Pindus ran&e is nothin&999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b For me doin& menial tas0s from 9 to +ould certainl' be preferable to bein& out of +or09 ILd far 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T 7e used to be much closer than +e are no+9 7eLre no+here 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /o hear him tal0 'ouLd thin0 he o+ned the place9 8e tal0s as 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e /he'Lre b' no means as intelli&ent as their father9 /he'Lre far999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f ,ur special offer +as ta0en up b' as man' as :04000 people9 No 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & ILm not too 0een on +atchin& football but I reall' en-o' pla'in& it9 I much prefer99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h Li0e man' of m' friends4 IL)e &i)en up smo0in&9 IL)e &i)en up smo0in&4 as9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"e sentences wit" a suita#le word

or ("rase) a She loo0s much the99999999999999999999999999 did ten 'ears a&o9 b /he lon&er I stud'99999999999999999999999999 I realise +hat an interestin& lan&ua&e it is9 T I donLt spend an'thin&9999999999999999999999999999 mone' as m' husband9 d ILd sooner ha)e ten99999999999999999999999999 children at all9 e /he' accepted their a+ard much9999999999999999999999999999999999 e1pected it all alon&9 f 8e sta&&ers around no+ada's as9999999999999999999999999999999999+ei&ht of the +orld on his shoulders9

Practice

Un*t se7en

?ocabular$
SECTION
)i!!erences and similarities
) COLLOCATION

8is achie)ement in +innin& the sil)er medal +as matchless ; peerless ; uneAualled ; uniAue ; incomparable ; outstanding.
? MODIFIERS

7e often +ant to comment on ho+ bi& a difference is9 /o do so +e use modif'in& ad-ecti)es4 ad)erbs and ad)erbial phrases in comparisons2 Home-made pi22a is mile! better than the rubbish $ou get in the supermar&et. here7s still a !ub!tantial di!!erence between the two main *arties. 8 -nderline t"e modi!iers t"at we can use in t"ese two sentences) a 8e +as considerabl$ ! slightl$ ! much ! !airl$ ! Auite; rather ! immeasurabl$ ! !ar better than +hen +e last sa+ him9 b /he' are nowhere near ! nothing li&e ! not Auite ! not that ! not 'irtuall$ as efficient as +hen +e last used them fi)e 'ears a&o9
- LIN9ING P8RASES

7e can use a number of ad-ecti)e H noun or ad)erb H )erb collocations to sa' ho+ different or similar people or thin&s are9 ,ther ad-ecti)es ma' ha)e a similar meanin&4 but +e canLt use them because the' donLt collocate 3see Anit 14 Section #52 D here7s a noted/wide/!trong di!!erence. L here7s a marked / erce tible / va!t / clear di!!erence.

-nderline t"e !ollowing *er#s t"at collocate wit" t"e noun com ari!on. /his computer &ame ma&es ;draws;puts ;a'oids ; bears ; in)ites H ta&es comparison +ith the best on the mar0et9

7e can use lin0in& phrases to replace smaller than( as big as( etc2 ,ne teaspoon is equivalent to about \ml. G -nderline t"e words and ("rases t"at we can use in t"is sentence) /his 'earLs numbers +ere )er' small as against ! relating to ! in contrast to ! compared to ! whereas ! tantamount to ! eAuated to ! in comparison with ! comparable to the )ast numbers +e had last 'ear9
/ IDIOMATIC P8RASES

-nderline t"e !ollowing adHecti*es t"at collocate wit" t"e noun !imilarity. /hereLs a mar&ed ; stri&ing ; resonant ; distinct ; wea&;little similarit' bet+een the t+o bo's9

-nderline t"e !ollowing ad*er#s t"at collocate wit" t"e *er# com are. /he ne+ product compares !a'ourabl$ ; well; closel$ ;!airl$ ; un!a'ourabl$ +ith the old one9
+ SYNONYMS AND NEAR@SYNONYMS

7e can use a number of idiomatic phrases in comparisons2 9sing e-mail is a! ea!y a! "alling o"" a log. )on7t go in there like a bull in a china !ho and upset e'er$one.

0 ;ill t"e ga( in t"e ("rases #elow wit" one o! t"ese words)
class streets peas head spots cheese a <oJart and 7a&ner are as different as chal0 and b /he t+ins are ali0e as t+o99999999999999999999999999999 in a pod9 T Anited +ould 0noc09999999999999999999999999off us9 d /heodora0is is in a9999999999999999999999999 of his o+n9 e I donLt a&ree that *mericans are99999999999999999999999999999999 ahead of us9 f *rmenian bas0etball pla'ers are9999999999999999999999999999999 and shoulders abo)e the rest9

Sometimes s'non'ms are )irtuall' interchan&eable2 his is one o! the bigge!t / greate!t da$s in our countr$7s histor$. C 8o+e)er4 in different conte1ts4 differences ma' emer&e2 %e need a bigger area ; room ; table ; auditoriumB %hat a great idea ;gesture ;pri'ilege ; honourB " -nderline t"e adHecti*e t"at we can use in t"is sentence)

DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

=
sentence9

Anderline the option4 a4 b4 T or d4 that best completes each

1 2 3 4 5 6

/he celebrations +ere some+hat9999999999999999999999999999b' the announcement of her resi&nation9 a outshone b o)ershado+ed T o)ercast d out+ei&hed 7hat +ould be the999999999999999999999?ualification in 'our o+n countr'D a e?ui)alent b same T similar d corresponded I feel a3n599999999999999better after a ni&htLs sleep9 a shade b de&ree T iota d note <an' +ould ar&ue that modern pop compares +ith that of ten 'ears a&o9 a closel' b nearl' T unfa)ourabl' d accuratel' /here is unfortunatel' a99999999999999999999999bet+een the pett' cash slips and the actual mone' in the tin9 a difference b )ariance T discrepanc' d differentiation

d /here are )er' fe+99999999999999999999999999bet+een the t+o of them9 e /he'999999999999999999 in -ust about e)er' +a'9 f KouL)e &ot PaulLs &enerall' pleasant ac?uiescence as9999999999999 PeterLs open rebelliousness9 & /hereLs Paul4 the model son4 as999999999999999999999999999999999 to Peter4 the blac0 sheep9 h Kou ha)e PeterLs dar0ened bro+ in9999999999999999999999999999999999 to PaulLs open smile9 1 999999999999 Paul beams4 Peter &lo+ers9 - But9999999999999999 Paul4 Peter is successful9

;ill each of the &aps +ith one suitable +ord9

a Lettin& them off +ith a suspended sentence is 9999999999 to sa'in& their crime is insi&nificant9 b I donLt thin0 'ou can e?uate this crime99999999999999999999999999999999999999+hat is understood b' La&&ra)ated bur&lar'L4 T I +ould challen&e 'our assumption that blame can be attributed99999999999999999999to both sets of la+brea0ers9 d *s far as I can see4 both cases ha)e a remar0able number of details in99999999999999999999999999 e I donLt thin0 this case999999999999999999999999999comparison +ith the one 'ou are referrin& to9

%onLt 'ou thin0 she bears an99999999999999999999999999 resemblance to his first +ifeD a identical b uneas' T uncann' d indifferent 7 *t " 4 the e1Bhea)'+ei&ht champion is a3n599999999999999999999999999999999 of his former self9 a reflection b ima&e T shado+ d miniature D Anfortunatel' the' us in the auction to the tune of W 009 a outbid b out+ei&hed T o)erdid d under+rote

;ill each of the numbered blan0s +ith an appropriate form of a

)erb from the list9 /he first 305 has been &i)en as an e1ample9 discriminate 4compare5

di..er

'ar$ di!!erentiate di'erge li&en contrast

Fill each of the blan0s +ith one of the +ords from the list9

cheese similarities common against totall$ opposed unli&e whereas di!!er contrast a /he t+ins are as different as chal0 and999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he' reall' ha)enLt &ot a lot in999999999999999999999999999999999 at all9 T /he'Lre99999999999999999999 different9

+ritis" *) American Englis"


<illions of +ords ha)e been +ritten in an attempt to com are 305 the t+o lan&ua&es4 pointin& out ho+ the' ...... ( 1 ) but are still reco&nisabl' the LsameL lan&ua&e9 (learl' no one should99999999999999999999999 143 a&ainst the

33=

*merican species -ust because it is the 'oun&er partner9 Some people ha)e9999999999999999999 3$5 the difference to that bet+een a horse and a mule4 but that does not &o )er' far to+ards99999999999999999 3"5 bet+een the t+o lan&ua&es9 /he' are rather t+o breeds of horse that ha)e 999999999999 3 5 )er' sli&htl' o)er the 'ears9 Some points of British En&lish &rammar9999999999999999999 3#5 ?uite sharpl' +ith *merican En&lish4 but the fact remains that accent 999999999999 3:5 as much +ithin each countr' as bet+een the t+o9
VOCABULARY

For each of the sentences belo+4 +rite a ne+ sentence as

similar as possible in meanin& to the ori&inal sentence but usin& the +ord &i)en9 a ItLs difficult to ima&ine her performance bein& impro)ed on b' an'one4 betterin& b No one to this da' has e?ualled her achie)ement4 unsurpassed T ,ur ri)als are a lon& +a' behind at the moment4 streets d 8is performance made all the others in the cast loo0 ?uite ordinar'4 shade e In m' opinion sheLs no+here near as proficient as she used to be9 an'thin&

SECTION =
#entence ad'erbs
) W8AT ARE SENTENCE ADVERBSO

Practice Y -nderline t"e sentence ad*er# t"at #est com(letes eac"


sentence)

Essentiall'4 sentence ad)erbs are ad)erbs or ad)erbial phrases that comment on a +hole sentence or part of a sentence2 :y and large, the$ are separated !rom the rest o! the sentence by a comma. Generally ! eaking, the$ go at the beginning o! the sentence. -owever, some can go at the end( a arently. &oreover, we can certainly put some in the middle. 3 -nderline t"e sentence ad*er#s or ad*er#ial ("rases) a 7e &ot to the airport +ith half an hour to spare +hich4 all thin&s considered4 +as a miracle9 b I suppose +ith hindsi&ht it +ould ha)e been +iser to ta0e the bus9
+ W8EN DO WE USE SENTENCE ADVERBSO

Sentence ad)erbs ha)e a number of uses includin& or&anisin& information4 commentin&4 &i)in& e1amples4 chan&in& the sub-ect4 rephrasin& and summarisin&2 /ir!tly, we use them to show how the sentence !its in with the rest o! the text. 8lternatively, we ma$ use them to express our attitude to what we are about to sa$. )n other word!, we use them to comment on what we thin& or !eel. 7n the whole, the$ ma&e it easier to understand what is going on. /unnily enough, the two sentence ad'erbials that students o! English get most con!used about are $7n the contrary$ and $7n the other hand$. 2 6atc" t"e sentence ad*er#s in italic! wit" t"e !unctions 31B"5 #elow) a It +as a lon& -ourne' but all in all I thin0 it +as +orth it9 b ,ur preparation +as haphaJard and illBthou&ht out9 hus +e +ere easil' defeated4 T I +as told to &et here for nine oLcloc04 presumabl$ because somethin& important has come up9 d I 0no+ ho+ to do it9 hat is to sa$( I thin0 I 0no+ ho+9

It is impossible to tell +hether a man is married or not9 /n the contrar$ ! /n the other hand( +omen usuall' ha)e L<issL or L<rsL before their name9 1 LKour parents didnLt +ant 'ou to &o abroad4 did the'DL 7/n the contrar$ ! /n the other hand( the' +ere all for it9L 1 /hese ne+ computers are amaJin&l' fast9 ,n the other hand( ! /n the contrar$( the'Lre )er' e1pensi)e9L 1 It too0 a&es to &et there but in the end ! at the end it +as +orth it9 1 8e slept throu&h the entire film and in the end ! at the end of it had the ner)e to sa' he en-o'ed it9 1 As a rule ! @undamentall$( I find French films dull and pretentious9 1 ,n balance ! 0n contrast I prefer (rete to .hodes4 thou&h itLs a close run thin&9 1 British and *merican En&lish are characteristicall$ ! to all intents and purposes the same9

2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

-nderline t"e o(tion a& #& G or d t"at #est com(letes eac"

sentence) She +as cau&ht cheatin& in the race999999999999999999999999999999 she +as dis?ualified9 a *ccordin&l' # E?uall' G E1plicitl' d Fundamentall' She +asnLt allo+ed into the countr'6999999999999999999999999999999 because her papers arenLt in order9 a subse?uentl' # admittedl' G presumabl' d parado1icall' I +asnLt there m'self but99999999999999999999999 the' had the most almi&ht' ro+9 a broadl' # apparentl' G con)ersel' d primaril' <' shirt +as co)ered in oil but99999999999999999999999999 I had a spare one9 a hopefull' # clearl' G ho+e)er d luc0il' She in)ited me to a part' and99999999999999999999999999 I said L'esL9 a naturall' # lastl' G o)erall d hopefull' /he decision +as a bad one and I thin0 that4 4 +e all reco&nise that9 a in contrast # in particular G in retrospect d in conse?uence ItLs an interestin& idea and4999999999999999999999999 at least4 has a lot &oin& for it9 a in theor' # in fairness G in conclusion d in realit'
SENTENCE ADVERBS

1 1 1 1

,r&anisin& information E1pressin& 'our attitude .ephrasin& Summarisin& and &eneralisin&

! 99999999999999 I disli0e 8oll'+ood films but this +as an e1ception9 a *s a result # *s far as I 0no+ G *s a rule d *s it turns out

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word)

a I thin0 MaJantsa0isL boo0s are fascinatin& but at the 9999999999 315 time his ideas are not particularl' eas' to understand99999999999999999999 325 a result it ta0es me a&es to &et throu&h e)en one of his shorter +or0s9 +or0 but4 all99999999999999999999 3$5 considered4 +orth it9

course4 there ma' +ell be intelli&ent forms out there4 but theor' is one thin& and proof another9 /o9999999999999 3105 it bluntl'4 those +ho claim to ha)e seen aliens are499999999999999999999 3115 and lar&e4 nutcases9 In the same99999999999999999 31254 those +ho belie)e in the Loch Ness monster are li)in& in fantas' land9 ,n the other999999999999999 31$54 the little &reen men ma' in)ade tomorro+ and these +ords +ill49999999999999999999999999999999 31"5 hindsi&ht4 seem foolish9 /hou&h someho+ I doubt it9

ItLs

hard

b Stran&el'99999999999999999999 3"54 the holida' +as a &reat success4 thou&h99999999999999999 3 5 a rule I &et reall' bored l'in& on a beach9 ,n the999999999999999999999 3#54 I prefer the t'pe of holida' +here 'ou are constantl' disco)erin& ne+ thin&s9 /o me4 l'in& around is4 to all intents and99999999999999999999999999999999999 3:54 a complete +aste of time9 G *s9999999999999999 3!5 as +e 0no+4 there is no other intelli&ent life in the uni)erse9 In999999999999999999999999999999 901& of

;ill eac" ga( wit" one o! t"e words or ("rases)

let alone to a certain extent predominantl$ notabl$ on the contrar$ a <ost of the people ?ueuin& at the <arria&e (ounsellorLs door +ere under $049999999999999999999999999999999but not e1clusi)el' +omen9 b I donLt resent her bein& here6999999999999999999999999999999994 ILm deli&hted she is9

119

Practice

T I +ould ne)er +ant to hurt another human bein&4 9999999999 m' best friend9 d 8e +as a stron& candidate49999999999999999999999999999999 in the listenin& and spea0in& sections4 e I canLt )ote for him but99999999999999999999999999999 I can see that heLs ri&ht9

;ill eac" ga( wit" one o! t"e words or ("rases)

li&e it or not primaril$ belie'e it or not R] regards particularl$ a /he' split up49999999999999999999999because the' a&reed the' +ere incompatible9 b ItLs al+a's rather a blea0 area499999999999999999999999999999999 in the +inter9 T I as0ed her to lend me W104000 and499999999999999999999999999999999999 4 she a&reed9 d 99999999999999 the +eather4 I -ust donLt 0no+ ho+ 'ou can bear to li)e here4 e 99999999999999 4 'ouLre &oin& to ha)e to sell somethin& -ust to pa' the rent9

;ill eac" ga( wit" one o! t"e words or ("rases)

when it comes to in some respects not to mention in the main chie!l$ a I ha)e some mis&i)in&s but999999999999999999999999999999 ILm not unhapp' I came here9 b IL)e &ot rent4 a &as bill and road ta1 to pa'999999999999999999999999999999999999999 +hat I o+e m' dear old dad9 T SheLs second to none999999999999999999999999999 coo0in& pasta9 d ILm &lad I came here4999999999999999999999999999because of 'ou9 e 99999999999999 I a&ree +ith him4 but o)erall I thin0 I +ould ha)e to side +ith her9

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"ese sentences wit" one suita#le word)

ExampleF Broadl' spea&ing4 I a&ree that4 come +hat ma'4 +e -ust ha)e to perse)ere9 a 99999999999999 first si&ht En&lish ma' seem a simple lan&ua&e but9999999999999999999realit' thatLs far from true9 b 99999999999999'ou ma' 0no+4 sheLs lea)in&699999999999999999999999999999least ILm prett' sure she is9 T Personall'99999999999999999999 4 and incredible99999999999999999999 it ma' seem to 'ou4 I thin0 chocolate is much o)errated4 d 99999999999999 re&ard to arri)al time4 +e should49999999999999999999999999999999 thin&s bein& e?ual4 be there b' se)en4 e 99999999999999 e)er'oneLs surprise49999999999999999999999 the end she lost her ner)e9 f /o be9999999999999999999 & 3 thin0 this +hole pro-ect stin0s from 9999999999 to finish9 & *t the9999999999999999999 of the da' and99999999999999999999 the final anal'sis4 ho+ man' trophies +e +in is +hatLs important4 h 99999999999999to a point I thin0 he did )er' +ell49999999999999999999999999999999999his lac0 of e1perience in that e)ent9 2 99999999999999 a nutshell4 +eL)e &ot to +or0 harder4999999999999999999999999999999999 ?uestion about it9 - 999999999999999 the top of m' head4 ILd sa' there +ere o)er 100 people there4999999999999999999999 ILm )er' much mista0en9

3<>

E&am p a#t$#% 3

) Fill each of the numbere# blanks with !n% suitable wor#. +hether or not we are ........................... 123 in the uni"erse is a 5uestion that has "e/e# humankin# for centuries. $ut we are ................... 143 to li"e in an era when the technology e/ists to allow us to come ..................................... 1(3 to gi"ing an answer. F' to now0 .............................. 163 only was a belief in the e/istence of e/traterrestrial life often ............ 183 on 'ersonal rather than religious con"iction0 .................. 1*3 was 'erha's ....................... 1;3 much base# on faith. $ut scientifically the 'ossibility cannot be #iscounte# an#0 'erha's more ............ 1>3 at any other time in history0 the sub,ect is no longer liable ........................ 1?3 be #ismisse# as a crank's #isci'line. For e/am'le0 can we estimate the number of ci"ilisations within our own Milky +ay gala/y9 &hese #ays scientists belie"e that in some ............... 12)3 they now ha"e a not............................... 1223 knowle#ge of the factors in"ol"e# in 'ro#ucing such ci"ilisations. &he rate of formation of suitable stars : that is0 ones................ 1243 Earth which are hot.............................. 12(3 to sustain life an# li"e long enough to allow life to e"ol"e : is a...................... 1263 starting:'oint. Astronomers are confi#ent............................. 1283 they can assess this rate of formation at................................. 12*3 one star 'er year. !owe"er0 these stars also nee# to ha"e habitable 'lanets........................... 12;3 in the last fi"e years ha"e scientists foun# e"i#ence that at least some stars 1other than our own star0 the Sun3 ha"e 'lanetary systems. $roa#ly............................. 12>30 'erha's one in ten stars ha"e 'lanets orbiting them. $ut we also re5uire that these 'lanets are warm enough to ha"e li5ui# water0 a basic com'onent integral ............ 12?3 life on Earth an# 'resumably life elsewhere0 an# are not lacking ............................... 14)3 an atmos'here that can both 'ro"i#e 'rotection an# sustenance to #e"elo'ing life. + Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? a It why wasn't the until car we was got home that a we foun# out noise.

making

such

strange

.nly when ......................................................................................... b In or#er to get to the solution0 we ha# to start again from the beginning. .nly ................................................................................................... P +hate"er you #o0 #on't try to o'en u' the back of the tele"ision. Fn#er no circumstances .................................................................. " Such a''alling incom'etence is "irtually unhear# of in this com'any. Sel#om .............................................................................................. % &his is the first time that so many 'eo'le ha"e #ie# as a result of a signal failure. %e"er ................................................................................................ ( It was the biggest family gathering since Alison's we##ing. %ot since ........................................................................................... 0 &he guar# #ogs refuse# to lea"e the kennel before they ha# been fe#. %ot until ............................................................................................ , &he #ay was unbearably hot until the sun went #own. .nly ................................................................................................... $ &he 'lane ha# only ,ust taken off when the engine trouble starte#. %o sooner ......................................................................................... 7 I #on't think the chil#ren ha"e the faintest i#ea what we ha"e 'lanne# for them. Little ..................................................................................................

f f l t 9 GGGGGGGGGG

121

' Circle the wor# or 'hrase which best com'letes each sentence.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D E 1F 11 12 13 14

&he 'ainting bears a....................... resemblance to El 7reco's earlier works. A heate# A #o A matchless A boun# s'ace research. A kilometres A gram A com'ares A com'are# A streets A makes F streets F iota F matches F outweighe# F 'oles F stan#s G as a rule G alternati"ely G in "iew G 'ractice G ages G measurement G e5uals G 're#ominate# G totally G lea#s D inches D shre# D #raws D 're"aile# D stri's D matches D in a nutshell D a#mitte#ly D by contrast D hin#sight A##ing salt at this stage is not going to make one........................................... of #ifference. Most 'eo'le think the ()* ............................ fa"ourably to earlier mo#els. Consi#erations of safety were e"entually.................................. by those of cost. &he brothers remain ..................... a'art in terms of s'orting achie"ement. As a 'oet0 I think she .................... com'arison with the greatest this century. I en,oy swimming0 but.................... I a"oi# crow#e# 'ools. A on the contrary F on the face of it A in contrast A on reflection A retros'ect settle#. A Shortly F ."erall G %onetheless D Subse5uently I ha"e often hel'e# my wife with the cleaning0 though ........................................ not for some time. F es'ecially F with regar# F fairness &hey still ha"en't ma#e a #ecision .......................... to the new colour scheme. E"eryone agrees that with ..................... they shoul#n't ha"e chosen 'ink. F fine F strike F suitable F tantamount G striking G #raw G listless G liable D com'arable D take D com'etent D "irtually I #on't think it's fair to.......................... a com'arison between the two sisters. She ga"e a................. 'erformance of the concerto that ha# the au#ience on its feet. Saying you en,oy rock music is ............................ to a#mitting you are com'letely cloth:eare#. I think you'll fin# that the Americans are.................................... ahea# of us when it comes to

)/ ???????????????? they seem to be in agreement0 though there are still some #etails to be

- Fill each of the ga's in these sentences with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.
EXAMPLE-

I ha"e always 'referre# 'laying music to li!tening to it.

a Fnfortunately0 the restaurant ne/t #oor is nowhere ............................................ as it use# to be. b I #on't fin# this new "acuum cleaner anything ........................................... as the ol# one. P Prices here are much ........................... as elsewhere in the country. " I'"e often wishe# I coul# affor# to work less0 as ............................................. 'eo'le0 I sus'ect. % &here are times when !arry seems almost ........................................ of common sense.

1ouns and articles


Entry test
Correct the * errors in articles in this e/tract from a com'ositionIs *a %.% 7ust$($%"O E"ery #ay there is news of another war breaking out somewhere in worl#. Clauswit< claime# that the war is a continuation of the go"ernment by other means0 but is it necessary9 First +orl# +ar is often use#0 es'ecially by 'acifists0 as an e/am'le of an un,ustifiable war- the Euro'ean 'owers allie# themsel"es with each other an# for fi"e years kille# each other in a''alling con#itions. +hat makes the society in#ulge in such e/traor#inary beha"iour9 Is it sim'ly in nature of man to fight9 Fn#er any circumstances can the "iolence e"er be ,ustifie#9 Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the following 'assage with one suitable wor#.
FOR USE OF ARTICLES W8EN TAL9ING ABOUT A GROUP OR CLASS: SEE SECTION '?

............ 123 "iolin has remaine# "irtually unchange# since the 2 *th century. It e"ol"e# from .................................... 143 "iol0 ............... 1(3 si/:stringe# instrument which is 'laye# resting on or between .............................. 163 thighs.

i Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the following 'assage with one suitable wor#. ............ 123 reasoning behin# high le"els of ta/ation is the re#istribution of wealth from .................................. 325 rich to the ................. 1(30 for the common9999999999999999999999999 163. !owe"er0 to #o this in a way which satisfies e"erybo#y is to ask the............................ 183.

FOR T8E USE OF T*E OR NO ARTICLE: SEE SECTION )?

FOR AD6ECTIVES AND VERBS AS NOUNS: SEE SECTION -

Fill each of the numbere# blanks where necessary in the following 'assage with one suitable wor#. I ha# a har# .................... 123 getting to work the other #ay. &he 'olice...................... 325 blocking off the main roa# after an acci#ent. .n the ra#io0 the local traffic news..................... 1(3 talking about com'lete chaos on the roa#s e"erywhere. I calmly sat in my car with .................. 163 'atience I ne"er knew I ha#. After all0 the e/'erience of sitting in a car going nowhere is0 I reflecte#0 starting to 'lay an increasing 'art in all our............................. 183.

FOR DIFFERENT USES OF SINGULAR: PLURAL AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS: SEE SECTION +?

NOUNS ANA ARTICLES

OVERVIEW
) COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

7e use uncountable nouns to tal0 about thin&s +e thin0 of as a mass4 rather than countable indi)idual thin&s9 7e use them +ith sin&ular )erbs9 C It ma' not be immediatel' ob)ious +hether nouns are countable or uncountable 3see Section 254 and some uncountable nouns in En&lish are countable in other lan&ua&es9 Lo&ic and &rammar seem to produce contradictions9 8ere are a fe+ e1amples2

<an' nouns can be countable or uncountable dependin& on the conte1t 3see Section 252 -ncounta#le He7s a danger to !ociety. 0 ne'er eat lunch. (ork is starting to ta&e o'er m$ li!e.

Counta#le

-ncounta#le
rice bread + macaroni ad'ice &nowledge news + in!ormation hair mone$ mar&eting luggage !lu + cancer + measles strawberr$ 8am

Counta#le
lentils !our potatoes a !ew suggestions ideas these !acts a wig a dollar an ad'ertisement two suitcases a cold + a headache + a heart attac& a tra!!ic 8am

Iritain is a multi-racial !ociety. He7s grown !at through eating so man$ business lunches. Ieetho'en7s later work! are startlingl$ original.
AAan

7e use a or an +ith sin&ular countable nouns onl'9 A and an are indefinite articles9 7e use them to tal0 about one of somethin& +hen +e assume that the listener H reader doesnLt 0no+ +hich specific thin& 3but see Section 29#52

3<4

A car dro'e past. 3S +e donLt 0no+ e1actl' +hich car5


The

&oney doesn7t necessaril$ bring happiness. 0t7s eas$ to blame minoritie! !or all the problems o! !ociety. *aperclips were a brilliant in'ention. In these e1amples +e are tal0in& &enerall'4 and not thin0in& of an indi)idual item or e1ample9 7e ne)er use a ! an +ith nouns +hich are used uncountabl'2 He shows an impressi'e understanding o! the principles o! mar&eting.
' OT8ER DETERMINERS

7e use the +ith countable nouns 3sin&ular or plural5 and uncountable nouns2 A man is coming round to !ix the tele'ision. :et7s sit on the grass o'er there. he is the definite article9 7e use it to tal0 about a specific e1ample of somethin& +e thin0 is 0no+n to both oursel)es and the listener H reader2 ,he cars were par&ed illegall$ in the cit$ centre. 4 N +e 0no+ +hich cars and +hich cit'5
N! a t$#l%

/o tal0 about thin&s &enerall'4 +e use uncountable or plural nouns +ithout a ! an or theF

,ther determiners such as m$( $our( his( etc94 this4 that( these( those( ha)e a similar function to the and ma0e the meanin& specific2 Hour happiness is o! great concern to me. 3S happiness specific to 'ou5 ,ho!e holida$s we had in the #outh o! @rance were the best. 3S specific holida's5 ,hat money was meant !or pa$ing the phone bill. 4 N a specific sum5

+ AAA#, T*E OR NO ARTICLEO

A! an are determiners9 %eterminers are +ords +e use before a noun to sho+ +hether the noun is specific or &eneral4 sin&ular or plural4 etc9 3For other determiners4 see Anit 959 Sin&ular countable nouns must al+a's ha)e a ! an( the or another determiner2 < %li$ don7t $ou pull up chair and sit down> ; %h$ don7t $ou pull up a chair and sit down>

GRAMMAR

SECTION I
9sing the or no article
) T*E WIT8 NOUNS T8AT ARE ALWAYS SINGULAR

' GENERAL OR SPECIFIC @ ADDING T*E

7e can use the +ith uncountable and countable nouns4 includin& the abstract nouns abo)e4 to refer to a specific e1ample of somethin&9 /o ma0e clear +hich specific e1ample +e are referrin& to4 +e ma' ha)e to add a ?ualif'in& clause +ith o! 3or another preposition54 a relati)e clause4 or an ad-ecti)e2 =eneral Specific

7e nearl' al+a's use the +ith some sin&ular nouns because +e consider there is onl' one in e1istence2 the sun the moon the Earth the air the o2one la$er the past the !uture the countr$side the E9 the 91 the seaside the world the ?ietnam %ar the presidenc$ the Go'ernment C /his cate&or' also includes superlati)es because there is usuall' onl' one thin& or &roup that is superlati)e2 He7s the best accountant in town. 0t7s one o! the noisiest bars in town.

0 li&e all &inds o! music. which the$ set out to create was based on mutual trust. 0s there li!e a!ter death> %e must !ight !or !reedom. ruth is the !irst 'ictim o! war. Gou learn !rom experience. #he ought to be in 8ail -she7s a danger to societ$.

Lo&ic is not al+a's a reliable &uide9 7e tal0 about the atmosphere and the en'ironment. But +e usuall' thin0 of nature in a &eneral sense and so omit the. *lthou&h +e tal0 about the uni'erse( +e consider space as infinite and +e use it +ithout theF < he oldest man in the space was John Glenn. P; he oldest man in space was John Glenn.

Sometimes the ?ualif'in& clause is implied rather than stated e1plicitl'9 /his is especiall' true of truthF 0 promise to tell the truth( the whole truth and nothing but the truth. 3S about +hat happened5

+ NOUNS WIT8OUT ARTICLES

7e use uncountable and plural nouns +ithout articles to refer to &eneral ideas and cate&ories2 Cars and buses are a ma8or source o! pollution in cities. 7e use man' uncountable abstract nouns in this +a'2 0ntelligence is something $ou are born with( not something $ou learn. :aughter is good !or $ou. 8ere are more e1amples of abstract nouns +e can use li0e this2 ad'ice anger beaut$ chaos courage education excitement !un hospitalit$ happiness histor$ in!ormation &nowledge laughter luc& music patience poetr$ progress 'iolence

A-- (i/ht. A+), I4-- t!-- P0#% th! 'h#-! t(%th

/ic0 4 t ; 5 the sentences +hich are correct4 a 7hat +ill music sound li0e in the futureD b PeopleLs attitude to education reflect their attitude to children9 T 7hat e1actl' is the nature of 'our complaintD d 7hen it comes to depression4 lau&hter is often the best remed'9 e /he life is too short to +aste time bein& an&r' +ith people9

he music o! #&al&ottas is 'irtuall$ un&nown outside Greece. 0t was a !ilm about the li!e o! a polar explorer. 0 was allowed the !reedom o! the house and garden. %e7ll ne'er &now the truth about what reall$ happened. he terrible experience was something he ne'er got o'er. he societ$

3<8

Practice
USING T?E OR NO ARTICLE
^d^ (,<PA/E.S BL*<E% F,. .E(,.% NA<BE.

,F U,B L,SSES

In t"e !ollowing sentences the is missing in one or more cases)

Write in the w"ere necessar') a /here are countless )arieties of En&lish in use in En&lishBspea0in& +orld4 b (oncepts of lan&ua&e )ar' from countr' to countr' and from &eneration to &eneration6 En&lish 'ou hear spo0en no+ada's is in no +a' reco&nisable as lan&ua&e used b' last &eneration4 let alone in time of Sha0espeare4 T =o)ernment is no+ insistin& that mathematics is tau&ht +ith methods reminiscent of 19 0s4 d =o)ernment is onl' possible if ma-orit' accept la+ of land9 e 7hen Uulie +al0ed into room4 'ou could ha)e cut atmosphere +ith a 0nife4 f <usic of toda' deser)es a different name from music of Beetho)en4 Bach and other comparable &eniuses9 & People li)in& inside *rctic (ircle ha)e a )er' different )ie+ of 'ear from those li)in& in4 sa'4 Bel&ium9 h <an' people in public sector of +or0 are -ust loo0in& for sun4 sand and rela1ation +hen the' &o on holida'4 and +h' notD

1
water (eo(le drink not !it !or animals sa' en*ironmentalists
Y(Z

level of unemployment highest since mid nineteen nineties

K Correct t"e = errors in t"is e,tract !rom a com(osition)


/he +ar ta0es o)er +hen politics fails9 It is al+a's fri&htenin& and unpleasant and the societ' does f e)er'thin& it can to a)oid clashes bet+een countries4 but there often comes a point +here a)oidance is no lon&er an option9 In the past4 the man0ind has fou&ht +ars for man' different reasons but the histor' sho+s that one side al+a's blames the other for startin& it9 *&&ression starts because one side accuses the other of doin& somethin& a&&ressi)e9 /he other side denies it9 /he ar&ument &ets louder and more heated until suddenl' patience are at an end4 the time for tal0 is o)er4 and militar' po+er replaces spo0en ar&ument9 7ars can be -ustified if the' are fou&ht for &ood reasons4 but +ho is to sa' +hat is a &ood reasonD 8istor' is +ritten b' the +inners4 and it is their )ersion of the truth that +e tend to +or0 from9 ,ur 0no+led&e of the +hole histor' of an' +ar are li0el' to be limited b' the lac0 of complete informations but if +e are to learn an' lessons for future4 +e

must tr' to understand +hat happened9 ;i- eac" ga( wit" one o! t"e nouns) In t"ree sentences 'ou will need to add the. poetr$ chaos progress !ortune strength dudgeon beaut$ !rustration 'iolence ad'ice a 99999999999999 is said to be s0inBdeep9 b If 'ou as04 ILm sure 'our uncle +ill &i)e 'ou sound T <artaLs been 0no+n to dabble in l'rical9999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d <' ne1tBdoor nei&hbour feels9999999999999999999999999999999 of not ha)in& +or0ed for three 'ears9 e %omestic999999999999999999999 is a fri&htenin& concept9 f /he protest meetin& ended in total999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & (arlos has pro)erbial99999999999999999999999999 of a lion9 h Stead'999999999999999999 is bein& made9 2 *t the concert *n0a had &ood99999999999999999999999999999 to be sittin& close to the sta&e9 - /he foreman stomped off in hi&h999999999999999999999999999999999999

Rewrite t"ese "eadlines as normal written sentences& adding 8$ corrupts $oung sa$s

the as a((ro(riate& and making an' ot"er suita#le c"anges) ExampleF

M*n*ste( o, Ed$)at*on
T"e 6inister o! Education "as said t"at tele*ision corru(ts t"e young.

[$$

deat" o! President lea*es countr' in c"aos

,i/ ,% in!

hit ,$ in0-+ti#n

U= United manager .aces sack a.ter latest


de.eat

3<

jjjj

GRAMMAR

"

SECTION <
#ingular( plural( uncountable
1
NOUNS T8AT ARE ALWAYS PLURAL

-ncounta#le

Some nouns are al+a's plural4 often because the' are made up of t+o LpartsL9 /his is especiall' true of some clothes and tools2 trousers underpants p$8amas tights scissors shorts pliers twee2ers tongs glasses 4 N spectacles5 /o ma0e them sin&ular4 +e usuall' use a pair o!. hese scissors are bro&en. his pair o! scissors is bro&en. Some nouns are al+a's plural because the' are made up of man' LpartsL2 belongings goods people police

Some nouns that are often uncountable can also be countable sin&ular or plural2 0 was as&ed i! 07d had an$ pre'ious experience. 0s there an$ Counta#le (lural He had man$ hilarious experiences to truth in what the$7re sa$ing> )eath b$ chocolate -what a great tell us. hat7s one o! the world7s great truths. wa$ to goB :i!e was hard a he accident caused a number o! deaths. hundred $ears ago. heir li'es were made a miser$ b$ the He has enormous strength. disaster. *atience is one o! his great Marriage is something to be ta&en strengths. Man$ marriages end in seriousl$. He reported !or dut$. di'orce these da$s. His duties included cleaning and coo&ing.
2 UNCOUNTABLE OR COUNTABLE SINGULARO

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS ENDING IN @S

Some uncountable nouns that end +ith B loo0 li0e plural countable nouns but are not9 7e use a sin&ular )erb2 s %liat are the news toda$> ; %hat7s the news toda$> 8ere are more e1amples9 Note that man' end in -icsF news maths economics athletics genetics linguistics mechanics politics aerobics rabies

7e can use some nouns +hich are often uncountable +ith a ! an. In this case4 the nouns are usuall' ?ualified b' an ad-ecti)e or phrase 3such as a prepositional phrase or relati)e clause52 :i!e is short. 3S uncountable5 He led a li!e o! unimpeachable rectitude. 3S countable > ad-ecti)al phrase5 C 8ere are more e1amples2 0 !elt reall$ rotten at wor& the other da$ so 0 went into the stoc&room !or a nap -> thought 07d !eel better a!ter a good sleep. 9n!ortunatel$ m$ boss( who has a deep distrust o! most o! his emplo$ees as well as a histor$ o! suddenl$ !iring his wor&ers( decided there was some wor& he needed me to do urgentl$. M $ colleagues told him 07d been called out - l$ing is sometimes a necessar$ e'il - but he had a better &nowledge o! the situation than the$ realised( and 0 was summoned to his o!!ice. 0 thought he would gi'e me a hard time but he showed a tolerance that surprised me. E'en so( it was an experience ) wouldn7t want to repeat. 3For common phrases +ith countable and uncountable nouns4 see Section 95

SINGULAR OR PLURALO> COLLECTIVE NOUNS

Some nouns referrin& to &roups can be either sin&ular or plural9 7e use the +ith these collecti)e nouns2 he media i s ; are interested in this stor$. 8ere are more e1amples of collecti)e nouns2 arm$ 8ur$ !amil$ band press school union communit$ audience sta!! committee cast

T*E>E !S ! T*E>E A>E

*fter there is ! there are the first noun normall' determines +hether the )erb is sin&ular or plural2 here7s a chair and a table in the room. here is a chair and two tables in the room. here are two tables and a chair in the room.

(orrect an' errors in these sentences9 a Kour readin& &lasses is b' the bed9 b /he -ur' are still considerin& their )erdict4 T /here are one loc0in& nut and four bolts for each +heel9 d I ha)e a &reat deal of e1periences in dealin& +ith a problem li0e this4 e /hatLs a reall' &ood ad)ice9
SINGULAR: PLURAL: UNCOUNTABLE

UNCOUNTABLE OR COUNTABLE PLURALO

2
=
Correct an' mistakes in t"ese sentences) Tick 9 : 1 sentences t"at are correct)
a (an 'ou e1plain +h' m' best trousers ha)e a hole in themD b /he scissors in the se+in& bo1 needs sharpenin&4 T /his pair of binoculars ha)e been in this dra+er for as lon& as I can remember4 d 8alf the audience +ere asleep b' the inter)al4 e I canLt sa' that economics are a sub-ect IL)e e)er been )er' interested in9 f /hereLre one potato and t+o onions in the recipe4 & 7here has those 0itchen scales &one that +e used to ha)eD

In t"e !ollowing old (ersonEs recollections& articles are missing) Put in a ; an and the as a((ro(riate)
I remember in dim and distant past m' children bein& 9 obsessed b' man called Bob %'lan9 I ha)e no idea if heLs still ali)e4 but impact he had in si1ties and se)enties L +as incredible9 I remember one son& called LBlo+in& in 7indL6 m' son B heLs in his fifties no+ B san& it all da' and all ni&ht4 month in month out4 for se)eral 'ears9 *nd it +as so sill'2 L8o+ man' times must man loo0 up before he can see s0'DL I mean4 ?uestion li0e that canLt i be ta0en seriousl'4 can itD *nd L8o+ man' times must I +hite do)e fl' before it sleeps in sandDL *nd then I ans+er to profound ?uestions2 L*ns+er4 m' friend4 is I blo+in& in +indL9 =eneration after mine didnLt 0no+ I +hat life +as all about4 did the'D 7e did4 of course9 I L@er' thou&ht of 'ouL9 LUust +a' 'ou loo0 toni&htL9 6 LNi&ht the' in)ented champa&neL9 /he' +ere real son&s9 I But +hat came ne1tD L8o+ man' 'ears can mountain I e1ist before it is +ashed to seaDL *nd there +as +hole I &eneration sin&in& alon& to son&9 Funn' +orld +e li)e I in4 I sa' itLs funn' +orld +e li)e in9

Tick ( S ) t"e !ollowing sentences t"at are acce(ta#le) Correct t"e ot"ers)
a %id <oJart ha)e an unhapp' childhoodD b *fter interestin& tra)el to Los *n&eles4 he +anted to li)e in the AS*9 T *n undia&nosed illness in his t+enties has left him +ith )irtuall' no hairs4 d 7e learn man' thin&s throu&hout the life4 e 8er face shone +ith an unearthl' beaut'9

12:

Practice

Put a une t"roug" all t"e articles t"at are not wanted in t"ese sentences)
a /han0 a &oodness that she has escaped +ithout a harm to a life or a limb4 b In the times &one b'4 the marria&e +as often a matter of the luc04 T It +as a lo)e at the first si&ht that brou&ht the couple to&ether4 d * man has al+a's stru&&led +ith the dichotom' of the securit' of the permanence and the ?uest for the chan&e9 e Bein& on a dut' for se)ent' hours certainl' &i)es 'ou a taste of +hat the life as a doctor is li0e9

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit" one suita#le word)
,ne of the problems posed b' the debate on &lobal +armin& is the lac0 of detailed +eather data before the second half of the 19th centur'9 /he main ar&ument99999999999999999 315 the antiBpollution lobb' is that 9999999999 325 EarthLs a)era&e temperature9999999999999999999999999999999 3$5 risen b' about half a de&ree since 1!#0 and the chan&es &o arm in arm +ith the rise of &reenhouse &ases in the atmosphere9 /he fossilBfuels lobb'4 on the other hand4 sa' that9999999999999999 3"5 importance of &reenhouse &ases has been o)errated and that the99999999999999999999999999993 5 +as +armin& up an'+a'9 /he ?uestion +e ha)e to ans+er4 ho+e)er4 is +hat the EarthLs climate +ould ha)e been doin& +ithout 99999999993#5 interference4 and to ans+er that +e need a999999999999 3:5 0no+led&e of +hat happened in the distant999999999999999 3!59 For the last thousand 'ears4 +e ha)e 9999999999 395 e)idence of recorded histor'9 7hile +e cannot rel' on +eather obser)ations B there 9999999999 3105 &reat doubt o)er +hether earl' thermometers and other999999999999999999999999999 3115 +ere correct B there are plent' of other data that pro)ide a picture of a chan&in&9999999999999999999 31259 /ree rin&s4 mo)ement of &laciers4 accounts of froJen99999999999999999999999999 31$5 and pollen distribution enable estimates to be made of a)era&e temperatures durin& certain9999999999999999999999999999 31"59 Some of the most reliable99999999999999999999999999 31 5 comes from the iceBcaps of =reenland and *ntarctica9 /hese are formed from compacted99999999999999999999999999 31#54 each 'earLs deposit bein& s?uashed b' the follo+in& one9 B' drillin& deep into999999999999999999999 31:5 ice and anal'sin& air bubbles trapped inside it4 a picture ma' be obtained of999999999999931!5 atmosphere a&es a&o9 ,ne core recentl' drilled in *ntarctica reached999999999999999999999999999 3195 depth of a mile and a half4 to reach999999999999999999999999993205 that had fallen some 2004000 'ears a&o9

3<=

GRAMMAR

SECTION <
Classi!$ing
) WAYS OF REFERRING TO A GROUP

07'e been stud$ing the !eagull, 3possible4 but formal5 + SPECIAL


GROUPS

/here are three &roups of thin&s that +e commonl' refer to as a &eneral class +ith the.
Pa ts !( t,% b!"y

/here are three +a's of tal0in& about the characteristics of a &roup or class of thin&s9
Plu al n!un *$t,!ut an a t$#l%

Some of these are common phrases2 0 loo&ed him straight in the eye. He7s a ain in the neck. 0$ve got this anno$ing tune on the brain. /his happens especiall' +hen the noun is related to the ob-ect of the sentence 3or the sub-ect of passi)es54 and especiall' in prepositional phrases2 he bird was shot in the wing. #he ga'e me a pat on the back. 7hen the noun is related to the sub-ect of the sentence4 possessi)es are more common2 hat seagull had hurt it! wing. He7s had a lot o! trouble with hi! heart.
Mus$#al $nst um%nts

/his is the most common +a' of referrin& &enerall' to a +hole &roup2 Seagull! are !ound close to the coast. 3S sea&ulls &enerall'5
S$n0ula n!un *$t, a ! an

7e use a sin&ular noun +ith a ! an to &i)e a definition4 for e1ample ans+erin& the ?uestion %hat is...>F %hat7s a !eagull' A !eagull is a large white and gre$ bird. 3S all sea&ulls are9995 7e canLt use a sin&ular noun +ith a ! an in phrases that refer to the +hole &roup2 s 8 tiger i! in danger o! becoming e#tinct. / ,iger! are in danger o! becoming extinct. /he sin&ular +ith a ! an also loses its &eneral meanin& +hen it isnLt the sub-ect of the sentence9 7e use the plural 3 or the...( see belo+52 IL)e been stud$ing a !eagull. 3S one particular bird5 )$ve been stud$ing !eagull!. 3S sea&ulls as a &roup5
S$n0ula n!un *$t, the

7e often refer to musical instruments &eneticall' +ith theF ,he horn is one o! the most di!!icult orchestral instruments to pla$. 8o+e)er4 +hen +e tal0 about bands4 orchestras4 recordin&s4 etc9 +e can omit theF 0 used to pla$ trum et in m$ school orchestra. )oes that recording ha'e Clapton on guitar'
S#$%nt$($# $n.%nt$!ns

7ith some scientific in)entions +e use theF 0t would be di!!icult to imagine li!e without the tele hone. 8o+e)er4 +e donLt use the +ith all in)entions2 0t would be 'er$ di!!icult these da$s to li'e li!e without video / email.

7e use the in academic or formal lan&ua&e4 mainl' to describe t'pical characteristics9 7e al+a's use a sin&ular )erb 3compare Section "9152 ,he !eagull is a sca'enging bird.

7e canLt refer to a +hole &roup in &eneral b' usin& a sin&ular countable noun +ithout an article2 s Seagull li'es near the sea. I/ Seagull! li'e near the sea. C 8o+e)er4 this is the onl' possibilit' +ith uncountable nouns2 -a ine!! is not an ine'itable result o! ha'ing mone$. In these sentences4 delete a ! an or the if the' are not needed9 a 8e &ained his doctorate +ith a thesis on the sea&ull9 b Some t'pes of the sea&ull ha)e red spots on the bea09 T IL)e al+a's +anted a sea&ull as a pet9 d I used to pla' a piano in a -aJJ band4 e * cor an&lais is a sort of oboe9

129

g "

CLASSI 8YING
satellite tele)ision9 Internet9

i aeroplane9

2 Tick

t"e underlined alternati*e t"at #est !its t"e meaning o! eac" sentence)
(+) a *ccidents H /he accident +ill happen4 ILm afraid9 b * tortoise is a H the sort of reptile9 T <' do& has hurt the H his le&9 d Loo0 me in the H m'9 e'e and tell me +hat 'ouLre sa'in& is true4 e * H /he li)er is used to help purif' the blood4 f (anLt 'ou thin0 of an'thin& elseD KouL)e &ot food on the H 'our brain4 & 8a)e 'ou e)er considered ta0in& up a H the musical instrumentD h 7hat on earth is a H the (% .omD 2 I used to pla' a H the trumpet +hen I +as 'oun&er4 - Fran0 7ittle in)ented a H the -et en&ine9

3
a b T d

Add the w"ere necessar' to t"ese sentences)

I ha)enLt &ot his address to hand4 * bird in hand is +orth t+o in bush4 /he' li)ed from hand to mouth4 8e &ained upper hand4 e /he' +al0ed alon& hand in hand4 f ,n other hand4 perhaps he +as ri&ht9

-nderline and correct an' errors in t"is (assage)

* =reat blac0Bbac0ed &ull is the lar&est of the North *tlantic &ulls9 It can be a terrible 0iller in the seabird colonies4 tearin& its )ictims inside out9 Formidable bea0 and &reat +ei&ht can be fri&htenin&4 especiall' as it +ill s+oop lo+ to defend its territor' from a human intruder9 * duc0lin& +hich stra's from its parents are amon& its fa)ourite pre'6 it can &ulp them do+n in a sin&le mouthful9 Li0e its close relati)e4 herrin& &ulls4 the Lesser blac0Bbac0ed &ull is a sca)en&er6 it sometimes follo+s the ship for offal thro+n into the sea4 and inland it searches a rubbish tip for an'thin& edible9

K .ere are ke' words !or ten AuiT Auestions) Write


out t"e Auestions in !ull& t"en see "ow man' answers 'ou can !ind)
ExampleF 7hat H call H mi1ture H beer H lemonade D 7hat do 'ou call a mixture o! beer and lemonadeD 4#hand$5 a 7hat H name H cross H don0e' H horse D b 7hat H proper name H Lfunn' boneL D T 7hat H another e1pression H Lput H foot H itL D d 7hat H call H 'oun& H of H 0an&aroo D e 7hat H ostrich H emu H in common D f 7hat H one +ord H Lpain H nec0L D & 7here H human bod' H LfemurL D

C"oose one o! t"ese nouns to com(lete eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences) 9\ou will need to use one o! t"e words twice)1 Write the or a (ossessi*e #e!ore it)
ExampleF /heir lettin& me &o after ten 'earsL ser)ice +as a real 0ic0 in the teeth9 bac& head stomach !oot e$e hair toes throat 4teeth5 a No+ heLs released from the responsibilities of office4 he can reall' let99999999999999999999999do+n9 b /he ne+ male super)isor +ill reall' ha)e to be on999999999999999 T * lot of 'oun& )andals +ho &o loo0in& for trouble are not ri&ht in99999999999999999999999 d (an 'ou do this calculation in999999999999999999999999999999 D e 7asnLt it =oethe +ho said that a meal should please99999999999999first and then999999999999999999999 D f B' ha)in& to &o bac0 on his ta1 pled&es so soon4 the (hancellor has shot himself in99999999999999999999999999999 D & 8e +as ob)iousl' stabbed in99999999999999999999999999999b' some of "is soBcalled friends4 h <' intended apolo&' stuc0 in999999999999999999999999999999 as I sa+ him smir09

2 Add
1
a #

the w"ere necessar' #e!ore t"e endings to make com(lete sentences) %imitri pla's999 bass &uitar in a roc0 &roup9 balalai0a in his spare time9 G &oal0eeper for his school team9 d fool in class9 e lead in his ne+ film9

2
a

Life +ould seem stran&e no+ +ithout999 telephone9 # )ideo9 G camera9 d cinema9 e eBmail9 ! computer9

SECTION
Ad8ecti'es and 'erbs as nouns
1
AD6ECTIVES AS PERSONAL NOUNS

7e can use the > ad-ecti)e to refer to a &roup or class of people2 he unemplo$ed are calling !or more go'ernment spending. ,ther common e1amples include2 he wounded were ta&en to the nearest hospital. 0 li'e next to a nursing home !or the 'er$ old. he $oung don7t seem interested in politics these da$s. He ga'e all his mone$ to the poor. 8ere are more e1amples2 the rich the penniless the dead the well educated the !amous the 'er$ health$ the chronicall$ sic& the terminall$ ill 7e use the same pattern for most nationalities2 the #wiss the Iritish the @rench the Japanese /here are a fe+ e1amples that can refer to one person4 and +e use a sin&ular )erb2 he accused is a $oung man with two pre'ious con'ictions !or robber$. he deceased has le!t a 'er$ detailed will.

*d-ecti)es as personal nouns use a plural )erb9 *d-ecti)es as abstract nouns use a sin&ular )erb2 s ,lie rich doe!n$t understand our problems. ,lic unknown arc o!ten 'er$ !rightening. + ,he rich don$t understand our problems. ,he unknown is o!ten 'er$ !rightening. 7e use the > &erund to refer to a specific acti)it'4 not a &eneral acti)it'2 s 0 don7t understand what people sec in the !wimming as a sport. + ,he !wimming is probabl$ the hardest part o! the triathlon e'ent.

AD6ECTIVES AS ABSTRACT NOUNS

/here are a fe+ ad-ecti)es +e can use as abstract nouns2 ,ut with the old. bring in the newB 0 belie'e in the supernatural. Gou7re as&ing me to do the impossible. his is the ultimate in chocolate ca&e. Computer technolog$ is mo'ing into the un&nown. /! the two( the !ormer is m$ pre!erence. 0n that case( the latter is !ine !or me. Some e1amples are common phrases2 into the open !or the common good out o! the ordinar$ in the extreme on the loose to the !ull he good( the bad and the ugl$ 3also a film title5 he sur'i'al o! the !ittest 3S a sa'in&5 Mo'ing !rom the sublime to the ridiculous 3S a sa'in&5 he e'il that men do li'es a!ter them. he good is o!t interred with their bones. 3from Uulius (aesar4 Sha0espeare5
' GERUNDS

Anderline the ad-ecti)es or )erbs functionin& as nouns in these sentences9 a *s a Joolo&ist4 he has al+a's been interested in the unusual in the animal +orld4 b I donLt mind the airport B itLs the fl'in& that I hate4 T Ne)er spea0 ill of the dead4 d *s far as m' musical tastes are concerned4 IL)e al+a's been attracted to the e1otic4 e Bernstein conducted both <oJart and 8a'dn but seemed to sho+ a preference for the latter9

7e can turn most )erbs into nouns b' addin& -ing. 7e usuall' refer to these as L&erundsL but also as 7-ing formsL9 /he' can be the sub-ect or ob-ect of a sentence6 +e use a sin&ular )erb2 #pitting is a bad habit. Another aw!ul habit is pic&ing $our nose. C *s +ith other nouns4 +e can use the before &erunds2 he waiting is the worst part o! a 'isit to the dentist. 0t7s all the standing around that 0 disli&e. he actual lea'ing is the worst part o! a good holida$.

AA=ECTIVES ANA VERBS AS NOUNS


turn our bac0s on e1pressions li0e Lthe9999999999999999999999999999999999 325L and embrace L99999999999999993$5 economicall' disad)anta&edL9 L/he 9999999999 3"5 challen&edL is recommended in place of Lthe blindL6 Lthe chronicall'9999999999999999999999993 5 of hearin&L is su&&ested as a substitute for Lthe999999999999999999999999999999 3#5L9 /his is all )er' +ell and not as0in& the99999999999999999999999999993:5 of us9 It is rather +hen the trend is ta0en to the9999999999999999999999999999999999 9=1 and Lthe99999999999999901E find themsel)es referred to as Lthe follicall' challen&edL that there is a ris0 of thin&s &ettin& out of hand9 L,ut +ith the99999999999999999999999999999999 3105 and in +ith the ne+L ma' ha)e its )irtue as a sa'in&4 but so does LLet sleepin& do&s lieL9

Tick 4 i ; 5 t"e sentences w"ic" are acce(ta#le) Correct t"e

mistakes in an' t"at are not) a /he sic0 and elderl' +ere helped out of the buildin&9 b * deceased has not been named until relati)es ha)e been informed4 T /he e1tremel' rich tends to li)e in one of the suburbs in the hills abo)e the to+n4 d /his ne+ research is )enturin& into the un0no+n4 e Kou are as0in& me to do the impossible2 I simpl' canLt find them4 f I am as0in& 'ou to resi&n for the &ood of the compan'4 & For a 8oll'+ood film4 it is definitel' out of ordinar'4 h /he supernatural are somethin& IL)e al+a's been interested in9

;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing

sentences& write a new sentence as similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF /he pli&ht of those in need of accommodation has been &i)en e1tensi)e e1posure in the media for some 'ears4 "omeless /he light o" the homele!! ha! been given e1tensi)e e1posure in the media "or some 'ears9 a Kou ha)e to learn to accept the ups and do+ns of life4 roug" b Pilots ha)e to be prepared to be surprised4 une,(ected T Li)in& a+a' from home +ill do him an enormous amount of &ood4 making d /eams +ill not be allo+ed to broadcast their national anthems at this tournament4 (la'ing e /his should be returned to the sender of this letter as soon as possible9 undersigned f LNe)er moc0 those people +ho ha)e serious problemsL4 m' mother used to sa'9 a!!licted

=
1

Circle t"e word t"at #est com(letes eac" sentence)

8eLs a rumbustious character +ho al+a's tries to li)e life to the9999999999999999999999999999 a full # e1tent T fun d end 2 /he escaped prisoner remained on the9999999999999999999999999999999 in the hills9 a free # libert' G loose d open 3 *s computer &ames &o4 this oneLs not particularl' out of the999999999999999999999999999 a normal # usual T a)era&e d ordinar' 4 I found his remar0s offensi)e in the9999999999999999999999999999999 a intense # most G e1treme d +hole 5 /his +ard has been reser)ed for the99999999999999999999999999999ill9 a terminall' # deepl' G terribl' d deathl'

Cross out the in t"e !ollowing sentences w"en it cannot #e

used) a /he sendin&Boff +as the turnin&Bpoint of the match9 b /he l'in& around in the sun is man' peopleLs idea of the happiness4 T ItLs -ust the tra)ellin& that +ould put me off a -ob li0e that9 d /he accused +as finall' con)icted of the brea0in& and enterin&4 e I prefer the listenin& to opera to the +atchin& it9 f ItLs not so much the +ashin& of his shirts I mind4 itLs the ironin& of them4 & /he fi&htin& that occurred toda' bro0e out after a threeBda' standBoff9 h If thereLs one thin& I hate4 itLs the shoppin& for (hristmas presents9

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit"

one suita#le word) Political correctness has made and continues to ma0e a si&nificant impact on our lan&ua&e as +e are all encoura&ed4 for the common99999999999999999999999999999 3154 to ma0e increasin& use of euphemistic paraphrase9 7e should

Practice

Un*t e*.+t

?ocabular$
SECTION =
#ingular( plural( uncountableF common phrases
) COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE

Put one D!tne nouns in eac" o! t"e sentences)

means interests powers hopes mo'ements sands tra'els basics matters waters a /he' 0eep chan&in& the aims of the pro-ect and I feel ILm on shiftin&9999999999999999999999999 b 8e told me all his and fears9 T I canLt &i)e 'ou permission ILm afraid2 'ouLll ha)e to as0 the999999999999999999 that be9 d I hear heLs off on his99999999999999999999999999a&ain9 e 7hat are 'our999999999999999999999999 o)er the ne1t fe+ da'sD ! /he' discussed a ran&e of important999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & 7e ha)e to &et bac0 to9999999999999999999999999999 to understand +h' the soft+are +onLt +or04 h /he oil ri& +as based in offshore999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 (amels are the main of transport in the desert9 - In the999999999999999999 of the nei&hbours4 could 'ou please

In se)eral common phrases nouns that are commonl' countable are used as uncountables4 and )ice )ersa2 (ountable nouns used uncountabl'2 %e went on "oot. He7ll ne'er !et "oot in m$ house again. %e don7t see eye to eye. he$ wal&ed arm in arm / hand in hand. Ancountable nouns used as countable plurals2 He goes out in all weather!. ,he rain! are earl$ this $ear. did $ou go on your travel!' 3 W"ic" sentence is correctI a I thin0 she has desi&ns on 'ou9 b I thin0 she has the desi&ns on 'ou9 T I thin0 she has a desi&n on 'ou9
+ SINGULAR AND PLURAL

%here

Some nouns are commonl' sin&ular4 but +e use them as plurals in common phrases2 +ith theF 07m sorr$( 07ll ha'e to report $ou to the authoritie!. H e loo&ed at the mess and raised his e$es to the heaven!. +ith possessi)es4 such as m$( his( etc2 %e7ll need to &eep a close e$e on their activitie!. %hat do $ou &now about hi! like! and di!like!' +ithout an article2 #he puts on ridiculous air! and grace!. )o $ou need to claim tra'el e# en!e!'
) W"ic" sentence is correctI

a ILm &oin& to see the si&ht4 b ILm &oin& to see the si&hts4 T ILm &oin& to see a si&ht4 d ILm &oin& to see si&hts9

Put one o! t"e nouns in eac" o! t"e sentences)

hea'ens sights !eelings authorities arms terms tal&s expenses odds disli&es a /he shoplifter +as arrested and handed o)er to the99999999999999999 b /he999999999999999999 opened and +e had to run for co)er to a)oid &ettin& +et9 T Anited thin0 the' can +in but I suspect the9999999999999999999999999999999999999999 are hea)il' a&ainst them4 d L7hat are 'ou &oin& to do in ParisDL L,h4 -ust see the99999999999999999L e I thin0 +e need to ne&otiate the9999999999999999999999999999999999 of this a&reement9 f ILm sorr'9 I didnLt mean to hurt 'our999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & /he ri&ht to bear9999999999999999999999999 is +ritten into the AS constitution9 h /he peace999999999999999999999 ha)e bro0en do+n a&ain9 i %o 'ou need to claim99999999999999999999999999 for the tripD - *s far as food is concerned4 do 'ou ha)e an' particular li0es or999999999999999999999D

344

SINGULAR: PLURAL: UNCOUNTABLE> COMMON P8RASES

Tick 9B:1 t"e !ollowing sentences t"at are acce(ta#le)

a ILll do the -ob for 'ou4 but on m' o+n term4 not 'ours9 b *re 'ou ta0in& the sides in this ar&umentD T 8e +as arrested for 0no+in&l' recei)in& stolen &oods9 d 7ho did 'ou meet on 'our tra)elD e 8e became ill and lost his bo'ish &ood loo04 f /he old road &oes on for miles after miles4 & 8alf the proceed of the auction +ent to charit'4 h I donLt thin0 ta0in& them to court +ould ultimatel' be in 'our best interests9 2 ItLs the same old stor'4 da' in to da' out9 - (ounter intelli&ence 0ept a close e'e on his mo)ement4 o /he po+ers that are decided to ban the competition as it +as too dan&erous9 1 /he boat san0 in the treacherous +aters off the south coast9

;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& write a new sentence

as similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) T"is word must not #e altered in an' wa') ExampleF *ll the mone' the' made +ent to charit'4 (roceeds T"e roceed! "rom t"e !ale went to c"arit') a Ben certainl' +asnLt as innocent as he pretended4 means b *s the' &ro+ older4 models +orr' that the'Lll no lon&er be so &ood loo0in&4 looks T 8e &ot on e1tremel' +ell +ith her parents4 terms d /he +or0ers protested loudl' a&ainst the pa' cuts4 arms e /hereLs little chance of &ettin& a tic0et4 odds f It +as necessar' to inspect the electrical s'stems in order to ma0e sure the' +ere safe4 interests & Educationalists donLt a&ree on the )alue of learnin& b' computer4 e'e h 8e &oes out fishin& +hether itLs rainin&4 sno+in& or bri&ht sunshine4 weat"ers

;ind t"e word missing in eac" o! t"e EcluesE and com(lete

t"e crossword) A)(oss

1 3

1F 12

11

< T"e constant ))))))))))))) and goings ne,t door ne*er cease to amaTe me) I "a*e no wis" to make))))))))))))))))))) wit" an'one& least o! all 'ou) D I was a#solutel' lost !or)))))))))))))))) D W"at s"all we s(end our))))))))))))) onI 1F 6' !ormer colleagues "a*e all gone o!! to t"e !our))))))))))))))))))) o! t"e eart") 1F IEm not going to take)))))))))) S 'ou two sort it out #etween 'ou) 34 Pla'ers take))))))))))))))) to la' t"eir cards !ace2down on t"e ta#le) Do/n 3 W"at are t"e' going to do wit" t"e))))))))))))))))))))))) o! t"e saleI 4 I re!used to com(ensate "im !or t"e damaged Sto( (la'ing sill' )))))))))) and concentrate on 'our work) 5 I do "o(e we can sta')))))))))))))) des(ite w"atEs "a((ened) 7 I mean to succeed #' !air))))))))))))))))))) or !oul) 3< T"e (olice are Hust #eginning to a((reciate t"e )))))))))) and outs o! t"e case)

347

VOCABULARY

SECTION A
Compounds
1
NOUN A NOUN

told him to ta0e it eas'4 d In his summin&9999999999999999999999994 the -ud&e instructed the -ur' on se)eral points of la+9 e 8e rose to become commanderBinB chief of the countr'Ls armed999999999999999999999999 f She suffered from chronic food99999999999999999999999999999999 after eatin& contaminated seafood4 & <ost +estern European countries ha)e abolished capital999999999999999999 h *s his mother had al+a's been profoundl' deaf4 he &re+ up fluent in si&n99999999999999999999999999999

7e often combine t+o nouns as a collocation9 /he first noun is usuall' sin&ular and ?ualifies the second2 a cookery book 3S for learnin& coo0er'5 a com uter game 3S pla'ed on a computer5 7e use man' of these collocations so often that +e consider them to be one +ord B the' ha)e become compound nouns9 Some are usuall' +ritten as one +ord 4sea!ood5. ,thers are +ritten as t+o +ords 4brain drain5 and others are h'phenated 4 -shirt5. /here are no fi1ed rules2 la to city centre will ower evening cla!! "lowchart animal right! hone-card watch-!tra 7e can combine more than t+o nouns as collocations2 a road ta# di!c ( 4 a printed notice pro)in& that road ta1 has been paid5 a motorway !ervice !tation 3S for petrol and food on a motor+a'5

3
1

Anderline the +ord that best completes each sentence9

AD6ECTIVE A NOUN

7e can also combine ad-ecti)es +ith nouns as collocations or compounds2 mobile hone arting !hot "i??y drink loud! eaker mu!ical in!trument 3 7rite A ? N ne1t to those compound nouns that consist of an ad-ecti)e > noun9 7rite N ? N ne1t to those that consist of t+o nouns9 a pen friend d ner)ous brea0do+n b social ser)ices e estate a&ent T &eneral public f ne+s bulletin

/he difference in their computer s0ills +as attributed to the &eneration9999999999999999999999999999999999999 a space b difference T &ap d hole 2 /on' seemed remar0abl' de)oid of999999999999999999999999999sense and did the most ridiculous thin&s9 a common b ordinar' T a)era&e d e)er'da' 3 /he cost of999999999999999has risen dramaticall'9 a life b li)es T ali)e d li)in& 4 /here is a stron& mo)ement supportin& the abolition of the death999999999999999999999999999999999 a penalt' b punishment T discipline d condemnation 5 /he trades unions called for a f pa' increase for all public999999999999999999999999+or0ers9 a section b area T Jone d sector 6 7h' not ta0e 'our case to the European (ourt of 8uman99999999999999999999999D a Entitlement b *llo+ance T La+ d .i&hts

AD6ECTIVE A AD6ECTIVE

Some +ords combine to ma0e compound ad-ecti)es2 ab!ent-minded big-headed good-looking !hort-lived C /hese ma' collocate +ith particular nouns2 cold-blooded murder clear-cut ca!e run-down area !ho -!oiled good! "lat-"ooted all -around athlete kee -"it "anatic

OT8ER COMBINATIONS

7e can combine other parts of speech4 especiall' se)eral +ords4 to ma0e compound nouns2 gra!! root! o inion law and order bride-to-be comrade in arm! "ork-li"t truck

Anderline the correct compound noun to complete the sentence9 /hrou&hout +estern Europe4 there has been a rise in the number of9999999999999999999999 a onl'Bparent families T uniBparent families b oneBparent families monoBparent families

Practice

In the follo+in& sentences4 add the second part of the

compound noun9 a ,ld99999999999999999 can be a pleasant time if 'ouLre surrounded b' &randchildren4 b I canLt stand bac0Bseat999999999999999999999999999999If ILm dri)in&4 I donLt need constant ad)ice and instructions4 T %adLs &ot )er' hi&h blood999999999999999999999999999999 and the doctor

: 8e &a)e up stud'in& after sufferin& a ner)ous a collapse b brea0do+n T failure d malfunction (oncorde is the onl' commercial plane to ha)e bro0en the sound99999999999999999999999999 a frontier b barrier T boundar' d limit /he hospital called for )olunteer blood9999999999999999999999999999999999 after their supplies ran lo+9 a &i)ers b contributors T donors d suppliers 10 ,ne of the most de)astatin& +eapons of modern time is the999999999999999999 missile9 a directed b instructed T pro&rammed d &uided

t# &+3! + "#&*#%n).
a #unc" o" ro!e! !ki #oots a day$! work a walking stick a two2"anded #ack"and a cloud' sk' bedHsea coat H paint len&th H arm hair H breadth film H popularit' film H stor' room H corner bar H steel industr' H car boo0 H 200 pa&es boo0 H club de&ree H uni)ersit' shore H sea

2 /he &o)ernment re?uires e)er'bod' to ma0e a financial contribution to+ards their99999999999999999999999999999999 education9 a hi&her b hi&h T hi&hest d hi&hl' 3 Police are meetin& members of the ethnic communit' in order to impro)e race999999999999999999999999999999999999 a relationships b relations T relati)es d relati)it' 4 /he99999999999 state e1ists in order to pro)ide free education and health care to the less +ellBoff9 a social b benefit T +elfare d nann' 5 Anemplo'ment999999999999999999is paid to people +ho are unable to find an' +or09 a securit' b mone' T ser)ice d benefit 6 /he factor' made hu&e impro)ements in its &eneral mana&ement and99999999999999999999999999999999 control9 a ?ualit' b le)el T standard d e?ualit' 7 Industrial99999999999999 ha)e impro)ed +ith the introduction of a shorter +or0in& +ee04 a relationships b relations T relati)es d relati)it' D (oal4 oil and other similar99999999999999999999999resources ma' e)entuall' be replaced b' solar ener&'9 a nature b natureLs T natural d nati)e E *rms999999999999 +as the main issue discussed at the leadersL summit9 a control b controls T controllin& d controlled 10 /he Prime <inister is an old999999999999999999999999999999 at these conferences4 ha)in& been to so man'4 a hand b man T time d &oat

d ordinar'

COMCO UNAS

Y Fill each of the numbered blan0s +ith one suitable +ord9


I +as readin& an article in our sister ne+spaper the other da' in +hich an eminent columnist +as su&&estin& that as a nation +e had been slo+ to respond to the seaB99999999999999999999999 315 +hich our &eneration is e1periencin& in all aspects of da'BtoB99999999999999999999999999999325 life9 *s I de)oured m' ta0eB9999999999999999999999993$5 piJJa I started ma0in& a simple list of +ords +hich4 if the' did e1ist thirt' 'ears a&o certainl' had different connotations and in most cases did not e1ist at all2 oJone999999999999999999999999999999999999 3"54 &reenhouse99999999999999999993 5 499999999999999993#5 .,<4 mobile 99999999993:549999999999999993!5 dish4 3+hat +as +ron& +ith -ust three /@ channelsD5 communit'99999999999999999999999999999 395 3to a)oid all those prison riotsD54 remote9999999999999999999999999993105499999999999999993115 printBout4 -un&le999999999999999999999 3125 B +hate)er has happened to musicD Not so lon& a&o a pre)ious population had to ac?uaint themsel)es +ith terms li0e brain99999999999999999999999999999999999 31$5 as all the e&&Bheads headed across the *tlantic and 9999999999 31"5 po+er4 as all the others started stic0in& daffodils in their hair9 *nd before that a &eneration had to learn about the )acuum999999999999999999999999999999931 54 the assembl'9999999999999999 31#54 the bur&lar99999999999999931:54 the +ashin&9999999999999999 31!54 the hair9999999999999999999 3195 and the frid&eB 9999999999 32059 Ne+ +ords are comin& into the lan&ua&e no+ at a fri&htenin& speed and4 to respectfull' disa&ree +ith m' collea&ue4 I belie)e +e are4 &enerall' spea0in&4 copin& prett' +ell9

Y (ombine the +ords


ExamplesF roses H bunch boots H s0i da' H +or0 stic0 H +al0 t+o hands H bac0hand cloud H s0' buildin& H four store's price H &as prices H &as ed&e H +ater stone H thro+ doorHcar shirt H button sentence H ten 'ears +orld H end pan H fr' apple H core heart H matter hesitation H moment

Anderline the +ord that best completes each sentence9

1 8e did )er' +ell in the9999999999999999999999 0no+led&e ?uiJ9 a +idespread b common T &eneral

E&am p a#t$#% 4

In most lines of the following te/t0 there is one unnecessary wor#. It is either grammatically incorrect or #oes not fit in with the sense of the

te/t. For each numbere# line 2:260 write the unnecessary wor# in the s'ace shown. Some lines are correct. In#icate these lines with a tick 1E3. &he e/ercise begins with two e/am'les. $eliefs which go back #ee' into the time lie behin# many of our 'resent #ay Rt99 attitu#es to bir#s. Peo'le ha"e often regar#e# bir#s as ha"ing close

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
II

affinities with mankin# because0 like the humans0 bir#s go on two legs0 sing0 show off an# construct homes. Aances from many #ifferent cultures are co'ie# from the courting #is'lays of bir#s. Some bir#s were thought to warn of #isaster or foretell a goo# fortune0 accor#ing to the circumstances in which they were sighte#. In the 'arts of Scotlan#0 it is still lucky to hear the cuckoo while you are out of walking0 but not before you ha"e eaten a breakfast. &he +elsh use# to belie"e that you woul# flourish if you were stan#ing on a grass or green lea"es when the bir# sang0 but if you were on to barren groun# you woul# not li"e to hear its call another

............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

)1 year. Chil#ren in many 'arts of $ritain still belie"e that it is unlucky to see a single crow or mag'ie0 but lucky to see two. &he bir#s were also )+ in"ol"e# in me#icine- the ancient 7reeks an# Iomans for e/am'le belie"e# in

) ' that the way to cure blin#ness was to eat the heart of a ra"en or owl ................................................................................... )- or eagle : all the bir#s well known for their keen eyesight. ......................................................................................................

Fill each of the numbere# blanks with !n% suitable wor#.

&he 7ri<<ly bear0 symbol of %orth America's wil#erness0 is un#er se"ere threat in one of............... 123 heartlan# habitats............................ 143 7ri<<ly is...................... 1(3 sub:s'ecies of the $rown bear0 but is bigger0 stronger an# fiercer. A 7ri<<ly0 for e/am'le0 can kill ............ 163 #eer with one blow of.................................. 183 'aw. &his animal is now concentrate# in Alaska an# western Cana#a where it is being hunte# in a way that will 'ut it on the roa# to e/tinction0 accor#ing to................................. 1*3 En"ironmental In"estigation Agency0 which says the $ritish Columbia go"ernment regar#s 7ri<<lies as a................................................. 1;3 to be hunte# without ha"ing a........................ 1>3 knowle#ge....................... 1?3 how many there are in the 'ro"ince. &his may be folly in the............................. 12)3 as there is a #anger that................................. 1223 s'ecies may be #win#ling faster than the .............................. 1243 can re'ro#uce. &heir forest.................................. 12(3 is also un#er continual assault from clear:cut logging0 roa#:buil#ing0 an# mining for........................................................... 1263 resources. &he agency has ........................... 1283 'ro"en track ............ 12*3 in highlighting early warning ..................................... 12;3 of ma,or #eclines in im'ortant s'ecies0 'ro"i#ing for e/am'le much of the ....................................... 12>3 of large:scale i"ory 'oaching which le# to the 2?>? ............................. 12?3 on commercial tra#e to try to sa"e........................................ 14)3 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN African ele'hant. 2OPP

'

Circle the wor# or 'hrase which best com'letes each sentence. &he s'ee#ing car only misse# us by a hair's ......................................... A wi#th A coat A floor A slow:witte# e"ening. F high F ,acket F be# F far:reaching G off:han# G brea#th G skin G groun# D to':hea"y D length D sli"er D bottom &his room really coul# #o with another................................... of 'aint. &he wrecke# liner is still lying on the sea....................................... I sle't ba#ly last night an# am feeling 'articularly.......................................... this morning. My 'arents always ha# a ha''ily............................... attitu#e to my staying out late in the A col#:bloo#e# F long:suffering G easy:going age of (>. D thick:skinne#

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D E

&he s'rinter 'ai# the 'rice of her misuse of #rugs an# #ie# of heart....................................................... at the A attack A geogra'hy A sector A lea"es A solar F failure F history F 'ro"ince F cuttings F uni"erse G sto''age G <oology D 'ressure D 'henomena

+e took the chil#ren on a tri' to the local natural ......................................... museum. State enter'rises face fierce com'etition from the 'ri"ate ................................................ G #e'artment D <one G stems G sun D roots D 'lanetary It is #ifficult to assess grass ........................... o'inion on the sub,ect of the Presi#ent's actions.

)1 !ow many 'lanets are there in our....................................... system9

For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% ! $0$nal

s%nt%n#%: but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must n!t b% alt% %" $n any *ay?
EXAMPLE -

7oing to an# fro with all the cases is what I can't stan# about holi#ays0 t!$n0

lt'5 all t"e toing and"roing with all the ca!e! t"at I canEt !tand about "olida's)
[ I think my el#er sister is 'lanning to take o"er the family home when my mother #ies0 "%s$0ns b I think it woul# be best for you in the long run to negotiate a lower 'rice0 $nt% %sts P &he current national team is not anywhere near as goo# as the one fi"e years ago. m%ans " .nce the reasons for his resignation are 'ublic knowle#ge0 we'll be able to ,u#ge for oursel"es0 !p%n % I really think my son is going to be a hugely successful businessman0 ,$0, ( ou can't e/'ect e"erything to run on an e"en keel all the time sm!!t,

)eterminers and pronouns


Entry test
) Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#. my Aunt Polly0 whom I ha#n't seen for ages. She sai# ............... 1(3 or other about fin#ing herself une/'ecte#ly in the neighbourhoo# an# we s'ent the ne/t cou'le of hours bringing .................................. 163 another u' to #ate on family news. - Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#. Many................ 123 time I ha"e thought about going to li"e abroa#. .nly a "ery.............................. 143 'eo'le e"er get the chance to #o this as................................ 1(3 of us think we are being a#"enturous if we mo"e to another

))))))))))) 9 3 1 two chefs agree on the #efiniti"e reci'e


for 'aella0 though ....................... 143 without e/ce'tion agree it contains rice. Although originating in S'ain0 it has s'rea# throughout the.................................... 1(3 worl# an# all...................... 163 ha"e taste# it say it is a #ish for s'ecial occasions.

FOR A'', <OT*, T*E &*O'E, #E!T*E>, E!T*E>, #O, #O#E, SEE SECTION )?

FOR A#%, SOBE, SOBE&*E>E, A#%&*E>E, ETC?: SEE SECTION /?

Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE -

town. My father s'ent a............................. 163 few years in 7ermany an# ne"er regrette# it.

I a#mire# my uni"ersity tutor an# listene# attenti"ely to hi!

every wor#
a I think your cakes are e"ery.................................. as those you buy in the sho's0 b I bought a kilo of a''les an# each an# ......................................... of them was ba#. P My wife #oes most of the cooking but I like to #o some e"ery.................... a while. " I think you ha"e e"ery.............................. get angry about that letter. / Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.
EXAMPLE -

FOR =UANTIFIERS B;$*, BA#%, A 'OT O", IAJ "E&, IAJ '!TT'E, BOST, SEE SECTION -?

ou coul#n't len# us Q8) #' an' chance0 coul# you9

a &hese negotiations #on't............................... anywhere at the


FOR EA$* AND E+E>%, SEE SECTION +?

moment. b My family is not........................... means a rich one. P My mother was talking .............................. man or other about the weather0 " &heir train shoul# be ............................ moment now.

Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#. &he front #oor bell rang the................................ 9 3 1 #ay an# I o'ene# it to #isco"er it was................................ 143 other than

FOR ON\ISJ: A#OT*E>, OT*E>(S), O#E A#OT*E>, EA$* OT*E>, SEE SECTION '?

iuvwuLux

1 4 4

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

OVERVIEW
/his Anit deals +ith &eneral pronouns and determiners2 all, the whole, none, no, both, neither, either 3see Section 15 each, every 3see Section 25 one(!), another, other(!), one another, each other 3see Section $5 ?uantif'in& pronouns and determiners2 much, many, a lot o", (a) "ew, (a) little, mo!t 3see Section "5 !ome, any, !omewhere, anywhere, !omebody, nothing etc9 3see Section 5 3For a ! an and the( see Anit =)1
) PRONOUN OR DETERMINERO

COMMON P8RASES

7e use man' determiners and pronouns in common phrases2 %e7'e been wor&ing on this all day. he$ were late( each and every one o! them. 8ll hell broke loo!e when the news !irst came out.

7e use most of the abo)e +ords as either pronouns or determiners9


P !n!uns

7e use pronouns2 on their o+n instead of a noun2 7%hich one do $ou want>7 $=ither is !ine b$ me.7 +ith of before the pronoun2 he$ ate nearl$ all o" it. +ith of before the( this( those( etc9 > noun2 he$ ha'en7t loo&ed at any o" the alternati'es.
D%t% m$n% s

7e use determiners2 before nouns2 Ha'e $ou got !ome money' :oth candidate! were under-Auali!ied !or the 8ob. &o!t home! ha'e a washing machine. Ha'e $ou seen m$ other glove' 0 see no ob5ection to doing it. Note2 no and e'er$ are determiners4 ne)er pronouns9 1one and somebod$( e'er$one( nowhere( an$where( etc9 are pronouns4 ne)er determiners9 7hile most determiners follo+ the same patterns as pronouns +ith o!( there are some e1ceptions2 < 0 don7t li&e either the !ilms. ;0 li&e both the "ilm!, or2 0 li&e both o" the "ilm!. 0 don7t li&e either o" the "ilm!, or2 0 don7t li&e either "ilm.

USING MORE T8AN ONE DETERMINER

7e can sometimes use more than one determiner before a noun2 Bo other boo& gi'es Auite so much detail. he$ &ept chec&ing on us every "ew hours. 07d li&e another "ive minutes( i" $ou don7t mind. <an' combinations of determiners are not possible because the' contradict or repeat each other2 < 07d li&e another one icecream, please. 0 li&e !ome mo!t ty e! o! music. ; 07d li&e another ice-cream, please( or2 07d li&e another one, please. 0 li&e mo!t ty e! o! music.

SINGULAR: PLURAL: UNCOUNTABLE

7e use some determiners before sin&ular nouns4 e9&9 neither( either( each( e'er$( one( another( etc2 Beither t$pe is particularl$ nice. others before plural nouns4 e9&9 all( both( other( some( etc2 :oth children are at school now. others before uncountable nouns4 e9&9 all( a lot o! a little( most( some( etc2 8ll chocolate tastes the same to me. 7e can use some determiners before more than one t'pe of noun4 e9&9 all( some( no( etc2 0 disli&e almost all green vegetable!. ( 4 plural noun5 8ll work and no pla$ ma&es Jac& a dull bo$. 3S uncountable noun5 Some wines are best drun& $oung. 3S plural noun5 here seems to be !ome doubt about it. 3S uncountable noun5

1"0

4_`L

GRAMMAR

SECTION I
A?, both, the whole, neither, either, no, none
) A'' AND <OT*

particularl$ good. *racticall$ none o! this stu!! is as bad as $ou sa$. Bo two bars were ali&e. Bone o! us could agree. In formal En&lish4 +e can use a sin&ular )erb after none. 8o+e)er4 a plural )erb is common2 Bone o! the people 0 wor& with like! chocolate at all. 3S formal5 Bone o! these brands ta!te the same.

7e can use all and both as determiners and pronouns in the follo+in& +a's2 ?irtuall$ all chocolate tastes the same. All children lo'e chocolate. :oth t$pes are disgusting. :oth you and ) are agreed on that. Ha'e $ou been eating chocolate all thi! time' Ha'e $ou eaten both those pieces> All o" the chocolate in this countr$ tastes the same. Ha'e $ou eaten both o" those pieces> he$ ate almost all o" it. :oth o" them taste the same to me. )t all tastes the same to me. ,hey both loo& a bit strange.

COMMON P8RASES

ell me all about it. he$ le!t me all alone. ,hat$! all@ there7s nothing else to add. 8ll too o"ten a sunn$ da$ ends in rain. He could be listening outside "or all ) know. #he7s no "riend o" mine. here7s no rea!on why $ou shouldn7t pass. 0t7s none o" your bu!ine!!. 0t was none other than George at the door. 7Ha'en7t $ou got an$>7 $Bone what!oever.7 Her leadership Aualities are !econd to none. 7n the whole, $ou7re probabl$ right. 07m a!raid $our excuses are neither here nor there.

*lthou&h both can be a pronoun used on its o+n4 e9&9 Ioth taste the same to me( +e rarel' use all as a pronoun on its o+n4 e1cept +hen it is follo+ed b' a relati)e clause2 s =i)e me all. ; Gi'e me e'er$thing( or2 Gi'e me all ; e'er$thing $ou7'e got. 7e donLt commonl' use the phrases all the da$ or all the people +ithout a ?ualif'in& clause2 s %c wor&ed all the da$. 0 tal&ed to all the people. ; %e wor&ed all da$. > tal&ed to e'er$one.

Anderline the correct )erb form in these sentences9 In some sentences4 both ma' be correct9 a *ll the pla'ers are &ood but none is ! are as &ood as =i&&s9 b No animals ha'e ! has been mistreated in the ma0in& of this film4 T <onda' or /uesda'9 Both are ! is con)enient for me9 d /hursda' or Frida'9 Either of them are ! is fine4 e *ll IL)e brou&ht is H are o)er there9

T8E W8OLE

7ith sin&ular countable nouns4 especiall' +ith places4 +e often use the whole instead of all the...F s All the town was shoc&ed b$ her death. a; he whole town was shoc&ed b$ her death. C 7e must use o! +ith proper names and +ords li0e the( this( these( those( etc2 07'e tra'elled around the whole o! @rance. 0 was o!! sic& !or the whole o! the wee&.

#E!T*E> AND E!T*E>

7e use either and neither to tal0 about t+o thin&s9 /he' can be pronouns and determiners2 1either t$pe is particularl$ nice. 4N formal5 Either t$pe is !ine b$ me. 3S one or the other4 it doesnLt matter +hich5 0 li&e neither t$pe. 3S formal5 0 don7t li&e either ty e. 3S less formal5 Beither you nor ) li&e them. =ither you or ) will ha'e to go. Beither o" the other! li&ed them( either. ) don7t thin& either o" the!e ty e! i! / are edible. o be honest( ) li&e neither. 07m not particularl$ !ond o! either. *fter neither and either a sin&ular )erb is usual4 but plural )erbs are used in spo0en En&lish2 Beither o" them i! / are particularl$ nice. =ither i! / are !ine b$ me. Prepositional phrases li0e on either side( at either end( mean Lon both sidesL4 Lat both endsL2 here are shops at either end o! the street.

#O AND #O#E

1o is a determiner9 1one is a pronoun9 7e use them before sin&ular4 plural and uncountable nouns2 Iad chocolate is better than no chocolate. Iad chocolate is better than none. Bo piece 0 tasted was

1"1

Practice

ALL, BOT?, T?E ;?OLE, NEIT?ER, EIT?ER, NO, NONE


tell liesL since all this +ould be 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 the truth9 ,nl' a sinner can lo&icall' sa' / al+a's tell liesL4 and this +ould 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 13 be a lie9 It is essentiall' both the same as the dilemma faced b' the barber 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 +ho sha)es all the men +ho donLt sha)e themsel)es9 /he +hole ?uestion is2 +ho 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 sha)es the barberD (learl' he cannot sha)e himself because he onl' sha)es 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 those +ho donLt sha)e themsel)es9 8o+e)er4 neither he cannot remain unsha)en as he 99999999999999999999999999999999999999 +ould then ha)e to sha)e himself9

12

Y Correct t"e !ollowing sentences)


ExampleF =uess +ho too0 m' chocolateD No other 41one ot"er1 than %imitra9 a *ll of chocolate comes from cocoa beans9 b Both of ordinar' and +hite chocolate are made from cocoa butter4 T /here are )er' fe+ people +ho li0e neither them4 d I ha)e no particular preference2 ILll eat the either4 e Kesterda'4 in fact4 I ate all a "00 &m bar9 f <' friends bet me I couldnLt eat it +hole4 & No one of them belie)ed I could do it and not be sic09 h (hocolate is eaten all o)er the +hole *merica4 i *ll the people lo)e chocolate4 - For e)er'thin& +e 0no+4 chocolate ma' be the eli1ir of life9

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one o! t"e words listed)
all whole none no both neither either Life has slo+l' chan&ed for the99999999999999999999999 315 of our famil'9 7e +ere99999999999999999 325 )er' close once4 m' +ife and I and our t+o dau&hters9 *&ed 12 and 114 the' +ere9999999999999999999999999999999

3 3

an&els4 0een4 enthusiastic4 communicati)e499999999999999999999999 of them4 nearl'999999999999999 3 5 the time9 7hen +e meet

up no+ada's99999999999999999 3#5 of us feels that comfortable9 ,h 'es4 there are a fe+ moments +hen +e9999999999999999999999999999 3:5 hu& and as0 each other for an update9 /hen +hen +e99999999999999999999999999999999 3!5 sit do+n to either lunch or dinner B99999999999999999999999999999 395 of m' dau&hters seems )er' 0een to eat at the same time as us an'+a' B9999999999999999999 3105 of us seems to ha)e that much to sa'999999999999999999 3115 m' dau&hters resent ?uestions about their acti)ities and I canLt as099999999999999999999999999 3125 of them about their current bo'friends +ithout99999999999999999999999999 31$5 of them &an&in& up on me and tellin& me to be ?uiet9 ,n the99999999999999 31"54 I find eatin& +hile +atchin& a soap +ith them the best +a' out9 999999999999 31 5 of the &irls seems at all interested in +hat 999999999999 31#5 m' +ife or I is doin&999999999999999999999999 31:5 I can sa' is that life +as much easier and more comfortable +hen 999999999999 31!5 of them could utter an'thin& more than L&ooB&ooL and LdaBdaL and9999999999999999999999 3195 m' +ife and I could settle do+n for a meal +ithout feelin& stran&ers in our o+n home9 I suppose that time and tide +ait for
B

Y In most (airs o! lines t"ere is one unnecessar'


word) ;or eac" (air o! num#ered lines 31B1#54 write t"e unnecessar' word in t"e s(ace) Indicate correct (airs wit" a tick 9]:1) T"e e,ercise #egins wit" two e,am(les)
If I sa' / al+a's tell liesL4 am I tellin& the truthD /his is 0no+n as the LiarLs Parado19 It has been around for all millennia and is

999999999999999 3205 man9

usuall' attributed to Epimenides the (retan +ho said *ll of (retans are liarsL99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 Lo&icians call this a circular ar&ument or problem to +hich there is no the 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 solution9 /he ?uic0 ans+er is that +hile either the ?uestion is )alid from a 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 &rammatical )ie+point4 from both a lo&ical point of )ie+ it is a contri)ed 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 5 contradictor' nonsense4 thou&h this didnLt stop the philosopher Bertrand 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 6 .ussell spendin& t+o +hole of summers tr'in& to sol)e the contradiction9 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 7 /he theolo&ical ans+er is that the human race is made up of all three 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D t'pes of people2 neither saints +ho al+a's tell the truth4 de)ils +ho al+a's tell 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 E lies and sinners +ho sometimes tell either the truth and sometimes tell 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1F lies9 Lo&icall' a saint cannot sa' / al+a's tell liesL since this +ould be 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 a lie9 * de)il cannot lo&icall' sa' / al+a's

1"2

GRAMMAR

SECTION <
=ach and every
Each can be a determiner and a pronoun9 E'er$ is onl' a determiner9

Dractically every route was o'er two miles.


Each

7e use each as a pronoun2 +ith o! >i noun2 =ach o" them too& !ar longer than expected. =ach o" the wal&ers was well o'er sixt$. on its o+n2 here were six people in the group( and each was determined to win the race( (each one or each o" them is more common5 after nouns and pronouns for emphasis2 John and Angela each had their own suppl$ o! biscuits. ,hey each too& a map with them.

DIFFERENCES IN MEANING

Each and e'er$ are similar in meanin& and in some conte1ts both are possible2 =very / =ach person in the group was !it and health$. 7e use each +hen +e are thin0in& of all the separate indi)iduals in the &roup2 =ach person chose a di!!erent route to the beach. E'er$ refers more to the &roup as a +hole 3it is closer in meanin& to all5F =very route was o! about the same length. 7e use each to tal0 about t+o or more thin&s4 but +e can onl' use e'er$ for more than t+o2 wo routes( each one a'oiding steep hills( loo&ed particularl$ attracti'e.

SINGULAR OR PLURALO

Each and e'er$ are follo+ed b' sin&ular )erbs9 8o+e)er4 +e commonl' use a plural pronoun to refer bac02 =very person 0 as&ed !ay! that they are going to en8o$ the wal&. In formal En&lish4 after each( he ! she is considered more correct than the$( althou&h the$ is common2 =ach person claimed he / !he / they would get to the beach !irst.

4 2
DIFFERENCES IN USE

COMMON P8RASES

7e use each and e'er$ as determiners +ith a sin&ular noun and a sin&ular )erb2 ^*er' one o" the wal&ers &nows the area well. 4Each one o! is also possible but less common5
Every

,hey were all late( each and every one o! them. 0t rains every single time 0 go to @rance. :uc&il$( 0 onl$ go there every now and then / every !o o!ten ; every once in a while. /n the other hand( 0 go to Ielgium practicall$ every other wee&. Irussels is every bit a! romantic as *aris.

7e use e'er$F after a possessi)e2 ; listened to hi! every word. +ith some abstract nouns to emphasise that somethin& is correct or necessar'6 Gou had every right to sa$ that. 0 had every rea!on to be !ed up. +ith plural nouns in phrases of fre?uenc'2 %e go to the seaside every "ew week!. +ith ad)erbs li0e almost( nearl$( 8ust about( practicall$F %ecide +hether each( e'er$ or both are acceptable in these sentences9 a Kou ha)e each ! e'er$ ri&ht not to si&n the contract4 b Each ! E'er$ of them &a)e their opinion in turn4 T Each ! E'er$ time I hear that music4 it reminds me of 'ou9 d I can read 'our e'er$ ! each thou&ht4 e I li0e e'er$ ! each one of them9

374

Practice

EA$* AND E+E>%

Y ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit" one suita#le

word) In some o! t"e !ollowing sentences each and e*er' are

(ossi#leS in ot"ers we can use onl' one o! t"em) Cross out an' words we cannot use) a Kou +ill each ! e'er$ recei)e a name bad&e on arri)al9 b Not e)er' H each participant +ill necessaril' be interested in each H e'er$ seminar4 T Nearl' e'er$ ! each time I see her4 sheLs +earin& that blue and 'ello+ floral dress4 d Kou can record each ! e'er$ e)ent that ta0es place in this little boo04 e Each ! E'er$ of these containers contains somethin&4 but not e'er$ ! each one has somethin& )aluable in it9 f Kou ha)e e'er$ ! each ri&ht to be dissatisfied +ith e'er$ ! each member of 'our team4 & If 'ou donLt listen carefull' to his e'er$ ! each +ord4 heLll t+ist 'ou around his little fin&er4 h *s e'er$ ! each da' passes4 the situation seems to &ro+ +orse9

Some famous places are disappointin&2 dirt'4 cramped4 and a bit of a cliche9 But there are others +hich4 e)en thou&h 'ouL)e seen99999999999999999999 315 tele)ision pro&ramme e)er made about it4 are e)er'999999999999999999999999 325 as +onderful as 'ouLd ima&ined9 /he =rand (an'on is one of these and so4 despite bein& ne1t door to a main road4 is Stonehen&e9 *nother is @enice +hich4 in its entiret'4 remains a &reat +or0 of art499999999999999999999999 3$5 deca'in& aspect re)ealin& an une1pected &limpse of +ater or startlin& 9 architecture499999999999999999999 3"5 indi)idual buildin& or piaJJa I displa'in& an e1?uisite sense of proportion9 I return to E9 @enice e)er'9999999999999999999 3 5 often in the course of m' +or0 and on each999999999999999999 3#5 these occasions 1 ha)e found somethin& ne+ to mar)el at9 *larm cries about ho+ 2 lon& this can last are sounded999999999999999999999999999 3:5 no+ and then 999999999999 3!5 time the +ater le)els rise9 But the fact that this cit' is sin0in& into the sea seems to add to its y romantic atmosphere9 Far more serious is the depopulation4 for it seems that99999999999999999999999 395 about e)er' +ee0 another famil' lea)es9 Since 19" more than half the population

;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" one suita#le word)

ExampleF 8eLs late practicall$ e)er' time +e &o out9 a I donLt &o out999999999999999999999999 e)enin&9 E)er'9999999999999999999 e)enin& perhaps9 b 8e bou&ht a present for999999999999999999999999999999 of the children9 T E)er' culture99999999999999999999999 its o+n different customs and traditions9 d E)er' so99999999999999999999 m' sister calls from *ustralia9 e 8e bou&ht an enormous ca0e and ate99999999999999999999999999999999999999 last crumb9 f In fact he had three different 0inds of ca0e4 t+o of & 8e &a)e us999999999999999999999 one slice and 0ept the rest for himself9 h 8e had99999999999999999999 intention of &oin& to the part' but in the end -ust fell asleep9 i 8e is e)er'99999999999999999999 as &ood as 'ou9 - I li0e &oin& to the cinema e)er'99999999999999999999999999999999 and then9

of @enice has mo)ed to the mainland9 /he rich o+n the &reat palaJJos alon& the =rand (anal and )isit e)er' once in a99999999999999999999999 31054 but lea)e the +indo+s dar0 for the rest of the time9 <ass tourism 9 G threatens the

)er' structure of the cit'9 It is a sad )ictim fe of its o+n success9

3
a b T d e f

Would 'ou c"oose each or e'er$ i! 'ou were writing a songI

.ere are some l'rics to com(lete) 99999999999 of us +as mischie)ous I sa' LPlease sta'L to 'ou B9999999999999999999999999999 sin&le da'4 I do9 7e +ere999999999999999999out of reach9 99999999999fe+ 'ears I remember 'our tears9 99999999999 once in a +hile I remember 'our smile9 99999999999 time I e)er need a dime 999 ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one o! t"e words

listed) each e'er$ all whole none no I +as tellin& 'ou about m' famil'4 +asnLt ID It seems that not99999999999999999 315 famil' is ha)in& the same problems9 Since last +ee04 I ha)e spo0en to nearl'999999999999999999999999999999999 325 m' collea&ues and99999999999999999999 3$5 other one sa's that999999999999999999999999 3"5 is s+eetness and li&ht in their famil'9 999999999999999999999999999999 3 5 of them B the9999999999999999 3#5 famil' B sit do+n and99999999999999999999999999 3:5 of them ta0es turns to sa' somethin& about +hat the'Lre doin& or ha)e been doin& and nearl'99999999999999999999999999999 3!5 other member of the famil' han&s on their9999999999999999999999999999 395 +ord9 /hereLs 99999999999 3105 a&&ression6999999999999999999999 3115 of the others sho+s an'thin& but total interest in the othersL999999999999999999999999999999999999 3125 stor'9999999999999999 31$5 of them ta0es his or her turn and 99999999999 31"5 of them listen B999999999999999999999999 31 5 of them resents it99999999999999 31#5 I can sa' is4 the'Lre luc0'9 *lmost 99999999999 31:5 meal +e ha)e to&ether is spoilt because thereLs9999999999999999 31!5 contact +ith an'one else and999999999999999999999999999999 3195 of us remains a little island999999999999999999999999999999 3205 +onder m' dau&hters donLt come and )isit )er' often9

1""

SECTION <
7ne(!), another, other(!), one another, each other
) O#EAO#ES AND A#OT*E>

his computer7s crashed. 9se one o! the others. a /thers sometimes means LpeopleL2 Go and tell the others to hurr$ up.

ONE A#OT*E> AND EA$* OT*E>

7e use one ! ones to replace a countable noun2 he$7re all nice hut 0 reall$ li&e the red one. %hat about the green ones> (ompare the different uses of one ! ones and another as determiners and pronouns2 /hatLs an interesting one. Ha'e $ou got another> /ne da$( $ou7ll see 0 was right. %e7ll ha'e to lea'e this !or another da$. %ould $ou li&e another drin&> /ne o" the buttons is missing. 0s this another o" those computer games> /ne o" u! is going to ha'e to go. 7e use one o! the... +ith a sin&ular )erb2 /ne o" the man$ ; main ; countless reasons 0 resigned i! that 0 can7t stand the boss. his i! one o" the !ew letters we recei'ed about him. /ne o! the other pla$ers i! going to ha'e to pla$ in goal. Sometimes another means Lthe same a&ainL and sometimes it means La different oneL2 7 hat piece o! ca&e was good.7 707ll get $ou another.7 his shop is no good - let7s tr$ another. 7e often use another +ith !ew or numbers > plural noun2 ; need another !ew minutes. Gou owe me another ten pounds. /thers is onl' a pronoun2 0t7s his best boo&( though he wrote man$ others. *part from plural phrases +ith !ew or numbers4 e9&9 another !ew minutes( +e use another onl' before a sin&ular noun9 7ith plural nouns4 +e use other( or some more or an$ moreF Z Arc there another trains coming soon> + Are there other trains coming soon> or2 0s there another train coming soon>

7e use one another and each other as ob-ects of )erbs9 /he' mean the same thin& B each of t+o or more people does somethin& to or for the other3s52 he$ all tried to help each other;one another.

COMBINING TWO IDEAS

/ther4s5 and another often occur as the second item in sentences that combine t+o ideas2 #ome people li&e the red ones but others pre!er the green. /ne man7s meat is another man7s poison( 3pro)erb5 Each member o! the coach trip got on well with the others. /n the one hand 0 appreciate what $ou7re doing but on the other 0 wish $ou wouldn7t inter!ere so much.

COMMON P8RASES

; met :arr$ the other da$. 3S a fe+ da's a&o5 /ne o! these da$s $ou7re going to get a nast$ surprise. 3S ,ne da' in the future9995 ; was tal&ing to none other than the *rime Minister $esterda$. 3S no less a person than 9995 he$ arri'ed one a!ter another; the other. 3S in ?uic0 succession5 he$ arri'ed one b$ one. 3S not all to&ether5 %e were tal&ing about something or other. 3S I canLt remember e1actl' +hat5

Some of the +ords and phrases in this section are used as pronouns4 some as determiners4 and one as both9 /ic0 3iH5 the acceptable sentences9 Ceterminer a =o and tell the others children4 b LetLs loo0 at the other one9 T 7e must tal0 to each one person9 Pronoun =o and tell the others9 LetLs loo0 at the other9

+ OT*E> AND OT*E>S

/ther is a determiner2 7ther people ma$ come later. 07'e got most o! the other in!ormation alread$. C 7e can also use other as a pronoun +ith theF 07'e got one o! the !lopp$ dis&s. Ha'e $ou got the other>

7e must tal0 to each other9 other people4 d /hereLs onl' /hereLs onl' room for one9 room for e *re there another busesD 8ere comes another9

O#ECS), A#OT*E>, OT*E>CS ), O#E A#OT*E>, EA$* OT*E>

=
a b T d e f & h

-nderline t"e #est alternati*e)

/hese trousers are better than the other one ! ones. I donLt li0e them9 LetLs choose another ! the other pair9 7ell4 hurr' up B the others ! another are +aitin&9 I suppose one pair is as &ood as another ! one. KouL)e tried on so man'4 one after the other ! others. (an I tr' -ust one ! another more pairD ,M4 but letLs stop ar&uin& +ith each ! one another. =i)e me another ! the other fe+ minutes9

them as +ell as their t+in9 /he' thin0 li0e999999999999999999999999999999999999 3#5 other and do the same thin&s4 marr' similar partners and li)e in )irtuall' identical houses9 In one stud'4 a t+in declared that losin& the9999999999999999999999999999 3:5 +ould be li0e losin& a part of her o+n bod'9 In9999999999999 3!54 a pair separated RI at birth and brou&ht up 3"JK. &b. in different to+ns4 1 B BE 2 j , l 3

K ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" other, another, other!, or other$!.


LeftBhandedness is a fascinatin& phenomenon unless L4 'ou are tr'in& to undo a 0not that a leftBhanded person 9 has tied the99999999999999999999 315 +a' round9 It is surprisin& that I leftBhanders ha)e not protested more about ho+ the ph'sical +orld has been constructed around the L999999999999325 lotL9 /hou&h the da's ha)e &one +hen children +ere forced to chan&e to the999999999999999999999999999 3$5 +a'4 +e still donLt ma0e enou&h concessions9 Surel' lefties should be encoura&ed to &reet one9999999999999999999999999 3"5 b' sha0in& the99999999999999999 183 left hand9 7h' donLt the' al+a's stic0 out their left hand an'+a' and surprise all us99999999999999 3#5 once in a +hileD IL)e seen some lefties +ritin& li0e crabs and producin& hand+ritin& from 999999999999 3:5 planet and IL)e seen99999999999999999999999 3!5 +ho produce better +ritin& than an'999999999999999999999999 395 person 1 0no+9 *nd99999999999999999 3105 thin&2 +h' donLt leftBhanded +aiters tease us b' la'in& the table Lbac0 to frontLD /he'L)e as much ri&ht as the ri&htBhanders9

una+are of999999999999999999 395 I/ fW I anotherLs e1istence4 m P^ J 1 C mo)ed into houses in ;LELLLbQEEUSc Florida +ith their H J LEEde ^ families4 onl' to disco)er ^ 0 flB8f I that the person ne1t door z z X{Bj z H +as99999999999999 3105 other than their t+in9

^C

^4t ^ QT

Y In most (airs o! lines t"ere is one unnecessar' word) ;or eac"


(air o! num#ered lines 31B1"54 write t"e unnecessar' word in t"e s(ace) Indicate correct (airs wit" a tick ( S ) . T"e e,ercise #egins wit" two e,am(les) /he intimac' bet+een each t+ins can sometimes be destructi)e9 Ps'cholo&ists each.. are tr'in& to find out +here closeness ends and patholo&' be&ins9 From the 9999999999999999999999999999999999999

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word)

.aisin&999999999999999 315 child at a time is hard enou&h6 parents of t+ins ha)e an e)en more difficult -ob9 It is important that the' donLt become so bonded that 9999999999 325 becomes merel' a missin& part of999999999999999999999999999999999 3$5 other9 Parents ha)e to help their children &ro+ up to&ether4 but realisin& that the' are indi)iduals first and t+ins second9 /he siblin& ri)alr' ma' be a)oided b' encoura&in& them to de)elop different interests from one999999999999999993"5 to help to preser)e their identities9 But the special intimac' that t+ins share can lead to problems9 *s the' &ro+ older the' ma' find it hard to de)elop close relationships +ith 9999999999 3 5 because the' thin0 no person +ill e)er 0no+

time Uune and Uennifer =ibbons could spea04 the' seldom did B e1cept for one 999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 rare simple sentences to adults and some +ords to the other children9 E)entuall' 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 the' spo0e onl' +ith the one another and around their home to+n in 7ales the' 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 became 0no+n as the other Silent /+ins4 de)elopin& a pri)ate lan&ua&e 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 that no another one else could understand9 Uennifer +as so -ealous of Uune4 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 +hom she thou&ht prettier one and more lo)ed b' their parents4 that she forced 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 her into a childhood )o+ of silence9 /he one ac?uaintance said that Uennifer 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D seemed to ha)e LpossessedL her sister2 +ith e'e si&nals4 she told Uune +hen 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 E to tal04 ho+ to mo)e4 +hat to do9 Each one monitored of the other so that 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1F the' could act in perfect unison9 /he' e)en fell off horses at the same time9 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 ,nce Uennifer intoned to her other sister4 LKou are Uennifer9 Kou are me9L *n 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 12 a&onised Uune screamed bac04 LI am UuneN I am UuneNL 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 ;uite a "ew people ha'e complained about his beha'iour. A very "ew people ha'e 'oiced their support !or him. (Very "ew... is more usual5 7hen +e donLt use a ! an( !ew and little ha)e ne&ati)e connotations2 A "ew eo le came. 3S at least some people5 Fe+ eo le came. 4M not enou&h5 here7s a little time le!t. 3S perhaps enou&h5 here7s little time le"t. ( L probabl' not enou&h5

SECTION
Kuanti!iersF much, many, a lot o", (a) "ew, (a) little, mo!t
/hese ?uantifiers act in a similar +a'9 8o+e)er4 there are a number of indi)idual peculiarities9
) ARTICLE PROBLEMS

Most is a determiner and a pronoun9 7e use the most +hen +e ma0e a comparison4 and most to tal0 about ?uantit'2 s ,he mo!t people li&ed his music. + &o!t people li&ed his music. ,he mo!t popular music to relax to is classical. Sometimes the distinction can be )er' small2 he third storm caused (the) mo!t damage. 7e use most as an intensifier meanin& L)er'L2 Gou7re mo!t &ind. mo!t interestin&9 hat7s

7e can use much o! ! most o! ! a lot o! ! little o! 6 proper nouns +ithout theF 0 ha'en7t seen a lot o" Sarah latel$. 0 don7t thin& much o" 6ondon. 7ith common nouns +e use o! +ith the( m$( $our( etc94 and this( that, etc92 &uch o" my time is spent dri'ing between 8obs. @ar too much o" the north is underde'eloped. 7ith fe+ after 'er$ and Auite( +e use a ! an in different positions2

+ USES IN POSITIVE: NEGATIVE AND =UESTIONS

7e use much and man$ mainl' in ne&ati)e statements and ?uestions2 Gou ha'en7t eaten 'er$ much !ood. Are there many good restaurants here>

?er$ much as a determiner is almost ne)er used in positi)e sentences9 7e use a lot o! or a great deal o! instead2 s IL)e eaten very much !ood. + 07'e eaten a lot o" !ood. In positi)e sentences4 ?uantifiers are common +ith comparati)es2 Iahrain was much better than 07d expected. here were a! many a! two hundred people at the meeting.

Fe+ eo le &now much about him. (Bot many eo le... is more informal5

COMMON P8RASES

DIFFERENCES IN FORMALITY

In positi)e sentences4 man$ and much are t'pical of formal +ritten En&lish9 7e &enerall' use plent$ 4o!5( a lot 4o!5. :ots o!( loads o!( etc9 are more informal2 &uch rubbish has been +ritten on this sub8ect. 4A lot o"... is more usual5 6oad! o" people ha'e rather extreme 'iews on it. (&any... is more formal5 Little and -e+ can be fairl' formal9 7e use not much ! not a lot o! ! onl$ a little or not man$ to be more informal2 6ittle is &nown about his pri'ate li!e. (Bot much... is more informal5 here is little time le!t. 4 here isn7t a lot o" time... is more usual5

0 don7t "eel u to much toda$. 07m a!raid 07m not much o" a coo&. here7s many a time that 07'e wished 0 could Auit. &any$! the time 07'e had to tal& to him about that. :et7s make the mo!t o" the good weather. 07m not that oldF 07'e got a good "ew year! le!t in me $et. He seems to ha'e reciou! little idea o! what7s going on. he weather was !ine "or the mo!t art. here7s an aw"ul lot o" onion in this dish.

/ic0 3iH5 the sentences +hich can be considered formal9 a <uch has been said on this sub-ect4 b I ha)e little to sa' that is rele)ant4 T I donLt thin0 there is much pasta left in the cupboard9 d /his is one of the fe+ ori&inal paintin&s remainin&9 e 7e ha)e recei)ed lots of letters on this topic9

=UANTIFIERS> B;$*, BA#%, A 'OT O", (A) "E&, IAJ '!TT'E, BOST

educational attainment9 Indeed it mi&ht e)en be said that marria&es that do not in)ol)e these stand

Correct t"ese sentences)

I ))))))))))))))))) 3105 chance of lon&Bterm success9

a <uch of the 8olland is belo+ sea le)el4 b Not man' of people 0no+ much about him9 T %onLt hurr'2 +e ha)e little time left before +e ha)e to lea)e4 d /he most of people complain about the +eather here4 e * ?uite fe+ people came to his part'4 f 8eLs had )er' much &ood luc0 in his life4 & IL)e been to )isit him man' the time4 h 7eL)e put in &ood man' hours to &et this +or0 finished9

In most (airs o! lines t"ere is one unnecessar' word) ;or eac" (air o! num#ered lines 31B1 54 write t"e unnecessar' word in t"e s(ace) Indicate correct (airs wit" a tick ( S ) . T"e e,ercise #egins wit" two e,am(les)
Findin& accommodation in Mhartoum is a bit of a ni&htmare9 7hile I +as there I met people pa'in& off no less than W1000 rent a month for their houses9 ..!f!!...

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"e (assage wit" one suita#le word)
/here is4 remar0ed =eor&e Bernard Sha+4 no sub-ect on +hich more dan&erous nonsense is tal0ed than marria&e9 8e +as ri&ht2999999999999999999999 315 paper has been +asted on the sub-ect and99999999999999999999999325 a ne+spaper columnist has felt impelled to share +ith us their thou&hts on the sub-ect4 a99999999999999999999999 3$5 of +hich are lau&hable rubbish9 But the ?uestion still remains2 +h' do99999999999999 163 of us still +ant to &et marriedD /raditionall'4 it has been seen as necessar' to social cohesion and inheritance4 but toda'4 these factors carr' 999999999999 3 5 importance and it is the ps'cholo&ical aspects +hich dominate9999999999999999999 3#5 of the discussion9 /he ps'cholo&ist (arl Uun& claimed that +hereas manLs most important business +as his +or04 for a +oman Lman is her +or0L9 8ome4 continued Uun& +ith the bland confidence of a man +ho 0no+s ho+ to9999999999999999999999999999 1;3 the most of his domestic arran&ements4 Lis li0e a nest B not enou&h room for both birds at once9 ,ne sits inside4 the other perches on the side and loo0s about and attends to all outside business9L999999999999999999999 3!5 modern marria&es are more e?ual4 in)ol)in& partners +ho start out ha)in&
............ 1?3 in common4 particularl' social class and

/he' rec0oned that +hen the' left4 the o+ners +ould as0 half as much as a&ain4 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1 and this +ould be paid9 Fe+ of Sudanese can afford to build houses in the 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 3 cit'9 <ost the +or0ers and office staff li)e far out of the centre or in 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 ,mdurman on the other side of the Nile9 8otels are either )er' much e1pensi)e4 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 caterin& for )isitin& businessmen on little e1penses4 or e1tremel' cheap4 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 pro)idin& -ust a simple room and probabl' no less food9 ,)erland tra)ellers 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 7 usuall' sta' in the 'outh hostel9 7e +ere luc0' to be able to sta' +ith 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D friends for the most of our time in Mhartoum6 +e could neither afford 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D the e1pensi)e hotels4 +here the man' standards are in an' case usuall' lo+ and 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

1F

food indifferent4 nor face the cheap ones +here the fe+ conditions are &enerall' 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 primiti)e9 <uch of the Mhartoum remains little chan&ed toda' from the time +hen 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 12 =eneral Mitchener reasserted British control in 1!9!4 thou&h ?uite man' of the 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 13 ele&ant buildin&s ha)e faded and it is clear that passin& 'ears ha)e reduced 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 much of the cit'Ls former &lor' to s?ualor9 <ost of all the time the streets are 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 stiflin& and oppressi)e9 ,nl' under the man' ri)erside trees is it cool and bearable9999999999999999999999999999999999999

;inis" eac" sentence so t"at it is similar to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it)
a No one 0no+s a &reat deal about her pri)ate life9 Little9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

b ILm not )er' &ood at &ardenin&4 ILm afraid9 ILm not much of99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T I didnLt li0e that pla' )er' much9 I didnLt thin0 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d IL)e often thou&ht of &i)in& up and lea)in&9 <an' a 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e ;uite a lot of m' friends feel the same as I do9 * &ood999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

SECTION 8
AnO$, !ome, !omewhere, anywhere, etc.
) SOBE AND E]B^

=veryone M ! oke to seemed 'er$ !riendl$.

COMMON P8RASES

7e &enerall' use some and an' to tal0 about indefinite amounts2 07'e got !ome good news. Ha'e $ou got any news> 7ith this meanin&4 +e use some in positi)e sentences4 and an$ in ne&ati)es and ?uestions9
S!m% an" any as p !n!uns

07d lo'e to go there !ome day. here are reported to be "ew, i" any, sur'i'ors. *ass me a boo&F any old boo& will do. 0 don7t thin& it7s true and in any ca!e it7s not important. Gou couldn7t lend me V+0( could $ou( by any chance' 0 am not by any mean! an expert in this sub8ect. He should be arri'ing any moment now. his building dates !rom +,C\ or 3. #ometime around then at any rate. Something like a hundred hectares was destro$ed in the !ire. He &eeps on phoning me "or !ome rea!on or other. Come up and see me !ome time. hese discussions don7t seem to be getting anywhere.

7e use some and an$ as pronouns2 on their o+n to replace a noun2 : didn7t bring m$ mone$ with me.7 7)on7t worr$( 07'e got !ome.$ 07d lo'e to meet a news reporter. )o $ou &now any' +ith o! 6 the( m$( $our( etc94 this( these( etc2 Some o" the in!ormation in last night7s broadcast was incorrect. 0 didn7t &now any o" the people at the part$. +ith o! 6 pronoun2 Can $ou be Auiet> Some o" u! are tr$ing to wor&. Are any o" them here $et>
Some an" any as "%t% m$n% s

7hich of the follo+in& sentences are unacceptableD a *n' of the people there last ni&ht 0ne+ +ho I +as9 b *n' information 'ou ha)e +ould be reall' helpful4 T %o 'ou +ant to hear somethin& reall' funn'D d Kou didnLt see that documentar' on the tele)ision last ni&ht did 'ou b' some chanceD e IL)e ne)er actuall' met an'one famous9

In addition to tal0in& about indefinite amounts4 +e use some and an$ as determiners in other +a's9
A#%

7e use an$F in positi)e sentences4 often meanin& Lit doesnLt matter +ho4 +hat4 +hichL or Lif an' e1istsL2 8ny news $ou ha'e could be use!ul. in conditionals2 0! any news comes in while 07m awa$( let me &now. intensified +ith at all or whate'er ! whatsoe'erF 0 ha'en7t got any news at all / whatever / what!oever.
SOBE

7e use someF in ?uestions +hen +e e1pect the ans+er L'esL2 )o $ou want to hear !ome good news> +ith e1pressions of measurement to mean L?uite a lar&e amount or numberL2 he$7'e li'ed there "or !ome time. meanin& Lappro1imatel'L2 he suspect weighs !ome C0 &ilos. +ith sin&ular nouns4 to indicate +e donLt 0no+ e1actl' +ho or +hat is bein& referred to 3this is fairl' informal59 7e can add ...or other for emphasis2 Some idiot has tried to blow up the 91 building. 0 read about it in !ome book or other.

SOBE&*E>E, A#%&*E>E, ETC?

#omebod$( an$bod$( nobod$( e'er$bod$( someone( an$one( no one( e'er$one( something( an$thing( nothing( e'er$thing( somewhere( nowhere( and an$where are all pronouns thou&h +e can sometimes use some of them as ad)erbs9 /he' ta0e sin&ular )erbs2 0 thin& $ou7ll !ind everything $ou need to &now i! in this report. /he' can be follo+ed b' else or b' ad-ecti)es or ?ualif'in& clauses2 07m going to go !omewhere el!e. 7Going anywhere nice'$ $Somewhere warm.$

A#%, SOBE, SOBE&*E>E, A#%&*E>E, ETC?

Y ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" one suita#le word) Y -nderline t"e #etter alternati*e) Sometimes #ot" are (ossi#le)
ExampleF 8a)e 'ou heard an$ ! some ne+s toda' at allD a /he ne+s should be on an$ ! some minute no+9 b ILd li0e to be a ne+sreader some ! an$ da'9 T ILm not sure this one is an$ ! some impro)ement on the others9 d She appears to be ha)in& some ! an$ difficult' readin& her auto cue9 e In fact sheLs &ettin& an$where ! nowhere. f If she &ets an$ ! some +orse4 the'Lll ha)e to sac0 her9 & 7h' doesnLt she do an$thing else ! something elseB h *renLt there an$ ! some other -obs she could do betterD i An$ ! #ome old -ob +ould do4 ILd ha)e thou&ht4 - /hou&h I rec0on fe+ if an$ ! some emplo'ers +ould loo0 on her fa)ourabl' after this9 ExampleF E)er'bod' has no+ recei)ed their orders9 a /he' didnLt &i)e me an' help at999999999999999999999999999999999999 b 8is dissertation amounted to99999999999999999999999999999999 200 pa&es9 T Fe+ if9999999999999999999of those eli&ible to )ote did so9 d Kou donLt ha)e the time4 do 'ou4 b'99999999999999999999999999999999999 chanceD e E)er'thin&4 includin& all 'our orders this +ee04 no+ +aitin& to be collected4 f I heard the ne+s on some satellite channel or9999999999999999999999 & If calls4 tell them ILll be bac0 b' t+o9

K ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered ga(s wit" one suita#le word)


/he BB( 7orld Ser)ice on radio claims a re&ular +orld+ide audience of999999999999999999999 315 2 million for its En&lish lan&ua&e pro&rammes9 It is funded directl' b' the British Forei&n ,ffice4 thou&h99999999999999999999999 325 =o)ernment attempt to control the content of pro&rammes is )i&orousl' fou&ht off9 It is broadcast around the +orld and9999999999999999999999 3$5 +ho has access to a radio +ith short +a)e need be +ithout it9 /he archet'pal listener toda' is under $04 male4 li0el' to be relati)el' +ellBeducated4 for +hom En&lish is li0el' to be a second or e)en third lan&ua&e9 Fe+ +omen tune in4 +hich is +h' there is no +omenLs pro&ramme 999999999999 3"5 in its 2"Bhour ser)ice9 /he bi&&est and most important of the ne+s pro&rammes is Ne+shour4 a #0Bminute sur)e' of +orld ne+s +hich &oes out 999999999999 3 5 ni&ht at 10p9m9 British time9 /his slot cannot please999999999999999 3#5 but is the optimum time to catch 999999999999 3:5 listeners ha)in& brea0fast in 8on& Mon& or settlin& do+n for the ni&ht in 7est *frica9 It can be recommended to9999999999999999999 3!5 +ho +ants to understand the +orld4 not -ust Britain9 *t99999999999999999999999 395 rate4 that is its aim and certainl' b' comparison499999999999999999999999 3105 British

domestic ne+s pro&rammes seem tri)ial and parochial9 In most (airs o! lines t"ere is one unnecessar' word) ;or eac" (air o! num#ered lines 31B1"54 write t"e unnecessar' word in t"e s(ace) Indicate correct (airs wit" a tick 9B:1) T"e e,ercise #egins wit" two e,am(les) ,ne of the mar)ellous thin&s on m' first trip to Europe +as the disco)er' that the +orld could be so full of an' )ariet'4 that there +ere so man' R g . z different +a's of doin& essentiall' identical thin&s4 somethin& li0e eatin& and 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 drin0in& and bu'in& cinema tic0ets9 It fascinated me that an' Europeans could be 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 2 at once ali0e B that the' could be so boo0ish and cerebral4 and some dri)e 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 small cars4 and li)e in little houses in ancient to+ns4 and nobod' lo)e soccer4 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 5 and ha)e chill' hotel rooms and +arm in)itin& places to eat and drin0 B 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 5 and 'et be so endlessl'4 unpredictabl' different an'one from each other as +ell9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 5 I lo)ed the idea that 'ou could ne)er be sure of an'thin& else in Europe9 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D /his is +h' I ha)e ne)er learned an' more lan&ua&e other than En&lish9 I donLt 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D +ant to 0no+ +hat other people are tal0in& about9 I canLt thin0 of an'thin& 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1F that e1cites a &reater sense of an' childhood +onder than to be in a countr' 99999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 +here 'ou are i&norant of almost e)er'thin& else9 Suddenl' 'ou are fi)e 'ears 999999999999999999999999999999999 12 old a&ain9 Kou canLt read nearl' an'thin&4 'ou ha)e onl' the most rudimentar' 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 13 sense of ho+ an' thin&s +or04 'ou canLt e)en reliabl' cross a street +ithout 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 14 endan&erin& 'our life9 Kour +hole e1istence becomes a series of some interestin& &uesses99999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Un*t n*ne

?ocabular$
SECTION A
Amount and extent
) EDTENT AND DEGREE

2 C"oose t"e correct word to !ill t"e ga()


/he supermar0et claimed to ha)e sold its entire 9999999999 of French cheese9 a reser'es # load G stock d pool

Practice Y 6atc" t"e Auantit' words wit" an a((ro(riate grou( o!


collocating words and ("rases 9a2o1) -se all t"e Auantit' words) Write down t"e com(lete ("rase) ExampleF p a dose o! antibiotics ; cough mi,ture

<an' ad-ecti)es and phrases collocate +ith extent and degreeF ,o !ome degree / e#tent she is right. 8ere are some more e1amples2 to a lesser ;greater ; large ; small ;great ; con!iderable / mar&ed degree / e#tent 7e use extent in common phrases2 ,he true/"ull e#tent o! her in8uries onl$ graduall$ became apparent. 0 agree with $ou to a certain e#tent. Crime has risen to !uch an e#tent that it has become a serious political issue. 7e can also use other phrases that ha)e a similar meanin&2 hat7s true u to a oint, but $ou7re !orgetting something. won by a !ub!tantial / con!iderable / narrow margin. he$

(ese(7es &o*nt

-#+)
rate

!<t!nt 1#-%&!
sto)-

%& %a(.*n >dose@ in"i)!n"!


D de.(ee

C"oose t"e correct word to !ill t"e ga() /he' finall' realised the full999999999999999999999999999 of their financial predicament9 a margin # degree G point d extent

*(#*#(ti#n +&#%nt 2%#t+ *(#*#(ti#n


the99999999999999of men to +omen a substantial H fair H enormous999999999999999999999999999of the hi&h H li&ht9999999999999999999of traffic a +ide H narro+99999999999999999999of error pa' a nominal H lump99999999999999999999999 sell the entire H complete9999999999999999999999999of to some H a mar0ed H a considerable99999999999999999999999999 a hi&h H si&nificant999999999999999999999of the disease i to such an99999999999999999999that - a strict immi&ration9999999999999999999999999 o the crime H unemplo'ment H e1chan&e 99 1 a&ree up to a999999999999999999999 m a tra&ed' of hu&e H immense99999999999999999999999999999 n ade?uate H ample H )ast999999999999999999999999999of coal [ a999999999999999of bric0s H complaints 3p a99999999999999of antibiotics H cou&h mi1ture5
AMOUNT AND EDTENT

WORDS TO EDPRESS =UANTITY

7e use man' nouns to tal0 about ?uantit'9 8ere are some e1amples2 he high incidence o! 'iolent crime is a ma8or source o! worr$. %e ha'e one o" the highe!t crime rate! in the world. %hat is the ro ortion o" men to women here> He was paid a nominal !um !or his help. his road was not built to carr$ this volume o" tra""ic. here is a new quota !y!tem !or !ishing in the 1orth #ea. He7s struggling with his enormous work load. he compan$ has a ool o! cars to be used b$ the wor&ers. 0 alwa$s ha'e a !tock o" biscuits with me when travelling. :arge re!erve! o! oil ha'e been disco'ered in the Atlantic. 0t is dangerous to exceed the recommended do!age.

2
1

(ircle the +ord or phrase that best completes each sentence9

I simpl' couldnLt cope +ith such an enormous +or0999999999999999999999999 a amount b ?uantit' T load d )olume 2 ILm afraid +e can onl' afford to pa' 'ou a99999999999999999999999999999999 sum for 'our ser)ices9 a nominal b titular T complete d calculated 3 /he hi&h99999999999999 of cancer +as attributed to the pro1imit' of a nuclear po+er station9 a amount b dosa&e T e1tent d incidence 4 7hat +as the sum99999999999999999999 of our ta0in&s for the +ee0D

Fill each numbered blan0 +ith a suitable +ord9

IB' the time the sie&e +as lifted4 the cit' had onl' 999999999999 315 reser)es of food left9 /he entire99999999999999999999999999 325 of meat and bread had lon& since &one and there +as a hi&h99999999999999 3$5 of disease9 /ruc09999999999999999999 3"5 of food and medicines +ere brou&ht in but to a99999999999999999999999999 3 5 e1tent it +as too late to do an' &ood9

5 6 7 D

a amount b final T total d ?uota Its success seems to +or0 in9999999999999999999999999proportion to the number of people in)ol)ed9 a in)erse b opposite T contrar' d retro&rade /he' +on the election b' the narro+est of999999999999999999999999999999999999 a e1tents b mar&ins T )otes d de&rees If 'ou donLt &et 'our full99999999999999999999999 of sleep4 'our +or0 +ill be&in to suffer9 a e1tent b ?uota T de&ree d ratio I a&ree +ith 'ou up to a certain9999999999999999999999999999but there are other considerations9 a e1tent b point T de&ree d le)el

T"e))))))))))))))) 9 1 e,tent o! t"e damage caused #' t"e eart"Auake soon #ecame a((arent) Alt"oug" man' areas o! t"e cit' "ad to a large)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 971 esca(ed serious de*astation& a su#stantial )))))))))))) 9=1 o! "omes were no longer sa!e to li*e in)

*fter most of the funds had been spent4 there +as a small9999999999999999 395 of mone' left +hich +e had to decide +hat to do +ith9 But4 since the sheer 9999999999 3105 of business &enerated b' the fundLs

)/)

Y In the follo+in& sentences4 sometimes one and sometimes both of


the alternati)es are acceptable9 (ross out those that are not acceptable9 a <' parents ha)e al+a's &i)en me a good ;great deal of encoura&ement4 b /here seems to be masses ! tons of stuff that +eL)e left out of the in)entor'4 T /he' sent me a considerable ! huge ?uantit' of material to read4 d /he fact that I +asnLt born in this countr' added a +hole ne+ dimension ! si2e to the problem4 e /here +as widespread ! across-the-board condemnation of their beha)iour4 f /here are an aw!ul ! a horrible lot of soaps on /@ & * disaster of this scale ! magnitude mercifull' seldom happens4 h %onations for the disaster fund ha)e topped ! exceeded |lm9

success had left most of us out of poc0et4 it +as decided that +e should each recei)e a oneBoff lump999999999999999 3115 pa'ment as compensation9

K (hoose the +ord or phrase that best completes each sentence9


1
/hese da's the castle is s+amped +ith999999999999999999999999999999 of tourists9
VOCABULARY

a hordes b cli?ues T mobs d assemblies /he President denied the' +ere999999999999999999999999999nuclear +eapons9 a hoardin& b stoc0pilin& T collectin& d reser)in& 3 B' bein& rude to his superiors he is considered to ha)e99999999999999999999 the mar09 a transcended b outrun T surpassed d o)erstepped 4 8e al+a's 0ept a999999999999999999 of the number of &oals he scored each season9 a mar0 b sum T tall' d calculation 5 /he cro+ds999999999999999 the streets tr'in& to catch si&ht of their hero9 a floc0ed b thron&ed T o)erpopulated d huddled 6 /he stadium +as filled to99999999999999999999999for the final match9 a )olume b entiret' T capacit' d ma&nitude 7 /he' continuall' tried to99999999999999999999999 each other in tellin& stories9 a outdo b surmount T e1cel d compete D /he rules of the competition do not &i)e much for creati)it'9 a s+eep b span T sphere d scope

SECTION 7
Groups o! and parts o!
) DIFFERENT WAYS OF DESCRIBING GROUPS

a blob o" glue a bit o" land a hea o" papers ile! o" homewor& !tack! o" replies mountain! o" washing

COMMON P8RASES IN CONTEDT

7e can lin0 man' different +ords usin& o! 6 uncountable and plural nouns to indicate ?uantit' and other cate&ories of meanin&2 (ate&or'GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGE1ampleGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG

&+ + &+-- +&#%nt + *+(t + 0i<!) h+*! + *#(ti#n #0 -i2%i) *!!) #0 &#1!&!nt + /(#%* + "#nt+in!( +n !<+&*-! #( *+(t
a mountain o" wor&( a ile o" washing a ! ot o" rain( a inch o" salt a ortion o" chic&en( a !egment o" orange a ball o" wool( a !tick o" d$namite a dro o" mil&( a ool o" blood a 5et o" water( a gu!h o" blood a "lock o" sheep( a gang o" $ouths a bottle o" beer( a acket o" cigarettes an article o" clothing( an item o" news 3 *dd these e1amples to the appropriate cate&or' abo)e2 e f & h a a piece of cloth b a piece of information T a section of the ne+spaper d a famil' of mice a &ust of +ind a strip of land a slice of bread a heap of rubbish

Some e1amples depend on collocation2 he$ couldn7t !ind a !hred o" evidence to support their claim. At last there7s a ray o" ho e. here wasn7t a ! eck o" du!t to be seen. He was greeted with a torrent o" abu!e. Her enAuiries were met with a wall o" !ilence. heir o!!er o! help was m$ onl$ crumb o" com"ort. < *dd these +ords to the appropriate &aps belo+9 &nob pinch dash a Uust add a9999999999999999999 of butter and a999999999999999999999 of lemon -uice9 b I thin0 +e should ta0e that stor' +ith a9999999999999999999999999999999999999 of salt9

Practice

R
a b T d e f

*dd one of the follo+in& nouns to complete these sentences9

bread paper grass lunch !lu sunlight 8e could eat onl' a morsel o!.............................. I thin0 IL)e &ot a touch o!............................ A sha!t o!99999999999999999 came throu&h the +indo+9 I thin0 ILll ha)e a spot o!............................ 8o+ man' sheets o!99999999999999999999999 do 'ou needD u!ts o! &re+ alon& the ban09 In the follo+in& &roups4 there is one noun that +e cannot use in

2
1 2 3 4

the phrase4 either for reasons of meanin& or collocation9 Anderline the one that doesnLt fit9 a torrent of +ater a pool of # a touch of frost abuse salt +ords flu sno+ iron' +ater : a ra' of sunshine spilt mil0 hope blood paper stra+berries li&ht

a bunch of flo+ers ! a floc0 of birds people sheep bread tourists bananas &rass a trace of perfume 9 a &an& of hooli&ans blood thie)es smo0e actors children 0ids a lump of coal 10 a point of honour ideas ?uestion su&ar order meat li&ht
GROUPS OF AND PARTS OF

INFORMAL P8RASES

7e use informal )ocabular' in a )ariet' of common phrases2

)/+

Y Add t"ese ("rases to t"e !ollowing sentences) Some ("rases can #e used more t"an
once) ExampleF Football fans +ere actin& li0e a herd o! +ild animals9 ball o! column o! spurt o! spot o! troupe o! drop o! team o! 4herd o!5 band o!

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered ga(s wit"

one o! t"e nouns listed) Eac" noun can #e used once onl') stro&e stream amount shoc& drop trace stac& torrent bout dash %ann' had a99999999999999999 315 of red hair g at the time and +as at an a&e +hen a9999999999999 143 of ?uestions +as the 2 order of the da'9 I +as tired of the z 999999999999 3$5 of ans+ers 1 had been re?uired to &i)e all da' and had 6 an'+a' been sufferin& from a 99999999999 3"5 of Lflu9 I decided that 999999999999 3 5 of brand' +ith a 999999999999 3#5 of soda mi&ht -ust help -nderline t"e word or ("rase t"at #est com(letes eac" sentence) m' mental and ph'sical condition9 1 +or0ed m' +a' throu&h the
............ 1;3 of empt' bottles left in

,nce a&ain4 the999999999999999999+eapons inspectors +ere turned bac0 at the border9 2 /he militia occupied a substantial999999999999999999999999999 territor' in the north of the countr'9 3 ILm sure I -ust felt a99999999999999999999 rain9 3 *999999999 soldiers +as marchin& do+n the road9 3 /he aeroplane e1ploded in a9999999999999999999999999flames9 3 *999999999 smo0e rose into the air9 3 8e &ot a sudden of ener&' &oin& do+n the bac0 strai&ht9 3 I thou&ht +e +ere in a9999999999999999999999bother then for a minute9 3 8er first real -ob +as mana&in& a9999999999999999999999999999 actors tourin& Europe9 10 7ould 'ou li0e a999999999999999999999999 mil0 in 'our teaD

3
1

E)en the tiniest of dust can dama&e delicate electrical e?uipment9 a piece # portion G shred d spec0 2 La+'ers claim that there isnLt a99999999999999999999999999 of e)idence that +ould stand up to e1amination9 a touch # tuft G shred d se&ment 3 /his particular species had99999999999999999999999 of hair behind the ears9 a tufts # &roups G morsels d pieces 4 /he -ournalists approached her +ith a of insistent ?uestions about the ne+ polic'9 a -et # dribble G &ush d stream 5 Ne+s of the stoc0 mar0et crash caused a99999999999999999999999999999999 of panic amon& financial traders in the cit'9 a +a)e # piece G clump d column 6 /he plane crashed in a9999999999999999999999 of fire9 a pile # spurt G mass d ball 7 ILm afraid IL)e completel' lost the999999999999999999999999999 of the ar&ument9 a stream # trace G thread d idea D Kou need to mi1 e?ual of oil and lemon -uice4 a se&ments # portions G piles d pools D %o 'ou +ant to open another of oran&e -uiceD a pac0et # sac0 G cas0 d carton 10 * piece of paper +as cau&ht b' a999999999999999999999999999999999of +ind9 a blo+ # spurt G &ust d +a)e

the 0itchen after last ni&htLs part' and b' a9999999999999999 3!5 of luc0 found one +ith a tin'9999999999999999999 395 of the contents still remainin&9 I too0 a sip and felt much better9 *s 1 +as tuc0in& %ann' into bed he as0ed4 naturall' +ithout a9999999999999999999 3105 of iron'2 L7h' are 'ou +earin& %add'Ls perfume4 <umm'DL

!is 5uestion was met with a

wall o! silence)

E&am p a#t$#% 5

In most lines of the following te/t0 one wor# is missing. For each numbere# line 2:2 :4 write the missing wor# in the s'ace.

Some lines are correct. In#icate these lines with a tick ( S ) . &he e/ercise begins with two e/am'les. $y an# large I #etest holi#ays. E"ery "acation 'ara#ise I ha"e e"er been ...E.... to has 'ro"oke# in me strong #esire to 'ack my bags an# get out as soon as ....a....

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
)1

the family will let me. &he 'roblem with 'ara#ise is that there's ne"er interesting .............................................................. to #o there e/ce't sit aroun# e/'eriencing eternal bliss. An# all often it #oes .................................................................... seem to me eternal. I #on't think of it an# I can only 'ut u' with it for so long..................................................................... So e"ery often0 when the time comes for the family to sit aroun# the table an# ................................................................. 'lan where to go for the summer "acation I tentati"ely suggest that actually it ................................................................... woul# be e"ery as much fun to stay at home. Each an# e"ery time0 of course0 I ................................................................ am lou#ly o"errule# by others who set about 'lanning some beach ................................................................................... holi#ay or of my nightmares. I ha"e high ho'es0 howe"er0 that this year will be ................................................................. 5uite a better than 'ast holi#ays as we are going to "isit my in:laws in Swe#en.................................................................

Swe#en is no "acation 'ara#ise- col# in winter an# rainy in the summer0 ............................................................................... though on the few occasions the sun shines0 it can be "ery beautiful. My .............................................................................. Swe#ish is also "ery basic0 with the result that much of time I am there I ............................................................................... gesture I can0 an# am in res'ects nicer than I am in English0 'artly because .........................................................................

II
)+ )-

) ' a''ear e"en more stu'i# than I #o normally. I smile more0 use e"ery han# ............................................................................ ) / I am not of a linguist an# #on't know how to be ru#e in Swe#ish. ..............................................................................................

16 16

My wife nor I has been o"er to see her 'arents an#0 of course0 the rest of her .............................................................. family for a goo# years0 so all of us are looking forwar# to it a lot. ...................................................................................

)/'

Circle the o'tion E: F: C: or D: that best com'letes each sentence.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D E 1F 11

I #on't think there's a........................ of truth in what either #efen#ant sai#. A gust A our A either A figure A bath A any A all A flock A touch A none A both A %obo#y F any F number F 'u##le G amount G ,et G the G none D her# G torrent G many G e"ery G Anyone D Each D #ash D some D either F grain F those G shre# G these G neither D sum D 'ool D e"ery D once D touch D the D none .ne of.............. #ays I'm going to gi"e him a 'iece of my min#. I woul#n't want.................... of my 'arents to know I ha"e a boyfrien#. &he............ of 'eo'le who atten#e# the 'ublic meeting was sur'risingly large. &he film en#s with the sheriff lying in a.................................... of bloo#. I gather there was ..................... #oubt as to who shoul# 'ay the bill. F some F e"ery F swarm F s'ot F any F each F Someone G 'ack Fnfortunately.................. too often one of our 'layers gi"es the ball away. I ha"e rarely seen such an im'ressi"e sight as a....................................... of buffalo roaming o"er the 'lains. I can't hel' thinking he offere# his a'ology with a.......................................... of irony. Few0 if.......... of the current team can stan# com'arison with the 2??8 ele"en. It was a stroke of luck that he ha# always been able to write with ................................................. han#.

) + ?????????????? can make a mistakeG no one is 'erfect.

)/-

) ' &he full .................... of the #amage #one by the storm only became clear at #aybreak. A #egree A trickle# F amount F flocke# G summary G thronge# D e/tent D swarme# ) - &housan#s...................... to see the o'ening night of Simon's musical. ) / It is #ifficult to concei"e of the "ast........................................ of energy re5uire# by to' marathon runners. A "olumes F 5uantities G reser"es D amounts

Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#%

b%(! % $t? a All the 'eo'le I ha"e contact with #isa''ro"e of the changes. %one ............................................................................................................................................................................................ b I #on't blame you for being u'set. ou ha# e"ery ............................................................................................................................................................................. P &here were har#ly any tickets a"ailable for the Satur#ay matinee. Practically all ............................................................................................................................................................................... # +e e/'ect e"erything to be all right at tomorrow's tournament. %othing........................................................................................................................................................................................ % Sim'ly ask if you come u' against any unforeseen 'roblems. All ................................................................................................................................................................................................ ( My brother an# I are both too young to #ri"e. %either ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 0 Let's take full a#"antage of the boss' absence. +e ought to make ....................................................................................................................................................................... , Ie#un#ancy has cause# a lot of #omestic 'roblems. Many a ........................................................................................................................................................................................

Fill each of the numbere# blanks with !n% suitable wor#.

&he herring gull's ability to eat almost...................................... 1230 from fish to the young of its own kin#0 has ma#e it one of the............................. 143 s'ecies in $ritain to be actually thri"ing at this time. Its ............ 1(3 ha"e multi'lie# in recent years because of the increasing ..................................................... 163 of e#ible refuse which is a by:'ro#uct of mo#ern lifeG an# it has e/ten#e# its bree#ing range too. A sur'risingly ..................... 183 years ago the herring gull more often than ........................................... 1*3 remaine# close to the sea an# neste# on cliffs. %ow many............................................ 1;3 nest can be foun# on buil#ings in coastal .................. 1>3 an# inlan# on bogs an# lakes. In winter 'ractically............................................... 1?3 $ritish fishing 'orts an# harbours are home to the gulls while inlan# they either fee# off farmlan# ............ 12)3 fin# ...................... 1223 of foo# on ........................ 1243 #um's0 roosting at night on large reser"oirs. At bree#ing colonies0 lou# with wailing an# yel'ing calls astonishing ....................................................... 12(3 their intensity0 one of the 'arent bir#s0 ................................. 1263 the male or female0 stan#s guar# against the................ 1283 herring gulls from the moment the eggs are lai#. .therwise there is e"ery ............ 12*3 that....................... 12 ;3 of their chicks woul# get the o''ortunity to begin their four:year growth to full maturity. In courtshi'0 the male an# female stan# besi#e one ............ 12>3G the male then turns an# bows. .ften0 too0 one : usually the male : will offer ............ 12?3 other a ''resent' of seawee#0 which they will ................................................ 14)3 subse5uently 'rocee# to #e"our.

*t ten

1oun clauses
Entry test
) Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#. It was0 'erha's0 only to be ............................. 315 that the #ay of my e/am was col# an# wet.................................. 325 it shoul# coinci#e with a bus #ri"ers' strike was 'erha's less 're#ictable but the ........................... 1(3 that the e/am centre was on the other si#e of town ma#e it ine"itable.................. 163 I was going to be late. ............ 183 was only when I realise# the ta/i #ri"ers were also on strike that I realise# how late.
FOR TO@INFINITIVE AND -!#G CLAUSES: SEE SECTION '?

' Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#. Aon't listen to i#le a#"ice when it comes to business................... 315 set u' your own business takes time an# money an# ............................. 325 anyone ............ 1(3 claim otherwise is ri#iculous. I was always grateful to ........................ 163 been gi"en the o''ortunity when I was young to establish my com'any from scratch an# I really ob,ect to 'eo'le ............ 183 that it is easy.

- Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#.


FOR T8AT@CLAUSES: SEE SECTION )?

I became fascinate# by motor:racing when I was ten an# ha"e .................... 315 so e"er since. In my teens I ha# an uncle who was as gri''e# as I was an# in ............. 325 #ays I use# to go to races regularly. ........... 1(3 #ays I ha"e few............................. 163 o''ortunities. I ha# ho'e# to get tickets to the 7ran# Pri/ here a cou'le of years ago but no ........... 183 luck- they'# sol# out within minutes of going on sale.

+ Fill each of the numbere# blanks with one suitable wor#. .ur tele"ision ,ust #ie# a few weeks ago. It's ama<ing ................. 315 a #ifference ha"ing no tele"ision makes to a family like ours. At first0 we won#ere# .................. 325 we woul# s'en# our e"enings without it an# ........................... 1(3 what form of entertainment we coul# now turn. It was initially a bit of a 'roblem as we argue# o"er.................................... 163 to listen to the ra#io0 'lay com'uter games or ,ust go out. After we got use# to it0 howe"er0 things became easier an# now we fin# we can't #eci#e ............ 183 we want it back or not.

FOR T*!S, T*AT, T*ESE, T*OSE, S;$* AND SO TO REFER TO WORDS AND CLAUSES: SEE SECTION -?

FOR W8@CLAUSES AND EDCLAMATIONS: SEE SECTION +?

OVERVIEW
1
W8AT ARE NOUN CLAUSESO

' POSITION

7e use noun clauses in these positions in a sentence2 Position E1ample as sub-ect of the sentence 3S purpose clause4 see Anit #4 Section 25 3see Section 19"5 as ob-ect Normall'4 +e onl' use +hBclauses after a preposition2 of a )erb s 07m !o pleased about that $ou got the 8ob. + 07m so pleased that $ou got the 8ob. 07m 'er$ pleased about what you told me. after be

Noun clauses 3sometimes called Lnominal clausesL5 are &roups of +ords +ithin a sentence referrin& to a fact B the' can sometimes be replaced b' a noun9 7e can use pronouns li0e it and that to refer to these clauses2 ; &now that you didn$t mean to do it but 07m a"raid that$! not so ob'ious to e'er$one else. ,o !to and think about thing! "or a while is something we all need to do( but it is something !ew o! us ha'e time !or. 0 understand what you are !aying but 0 disagree with it. Going !ho ing is something 0 hate. 0 alwa$s tr$ to a'oid it. -ow well we do remains to be seen. ,hat depends on you. C Noun clauses normall' refer to abstractions 3ideas4 processes4 e)ents4 facts5 rather than to thin&s or people9 3Nominal relati)e clauses are an e1ception6 see Anit 114 Section $95

after some nouns

after some ad-ecti)es

2 TYPES OF NOUN CLAUSE N#%n "-+% ! % ! th! !


thatBclauses +hBclauses e1clamation clauses toBinfiniti)e clauses -ing clauses 3&erunds5 nominal relati)e clauses

after prepositions

t(%"t%(! 9 T$*! E<+&*-!


,hat he i! not the be!t choice goe! without !aying. 07m not really !ure what he$! talking about. 0 can$t believe how quickly he learned the language. 0 like to get u early. <riving too "a!t i! !omething mo!t new driver! tend to do. ,hat i! e#actly what )$ve been trying to tell you all day. (here we go ne#t depends on $ou. ,o run a! "a!t a! that ta&es a lot o! training. He phoned me to as& what we !hould do. 0 lo'e !howing eo le my home town. he Auestion is who will take over when he retire!. M$ !irst 8ob e'er$ morning is getting the break"a!t ready. His !irst excuse( that he had been caught in tra""ic, was untrue. 0 don7t li&e his claim that we have no "reedom o" choice. 07d be 'er$ happ$ to be o" any a!!i!tance. 07m 'er$ disappointed that ) didn$t get any romotion thi! year. he tra!!ic warden came o'er to where 0 wa! arked.

Sometimes +e can replace a n?un clause +ith a noun or pronoun2 He phoned to as& what we !hould do. He phoned to as& something. 8o+e)er4 this isnLt al+a's possible4 especiall' after ad-ecti)es2 07m glad to have met you. 7e can al+a's refer bac0 to a noun clause usin& it or that. If +e canLt4 itLs another t'pe of clause2 07d be 'er$ happ$ to hel . )t would gi'e me great pleasure. 3S noun clause5 07m 'er$ disappointed that ) didn$t get a romotion. ,hat is wh$ 07m resigning. 4M noun clause5 /hatL the man to talk to about it. 3B relati)e clause6 see Anit 114 Section 25 %e need something to o en the bottle.

387

GRAMMAR

SECTION I
hat-clauses
1
FOLLOWING NOUNS

-e made a romi!e that (or@ which) he "ailed to kee . 3S relati)e clause5GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG

7e commonl' use thatBclauses to tal0 about facts or beliefs2 ,he idea that we don$t care i! !im ly untrue. ,he "act that he i!n$t here !houldn$t be too !ur ri!ing. 8ere are nouns commonl' follo+ed b' thatBclauses2 danger evidence idea im re!!ion rinci le ri!k e# erience view !ign "act di!advantage new! o inion o!!ibility tradition

FOLLOWING AD6ECTIVES

/hatBclauses are common after certain ad-ecti)es2 )t$! !ad that they couldn$t !tay longer. 7e commonl' be&in these structures +ith )t@ ) t wa! inevitable that they !hould "ind out eventually. 8ere are ad-ecti)es commonl' follo+ed b' thatBclauses2 e!!ential intere!ting likely !ad inevitable true robable lucky im ortant aw"ul o!!ible e#traordinary

Anderline the noun clauses in these sentences9 a /he assumption that +eLll do all the preparations anno's me9 b ILm con)inced he didnLt do it9 T /he' said it +as a +aste of time4 d It seems unli0el' that the'Lll succeed the first time4 e /hat he is here at all is a miracle9

FOLLOWING REPORT VERBS AND NOUNS

/hatBclauses are also common after report )erbs 3see Anit 1$4 Section 25 and related nouns2 -e e# lained that the com any olicy wa! about to change. -i! e# lanation wa! that the com any olicy wa! about to change. *fter some report structures +e use the sub-uncti)e in the thatBclause 3see Anit 4 Section 19152 / !ugge!ted he remove all re"erence to alcohol in the article.

_`]a@CLAUSES AS SUB6ECT OF T8E SENTENCE

In formal En&lish4 +e can use thatBclauses as sub-ects 3+ithout a precedin& noun52 ,hat we don$t care i! !im ly untrue. ,hat he wa!n$t there didn$t come a! a huge !ur ri!e. ItLs more common to use the structure +ith 7t999that9992 )t$! !im ly untrue that we don$t care. )t didn$t come a! a huge !ur ri!e that he wa!n$t there.

OMITTING T*AT

7hen +e use a thatBclause as an ob-ect4 for e1ample after report )erbs4 +e often omit that2 -e romi!ed (that) he would come. 7ith sub-ect clauses be&innin& +ith )t 3see abo)e54 +e normall' onl' omit that after the common phrase )t$! a ity ! !hame...@ )t$! a !hame (that) you couldn$t come to the arty.

RELATIVE CLAUSE OR NOUN CLAUSEO

*fter nouns4 +e use that to introduce both relati)e clauses and noun clauses9 /here are important differences2 In the follo+in& e1ample4 the noun clause e1tends the meanin& of the noun romi!e and tells us +hat it is9 7e canLt replace that +ith which@ -e made a romi!e that he would return all the money. 3S noun clause5 In the follo+in& e1ample4 +e donLt 0no+ e1actl' +hat the promise +as9 In relati)e clauses +e can usuall' replace that +ith which 3see Anit 114 ,)er)ie+52

1 !

GRAMMAR

UVWU7 CLAUSE S
to turn the central heatin& on9 No4 thatLs not an option9 Not in Uul'9 Ket

+e ha)e suffered da' after da' of driJJle mi1ed in +ith occasional In some o! t"ese sentences& #ot" t"e adHecti*e and t"e thunderstorms9 ItLs amaJin& E 9999999999999 3259 In an' ci)ilised countr' it +ould ha)e led to demonstrations9 People +ould ha)e marched +ith posters demandin& sunshine9999999999999999999999 3$59 Is999999999999999 3"5 a testimon' to our resi&ned attitude to the +eatherD (an it be true99999999999999999 3 5 D Surel' not9 *nd 'et4999999999999999999999 3#5 ha)e been &rinnin& and bearin& it these past fe+ +ee0s su&&ests it ma' be so9 8o+ can an' nation sit bac0 and accept the climate it is &i)en 'ear in4 'ear outD 7e need motions passed999999999999999999 3:5 be shared about more e)enl'9 7e need assurances9999999999999999999 3!5999999999999999 395 that some people should &o on ad nauseam about deforestation and &lobal +armin& and thin&s li0e that99999999999999999999999999 3105 those same people donLt ta0e our bitterl' cold Uul's more B seriousl'9 1 canLt stand another one li0e this9

noun are (ossi#le) In ot"ers onl' one will do) Cross out an' o(tions t"at cannot com(lete t"e sentence) a ItLs ridiculous ! a ridicule that he should be allo+ed to &et a+a' +ith it9 b ItLs !actual ! a !act that she put collea&uesL bac0s up in nearl' e)er'thin& she did9 T ItLs legal ! a rule that noBone under 1! should be in)ol)ed in such social acti)ities4 d ItLs absurd ! an absurdit$ that men are permitted into such clubs and +omen are not9 e ItLs com!ortable ! a com!ort that 'ou are here in our time of need4 f ItLs incon'enient ! an incon'enience that +e ha)e to &o up three fli&hts of stairs for a bath9 In eac" grou( #elow& cross out an' sentences t"at are not correct)

a Paul &a)e the impression that he hates pop music9 b /hat he hates pop music is +ell 0no+n9 G 8e +as tal0in& about that he hates pop music9 d /he thin& is that he hates pop music9 e ILm certain that he hates pop music9 f 8e e1plained that he hates pop music9 & /he thin& that he hates is pop music9

a 8e e1plained that he had been held up9 b She e1cused that she +as late9 T /hat he +as late +as reall' ine1cusable4 d 8is e1cuse that he &ot lost +as accepted4 e It +asnLt that surprisin& that she +as late4 f /he fact of the matter +as the' +ere both late4 & /he fact that neither +as on time that +as e1tremel' anno'in&9

Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences wit" t"at2clauses

starting wit" t"e words gi*en) ExampleF ItLs a complete +aste of time4 I thin09 I thin0 that it45 a complete waste o! time. a People ha)e completel' distorted )ie+s about the European Anion9 /hat is m' e1perience9 ItLs 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b 7e ma' &et there in time9 ItLs certainl' possible9 ItLs 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T Ne+ members ha)e to bu' the first round9 ItLs an old tradition9 ItLs 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d <' brother completel' for&ot about m' birthda'4 +hich upset me9 /he fact 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e 7illiam belie)es in &hosts4 +hich I find ridiculous9 I find f /he ne+ &o)ernment +ould ma0e radical chan&es9 /hat is +hat people belie)ed9 It 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & /he' are not &oin&9 /hat +as their ans+er9 /heir 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h /he compan' runs at a loss9 /hat is the truth9 /he truth it

9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999
_

t"e !ollowing (assage& ten ("rases "a*e #een taken out and

listed #elow) Cecide w"ere t"e' "a*e #een taken !rom and write t"e a((ro(riate ca(ital letter in t"e num#ered ga() * the fact that so man' people P or at least an absence of rain Q itLs a pit' % that people ha)e stopped carin& E that people ha)e put up +ith it F that action +ill be ta0en = itLs absurd 8 that &ood +eather 3 the fact that this has not happened here U here +e are

I sit here shi)erin& in Uul'9 /his is the month that should see us prancin& alon& beaches and complainin& of the oppressi)e heat9 *nd99999999999999999993154 contemplatin& +hether

380

Practice

SECTION <
(h -clauses
1
USES OF IV8@CLAUSES

Position
as sub-ect

E1ample (hether the extra wor& ma&es an$ di!!erence remains to be seen. )" we will do it again depends on the weather. 3S informal5 M $ worr$ is whether he7s ta&en all the ris&s on board. he Auestion is i" we should ris& it or not. 4 N informal5 %e ha'e to discriminate between whether the$ reall$ need the mone$ or are 8ust being greed$. 3Not possible +ith i ! 5 he decision( whether to wait another $ear be!ore spending the mone$( will be ta&en at toda$7s meeting. 3Not possible +ith i ! 5 0 can7t decide whether to go or not. 3Not possible +ith i ! 5 %e ha'e to decide whether or not we are going. 3Not possible +ith i! unless or not comes later in the phrase2 %e ha'e to decide i" we are going or not.)

after be

W"Bclauses are related to ?uestions2 ; don7t &now who


i! coming to the arty. 3S 7ho is comin& to the part'D5 (hy !he di!a eared remains a m$ster$. 3S 7h' did she disappearD5 7e commonl' use +hBclauses in reported ?uestions9 Note the +ord order2 s -e as&ed me where had ) been that morning. + He as&ed where )$d been that morning. after a preposition

after nouns

PREPOSITIONS WIT8 IV8@CLAUSES

7e can use +hBclauses after prepositions2 he$ consulted us on who they !hould invite. 7hen the preposition belon&s to the )erb in the +hBclause4 it usuall' comes at the end of the clause2 He as&ed me where ) got the coat "rom. 8o+e)er4 in )er' formal En&lish it ma' come at the be&innin&2 He as&ed me "rom where ) got the coat.

before a toBinfiniti)e immediatel' before or not

INFINITIVES WIT8 IV8@CLAUSES

/ EDCLAMATIONS

7e often use toBinfiniti)es +ith +hBclauses4 especiall' +hen referrin& to possible courses of action2 ; ne'er &now how to work out ercentage!. 0 was wondering what to do. /hese clauses can often be re+ritten +ith shouldF 0 ne'er &now how ) !hould work out ercentage!. 0 was wondering what ) !hould do.

7e also use +hat and how in e1clamation clauses9 /hese are similar in structure to +hBclauses2 0t7s ama2ing how "a!t children grow* 7ith sin&ular nouns4 +hat is follo+ed b' a H an2 ; told him what a great time we had. 7ith ho+4 and +ith plural or uncountable nouns after +hat4 it is sometimes difficult to decide +hether the clause is an e1clamation or an ordinar' +hBclause9 /he conte1t is the onl' clue2 Gou7d ne'er belie'e what roblem! ) had. ( L e1clamation meanin& LKouLd ne)er belie)e +hat a lot of problems I had9L or2 S +hBclause meanin& LKouLd ne)er belie)e +hat the problems +ere9L5

&*ET*E> AND !"

7e use whether and i! +hen a 'es H no ?uestion is implied2 )o $ou &now whether/i" there$! a good "ilm on tonight' 7e commonl' use whether rather than if +hen tal0in& about a choice or alternati)e2 (hether it$! nece!!ary to tell her everything about thi! is debatable. 3S choice5 0! is common +hen the noun clause is the ob-ect of a )erb2 ; don7t &now i" there i! anything we can do to hel . In other positions4 +e commonl' use whether. 7e use i! in informal spo0en En&lish2

/ic0 3H5 the sentence +ith an e1clamation clause9 a 8o+ to start a composition is often the most difficult thin&4 b ILm not entirel' certain +hich +a' to &o ne1t4 T ItLs surprisin& +hat a difficult ?uestion this is9 d /he ?uestion of +hether he is competent or not can onl' be ans+ered tentati)el'4 e 8e +as sure +hat +e had done +as to blame for the accident9

3 >

GRAMMAR

;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s in t"e !ollowing sentences wit" two

suita#le words) a ItLs not a ?uestion of ho+ bi& 'our camera is6 itLs 999999999999999999999999 do +ith it that counts9 b 8o+ soon the'Lll operate on 'ou depends on999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999'our condition is9 T *nnie +as curious to 0no+9999999999999999999999999999999 of the shops in the centre I had bou&ht m' s0irt9999999999999999999999999999999999 d I +ouldnLt 0no+ +ho9999999999999999999999999999999999999999 to in an emer&enc' li0e that9 e Sometimes I donLt999999999999999999999999999999999999999to e1press m'self9 f /he &ame +ill definitel' &o ahead999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999is rainin& or not9 & ,ur cleanin& lad' told me about99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 +onderful time she had had9 h 999999999999999999999999999li0e it or not4 'ouLll ne)er pla' properl' unless 'ou practise9 K ;or eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences& write a new sentence as similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF /he editor +anted to 0no+ the earliest I could let him ha)e the proofs bac04 soon T"e editor wanted to &now how soon I could let him ha'e the proo!s bac&. a /he landlord demanded to 0no+ the e1tent of the dama&e done at the pre)ious ni&htLs part' muc" b /he boo0B0eeper as0ed for consideration to be &i)en to the probable cost of such a )enture4 "ow T /he board +ere unable to a&ree on the best person for the -ob9 w"o d No one seems too sure as to the actual fre?uenc' of earth?ua0es in the area4 o!ten e /he police need to establish the )ehicleLs precise speed at the moment of impact4 !ast f 8o+ hea)' the pac0a&e is ob)iousl' determines the posta&e re?uired4 weig"t & I +onder ho+ Peter and *nne are related4 relations"i( h %o 'ou happen to 0no+ +hen trains lea)e from here to Edinbur&hD de(arture i ILd be interested to find out ho+ badl' she +ants the -ob9 strengt"

the police is an'bod'Ls &uess4 e 8o+999999999999999999becomin& o)ercro+ded is ob)iousl' a consideration +hen -ud&es are sentencin&4 f 7hat to999999999999999999999re&ular recidi)ists is clearl' a problem9 & People are thin0in& constantl' about ho+99999999999999999999999999999999999999 punishment fit the crime4 h /he state reall' has to decide once and for all +hat is to99999999999999+ith -u)enile offenders9

;?7 CLAUS ES

Rewrite t"e !ollowing as sentences starting wit" t"e words

gi*en) ExampleF IL)e no idea of the +a' there4 ILm afraid9 8o+ to get there 07'e no idea( 07m a!raid. a 8e didnLt e)en phone me at (hristmas +hich made me reall' an&r'9 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b 7e ha)e a choice2 either +e can &et it finished no+ or +e can lea)e it until <onda'9 7e ha)e to decide 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T 7hen does our fli&ht lea)eD ILm a little unsure of the time9 ILm 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d IL)e been +onderin& +hether or not I should as0 her9 IL)e been +onderin& if999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e I donLt mind &oin& no+2 itLs up to 'ou9 7hen 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /he' accused me of somethin&9 I could onl' describe it as an appallin& crime9 /he' accused me of9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & 8e loo0ed )er' +ell4 +hich I +as relie)ed to see9 I +as relie)ed to see 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h 7e mi&ht &o there a&ain or +e mi&ht not9 ItLs a &ood restaurant4 ne)ertheless9 7hether9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Com(lete eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences wit" a suita#le

word or ("rase) a 7hat the )erdict hin&es9999999999999999999999999999 reliable the landlad'Ls testimon' is seen to be9 b 7hether the imprisoned serial 0iller +ill e)er 9999999999 onl' the Uustice <inister can ans+er9 T /he' put the &irlLs strin& of thefts9999999999999999999999999999999999 she had been treated badl' at school4 d 7h' he suddenl' thre+9999999999999999999999999999promisin& career in

3 3

Practice

SECTION <
,o-in!initi'e and -ing clauses
1
POSITIONS IN A SENTENCE

COMMON P8RASES

7e can use toBinfiniti)e clauses and -ing clauses in similar positions2

Position E1ample
as sub-ect or o achie'e so much b$ the age o! 2\ complement is wonder!ul. 4 N +ritten H formal5 0t7s wonder!ul to achie'e so much b$ the age o! 2\. Achie'ing so much b$ the age o! 2\ is wonder!ul. 0t7s wonder!ul( achie'ing so much b$ the age o! 2\. as ob-ect 0 lo'e to listen to music in the e'enings. 0 lo'e listening to music in the e'enings. after be M $ main ambition is to become a surgeon. M $ biggest nightmare is completel$ !orgetting to turn up !or the exams. after nouns His plans to tra'el during the Christmas holida$ !ell apart. here could be a problem !inding a suitable hotel. after ad-ecti)es 0 was 'er$ sorr$ to ha'e to tell her about the accident. he children were all happ$ pla$ing in the garden. after prepositions 3Not possible +ith toBinfiniti)e clauses5 0 reall$ ob8ect to dri'ing on bus$ holida$ wee&ends.

o err is human. to !orgi'e( di'ine. o be or not to be( that is the Auestion. o tra'el hope!ull$ is better than to arri'e. 0t is better to ha'e lo'ed and lost than ne'er to ha'e lo'ed at all. 0 can7t get used to losing $ou. (ross out the sentence that does not contain a toBinfiniti)e clause or an -ing clause9 a I disli0e ha)in& to +a0e up earl'9 b Bein& a politician is )er' demandin&9 T Kour su&&estion to donate the proceeds to charit' is an e1cellent one9 d Lau&hin& and -o0in&4 the' +al0ed out of the buildin& to&ether4 e ILm sorr' to tell 'ou that 'our application +as not successful9

I T# ,!"#&! + *(#0! i#n+- V -i#n7 t+&!( i hi -#n/7t!(& +i&.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN -!#G AND TO@INFINITIVE

<an' people ha)e tried to establish differences in meanin& bet+een toBinfiniti)e and -ing clauses4 e9&2 that +e use toBinfiniti)e clauses to refer to possibilities4 ideas and aims2 o set up business in China was his long-term aim. 3S his idea5 that +e use -ing clauses to refer more to facts and thin&s that ha)e alread' happened2 #etting up this business was reall$ hard wor&. 3S fulfilled aim5 8o+e)er4 there are so man' e1ceptions that such distinctions are often not helpful2 07m glad to ha'e !inished that. 3S fulfilled aim5 E'er$ night 0 dream about winning the :otter$. 3S an idea5

ADDING A SUB6ECT TO TO@INFINITIVE CLAUSES

7hen there is a sub-ect in a toBinfiniti)e clause4 +e normall' add !orF @or him to complain about being o'erwor&ed is ridiculous. 7e also use !or after some ad-ecti)es4 such as eas$( &een( desperateF He7s 'er$ &een !or us to go and 'isit him in Canada.

ADDING A SUB6ECT TO -!#G CLAUSES

7hen there is a sub-ect in an -ing clause4 the pronoun is either possessi)e or ob-ecti)e9 Possessi)es are more formal2 0 reall$ ob8ect to his ma&ing so much noise. 0 reall$ ob8ect to him ma&ing so much noise.

3 <

GRAMMAR

_R@INFINITIVE AND -!#G CLAUSES

(han&e the )erb in brac0ets to a toBinfiniti)e or -ing form as

appropriate9 *dd an' other preposition that is needed9 a 8a)e 'ou e)er considered 3mo)e5 to Kor06 it is considered 3be5 one of the nicest cities in En&land4 b I li0e 3lea)e5 home before !91 in the mornin&9 I donLt li0e 3sit5 in traffic +hen I 0no+ I could be doin& somethin& useful at +or04 T 7e +ere meant 3lea)e5 at se)en but that +ould ha)e meant 3&et5 up at 9$09 d ILm rather afraid 3brin&5 the sub-ect up +ith her because ILm afraid 3upset5 her9 e *s 'ouLre so 0een 3follo+5 fashions4 'ouLll probabl' be 0een 3)isit5 this e1hibition4 f I re&ret 3inform5 'ou that I alread' re&ret 3enrol5 for this course4 & Fortunatel' I remembered 3bolt5 the door4 but to be honest4 I donLt remember 3do5 so9 h She stopped 3shout5 for a moment and he decided 3ha)e5 a ci&arette9 2 <' intention +as 3sta'5 sin&le6 I reall' had no intention 3&et5 married9 - /his &uitar needs 3tune5 and 'ou also need 3do5 somethin& about 'our piano9 .e+rite each of the follo+in& as one sentence +ith a toBinfiniti)e clause or -ing noun clause startin& +ith the +ords &i)en9 ExampleF I +ish he +ouldnLt put that music on +hen ILm tr'in& to sleep9 I ob-ect to his puttin& that music on when 07m tr'in& to sleep. a I understood the plot9 It +asnLt a problem for me9 Anderstandin&99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he 0idnapper said that he +ould shoot the hosta&es if food +asnLt sent9 /he 0idnapper threatened999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T ItLs not often that I &et the chance of &oin& to the AS*9 /he opportunit' 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d Seein& 'ou a&ain after all this time is +onderful9 ItLs 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e /he audience couldnLt understand e)er'thin& she said because the sub-ect +as so difficult9 For the audience 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f I thin0 itLs brilliant that 'ouL)e &ot such a &ood -ob9

)))))))))))) 901 to #eing made t"e sca(egoat w"ene*er one was needed and I t"ink 'ou will)))))))))))))))))))))) 93>1 t"at I "a*e )))))))))))) 9331 to kee( u( a #ra*e !ace e*en w"en I was #eing))))))))))))))) 93<1 o! all kinds o! "einous crimes) I "a*e taken great)))))))))))))))) 9341 in doing m' work well& des(ite 'our)))))))))))))) 9371 t"at I was as muc" good as a !art in a colander) +ut I know !or me to)))))))))))))))))))) 9381 a#out 'our treatment is (ointless) )))))))))))) 93 1 t"e #oss o! suc" a de(artment gi*es 'ou t"e rig"t to #e aggressi*e& #ooris" and ill2mannered) It allows 'ou to treat 'our em(lo'ees as i! t"e' did not e,ist) W"et"er it))))))))))))))))) 9371 'ou to call me an incom(etent twit onl' t"e courts will decide) 6'))))))))))))) 93=1 now are to "a*e a "olida' and t"en to look !or a (osition in w"ic" I will not #e)))))))))))))))))))))))) 9301 to continual a#use and #ull'ing) 6' ne,t ste( will #e to )))))))))))) 9<>1 'ou !or constructi*e dismissal) T"ank 'ou !or gi*ing me t"ree wonder!ul 'ears o! em(lo'ment)

1 thin0 'our999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 *t the end of all these openin&s4 add a form of come H coming/"or

coming, etc9 to =ngland. 7rite out the sentences in full usin& the openin& &i)en9 ExampleF *t first I +as reluctant to come to England. a I had no desire999 b In fact I +as dead set a&ainst999 T But m' parents +anted me999 d ,f course m' bo'friend +ouldnLt let me999 e But then m' boss insisted on me999 f I +asnLt too 0een999 & But he made me999 h *n'+a'4 I be&an to ha)e second thou&hts about999 2 *nd finall' I came round to the idea of999 - *nd I must sa' I donLt re&ret999 Fill each of the &aps +ith a suitable +ord from the list9 Some4 but not all4 of the +ords are &i)en9 regret delight sue broadening entitles managed pride resented ob8ected protest sub8ected Cear $o"n& It is wit" great))))))))))))))))) 931 t"at I "a*e to "erewit" gi*e 'ou notice t"at I)))))))))))))))))) 9<1 to lea*e t"e organisation at t"e end o! ne,t mont") I would like to sa' t"at it "as #een a))))))))))))))))))))))) 941 working !or 'ou and I "a*e)))))))))))))))))) 971 #eing (art o! t"e team) I know we "a*e "ad our u(s and downs and at times I must con!ess I)))))))))))))))) 981 #eing called a liar and #eing )))))))))))) 9 1 to a(ologise !or mistakes I "ad not made) .owe*er& o*erall& t"e e,(erience "as #een good !or me and I "a*e taken great))))))))))))))))))) 971 in)))))))))))))) 9=1 t"at e,(erience in man' wa's) As 'ou know& I "a*e ne*er

3 4

NO

GRAMMAR

SECTION
"e!erenceF thi!, that, the!e, tho!e. !uch. !o
1
T*!SAT*ESE v( T*ATAT*OSE. TIME AND DISTANCE

/ know. 0 under!tand. 7e can use so at the be&innin& of a phrase in these t'pes of sentence2 7He7s late again.7 $So i t a ear!.$ or2 So i t would a ear. %e were con'inced we would win and !o i t turned out. 7 he$7re here.7 $So they are*$

COMMON P8RASES

7e use this and these as both pronouns and determiners4 to refer to thin&s that are closer in time or distance9 7e use that and those for more distant thin&s2 0n tho!e da$s people onl$ had radios whereas the!e da$s( e'er$bod$ watches tele'ision. /he +ord +e use ma' depend on ho+ close or distant +e LfeelL to the thin& +e are tal0in& about2 7%hat do $ou thin& o! the!e new digital tele'isions>7 7/h tho!e are a waste o! mone$.7

,hat$! that. %e7'e !inished. 7%hat ha'e $ou been doing>7 7/h( thi! and that.$ ,hat$! it* 0 AuitB 7)id $ou get a pa$ rise>7 $Bo !uch luck.$ #ea le'els are rising( or !o they !ay. 0! $ou insist on doing it $our wa$( !o be it.

Anderline the most li0el' alternati)e9

T*!S, T*AT, T*ESE. REFERRING BAC9

7e use this and that to refer bac0 to pre)iousl' stated ideas9 In +ritin&4 this is more common than that. 7e use this +hen +e +ant to sa' more about the sub-ect2 ele'ision was in'ented b$ Iaird. ,hi! is news to most people who assume that tele'ision 8ust in'ented itsel!. 8o+e)er that7s wh$ is more common than this is wh$F 0 hate tele'ision. ,hat$! why 0 ha'en7t got one. If a precedin& para&raph contains se)eral points4 +e can use this as a pronoun rather than these to summarise the &eneral idea of the para&raph2 0n the +,\0s and 30s( watching tele'ision had a sense o! occasion. he whole !amil$ would gather round the blac& and white set( waiting !or it to warm up. here were no remote controls( and onl$ one or two channels. ,hi! has all changed now. 7e use these more often as a determiner2 All the!e shortcomings ha'e now become histor$.

a I donLt li0e &ame sho+s9 hese ! #uch pro&rammes I find an insult to the intelli&ence4 b She didnLt e)en sa' Lthan0 'ouL9 hat ! his is the last time I do her an' fa)ours4 T She told lies about me to the nei&hbours and she e)en tried to steal m' tools9 hese are ! hat is +h' I refuse to spea0 to her9 d /he' +ere as0ed to si&n a declaration condemnin& the authorities but man' refused to do such ! so. e It must be )er' difficult to become a ballet dancer4 or at an' rate this ! s o l ima&ine9

S;$*

7e can use such before a noun to refer bac0 to a fact4 acti)it' or concept4 meanin& /i0e this H thatL9 7ith sin&ular nouns4 such is follo+ed b' a ! anF Computers ma$ e'entuall$ replace tele'ision( though !uch a mo'e seems a long wa$ o!!. 7e can modif' such +ith !ew ! all ! man$ or a number2 *eople are predicting about the !uture o! technolog$. /ew !uch predictions become realit$.

SO AND #OT AS PRONOUNS

7e can use so to replace ad-ecti)es or noun phrases after a lin0 )erb in common combinations4 e9&9 become so( remain soF ) was very ha y but m$ wi!e was rather le!! !o. He was an enormou! in"luence on me as a student and remained !o in later li!e. 7e use d o so to replace a )erb and its ob-ect or complement2 7Could $ou write u a re ort on the 'isit !or me>7 707'e alread$ done !o.$ #o and not can replace a thatBclause4 especiall' after be and the follo+in& report )erbs2 a ear !eem believe e# ect ho e imagine think !u o!e gue!! reckon hope that you have a nice 5ourney.7 ho e !o too.7 7Ha'e $ou got the !lowers>7 )$m a"raid not.$ 7e sa' 0 don7t expect so( 0 don7t thin& so rather than 0 expect not( 0 thin& not. 7e use 0 hope not and canLt sa' 0 don7t hope so. 7e can use some transiti)e )erbs +ithout so or an ob-ect in responses2

3 7

Practice

RE8ERENCE9 T?IS, T?AT, T?ESE, T?OSEO SUC?O SO 1


.e canEt "a*e le!t t"e o!!ice& 'et& can "eI a Onl' too "a((' to) # So "a*e I) G So I "a*e) d I wouldnEt "a*e t"oug"t so) e No suc" luck)

Com(lete eac" o! t"e sentences wit" 8>& !uch,

that, thi!, the!e or tho!e. ExampleF \ou

were told to wear a tie) W"' didnEt 'ou do 50 ? a IEm alwa's out w"en m' !a*ourite TV (rogramme is on)))))))))))Es w"' I #oug"t a VCR) # Ci!!erent c"annels seem to "a*e di!!erent weat"er !orecasts) .ow can)))))))))) t"ings "a((enI T C"annel 7 is su((osed to #e !or (eo(le w"o like documentaries w"ile C"annel 4 is !or))))))))))w"o enHo' soa( o(eras& d C"ea( (rogrammes& amateur (roduction *alues& unimaginati*e (rogramming% ))))))))) are Hust some o! t"e reasons !or t"e c"annelEs !ailure& e Videota(e is a t"ing o! t"e (ast 2 or)))))))))))))) t"e' sa') ! Commercial tele*ision needs to satis!' t"e ad*ertisers wit" its (rogramming) State tele*ision "as no)))))))))) o#ligation) g Satellite and ca#le "a*e led to a massi*e increase in t"e num#er o! c"annels) 6an' would sa' t"at ))))))))"as also led to a reduction in Aualit') " EIt looks like digital tele*ision will #e taking o*er)E EIt certainl' seems))))))))))))E

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered ga(s wit" one o! t"e words listed) 6ore t"an one word ma' !it)
this that these those so such as

2 6atc" t"e !i*e sentences 93281& wit" t"e most

a((ro(riate res(onse 9a2e1) 1 Will it #e all rig"t to #orrow "is (a(erI 1 T"anks !or (utting me u( at suc" s"ort notice) 1 Would t"e' dare to (ut us on a t"ree2da' working weekI 1 T"e'Ere !inall' going to get married t"en) 1 Sorr'& t"e'E*e decided to gi*e t"e Ho# to Anna and not 'ou) a T"atEs all rig"t& # I s"ould t"ink so) T T"atEs t"at& t"en& d I sincerel' "o(e not) e So it seems) 6atc" t"e !i*e sentences 93281& wit" t"e most a((ro(riate res(onse 9a2e1) 1 IE*e #een "ere getting on !or a 'ear now) 1 \ouE*e got a stain on 'our slee*e) 1 Could 'ou lend me 'our #ike t"is a!ternoonI 1 So 'ou didnEt win t"e lotter' t"enI

T"e e*ents t"at "a*e rocked Euro(e in t"e (ast !i!t' 'ears and "ad a (ro!ound e!!ect on)))))) 315 w"o witnessed t"em "a*e to a certain e,tent (assed me #'))))) 325 a statement #' a !i!t'2'ear2old man ma' seem rat"er sill' #ut)))))))))) 3$5 it seems to me) 1 was too 'oung to a((reciate w"at was "a((ening in .ungar' in 19 #9 In 999999999999 3"5 da's we "ad no tele*ision at "ome and I was too 'oung to read news(a(ers))))))) 3 5 was an e*ent I disco*ered t"roug" "istor' #ooks rat"er t"an t"e media) Prague in 19#! !ound me on a remote island wit" no TVS 999999999999 3#5 is w"' t"e tanks in t"e sAuare I onl' reall' remem#er !rom #lack and w"ite !ront2(age ("otos) E*en 999999999999 3:5 memories "a*e !aded to se(ia& as it were) T"en t"ere was `dansk and t"e s"i('ards) Again at 9999999999993!5 time I was li*ing wit"out t"e #ene!it o! mo*ing (ictures and gained a rat"er *ague im(ression o! e*ents !rom t"e radio) 6an' ot"er))))) 395 landmark e*ents "a*e not le!t me wit" clear animated images) I ne*er reall' EsawE t"e momentous +erlin Wall destruction in 19!99999999999999999 3105 wit" t"e ot"er occasions& 999999999999 3115 was one t"at I e,(erienced t"roug" words rat"er t"an (ictures& e*en more))))) 3125 t"an CTec"oslo*akia L#!9 T"e e!!ect was))))))) 31$5 o! reading a no*el as o((osed to watc"ing a (la' and& des(ite m' now "a*ing seen some news !ootage& "as remained 999999999999 31"5 to))))))))))))) 31 5 da') All)))))))))) 31#5 e*ents "a*e entered m' su#conscious&)))))) 31:5 "a*e countless ot"ers& #ut t"e' "a*e done)))))) 31!5 wit" m' own su#Hecti*e im(ressions o! t"em and in99999 3195 da' and age& w"en trut" and o#Hecti*e realit' are so im(ortant& IEm not sure t"at I reall' like9999 32059

Un*t ten

?ocabular$
SECTION =
1ouns !rom phrasal 'erbs
1
PARTICLE FIRST OR SECONDO

break-u hone-in ay-out !etback cut-o"" C Some phrasal )erbs allo+ both t'pes of noun2 over! ill ! ill-over breakout outbreak o""cut cut-o""

TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVEO

Nouns can be deri)ed from transiti)e and intransiti)e phrasal )erbs2 intake outgoing! out ut lock-out by!tander "ry-u knockout breakout onlooker in ut takeover takeaway li"t-o"" income walk-out "ree?e-u backwa!h rint-out l Write down t"e nouns !rom < a#o*e t"at deri*e !rom intransiti*e *er#s) Sometimes there is a difference in meanin& or use bet+een the phrasal )erb and the noun2 6ook out* here7s a bus coming. he outlook is blea&. He checked out o! his hotel at dawn. here are O3 check-out! in our supermar&et. ,ften the )erb is less common than the noun4 and ma' ha)e almost disappeared from current use9 8ere are some e1amples2

Nouns deri)ed from phrasal )erbs sometimes ha)e the particle or preposition as the first part of the +ord4 sometimes the second9 /he stress is on the first s'llable +hiche)er form the +ord ta0es9 7hen the particle comes second4 there is often a h'phen before it unless the compound is e1tremel' common9 8ere are some e1amples over! ill under a!! intake output outbreak upturn breakdown

1#

Practice

"eedback backla!h outcome outcry drawback o""! ring ,n the other hand4 man' common phrasal )erbs donLt ha)e a correspondin& noun9 7e use another noun2 Mone$ suddenl$ started "lowing in. here was a sudden in"lu# o! mone$. Fing me u later. Gi'e me a ring later.
- OT8ER POINTS

/he particle up( usuall' as the second part4 is )er' popular in recent collo?uialisms2 hang-u !end-u "ry-u !hake-u cover-u wind-u Some phrasal )erbs ha)e forms that +e use as ad-ecti)es2 a !tand-u comedian a ut-u 8ob a get-out clause give-away prices throwaway lines /here are onl' a fe+ threeB+ord noun phrases deri)in& from phrasal )erbs2 a ut-you-u hand-me-down! a ick-me-u

7e can use the -ing form of some phrasal )erbs to produce a noun9 8ere are some e1amples2 !etting-u o ening-u clo!ing down !ending-out dre!!ing-down

Practice
' DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NOUN AND P8RASAL VERB

/he noun ma' not ha)e all the meanin&s of the correspondin& phrasal )erb e9&9 there is no noun deri)in& from the )erb wor& out meanin& LcalculationL - 0 tried to wor& out how much 0 needed to li'e on each month - but there is a noun4 wor&out( from the )erb wor& out meanin& Le1erciseL2 He work! out most mornings. He had a gentle workout in the g$m. C /he noun deri)ed from a phrasal )erb can ha)e more than one meanin&2 He did a hilarious take-o"" o! the boss7s wi!e. 3S impersonation5 @light :HY,3 is read$ !or takeo"". 3S act of a plane lea)in& the &round5

;or eac" o! t"e sentences #elow& write a new sentence as

similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) a LetLs hope soBcalled mad co+ disease doesnLt brea0 out a&ain4 anot"er b Scientists immediatel' reco&nised the problem4 outset T *s soon as the disease is contracted4 the s'mptoms become apparent4 onset

1##

d ItLs rare for public dissatisfaction to be e1pressed in this +a'9 outcr' e <an' still thin0 the &o)ernment +as &uilt' of co)erin& up the facts4 a co*er2u( f Someone +rote fa)ourabl' in he imes about the latest &o)ernment statement4 write2u(

dama&ed our prospects9 re(resents : set#ack d 7ho +as responsible for 0eepin& the house in orderD

NOUNS 8ROM C?RASAL VERBS

2
1 1 1

6atc" t"e !ollowing nouns 31B105 wit" t"e news(a(er output " li!t-o!! C rip-o!! outcome \ outcr$ ! pile-up ta&eo'er # brea&-up , brea&out 10 setting-up

"eadlines 3aB-59 \ou ma' need to make some nouns (lural)

res(onsi#ilit' : u(kee( e *ll of us a&ree that the +orld Es econom' +ill reco)er9 We : u(turn f /he role the' &a)e him didnLt in)ol)e an' lines9 gi*en : walk2on & /he fact that tal0s bro0e do+n so earl' indicates the'Lre about to +ind up the business9 #reakdown : imminent h /his +ill lead in ?uite nicel' to the ne1t section9 (ro*ide : lead2in

2 2

+ OUT OF ' MARRIAGE?????????????????????????????????TO DO WIT8 MONEY

Anot"er motorwa'))))))))))))))))))))))))))2 <> *e"icles in*ol*ed

2 000000000000 9D :H E1P- :77&


1

TIME 8, %8F D68B,

EF1 5IT5S A0000000000005 SAYS HOUSEWIFE MAGGIE AS SERVICE COSTS ROCGET

6ASS ;RO6 CALI;ORNIAN PRISONS

#huttle.......on schedule
2 PF$LIC 2
AS 'LIFEIS' AIE IELEASEA

o, ne.ot*at*ons st*"" *n do$#t

2 `OVERN6ENT PRO6ISES O; ASSE6+LIES


IN 6ORE RE`IONS
E

HI
=
1

&any.....held u by &ono olie! %ommi!!ion

-nderline t"e o(tion t"at #est com(letes eac" sentence)

Anless she ma0es a dramatic reco)er'4 her9999999999999999999999999999999 +ill ha)e to pla' the part9 a onloo0er # outcast G standBin 2 /here +as a sudden99999999999999999999 and +e ran for co)er9 a do+npour # fallout G outburst 3 She &a)e her 'oun& son a real9999999999999999999999999999 a tellin&Boff # shootBout G offsprin& 4 /here has been a +elcome999999999999999999999999 of peace in Europe9 a outbrea0 # outcr' G brea0out 5 /he PresidentLs ultimate99999999999999999999999+as due to his e1cessi)e arro&ance9 a turnout # do+nfall G output 6 Some mi&ht sa' the tele&raph +as4 indirectl'4 the ori&inal9999999999999999999999to the Internet and be'ond9 a brea0out # brea0do+n G brea0throu&h 7 I donLt mind +earin& m' bi& brotherLs9999999999999999999999999999999999 a pic0BmeBups # turnBups G handBmeBdo+ns D 8o+ do 'ou account for the mana&erLs fier'999999999999999999999999999999999 'esterda' afternoonD a output # outburst G outcr' E <ana&ement are threatenin& a99999999999999999999999999 on punctualit' and dress code9 a bac0lash # +hipBround G crac0do+n

=
it)

Rewrite eac" sentence using t"e two words (rinted #elow

a 7hen do 'ou thin0 +hat +e spend +ill stop e1ceedin& +hat +e earnD outgoings : income b ,utBofBto+n supermar0ets are openin& up -ust as man' hi&h street shops are closin& do+n9 o(ening2u( : coinciding G /he collapse of those mar0ets has seriousl'

VOCABULARY

SECTION
:ac&( shortage and excess
.ead these t+o te1ts9 ,he have! )n Santa &a#ima eo le were well-to-do, well-o"" and well-heeled. ,hey ate and drank to their heart!$ content and o"ten to e#ce!!. ,hey had lenty o" delicacie! to eat and am le "ine wine to drink. ,here wa! an abundance o" natural re!ource! in the country and mani"old cro ! were lenti"ul. &o!t eo le wanted "or nothing@ they had mountain! o" "ood, !tack! o" money, hea ! o" !tock! and !hare! and ile! and ile! o" bond! and other a!!et!. ,he have not! )n San &inimo there wa! ab5ect overty. ,here were in!u""icient cro ! and an acute !hortage o" drinking water. )nadequate !anitation meant that !tandard! o" hygiene "ell well below an acce table norm. Fice wa! !carce and many were !u""ering "rom !evere vitamin de"iciency. (hat "ood they got wa! lacking in rotein and low in nutritional value. 7e can use a +ide ran&e of )ocabular' to e1press lac04 need4 sufficienc' and e1cess2 )erbs and )erbal phrases2 to need to require to be in need o" (could) do with (could) do without to lack to !tu"" your!el" to overdo it to be crying out "or to !ati!"y a need ad-ecti)e > noun collocations2 in de! erate need o" a lenti"ul !u ly in ab5ect overty an acute !hortage untold wealth / lu#ury dire need unta ed re!ource! ea!y money con! icuou! con!um tion ad)erb > ad-ecti)e collocations2 !everely lacking in de! erately !hort o" barely adequate "abulou!ly wealthy de! erately oor "ilthy rich ad)erb > )erb collocations2 badly need urgently require obviou!ly lack want !omething de! erately idiomatic phrases2 well-heeled down-at-heel down and out on the bread-line more than enough to run !hort o" be !tra ed "or ca!h to !tu"" your!el" !illy

=
1

T"e stories o! Santa 6a,ima and San 6inimo continue #elow) ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one o! t"e words gi*en)
wine hard-u untold "ull butter need overweight "leet! brimming !ur"eit "raction !ur lu! e#ce!!ive unimaginable overdid In Santa <a1ima no one 0ne+ +hat it meant to be 999999999999 315 9 Santa <a1imans +ere999999999999999999999999 325 of optimism and99999999999999999 3$5 o)er +ith confidence9 7hen the' hit the bi& time4 their +ealth became9999999999999999999999999999 3"5 and the' li)ed in a99999999999999999999 3 5 of lu1ur' and B often B +ith a9999999999999999 3#5 of fat99999999999999999 3:5 and o)erBindul&ent4 +ith999999999999999 3!5 riches and99999999999999999 395 +ealth4 the' 999999999999 3105 e)er'thin&4 +ith their99999999999999999999999 3115 of cars4 their999999999999999 3125 mountains4999999999999999999 31$5 la0es and o)erBconsumption4 desperatel' in99999999999999999999999 31"5 of a modicum of selfBcontrol to consume a9999999999999999999999999 31 5 of +hat +as theirs to use9 /hat +as ho+ life +as in Santa <a1ima before the re)olution9

2
dro

dire lack utter hard!hi !hort !cra ! non-e#i!tent em ty devoid ba!ic bere"t !carcity clear lacking

999999999999 315 of medical supplies4 San <inimo +as in 999999999999 325 need of help and there +as a99999999999999999999999999 3$5 need for ur&ent action9 /here +as a serious 999999999999 3"5 of an' 0ind of e1pertise and their educational s'stem +as )irtuall'99999999999999999999999 3 59 7ith the 999999999999 3#5 of food and9999999999999999999 3:5 commodities4 babies +ere bein& born9999999999999999999 3!5 of all hope and9999999999999999999 395 in fundamental human ri&hts9 7hene)er +ar bro0e out4 the' suffered e)en &reater99999999999999999999999 31059 *fter each +ar4 +hen the countr' needed completel' restructurin&4 the &o)ernment +as9999999999999999999999999 3115 of ideas9 Sur)i)ors sur)i)ed on999999999999999999999 3125 of food4 hardl' a9999999999999 31$5 of +ater and -ust crumbs of hope from aid a&encies9 /he' e1isted in9999999999999999999999 31"5 de&radation4 underBnourished4 underfed4 runnin& on99999999999999999999999999 31 54 +ith more than enou&h dreams for the +hole +orld9 /hat +as ho+ life +as in San <inimo before the re)olution9
LAC9: S8ORTAGE AND EDCESS

Practice

.e+rite each sentence usin& the t+o +ords belo+ it9 a 7e need somebod' li0e 'ou to help us9 in H assistance b 8e ma' be ine1perienced but he ma0es up for it b' bein& enthusiastic9 +hat H lac0s T /he pa' increase didnLt come up to our e1pectations9

short H hoped d /he compan'Ls profits ha)e nearl' doubled9 up:3>>a e 7e donLt ha)e to do an'thin& about pa'ment 'et9 need H done f /he fact that the' ha)e so fe+ )itamins in their diet is their bi&&est problem9 )itamin H heart & LI &uarantee 'ouLll ha)e e)er'thin& 'ou +ant4L the old man said to her9 +antH nothin& h /here donLt seem to be man' talented athletes around at the moment9 sufferin& H paucit'

7ellBheeled do+nBatBheel

For each of the sentences belo+4 +rite a ne+ sentence as similar

cr'in& - /here +as a mountain of food on each plate4 piled

as possible in meanin& to the ori&inal sentence4 but usin& the +ord &i)en9 /his +ord must not be altered in an' +a'9 a 3 belie)e that footballers are &rossl' o)erpaid4 much b *t the moment there are sufficient restaurants in this area4 short T /hereLs an acute shorta&e of )e&etable crops in the north of the countr'9 desperatel' d * fe+ communities in the south are se)erel' malnourished9 enou&h e She +as allo+ed e)er'thin& she +anted as a child4 nothin& f 7e canLt &o on much lon&er +ithout a stable &o)ernment4 ur&ent & 7hat +e reall' need is someone +ith firstBhand e1perience4 could h /he' 0ept on pla'in& on the computer for as lon& as the' +anted to9 content 1 Better education is somethin& the countr' simpl' canLt do +ithout9

Fi8 each of the &aps +ith a suitable +ord or phrase9

a 7e hoped to be betterBoff after the bud&et but in fact99999999999999 e)er9 b It +as clear from their demeanour that the' 9999999999 help9 T /his u&l' old tree needs99999999999999999999999999999bac0 a bit9 d %onLt 'ou thin0 thereLs a clear99999999999999999999999999999999 the compan' to be restructuredD e Nobod' no+ada's9999999999999999999999999 on W$0 a +ee04 can the'D f 8o+ an'one on such a hi&h salar'99999999999999999999999999999999999 so do+nB atBheel is be'ond me9 & She has selfBconfidence99999999999999999999999999abundance9 h Antil pa'Bda' IL)e hardl'999999999999999999999999999 on9

E&am p a#t$#% )1

) Fill each of the numbere# blanks with !n% suitable wor#. Some 'eo'le ha"e a touching faith in the intelligence an# sensiti"ity of #ol'hins. A long scientific stu#y has recently re'orte# .................................... 123 they are................... 143 highly intelligent that0 gi"en the chance0 they woul# s'en# their time rea#ing &he Lon#on Ie"iew of $ooks an# listening to +agner. As far as I am concerne#0 the height of #ol'hinkin#'s achie"ements are in a #ol'hinarium0 where they learn........................ 1(3 to ,um' out of a 'ool to snatch a fish from a blon#e in a wet suit. I com'letely.................... 163 to un#erstan# ........................ 1830 arme# with .................... 1*3 slen#er e"i#ence0 'eo'le can make their e/traor#inary claims for the swimming mammal's su'erior brain 'ower. Aogs0 after all0 can be traine# in much the same way but ............ 1;3 anyone to......................... 1>3 similar claims of massi"e I.R. for a #og.......................... 1?3 a stick woul# be clearly ri#iculous. If #ol'hins are................................. 12)3 cle"er0 how come they kee'........................... 1223 caught in those tuna nets9 I can't un#erstan# ............................... 1243 they #on't swim the other way. !a"e they got highly #e"elo'e# communication skills or ha"en't they9 ............ 12(3 #ol'hins are 'layful is in#is'utable0 as is the ................ 1263 that.................... 12 83 them to #o tricks is relati"ely easy. &he 'urely coinci#ental fact ............ 12*3 their mouth structure makes them look to humans.................... 12;3 in normal critical awareness as if they are smiling an# thoroughly en,oying themsel"es is not0 howe"er a............................... 12>3 of intelligence. Auring the Col# +ar0 the FS %a"y traine# #ol'hins to ........................ 12?3 out highly #angerous mine:clearing work. If anything0 ............ 14)3 strikes me as conclusi"e 'roof of lack of intelligence.

% &he................... been lying to us all along means we shoul# ne"er trust him again0 ( +hether...................... or not0 you ha"e to 'ractise if you want to be any goo#0 0 My mother e"entually came roun#..................................... that it woul# be better to mo"e in with us. , I'"e ne"er ha# any 'articular.................................. "isit the FSA. $ Iealising ,ust....................... 'eo'le in the worl# are close to the 'o"erty line is a shock0 7 &hat sho' in the !igh Street has close# #own0 or............... a''ear.

Pbc
3
Finish each sentence in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible in meaning to the sentence 'rinte# before it.
EXAMPLE-

&he lan#lor# sai# he woul# e"ict us if we #i#n't 'ay the rent.

&he lan#lor# threatene# to e*ict u! i" we didn$t (a' t"e rent. a ou shoul#n't com'lain about the ser"ice here- it's not worth it. It woul# be absur# for ....................................................................... b !er financial 'roblems only became clear later. &hat ................................................................................................... P !is belief in ghosts is a bit of a mystery to me. I fin# it................................................................................................ " My brother's refusal to e"en #iscuss the issue really annoys me. +hat .................................................................................................. % Singsley learne# Iussian in si/ weeks0 which wasn't ba# going for him. &o ha"e .............................................................................................

Fill each of the ga's with a suitable wor# or 'hrase. It's incre#ible t"at an'one s"ould want to li"e in an

EXAMPLE-

in#ustrial area. a +hat our #ecision #e'en#s................................. the final cost is likely to be. b !ow................... her #own after such a goo# inter"iew0 I'll ne"er know0 P +hy she...................... aback by our #ecision I #on't un#erstan#. " &hat the 'olice lie# I.............................. belie"e.

For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% ! $0$nal

s%nt%n#%: but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must n!t b% alt% %" $n any *ay?
EXAMPLE -

+hy #i#n't the Princi'al 'ublish the e/am results in the normal way9 pu p!s%

+hat wa! the Drinci al$! ur o!e in not ubli!hing the e#am re!ult! in the normal way' a +e nee# to think about how ol# the house is when making our #ecision. a##!unt ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? b If that's the way it has to be0 then we ha"e to acce't it. s! ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? P &his factory nee#s to 'ro#uce more if it is to sur"i"e. !utput ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? " +e are currently s'en#ing far more than we earn. !ut0!$n0s ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? % &he 'ublic were u' in arms o"er the 'ro'ose# change to 'ri"acy laws. !ut# y ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D E

Com'lete each sentence with the most suitable wor# or 'hrase. I seem to be .................. in energy this morning. A bereft F short G lack G nee# G run #own G sur'lus G uncalculate# G lacke# D cutting back D low D lack D #own an# out D s'are D unannounce# D wante# Managers claim we are in #es'erate ............................... of greater in"estment in our in#ustries. A re5uirement F e/cess A well:heele# A e/cess A untol# A nee#e# A crying out tele"ision. A u'shot A u'shot A turn:u' F u'turn F u'turn F turn:out G u'kee' G u'kee' G turn:in D u'take D u'take D turn:away I'm afrai# my youngest son has ne"er been 'articularly 5uick on the........................................................ F well:off F e/tra F unsai# F re5uire# F breaking #own G better off &his neighbourhoo# looks a little .............................. an# tatty these #ays. &he buil#ers tol# us that that 'ile of cement was.......................................... to their re5uirements. &he #isco"ery of oil brought............................ wealth to the country. $orn into a rich family0 he has............................. for nothing all his life. &his area is absolutely........................ for more in"estment. &he su##en ................ in "iewing figures encourage# more a#"ertisers to turn to

)1 &hat was a bit of a.............................. for the books- I ne"er e/'ecte# him to show u'.

P !0 %ss t%st +

1testing contents of Fnits 2:2)3

) Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the 'assage with !n% suitable wor#. +e ha"e all seen ...................... 123 #ocumentary or other on a.................................. 143 of ele'hants an# cannot fail to ha"e been struck by the uni5ueness of the beast............................................. 1(3 it uses its trunk to 'ull u' a ............ 163 of grass to eat may not seem that remarkable but................................................... 183 is often not recognise# is ,ust how "ersatile this a''en#age is. It em'loys............................................ 1*3 an# e"ery one of the si/ty thousan# muscles in its two metre length to 'erform ........................................ 1;3 #elicate tasks as remo"ing thorns or gri''ing a thin stick..................... 1>3 firmly0 without breaking it0 ............................... 1?3 only another ele'hant can 'ull it away. It also ser"es..................... 12)3 a snorkel as its owner swims for miles.......................................... 1223 a submarine. ............ 1243 only #oes it #o ser"ice as a foo# 'ro"i#er0 though that it #oes............................................................. 12(3 is one of its most im'ortant functionsG it also acts as a kin# of sense antenna........................................................ 1263 that 'ythons lurking nearby are rea#ily #etecte#. E/traor#inary.......................................... 1283 it may seem0 the trunk also acts as a ma,or means of communication0 'urring with 'leasure0 roaring to .................................................... 12*3 anger an# trum'eting in ............. 12;3 to #raw attention to its owner's 'light. It is truly ama<ing ...................................................... 12>3 sensiti"e this trunk is an# to ...................... 12?3 'ur'oses the ele'hant 'uts it. It is ....................................... 14)3 only li"ing animal that 'ossesses such an e/traor#inary organ.

+ Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it $s as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% t! t,% s%nt%n#%s p $nt%" b%(! % $t?
EXAMPLE -

!ere's my mobile 'hone number so that you can contact me if you nee# to. In case yo . need.to !onta!t

me.,, here's. my.mobile.phone n mber...

+ , " ) ! 0 / h

&he inhabitants were far worse:off twenty years ago than they are now. &he inhabitants are nowhere .......................................................................................................................................................... &he chairman's lea"ing ,ust before you're #ue to arri"e. $y the .............................................................................................................................................................................................. It was #ifficult to un#erstan# her colleagues' o'en hostility towar#s her 'ro'osal. &hat her colleagues ........................................................................................................................................................................ &he club owner became a me#ia celebrity0 as well as e/tremely rich. %ot only ........................................................................................................................................................................................... If we #elay too long0 we are unlikely to clinch the #eal. &he longer ....................................................................................................................................................................................... ou ,ust can't com'are the 5uality of her work with his. &here's no ....................................................................................................................................................................................... +e'll let you know as soon as we ha"e recei"e# the information. &he .................................................................................................................................................................................................. &his lea# shoul# not be #isconnecte# e/ce't in cases of emergency. .nly .................................................................................................................................................................................................

373

PROGRESS TEST +

' Fill each of the blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.


EXAMPLE-

!is e/cuse that he hod..been.held, F' ,n traffic ,ust #i#n't hol# water.

+ + + + + +

+e are frien#s an# I ho'e.......................... so for a "ery long time. She #i#n't tell the librarian she ha# lost the book for............................................ to 'ay for it. !e was so charming0 I ,ust ha# to tell him what a........................................... to meet him. Consi#ering ................ been through0 he is still remarkably sane. I turne# the stereo #own so............................. able to concentrate on the work in han#. +hat no one beforehan# coul# 'ossibly.................................. the #egree of 'ublic con#emnation of the scheme.

- For each of the sentences below0 write a new sentence as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% ! $0$nal s%nt%n#%: but using the wor# gi"en. &his wor# must n!t b% alt% %" $n any *ay?
EXAMPLE-

!is incom'etence cause# us to lose the account0 "u% nt. d e. to his. In!ompeten!e,

WeEPSf. the.Q""Q

IaJ I thought he might ha"e forgotten our a''ointment so I fa/e# him. #as%

IbJ &he intentions of the last go"ernment were far clearer than the 'resent one's0 l$<%

IPJ I ha"e no i#ea how to res'on# to their letter0 l!ss

I"J A lot of 'eo'le ha"e sai# that the lea#ershi' is too ine/'erience#0 !(t%n

I%J +e will of course take into account her com'arati"e youth0 all!*an#%s

I(J !e was #ri"ing so fast that there was no way he was going to sto'0 su#,

I0J Ironically0 the new mo#el is nowhere near as reliable as the ol# one. sup% $!

I,J I still see my ol# college frien#s occasionally0 *,$l%

37<

PROGRESS TEST +

/ Choose the wor# or 'hrase which best com'letes each sentence. Circle the letter E: F: G or D for each sentence 12: 483. 7i"e !n% ans*% !nly to each 5uestion. ) I'm not at all 'ut out by their #ecision........................................... 0 I welcome it. D .n the other han# A All the same F .n the contrary G In contrast + &his is.................... less satisfactory than the 're"ious offer. D somewhat A fairly F far G absolutely ' +oul#n't you agree that there is.................................... e/cuse for what he #i#9 A any F some G the D much - I think sooner or later I'm going to ha"e to 'ut my foot.................................................... D off A #own F u' G through / &he com'any's......................... has e/cee#e# @2,111,111 for the first time. A out'ut F outgoing G in'ut D turno"er 2 Most of the can#i#ates suffer from a1n3 ......................................... of D outgoing e/'erience. A shortage F lack G absence 3 Aelin5uency often results............................... something that ha''ene# in the youth's chil#hoo#. D from A in F to G of 4 I #on't belie"e there's a............................... of e"i#ence that coul# be hel# against him. A shre# F grain G #ro' D strain 5 &hese 'eo'le are in ........................... nee# of hel'0 I can tell you. D full A short F big G #ire ) 1 +e must be careful not to 'ut the cart before the ................................................... D cabbage A bull F horse G 'ony )) &here's a...................... of stars below the Pole Star that has always fascinate# me. D A set F cluster G crow# gathering ) + I think we shoul# a#o't her final wor#s as our.............................................. light. D gleaming A gui#ing F lea#ing G flashing ) ' As................. e/'enses0 we'll be ha''y to com'ensate you u' to a ma/imum of @2)). A concerning F regar#ing G regar# D regar#s ) - +e are #es'erately........................... of really e/'erience# staff. D light A lacking F short G nee#y ) / Iows an# silences are............................. an# 'arcel of any marriage. D 'acket A 'ackage F stam's G 'art

374

PROGRESS TEST +

16 17 1D 1E 2F 21 22 23 24 25

Sh! "-!+(-$ B#in!) th! 0i(& 'ith +5n6


A "iew F aim G 'lan

to im'ro"ing herself 'rofessionally. D ambition

It's ine"itable that there will be .......................... in the workforce o"er the coming months. A takeo"ers F cutbacks G letouts D offcuts

E"eryone is entitle# to a ticket0 ......................... of where they come from. A irrele"ant F 'rere5uisite G irres'ecti"e D inci#ental

&his latest............. of meningitis ecli'ses any o"er the 'ast few years. A breakout F outburst G offset D outbreak

I will only agree to hel' on my own ................................. A means F o##s G #eman#s D terms

&he 8H wage increases they 'ro'ose are.................................... A all for one F by an# large G to' to bottom D across the boar#

&here were a.............. few 'eo'le rather #isa''ointe# with the result. A great F 5uite G goo# D fairly

Money a''ears tem'orarily to be in 'lentiful ..................................... A su''ly F e/cess G 5uantity D amount

&hey 5uite sim'ly #ug their........................ in an# refuse# to bu#ge. A feet F toes G heels D forks

I #o ho'e this will .................. as a useful remin#er. A 'lay F 'erform G act D beha"e

Un*t e"e7en

"elati'e clauses
Entry test
) Fill each of the blanks with one suitable wor#. +hen I was at school0 maths was a sub,ect which I coul# sim'ly ne"er get on ................................ 123. &his #islike0 the ..................... 143 of which was that I faile# most e/ams in the sub,ect0 was a stan#ing ,oke amongst my frien#s0 ........................... 1(3 of whom ha# the slightest 'roblem with the most abstruse calculations....................... 163 who #i# fin# themsel"es struggling ten#e# to all sit together at the back of the class0 which is............................ 183 we gaine# the nickname of '&he back:row enumerates'. %othing .............. 1*3 any teacher coul# #o seeme# to hel' an# little...................... 1;3 they sai# staye# between my ears. I left school at 2*0 ............................... 1>3 when I ha"e become a "ery successful accountant. con"incing anybo#y of the most unlikely tales0 e"en my aunt0 ....................... 163 by many to be a shrew# an# no:nonsense character. In fact0 the only 'erson ...................... 183 realise the stories were total fabrication was me. I remember one story .............. 1*3 tol# about an un#ergroun# train su##enly..................... 1;3 out of the groun# in front of him an# blocking the roa#. My aunt was fascinate#. Finish each of the sentences in such a way that it is as similar as 'ossible in meaning to the sentence 'rinte# before it.
EXAMPLE-

&he Manager will ne"er be satisfie#0 no matter what we #o.

+hate"er we do, the &anager will never be !ati!"ied. &his is 'recisely the sort of coffee:making machine we nee# in the office. &his sort of coffee:making machine ...................................................... +e ha"e ha# "ery little rain o"er the 'ast few months an# e"en the bit we #i# ha"e #i#n't last long. +hat ....................................................................................................... She ga"e the reasons for her su##en #isa''earance at the weeken#. She e/'laine# why.................................................................................. It's u' to you to #eci#e the way you want to li"e your life. !ow ........................................................................................................ Mo#ern traffic an# 'ollution 'roblems are the res'onsibility of the 'erson who in"ente# the car. +hoe"er .................................................................................................

FOR WORDS USED WIT8 RELATIVE PRONOUNS: SEE SECTION )?

Fill each of the blanks with one suitable wor#. My uncle nearly always turne# u' late to family gatherings. &he reasons ............................. 123 ga"e0 .............. 143 from e/'lo#ing tyres to an esca'e# tiger on the by:'ass0 were always in"enti"e an# entertaining. !e was a man ................................ 1(3 of

FOR NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES: SEE SECTION '?

FOR OMITTING RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND REPLACING RELATIVE CLAUSES WIT8 OT8ER STRUCTURES: SEE SECTION +?

OVERVIEW
1
DEFINING AND NON@DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

PEOPLE OR T8INGSO

* definin& clause 3also called Lan identif'in& clauseL5 &i)es essential information about a noun2 *eople who talk too much anno$ me intensel$. 07d li&e to marr$ someone who!e !tar-!ign i! 6ibra. 7ithout the clause4 the meanin& of the sentence is different2 *eople anno$ me intensel$. 07d li&e to marr$ someone. * nonB definin& 3or LnonBidentif'in&L5 clause &i)es additional information about a noun2 M $ $ounger brother( who i! pain!ull$ !hy, rarel$ spea&s to an$one. his watch( which ) wa! given "or Christmas( &eeps per!ect time. 7ithout the clause4 the main information of the sentence remains the same2 M $ $ounger brother rarel$ spea&s to an$one. his watch &eeps per!ect time. In +ritin&4 +e use commas to separate nonBdefinin& clauses from the rest of the sentence9
That

7e use who and whom for people4 and that or which for thin&s4 or for &roups of people 3a team etc959 7e use whose for both 3see # belo+52 0t7s usuall$ the mother who has most in!luence on $oung children. 1epal is a countr$ that 0 which has alwa$s interested me9

&*O OR &*OB=

%hom is an ob-ect pronoun4 who is a sub-ect pronoun2 ; had !urther discussions with Andreas( whom 0 had met the pre'ious wee&. 0 don7t li&e men who wear per!ume. 8o+e)er4 whom is no+ considered )er' formal and +e often use who instead2 ; saw John( who 0 had met the pre'ious wee&. 3See 7atch outN belo+5

&*E>E, &*E# AND &*%

7ith relati)e clauses of place and time4 +e can use where and when instead of a preposition > whichF uesda$ is the da$ when 3 or2 on which) 0 go to the !itness club. he school where 3or2 at which) 0 !irst studied En&lish is in hassos.

POSITION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS

7e often use that in definin& relati)e clauses instead of which or 3more informall'5 whoF 0t7s the dar& blue top that reall$ appeals to me. here are loads o! people that belie'e in 9@/s. 3See 7atch outN belo+5

.elati)e pronouns usuall' immediatel' follo+ the noun the' refer to2 s he !ilm was 'er$ interesting that we saw. + he !ilm that we saw was 'er$ interesting. * common e1ception4 especiall' in ne+spaper reports4 is +hen the noun and relati)e clause3s5 are separated b' another noun phrase2

378

0s "ichard Iranson( the Virgin bo!!, who!e attem t! to "ly round the world in a hot air balloon have all ended in "ailure, a better businessman than pilot>

&*OSE

%hose is a possessi)e relati)e pronoun9 ItLs a determiner and so can onl' be used before a noun2 M $ uncle( who!e hou!e we sta$ed in e'er$ summer( ne'er had an$ children o! his own. 7e use whose +ith both people and thin&s4 but o! which is more common +ith thin&s2 he house( the garden! o" which sloped down to the beach( was enormous. he house( who!e garden! sloped down to the beach( was enormous. 7e commonl' use withF he house( with gardens that sloped down to the beach( wa! enormous.

7e use whom( not who( after prepositions and phrases li0e most o!( all o!. s hat7s the man to wlw 0 sold m$ car. #e'eral people came( mo!t o" who 0 hadn7t met be!ore. ; hat7s the man to whom 0 sold m$ car. #e'eral people came( mo!t o" whom 0 hadn7t met be!ore. 7e canLt use that after prepositions or in nonBdefinin& clauses2 s M $ !ather( that lias recentl$ retired( spends all da$ reading the newspaper. his is the house in that 0 grew up. P; M $ !ather( who has recentl$ retired( spends all da$ reading the newspaper. his is the house in which 0 grew up 0 that 0 grew up in.

SECTION I
%ords used with relati'e pronouns
1
PREPOSITIONS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES

/he relati)e pronoun acts as both a lin0in& +ord and a pronoun9 It replaces other pronouns2 s hat was a 'er$ interesting !ilm which we saw it. he man who he called $esterda$ has 8ust come in. S 'er$ interesting !ilm which we saw. he man who called $esterda$ has 8ust come in.

hat was a

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AFTER SOBE OF: A'' O", ETC?

7hen a preposition is necessar'4 it can &o before the relati)e pronoun or at the end of the relati)e clause9 7hen it &oes before4 it is &enerall' more formal2 s Chemistr$ is a sub8ect which 0 alwa$s had problems. S Chemistr$ is a sub8ect which 0 alwa$s had problems with. Chemistr$ is a sub8ect with which 0 alwa$s had problems. 3S more formal5 7e use man' fi1ed prepositional phrases +ith which 3and when5 in nonBdefinin& relati)e clauses2 0t might rain( in which case we7ll get bac& as soon as possible. he hero died( at which point the curtain came down. here was a scandal( as a result o! which all the ministers resigned. here was another scandal( the result o! which was that the *resident himsel! resigned. He stopped pla$ing in +,,\( since when he hasn7t &ic&ed a ball. *lant them out in Ma$( b$ when 3or b' which time5 the ris& o! !rost will ha'e passed.

%ho( whom( whose and which fre?uentl' combine +ith all o!( some o!( se'eral o! both o! and other ?uantifiers2 0 bought a load o! apples( three Auarters o! which were bad. housands o! people( none o! whom realised what was about to happen( had come to )allas to see the *resident.

&*!$* WIT8 OT8ER IV8@WORDS

7e can use which +ith other +itB+ords in nonBdefinin& clauses2 He arri'ed at six( which was when the diamonds went missing. #he le!t her address( which was how we contacted her. All delegates are in the lecture theatre( which is where $ou should be. His !ingerprints were all o'er it( which was what ga'e him awa$. #he had become separated !rom her mother in the shop( which was wh$ she was cr$ing.

RELATIVE CLAUSES AFTER PRONOUNS

%efinin& relati)e clauses often follo+ these pronouns2 someone an$one something an$thing e'er$thing all man$ those some nothing little much Man$ who saw the !ilm were unimpressed. Instead of usin& which( +e commonl' use that( or omit the relati)e pronoun4 +hen the pronoun is impersonal 4an$thing( something( nothing( etc952 07m read$ !or an$thing that happens. An$thing $ou can do 0 can do better. *fter the personal pronouns +e use relati)e clauses onl' in formal or literar' En&lish2 He who laughs last laughs longest( 3pro)erb5 ...we that are $oung #hall ne'er see so much( or li'e so long. 3Sha0espeare4 Min& Lear5 hose in structures li0e the follo+in& e1ample nearl' al+a's refers to people rather than thin&s2 %ill all those who want to go please raise their hands> Much that and little that are fairl' formal2 Much that has been done here is o! pro!ound signi!icance. 0 will tell $ou the little that 0 &now.

(orrect these sentences9 a <' sister4 +ho I am al+a's bein& compared4 is actuall' t+o 'ears older than me9 b 8is second s'mphon'4 +hich I heard it last ni&ht4 is not nearl' as &ood as his first4 T ILm afraid that under the circumstances there is little +hich +e can do9 d <an' people +ere hurt in the e1plosion4 se)eral of +ho +ere standin& a hundred metres a+a'4 e SheLs al+a's open to ne+ ideas4 that is +hat I reall' li0e about her9

WORDS USED WIT8 RELATIVE PRONOUNS

contribution in this bo19

Y In each of the &aps in the follo+in& sentences4 +rite in as man' of


the fi)e +ords as possible9 ExampleF /he team who/which/that +ins +ill ?ualif' for the final9 who whom that whose which a 7asnLt there some =erman or (Jech author be&innin& +ith k } in9999999999999999999999999 no)els indi)iduals &ot lost in bureaucratic maJesD b 7e are blessed +ith &ood health4 for999999999999999999999999999999999999+e should all be &rateful9 T *n'thin&99999999999999999999'ou +ant 'ou can ha)e9 d *n'one9999999999999999999+ants to help should lea)e their

e <uch9999999999999999999has been said +ill soon be for&otten9 f 7e bou&ht si1 loa)es of bread for the part'4 half of 9999999999 +erenLt touched9 & <' dau&hter in)ited fi)e of her friends to dinner4 none of99999999999999999 e1pressed an' 0ind of than0s9 h 7e had ?uite an informal supper actuall'499999999999999999999999999999999999999 is +hat ma' not ha)e pleased them9

Y .e+rite each of the follo+in& sentences to include the +ord which


and another wh- +ord9 ExampleF I had a holida' in .ome last 'ear and thatLs the place it all be&an9 I had a holiday in Rome la!t year, w"ic" i! w"ere it all began. a I met him in <a' and it +as then that I fell in lo)e +ith him9

37

b 7e met because a friend introduced us9 T 8e had the most beautiful smile and that +as +hat attracted me initiall'4 d 7e spent a +ee0end in @enice and that +as the place +e decided to &et en&a&ed4 e 7e had a bi& +hite +eddin& and that +as somethin& ILd al+a's +anted9

=
1 2 3 4 5

Anderline the options that can complete each sentence9 In each

case4 one4 t+o or three ma' be possible9 <' tennisBpla'in& friend retired in 199#499999999999999999999999999999 he had earned o)er W$ million9 a b' +hich time b since +hen T at +hich point d +hen ,)er there are the 12th centur' dun&eons4999999999999999999999999999999999 hundreds of +ellB0no+n people +ere tortured9 a +hen b +here T in +hich d from +hose <' parents4999999999999999 spea0 fluent French4 are off to Paris for a +ee09 a that b neither of +ho T both of +hom d +ho /here is a compan'49999999999999999999 escapes me4 that sells such thin&s9 a the name of +hich b its name T +hose name d that I +as interested to see that999999999999999999999999+ho felt stron&l' about the issue +ere &ettin& )er' +or0ed up9 a man' b all T those d these

Y (omplete each of the follo+in& sentences so that it is as close in


meanin& as possible to the sentence printed before it9 a /here +ere a lot of sur)i)ors and most of them +ere in pain9 /here +ere a lot of sur)i)ors4 the 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b 7e are holdin& a series of meetin&s to ac?uaint the &eneral public +ith the facts9 7e are holdin& a series of meetin&s4 the 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T 7hen the fire spread4 the theatre +as cleared9 /he fire spread4 at 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /he fullBtime librarian +ill lend 'ou up to fi)e boo0s at an' one time9 /here is a fullBtime librarian4 from 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e Numerous +itnesses of the robber' +ere unable to identif' the t+o men9 <an' +ho 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

.e+rite each sentence usin& the +ords printed belo+ it9

ExampleF <' than0s to m' famil'4 +ho made all of this possible4 +ithout H none <' than0s to m' "amily, without +hom none o" thi! would have been o!!ible. a Since +ritin& a bestBseller in 199 4 Uoe has hardl' produced an' &ood +or0 at all9 +rote H since H )er' b 8e hasnLt +ritten much recentl' thatLs been appreciated b' those attracted b' his earl' st'le9 Little H +ho T Not onl' his appearance but also his manners lea)e &reat scope for impro)ement9 8e H man H both H desired d B' the time he realised +here his career +as &oin& in the late nineties4 it +as too late9 In H +hich e 8e no+ re&rets +ritin& the article because it +as that that caused him all the problems heLs had9 no+ +ishes H but for H not

377

SECTION <
/mitting relati'e pronouns
) OMITTING T8E RELATIVE PRONOUN

here is a lot to do. 3S +hich +e need to do5 0s there an$thing le!t to eat' 3S +hich +e can eat5 7e can also use toBinfiniti)es after phrases li0e the next( the !irst( etc2 He was the only man to believe us. 3S +ho belie)ed us5 ,he ne#t er!on to walk through that door will get a surprise. 3S +ho +al0s5
' NON@DEFINING DESCRIPTIVE CLAUSES

In definin& relati)e clauses4 +e often omit the relati)e pronoun +hen it is the ob-ect of the clause2 he excuse he o!!ered was uncon'incing. 4M that ! which omitted5 In other +ords2 He o!!ered the excuse 3sub-ect > )erb > ob-ect5 becomes2 the excuse he o!!ered 3ob-ect > sub-ect > )erb5

*s +ell as nonBdefinin& relati)e clauses4 +e can add participle or noun phrases to &i)e e1tra information about a noun2 he three men( laughing and 5oking, burst in through the door. he town( deva!tated by three recent earthAua&es( has an almost unreal atmosphere. Ira2il( the largest South 8merican countr$( is in man$ wa$s di!!erent !rom its neighbours.

7e canLt omit the relati)e pronoun +hen itLs the sub-ect of the clause2 D /Dtc people +ere sitting at the bac& couldn7t !ec an$thing. ; he people who were sitting at the bac& couldn7t see an$thing. 7e canLt omit the relati)e pronoun in nonBdefinin& clauses9 D M$ law$er7s excuse( he o!!ered rather reluctantl$( was that the law had recentl$ changed. H <' law$er7s excuse( which he o!!ered rather reluctantl$( was that the law had recentl$ changed.

/ic0 3H5 the sentences that are correct9 a /he man +as b' the door bec0oned me o)er4 b /he annual fair4 has been runnin& for centuries4 brin&s the +hole cit' to a halt for t+o da's4 T /he car in front is li0el' to brea0 do+n an' minute4 d Uohn is the man to as0 if 'ou ha)e an' ?uestions about &rammar4 e /hessaloni0i4 in the north of =reece4 is the second lar&est cit' in the countr'9

+ REPLACING RELATIVE CLAUSES -ing (! ms

7e can use -ing forms after nouns and pronouns in a LreducedL definin& relati)e clause2 /he people !itting at the bac& couldn7t see an$thing. 4sitting M who were sitting5 7ith this structure4 +e can use stati)e )erbs not commonl' found in the (ontinuous 3see Anit 14 Section 52 An$one wanting to go on the excursion should go to "eception( 4wanting N who wants5 he$ !ound se'eral boxes containing explosi'es( 4containing M which contained5 7e can omit the -ing form +hen itLs follo+ed b' a prepositional phrase2 he people at the back couldn7t see an$thing.
Past pa t$#$pl%s an" a"7%#t$.%s

7e can use past participles after nouns in a LreducedL definin& relati)e clause2 All tho!e !elected will be in!ormed b$ \ o7cloc& on @rida$. 4M who are ! ha'e been selected5 ,he man arre!ted last night has $et to be charged. 4M who was arrested5 7e can do the same +ith some ad-ecti)es2 0 used to wor& !or a man ca able o! all sorts o! dishonest$. 4M a man who was ! is capable5 %e will do e'er$thing o!!ible to ensure $ou get $our mone$ bac&. 4N e'er$thing that is possible5
_R@INFINITIVES

/oBinfiniti)es can sometimes replace relati)e clauses containin& modal )erbs2 he woman to talk to is o'er there. 3S +ho 'ou should tal0 to5 0 ha'en7t got a thing to wear. (4 that I can +ear5 7e can also use toBinfiniti)es after ?uantifiers and an$thing( nobod$( etc2

OMITTING RELATIVE CRONOUNS


been happ'4 but 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 +e +ill also be interested in that +hat has not pleased 'ou9 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 4 Loo0in& bac04 do 'ou thin0 the home+or0 +as &i)en &a)e 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 5 'ou sufficient practice in the En&lish +hat 'ou neededD 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 6 %id the students +ere stud'in& in 'our class ha)e a le)el 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 7 of En&lish similar abilities to +hat 'ou hadD 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 D %id 'ou ha)e sufficient &uidance from staff as to +hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 E the best +a's of de)elopin& 'our lin&uistic s0illsD 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

In eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences t"ere is one word missing)

6ark t"e (lace wit" : and write t"e word in t"e s(ace gi*en) ExampleF /he third person H finish +ill &et a bronJe medal9 99to9 a <ost of the dates +ere su&&ested simpl' +erenLt practicable9 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he police are loo0in& for a man a pale blue denim -ac0et9 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T (hildren up in this da' and a&e are surrounded b' information technolo&'9 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d 8ouses a hundred 'ears a&o are &enerall' sturdier than more modern ones9 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e SheLs such an honest &irl4 of e)er tellin& a lie999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /he ne1t pupil ma0e that noise +ill be sent out of the classroom9 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & 8eLs the first ro+er to +on four consecuti)e &old medals9 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h /he match4 b' millions on tele)ision4 +as not particularl' &ood9 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

1F

K ;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks in t"is (assage wit" one


suita#le word) /he first fe+ da's +ere some of the +orst9999999999999999999999999999 315 I ha)e e)er e1perienced9 I had 0no+n homesic0ness before but nothin&99999999999999999999 325 +as remotel' li0e this9 /he9999999999999993$5 of spendin& three months there4 999999999999 3"5 I lo)ed B famil' and friends B nearl' a thousand miles a+a'4 filled me +ith absolute terror9 1 spent hours starin& at notices in the corridors4 999999999999 3 5 desperatel' that no one +ould as0 me +hat I +as doin&999999999999999999 3#5 to brin& m'self to tal0 to an'one4 I li)ed completel' cut off from the rest of the trainees4 999999999999 3:5 outsider999999999999999999 3!5 must ha)e been a source of &reat concern to the staff499999999999999999999999 395 around li0e a little bo'9999999999999999 31059 In m' ne+ Lfamil'L I could onl' &rin4999999999999999 3115 e1tremel' embarrassed at m' inabilit' to communicate9 I left the house earl' each mornin&4 ea&er to &et a+a' from a situation in99999999999999999999999999 3125 I could not e1press an'thin&9999999999999999999999 31$5 I mi&ht +ant to9 I +as al+a's the first99999999999999999999 31"5 arri)e at the office and al+a's the last99999999999999999999 31 5 left in the afternoon4 999999999999 31#5 m' +a' LhomeL slo+l'4999999999999999999999999 31:5 the moment of arri)al9 *t m' des0 1 -ust didnLt 0no+ +hat to do +ith m'self6 I -ust sat there4 hopin& not to be the one99999999999999 31!5 be as0ed the ne1t ?uestion4 not 0no+in& +here to put m'self9 *s time +ore on4 it did &et sli&htl' better9

7ere the materials that presented to 'ou of interest and 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 11 of benefit4 and bearin& in mind 'ou +ere on a short courseD 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 12 %id the lessons 'ou had that reall' teach 'ou ho+ to spea0 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 13 En&lish and help 'ou ho+ to understand En&lish betterD 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Y ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" one suita#le word)


a /he houses999999999999999999999999into last ni&ht had all had their bac0 doors forced open4 b /hree 'ouths9999999999999999999999999possession of firearms +ere apprehended earl' this mornin&4 T /+o other suspects9999999999999999999999999999into custod' +ere later released9 d Four more men999999999999999999999999999 the description9999999999999999999999b' +itnesses are still at lar&e4 e /he occupants reported a number of )aluable articles to be999999999999999999999 this mornin&9 f In one house a -e+eller' bo1999999999999999999999999999999999 a priceless diamond rin& is 0no+n to ha)e been ta0en9

In most (airs o! lines t"ere is one unnecessar' word) ;or

eac" (air o! num#ered lines 31B1$54 write t"e unnecessar' word in t"e s(ace) Indicate t"e correct (airs wit" a 9i:1) T"e e,ercise #egins wit" two e,am(les) 7e li0e to thin0 this is a &ood school4 +hich offerin& a lot +hich to man' people9 8o+e)er4 no school is perfect4 so +e are

1 2

as0in& 'ou to fill in this ?uestionnaire that about 'our 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 time here9 7e +ill be happ' if 'ou ha)e

DJJD

GRAMMAR

14

SECTION <

&*!$*

1ominal relati'e clauses


1
W8AT ARE NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSESO

In nominal relati)e clauses4 the relati)e pronoun acts li0e a noun and a lin0in& relati)e pronoun +or0in& to&ether9 /he most common nominal relati)e pronoun is what meanin& Lthe thin&3s5 +hichL2 his is 8ust what we need. (hat 0 want is a bigger computer. Note that a nominal relati)e pronoun replaces the noun2 s liar$! the tic&et what 0 was loo&ing !or. S Here7s what 0 was loo&ing !or. Because a nominal relati)e pronoun replaces the noun it refers to4 +e donLt need another pronoun or relati)e pronoun2 s he$ were re!erring to what that we discussed. S he$ were re!erring to what we discussed.

7e use which to refer bac0 to a +hole clause rather than the precedin& noun onl' 3see Section 19"52 He onl$ did what an$one else would do in that situation( which is panic. he piano reAuired se'eral men to li!t it( which was perhaps not surprising. /ic0 3H5 the sentences that contain a nominal relati)e clause9 Anderline the clause B there ma' be more than one in each sentence9 a /hatLs e1actl' +hat I +as &oin& to sa'9 b /he' first met in Paris4 +here the' &ot married fifteen 'ears later4 T ItLs not +hat 'ou 0no+4 itLs +ho 'ou 0no+4 d 7e need someone +ho 0no+s somethin& about +ashin& machines4 e I canLt remember +hen he said heLd call bac09

OT8ER NOMINAL RELATIVE PRONOUNS

7e can also use the follo+in& as nominal relati)e pronouns2 whatever 07ll do whatever the boss wants me to. 3S an'thin& that5 whoever Gou can in'ite whoever $ou li&e. 3S an'bod' +ho5 whichever Choose whichever $ou li&eF the$7re all good. 3S an' one that5 when %e 8ust tal&ed about when we7d !irst met. 3S the occasion on +hich5 where Ielie'e it or not( this is where 0 !irst met m$ wi!e. 3S the place in H at +hich5 who Iernadette> hat7s not who 0 thought $ou meant. 4N the person +ho5 how Great co!!eeB Just how 0 li&e it. 3S the +a' that5 why 0 &now $ou li&e chocolate. that7s why 0 bought $ou some. 3S the reason that5 7e can use whoe'er( whate'er and whiche'er as both ad)erb phrases and nominal relati)e pronouns9 In the latter4 +e omit the noun or pronoun that the relati)e pronoun refers to2 (hatever 0 do( it$! wrong. 3S ad)erb phrase5 (hatever 0 do i! wrong. 3S nominal relati)e pronoun5 (hichever computer $ou choose( it will be expensi'e 3S ad)erb phrase5 a&e whichever $ou li&e. 3S nominal relati)e clause5

NOMINAL RELATIVE PRONOUNS FOLLOWED BY A TO@

INFINITIVE

%hen( who( what( where and how can be follo+ed b' a toBinfiniti)e2 Good leadership is largel$ a Auestion o! deciding when to ta&e action. 0 reall$ did want to pa$ but 0 didn7t &now who to as&. 0 8ust don7t &now what to do about this lea&. %here to sleep is m$ biggest problem at the moment. 0 don7t &now how to tell $ou this.

&*AT BEFORE A NOUN

7e can use what before a noun2 0 ga'e the beggar what change 0 had. %hat experience 0 ha'e o! carpentr$ is rather limited( 07m a!raid. C 7hen +e use what li0e this4 it means Lall the chan&eL and Lall m' e1perienceL4 but also su&&ests that there +asnLt or isnLt much9

1!0

NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES

Practice Y ;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks in t"e !ollowing sentences wit" one o!
t"e words listed) who whoe'er what whate'er which where how whiche'er a /hatLs e1actl'99999999999999999999999 I +as &oin& to su&&est +e sta'ed9 b *ccordin& to her49999999999999999999999999 I do is +ron&9 T 7eLre not fuss' here6 +e ta0e on99999999999999999999999999999999999 sho+s an' talent +hatsoe)er4 d Puttin& an e)en hea)ier ta1 on petrol is9999999999999999999999999999999999999 I thin0 +e can sol)e our traffic problems4 e 99999999999999 hand she +rites +ith4 her hand+ritin& is perfectl' le&ible4 f (an 'ou ad)ise me9999999999999999999999999 to &o and see +ith this problemD & I offered her9999999999999999999999little I had9 h I spo0e to Uohn this afternoon499999999999999999999999999999999is somethin& IL)e been meanin& to do for a&es9

'ou need is a holida'9 a /hat # 7hat G 7hich d /hat +hich 9 ILm be&innin& to thin0 that9999999999999999999999999999 people sa' about him is true9 a +hich # thin&s G +hat d 2 10 9999999999999 +e e1tricate oursel)es from this +ith an' di&nit' is an'bod'Ls &uess9 a 8o+e)er # /hat G 7hene)er d 8o+

Rewrite eac" sentence using t"e words t"at !ollow so t"at it

is as similar in meaning as (ossi#le to t"e one (rinted a#o*e it) ExampleF I +as so shoc0ed I +as lost for +ords4 a#ack : know I was so ta&en abac&( I didnLt &now what to sa'9 a She said somethin& that +as not at all polite9 w"at : e,tremel' b I canLt decide on the best +a' of tellin& her +hatLs happened9 "ow : #reak T No matter +hat the outcome of the &eneral election4 thin&s +ill &o on more or less the same9 W"ic"e*er: c"ange d ILm not sure +hat le)el of difficult' to pitch the test at9 decide : "ow e Kou could +rite +hat I 0no+ about computers on a posta&e stamp9 W"at : knowledge : written f I al+a's thou&ht San Francisco +ould loo0 and feel e1actl' li0e this9 "ow : imagined : #e & (an 'ou remember the sub-ect of our con)ersation last +ee0D recall : w"at : was : talking ;ill eac" o! t"e #lanks wit" which( that or what.

a %o 'ou remember99999999999999999999999999 he +as found &uilt' of in the endD b *n'thin&99999999999999999999&oes +ron& +ill be 'our responsibilit'9 T /he pace of life in the cit' is9999999999999999999999999999999 puts me off9 d I canLt decide9999999999999999999999 of these t+o (%s to bu'9 e ILd reall' li0e to be a ta1 inspector49999999999999999999999999999999999'ou ma' thin0 is a little foolish9 f 99999999999999 to do ne1t is our main problem9 & /he little99999999999999999999 remained +as thro+n a+a'9 h 9999999999999little I happened to ha)e I +ould &i)e someone li0e that9 i /his isnLt9999999999999999999 I e1pected at all9 - /hereLs sport on all three channels6 I donLt 0no+ 9999999999 to +atch9

-nderline t"e o(tions t"at can com(lete eac" sentence) One&

two or t"ree ma' #e acce(ta#le) Writing 2 as an o(tion means t"at no word is necessar')

3 4 5 6 7

1 Kou can sa'99999999999999 'ou li0e4 thereLs no substitute for hard +or09 a +hat # that G +hiche)er d +hate)er 2 /he onl' +a'9999999999999999 'ouLll be able to contact her is b' eBmail9 a that # +hich G +hat d 2 /hatLs about all999999999999999999 I ha)e to sa'9 a +hich # this G 2 d that I canLt belie)e9999999999999999 these students ha)e learnt9 a ho+ much # the little G +hat d +hiche)er I donLt thin0 heLs999999999999999999 he claims to be9 a +hat # +hoe)er G that d the man /he' all passed99999999999999999 is considered an e1tremel' difficult e1am9 a +hat # that G this d +hich Kou can come9999999999999999'ou li0e9 a the da' that # +hen G +hene)er d +hiche)er da'

1!1

Un*t e"e7en

?ocabular$
SECTION
"e!erence words
1
SPECIFIC REFERENCE WORDS

b 9999999999 is more T to ma0e matters999999999999999999999

e that99999999999999 the case f on the other99999999999999999999

2 MOVING FROM TOPIC TO TOPIC

In con)ersation4 +e often mo)e from one topic or point to another in a haphaJard +a' +ith common phrases9 8ere are some e1amples2 7h, by the way :e"ore ) "orget )ncidentally 7h, that remind! me S eaking o" which 7h, and while ) think o" it In +ritin&4 +e mo)e from one topic or point to another smoothl' and lo&icall'4 often referrin& directl' or indirectl' to +hat has come before9 7e ha)e se)eral options2 7e use sentence ad)erbials 3see Anit :52 moreover "urthermore in addition however in the !ame way !imilarly likewi!e and yet 7e can also use introductor' phrases2 ,he "ir!t oint )$d like to make is... 7ne "urther oint we$d like to bring to your attention is... 7ne "inal oint which may have e!ca ed your notice concern!... 6a!t but not lea!t,... ,o !ummari!e,... )n conclu!ion may ) !ay... 7e can lead from one point to another +ithin a sentence4 often +ith a phrase in)ol)in& which@ at which oint the debate reached !talemate, a! a re!ult o" which hal" the cabinet re!igned.

7e use a ran&e of +ords and phrases to refer to somethin& that has &one before or is about to come2 ,he "ormer i!/are not a! com le# a! the latter. ,he a"orementioned incident took lace on &onday. ,he "act! are a! "ollow!@... Dlea!e note the "ollowing term! and condition!@... Dlea!e return to the under!igned. Send to the above addre!! / to the addre!! below.

INTRODUCING TERMS OF REFERENCE

7e can use a number of common phrases to introduce our terms of reference2 Fegarding... 8! regard!... (ith regard to... 8! "or the "ood,... 8! to whether... )n hi!torical term!,... 6ingui!tically ! eaking,... )n term! o" co!t,... 8 ro o! o" co!t!,...

3 ;ill in t"e missing word in eac" o! t"ese ("rases)


a 9999999999 re&ards pa'ment4 b 9999999999 re&ard to a discount4 T +hen it comes99999999999999999999 pa'in&4 d +ith reference99999999999999999999'our in)oice4 e 9999999999 the ?uestion of commission4

MA9ING SPECIFIC REFERENCE

7e can use a ran&e of +ords and phrases to add precise information to a &eneral statement2 7ur o tion!, namely =ngli!h "or :u!ine!! or ,ouri!m,... ,he :u!ine!! !tudent!, in articular / articularly tho!e in the &arketing de artment,... ,he town$! !tudent di!co!, notably =n"er, 8lcatra? and <iablo, are o""ering... Some em loyee!, or to be more ! eci"ic, tho!e in Section 8, are...

ARRANGING DATA

7e use a number of +ords and common phrases to e1press ho+ information is arran&ed9 For e1ample2 )$d like to take every other &onday o"". ) only want every alternate &onday. )$ve worked on thi! three day! con!ecutively. Huko and Huki got an 8 and Q R re! ectively. 6i!t the battle! in chronological order. 8re they arranged al habetically or chronologically'

2 ;ill in t"e missing (re(osition in eac" o! t"ese ("rases)


a accordin&9999999999999999'our report d9999999999999999999999 random b 9999999999 oldest to 'oun&est e9999999999 order of merit T alphabeticall'999999999999999999first name f99999999999999999999numerical order
/ REFERRING TO W8AT 8AS GONE BEFORE

7e use man' phrases B often sentence ad)erbials 3see Anit :4 Section 5 B that refer to +hat has &one before9 7e canLt use them on their o+n2 in !uch circum!tance! at that time accordingly be that a! it may becau!e o" that con!equently $ ;ill in t"e missing word in eac" o! t"ese phrases9 a in999999999999da's d as if that +ere not9999999999999999999999

1!2

RE8ERENC E ;ORAS 7
VERBS T8AT FOCUS ATTENTION ON A REFERENCE

a *bout this letter 'ou +rote to us on 19 ,ctober last4 thereLs no +a' +e can a&ree4 re!erence : Octo#er : regret : in!orm :

/here are man' )erbs +e can use to focus attention on a particular reference point9 8ere are some e1amples2 highlight "ocu! on make mention o" re"er to oint out in oint ! ell out in down em ha!i!e lay !tre!! on underline oint u ! eci"y

una#le : demands
b 7ell4 first of all4 'ouL)e &ot to realise that .ome +asnLt built in a da'4 ha)enLt 'ouD !irst : make : suc" (roHects : time T 8e spent a +hile tr'in& to la' do+n the la+ and then he +al0ed out9

VERBS T8AT FOCUS IN AN INDIRECT WAY

o(ening : "al! an "our : attem(ted : assert : aut"orit' : a!ter : le!t : room


d Kou 0no+ 'ou +ere sa'in& about the &ara&e4 +ell4 I thin0 itLs all ri&ht as it is9

7e can also use certain )erbs to focus indirectl'4 but so that the listener H reader can &uess +hat +e mean9 .er are some e1amples2 im ly indicate hint at !ugge!t in!inuate intimate

regard : we : o(inion : action : necessar' e 7hen it


comes to e1perience 'ouL)e &ot to plump for Ian rather than <i0e9

terms : o#*iousl' : stronger candidate f So that 'ou

Practice

0no+ +hatLs &oin& on4 %imos and <aria ha)enLt ?uite made it this term9

;ill eac" o! t"e num#ered #lanks wit" one suita#le word)


*s a follo+Bup to our series on the t+o ma-or football clubs in <anchester499999999999999999999 315 Anited and (it'4 +e 999999999999 325 attention this +ee0 on the bi& t+o North London teams4999999999999999999 3$5 *rsenal and /ottenham 8otspur9 For the uninitiated4 the999999999999999999999999 3"5 are referred to as LSpursL4 +hile the9999999999999999999999 3 5 &lor' in the nic0name L/he =unnersL9 In the 199:B9! season4 the' finished first and se)enteenth9999999999999999999 3#5 in the Premiership9 7hat is 999999999999 3:54 *rsenal +ent on to +in the %ouble4 that is to 999999999999 3!5 the Lea&ue (hampionship and the F* (up4 +hile Spurs stru&&led9 /o ma0e matters e)en9999999999999999999999999999 3954 apart from9999999999999999 3105 aforeBmentioned titles &oin& *rsenalLs +a'4 /ottenham fans had to +atch as their 7est London nei&hbours4 (helsea4 carried off the European (upB+inners (up9 *nd to9999999999999999999999 3115 it all4 their team finished belo+ their East London ri)als4 7est 8am4 in the lea&ue9 /he reasons for99999999999999 3125 mi1ed fortunes are hard to999999999999999 31$5999999999 31"5 paper both firstBteam s?uads loo0ed stron&9 In financial999999999999999999999931 54 both +ere reasonabl' secure and +hen it999999999999999999999999 31#5 to cash for bu'in& ne+ pla'ers4 the mone' +as &enerall' a)ailable9 So +h' did one team prosper and one all but &i)e up the &hostD Pundits ma0e99999999999999999999 31:5 of lon& in-ur' lists4 unfor&i)in& fans harp9999999999999999999 31!5 about bad refereein& decisions in 0e' matches4 others -ust9999999999999999999999999 3195 it do+n to luc09 *s99999999999999999 3205 the current season4 *rsenal are loo0in& ominousl' stron& a&ain +hile Spurs loo0 distinctl' )ulnerable4 to sa' the least9

2 -nderline t"e word& a& #& G or d& t"at #est


com(letes eac" sentence)

I : oug"t : make : clear : two : namel' : !ailed : e,(ectations

I
3

/he9999999999999 are of the opinion that the' ha)e been badl' treated9 a under+ritten # undersi&ned G belo+ d initialled 2 *s a partner I accept full responsibilit' but b' the same99999999999999999999999I feel others should too9 a si&n # reference G to0en d meanin& 3 7hen it9999999999999999to helpin& +ith the house+or04 he is absolutel' hopeless9 a refers # &oes G comes d amounts 4 7e999999999999 to 'our communication of <a'9 a repl' # respond G refer d ans+er 5 Be999999999999 as it ma'4 I am afraid an' 0ind of financial compensation is out of the ?uestion4 a it # that G this d +hich 6 8e had an a+ful crash +hen he +as about 2 4 since99999999999999999999999he has been a model dri)er9 a this # +hen G that d then 7 It +ould be useful if +e could9999999999999999999999999999the reasons for our failure9 a pinpoint # ans+er G underline d focus D 7e need to999999999999999999 the main points of our ar&ument9 a pin # hi&hli&ht G spotli&ht d enli&hten

Rewrite eac" o! t"e sentences in a more !ormal st'le using t"e (rom(t words in t"e order gi*en)

VOCABULARY

SECTION 8
*roblems and solutions
1
W8ERE DO OUR PROBLEMS COME FROMO

he operation is irrever!ible. $ -se t"e !ollowing adHecti*es to com(lete t"e collocation) insurmountable un!athomable incurable irreparable una'oidable indecipherable a an9999999999999dela' d dama&e b an disease e obstacles T 9999999999hand+ritin& f reasons

<an' )erbs collocate +ith the noun problem 3see Anit 14 Section # for an introduction to collocation52 *roblems can ari!e/cro u / re!ent them!elve! / recur. A recurring roblem i! one o! the worstB 7e can also use other )erbs and phrases6 %e encounter/ e# erience di!!iculties. #ometimes we hit a snag. %e come u again!t a bric& wall and !ind !omething 4li&e money) a !tumbling block.

Practice

Com(lete eac" sentence wit" a suita#le ("rase)

W8ERE ARE WE W8EN PROBLEMS ARISEO

7e use se)eral common phrases to describe a problematical situation9 8ere are some e1amples2 in a quandary in a dilemma in dire !trait! in a redicament <ore informall' +e can use2 a bit !tuck in a 5am in a "i# in a hole in trouble

a 7e must99999999999999999999 these obstacles9 b I +as at a loss99999999999999999999999 respond9 T Kou shouldnLt tr' to run99999999999999999999999999999problems9 d ILm afraid sheLs made a real999999999999999999999999999999life9 e %onLt bur' sand6 face facts9 f ILm confident these final details99999999999999999999999999999999 out9

8OW TO FACE PROBLEMS

7e use man' )erbs and common )erb phrases to tal0 about ho+ +e face problems2 /ne solution is to run away "rom them( ignore them( bury our head! in the !and, hope they$ll go away. %e ma$ wa!h our hand! o" the matter, !hirk our re! on!ibility, a!! the buck. Iut then this ma$ come back to haunt u! one da$. 1o doubt the best solution is to con"ront the problem (head on), tackle it( deal with it( !ort it out on the ! ot / there and then. *erhaps we should take the bull by the horn!, sa$ $,he buck !to ! here$, !tand u and be counted, !houlder the re! on!ibility and !ort it out once and "or all.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS AND T8EIR OUTCOME

7e can also use man' )erbs and common )erb phrases to tal0 about ho+ +e deal +ith problems2 0! there is uncertainty and doubts( we must di! el them. #tandards must be maintained. )eadlines and demands must be met. he mission must be accom li!hed and success must be achieved. Minor details can be ironed out later. ) ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" one o! t"ese *er#s) o'ercome a'erted reached struc& restored a *&reement can be999 b * deal can be999 T /hese obstacles must be999 d In this +a' a disaster +ould be999 e (onfidence +ill be999
/ IDIOMATIC P8RASES

En&lish is full of idiomatic phrases relatin& to problems and solutions2 He7s been a "ly in the ointment/a real headache/ a ain in the neck. < -nderline t"e o(tion t"at #est com(letes t"e idiomatic ("rase) a LetLs bur' the axe ! hatchet. b 7eL)e turned the corner ! switch. T KouLll rise abo'e ! o'er it9 d 7eL)e &ot our bac0s to the wall ! sun. e 7eLre in a ti&ht corner ! bend. f %onLt put all 'our shopping ! eggs in one bas0et9
2 INSOLUBLE PROBLEMS

Sometimes problems can be so serious that there is no apparent solution2 His beha'iour is incom rehen!ible.

CROBLEMS ANA SOLUTIONS 5

Y ;ill eac" o! t"e ga(s wit" one o! t"e adHecti*es listed)


ExampleF > incomprehensible unpronounceable incompatible unwor&able insoluble unmanageable 4incomprehensible5 inscrutable unapproachable illegible unintelligible uncontrollable irretrie'able inconsolable 30 8is sudden outburst at the mention of LLindaL +as totall'99999999999999999995 1 I thin0 'ouLll find ultimatel' that 'our plan is totall'99999999999999999999999 1 7ith his &runts and side+a's loo0s the boss &i)es the impression of bein& e1tremel'999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1 7hat +as +ritten on the fa1 from <on&olia +as almost totall'9999999999999999999999999999 1 /hou&h the' had a fe+ hobbies in common4 the couple ac0no+led&ed that the' +ere99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 1 7ith the bad line4 +hat she said +as )irtuall' # 7e tried our best but the problem pro)ed to be

6 7

/he +ound +ill999999999999999999in a +ee0 or t+o9 a heal # cure G remed' d co)er KouLll be as &ood as9999999999999999999before 'ou 0no+ it9 a rain # ne+ G &old d an o1

8eLs e1perienced somethin& of a999999999999999999999999999in his fortunes latel'9 a hole # sna& G dip d hitch D Sooner or later 'ouLll ha)e to9999999999999999999999999'our problems head on9 a tac0le # o)ercome G clear d settle E I thin0 thereLs onl' one person +ho can99999999999999999999999999999999 +ith this problem9 a handle # sol)e G deal d tac0le 10 ,ne of us must ensure that standards are99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 a accomplished # retained G maintained d follo+ed

* Polish name +ith ei&ht consonants and a 7$7 is practicall'9999999999999999999999 for an En&lish mouth9 7 IL)e been to almost e)er' salon in to+n but m' hair is still99999999999999999999999999

1F 11 12

I sometimes ha)e this almost9999999999999999999999999ur&e to run do+n our street +ith no clothes on9 8e -ust sat there throu&hout the +hole conference +ith an impassi)e49999999999999999999999999999loo0 on his face9 She burst into tears +hen he left and +as99999999999999999999999999999 for some hours after+ards9 *n'9999999 e1penses +ill ha)e to be deducted from the refund 'ou recei)e9 Rewrite eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in two di!!erent

wa's using t"e (rom(t words t"at !ollow) ExampleF 8eLs sufferin& from some sort of depressi)e illness at the moment4 de(ression de(ressed He7s su!!ering !rom some sort o! depression at the moment. .eEs *er' depressed at the moment. a 8e said that +hat I had +as incurable4 cured cure b /his in-ection +ill be ?uite painless4 I assure 'ou9 "urt (ain T /he a&ein& process is re&rettabl' irre)ersible9 im(ossi#le re*ersed d ItLs hi&h time this dispute +as settled9 enoug" solution e Kou canLt duc0 'our paternal responsibilities4 #ack run f In the e)ent of somethin& &oin& +ron&4 -ust contact me9 arises s"ould g 7eLll no doubt learn ho+ to sol)e our problems9 di!!iculties answer h /his pencil is too blunt to

+rite +ith9 s"ar(ening #eing i /his +ill onl' e1acerbate the problem9 worse worsening - Kour direct inter)ention mi&ht alle)iate this problematical situation9 im(ro*ed #etter

Y -nderline t"e o(tion& a& #& G or d& t"at #est com(letes eac"
sentence)

1 2 3 4

8eLs been &oin& throu&h a bad999999999999999999999999999for some time9 a strea0 # mess G front d patch ILm99999999999bet+een t+o courses of action9 a stretched # torn G ripped d suspended Kou reall' must9999999999999999'ourself to&ether9 a &rip # pull G sort d dra+ Perhaps +e could tr' and99999999999999999999999 our little misunderstandin& of last +ee09 a +or0 out # polish off G clear up d +ear off

E&am p a#t$#% ))

) Finish each of the following sentences so that it is as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t?
EXAMPLE -

mo#el railway enthusiast.

&he male of the s'ecies is usually res'onsible for 'ro"i#ing

foo#. It is t"e male o" t"e ! ecie! who i! usuall' re! on!ible "or

roviding "ood.
a &here were some com'laints0 most of them concerning the foo#. &here were some com'laints0 the ................................................... b A lot of 'eo'le here shoul# consi#er a healthier life:style. &here ................................................................................................ P ou will be 'ai# e/tra if you ha"e to work on a Sun#ay. ou may ha"e to work on a Sun#ay0 for ......................................... " &he Princi'al will make a s'eech an# 'resent you with your certificate. A s'eech will be ma#e by the Princi'al0 from .................................................................................................. % I'm s'eechlessB I #on't ................................................................................................ ( A ,a<< 'ianist with a fantastic "oice 'lays there on Fri#ays. A ,a<< 'ianist0 whose ....................................................................... 0 &his is e/actly the situation we were trying to a"oi#. &his situation .................................................................................... , &here were "ery few suggestions for im'ro"ing the working en"ironment an# most of those came from the boss. +hat ................................................................................................. $ I met my wife in Athens while I was #oing research. Athens is ........................................................................................... 7 I 'refer to lea"e most of the book:kee'ing to the en# of the month. &he en# of the month .......................................................................

Fill each of the numbere# blanks with a suitable wor# or 'hrase.

In the s'ring of 2;;>0 the French re"olutionary &alleyran# went to 'ay his res'ects to Doltaire. E"en in a society ....................... 123 the worl#liness of the clergy was notorious0 ......................... 143 was a little unseemly. &he ink....................... 1(3 har#ly #rie# on his theology #egree from the Sorbonne before the young 'riest0 by........................ 163 a #elegate to the Assembly of the Clergy0 hastene# to #o homage to the most notorious scourge of the Church. &he "isit ............ 183 was un#ertaking ha# a fla"our of filial im'iety to itG &alleyran# .......................... 1*3 un#oubte#ly in search of a father figure ............................ 1;3 satisfactory than his natural 'arents. It was ............................... 1>3 who ............ 1?3 'lace# him in the han#s of a nurse an# she............... 12)3 ha# let him #ro' from a cabinet0 ............ 1223 a bone in his foot................................ 12 43 woul# ne"er men#. Aisgrace# as a cri''le0 the young &alleyran# was0 ..................... 12(3 effect0 also #isinherite#. For a boy .......................... 1263 coul# neither fence nor #ance coul# ne"er ho'e to succee# either at court or in the army0 ................................ 1283 only two callings ................ 12*3 for someone of his backgroun#. .nly one 'ossible course ................................... 12;3a career in the Church0 .......................... 12>3 he might rise in wealth an# eminence0 but.............................. 12?3 which0 ............ 14)3 was 'lain early on0 he ha# the #ee'est a"ersion.

+456
3
Fill each blank with !n% suitable wor# or 'hrase. a I #on't know who first thought of the solution0 but whoe"er..................... brilliant. b &his 'ainting0 ....................... anonymous benefactor0 has been in the 'ossession of the museum for o"er a #eca#e. P +ill all ................... aske# for theatre tickets 'lease collect them from the bo/ office0 " I often use# to tra"el to &hassos0 which ........................................ I first met 7eorge0 % 7eorge0 ................... to as 'the fat controller'0 is a

- Com'lete each sentence with the most suitable wor# or 'hrase.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I'm sorry to say that it seems you'"e been ..................................... your res'onsibilities. A shoul#ering F #is'elling G e/'eriencing D shirking Plans to buil# a new air'ort suffere# a ma,or....................................... when the go"ernment refuse# to fun# the 'ro,ect. A challenge A incom'atible A a"ert accuse#. A #ilemma A illegible her 'ath. A 'ulle# F 'u<<le F im'enetrable G loss G im'ermeable D incorrigible D 'roblem I fin# the 'rose style of many American writers "irtually ................................................ !er incre#ible energy an# #etermination sim'ly....................................... asi#e any 'roblems 'lace# in F cleane# G mo"e# D swe't F with#rawal F una"oi#able F restore G unworkable G setback D insurmountable G allay D hit D #eflation &he committee's i#eas were #eeme# to be imaginati"e but in 'ractical terms ............................................................. Let me............... your fears by saying I en"isage no further hitches. &he ,u#ge foun# himself in a............................. when he realise# he was relate# to the

&he 'roblem of fin#ing trans'ort to the outback was ........................................... by the recent torrential F #ee'ene# G shar'ene# D fulfille#

rains. A e/acerbate#

Meanwhile0 as ................. 'ayment0 we will sen# you an in"oice before the en# of the F regar#e# F the 5uestion of F ran#om G regar# to G regar#s D the interest of G chance D se5uence D regar#ing

month.

1F 11 12

A regar# A reference to A or#er too. A matters A mention A 'rior 'hiloso'hy. A em'hasise

.ur #eliberations on .................. staffing reache# no clear conclusion. &he three winners were 'icke# from a 'ile of entries entirely at.................................................. $ecause I was there0 I feel res'onsible0 which by the same .......................................... means you shoul#0 F case F 'oint F earlier G instance G highlight G 'reliminary D token D stress D 'rece#ing

) ' &he course seems to lay 'articular...................................... on learning the theory behin# the 'ractice.

14 15

+e were greete# in rece'tion ........................ to being shown roun# the factory. &his afternoon0 we are to ..................... on the relationshi' between literature an# F 'in'oint G focus D s'otlight

tL* Un*t

t/e"7e

Emphasis
Entry test
) F$n$s, %a#, !( t,% (!ll!*$n0 s%nt%n#%s $n su#, a *ay t,at $t $s as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? a P%t% us,%" $nt! t,% !!m: l!!<$n0 ,!t an" (lus,%"?

F$ll %a#, !( t,% 0aps $n t,%s% s%nt%n#%s *$t, a su$tabl% *! " !

p, as%?
EXAMPLE >

W,at I l$<%" m!st ab!ut t,% ($lm *as t,% (antast$#

%n"$n0? a Y!u l!!< t$ %"> *,at?????????????????????????? a 0!!" ,!l$"ay?

ItTs n!t s% $!us> all t,at?????????????????????? I bump%" sl$0,tly $nt! t,% #a $n ( !nt:

Int! ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? I #anTt b%l$%.% ,$m !p%n$n0 a %stau ant at ,$s a0%? T,at ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

P It *as Rut,?????????????????????? t! ans*% $n0 t,% p,!n%

P I *!ul" l!.% t! play t%nn$s at $nt% nat$!nal l%.%l?

%.%ntually? It???????????? .$s$t t! O&(! " t,at I ($ st %al$s%" I #!ul" sp%a< En0l$s, ;u$t% (lu%ntly: %al$s%" *,at t,% t$m% *as t,at

T!???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 8% n%.% ,a.$n0 us%" s!(t*a % l$<% t,$s b%(! % $s t,% p !bl%m? N%.% ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

e It *as !nly??????????????????????

I un"% st!!" *,y $t *as s! "a <?

e My bus$n%ss pa tn% Ts ab$l$ty t! ma<% m!n%y $s n!t,$n0 s,! t !(


$n# %"$bl%?
FOR EMP8ASIS USING &*AT, A'', AND !T, SEE SECTION '?

4 8OR 8RONTING, SEE SECTION 1.

F$n$s, %a#, !( t,% (!ll!*$n0 s%nt%n#%s $n su#, a *ay t,at $t $s

as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t? a IT.% n%.% b%%n pa t$#ula ly $nt% %st%" $n stamp #!ll%#t$n0?

It

IT.% n%.% ,a" ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? C, $s says s,% "!%snTt %ally *ant t! 0! t! t,% s#$%n#% mus%um at all? C, $s says s,% ,as???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

+ F$n$s, %a#, !( t,% (!ll!*$n0 s%nt%n#%s $n su#, a *ay t,at $t $s as s$m$la as p!ss$bl% $n m%an$n0 t! t,% s%nt%n#% p $nt%" b%(! % $t?
EXAMPLE>

P T,at T$m $s abl% t! # %at% #,a!s a !un" ,$m n%.% (a$ls t! ast!un" m%? T,%?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? I *as su p $s%" at t,% l%n0t,s ,% *as p %pa %" t! 0! t! a#,$%.% ,$s a$ms? I (!un" $t ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Cat $!naTs t$m%ly $nt% .%nt$!n p %.%nt%" t,% s$tuat$!n

( !m "%s#%n"$n0 $nt! #,a!s? It *as t,an<s t! Cat $!na t,at t,% 51 Ttuat$!n "$"nTt de!cend $nt! #,a!s? a N!t unt$l a(t% s$& !T#l!#< "$" Ca !lyn 0%t ,% %?

It ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? I *asnTt su p $s%" t,at *%T" l!st t,% mat#,? It ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

e E.% y!n% #!n"%mn%" t,% "%#$s$!n t! <n!#< "!*n t,% ,$st! $#


bu$l"$n0? T,% "%#$s$!n t! <n!#< "!*n t,% ,$st! $# bu$l"$n0 m%t??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

P I "!nTt ,a.% t! p!$nt !ut ,!* lat% $t $s?

T,% % ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Int% %st $n "$0$tal t%l%.$s$!n ,as 0 !*n !.% t,% last y%a ? T,% % ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

FOR NOMINALISATION: SEE SECTION -?

e T,%$ %#<l%ssn%ss $s un(! 0$.abl%: $( y!u as< m%?


I ($n" $t ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

FOR INTRODUCTORY T*E>E AND !T, SEE SECTION <)

Section <)1

EMC? ASIS

OVERVIEW
We can em("asise words or (arts o! sentences in a *ariet' o! wa's)

STRESS AND INTONATION

W"en s(eaking& we stress a word and gi*e it a "ig"er (itc") In writing& we use italics or underline t"e word%
) !aid ) liked the blue one!, not the green. 7h, "or goodne!!$ !ake, what i! it thi! timer

USING STRONGER WORDS

We can em("asise our !eelings #' using nouns& adHecti*es& *er#s& etc) wit" a muc" stronger meaning t"an normal& neutral words% Our team hammered the o o!ition B09 9 Q de!eated1
) "ound her li"e-!tory ab!olutely riveting.

9Q *er' interesting1

ADDING OT8ER WORDS

We can em("asise our !eelings #' adding words and ("rases) ;or e,am(le% #' adding do@
:ut it$! true* ) did give it back to you*

#' adding intensi!'ing words and ("rases 9see Section #52


&y !on$! really good at ba!ketball. &y ho!t! went to con!iderable length! to make !ure ) wa! com"ortable.

#' adding re!le,i*e (ronouns 9also called Eem("aticE (ronouns1 9see also -nit 1"4 Section 152 -e managed to do
it him!el".

#' adding ot"er (ronouns 9see also -nit 94 Section 15


/redrick! and :oldon both "ini!hed with a time o" M1.1S !econd!.

#' adding link words and ("rases% :oth Simon and


:ernardine are u!hing G1. ,hey not only look !imilar, they !ound the !ame a! well.

REPETITION

We can also re(eat words in order to em("asise t"em%


,hat wa! the wor!t !ong )$ve ever heard or ever want to hear. ,he ile gave o"" a terrible !mell, a !mell which reminded her o" her hu!band$! !ock!. We can re(eat words linked wit" and or a (re(osition% .e ran and ran until he could go no "urther.

T"is is es(eciall' common wit" time ("rases% )$ve told


you time and time again not to ick your no!e. ,hi! Auestion kee ! coming u year a"ter year.

SENTENCE ADVERBS

We also use ad*er#s t"at em("asise t"e w"ole sentence 9see also -nit 7& Section 81%
8bove all, we mu!t !tay calm. Hou look a com lete me!!, to ut it mildly.

PASSIVES

+' c"anging t"e order o! su#Hect and o#Hect& and #' sometimes omitting t"e agent& t"e (assi*e "el(s us c"ange t"e em("asis o! a sentence !rom w"o did it& to w"at "a((ened 9see -nit <1%
6anc"ester -nited have beaten 8r!enal again.

#ecomes% 8r!enal have been beaten again.

OT8ER GRAMMATICAL C8ANGES

T"e !ollowing Sections o! t"is -nit descri#e ot"er grammatical c"anges we make to em("asise words or (arts o! a sentence% !ronting 9see Section 15 introductor' tEt and there 9see Section <1 cle!t sentences 9see Section $5 nominalisation 9see Section "5 9;or in*ersion a!ter negati*e ad*er#s& see -nit 7&

1!9

Practice

SECTION I
@ronting
) W8AT IS FRONTINGO

he door opened and in came )aphne. (hat we$re going to do 0 don7t &now. Darticularly good was his second boo&.

7e ma' mo)e information to the be&innin& of the sentence to pro)ide a clear lin0 +ith +hat comes before2 He planned to complete the painting in time !or the opening ceremon$. ,hi! he did( but onl$ 8ust. he$ loo&ed out to sea. 7n the hori?on he could see a number o! ships.

Frontin& in)ol)es mo)in& an ob-ect4 )erb or ad)erbial phrase to a position before the sub-ect2 Asual Fronted

FRONTING NOUN CLAUSES

he door opened and )aphne came in. 0 don7t &now what we$re going to do. His second boo& was articularly good. he swimmers di'ed into the water. 0 waited all week !or $our phone call. he$ walked !lowly into the garden. 07'e never seen anything so aw!ul.

)nto the water di'ed the swimmers. 8ll week 0 waited !or $our phone call. Slowly, the$ wal&ed into the garden. Bever ha'e 0 seen anything so aw!ul.

7e can front noun clauses in fairl' formal En&lish 3see Anit 1052 (here he went 0 ha'e no idea. ,hat he ran a marathon at hi! age is unbelie'able. ,o read all Shake! eare$! lay! is m$ ambition. <ore commonl' +e use a toBinfiniti)e or thatBclauses after 0t 3 see Section 252 )t is unbelie'able that he ran a marathon at hi! age. )t is m$ great ambition to read all Shake! eare$! lay!.

USING INTRODUCTION P8RASES

7e often use introduction phrases4 especiall' in spo0en En&lish4 to si&nal that +hat +eLre about to sa' is important2 ,he thing i!, 0 ha'en7t got an$ mone$. ,he "act remain! that we7'e made a mista&e. ,he oint i! we should be there b$ now. 7e can also use phrases +ith the same pattern 4 he > noun > be5 to focus on the point of +hat +e are sa'in& or +ritin&9 8ere are e1amples2 ,he que!tion i!-are we read$ !or the radical changes being proposed> ,he truth i! 07m 8ust too tired to concentrate properl$. ,he roblem i! she 8ust re!uses to wor& with me. ,he trouble i! her attitude upsets 8ust about e'er$one. m

3For in)ersion after ne&ati)e ad)erbs4 see Anit :4 Section 295

ItLs unusual to end a sentence +ith be as a result of frontin&9 /herefore +e in)ert the sub-ect and )erb2 s L'in& in the !ield three men were. ; :$ing in the !ield were three men. C 7hen +e front a prepositional phrase of place or mo)ement4 +e normall' in)ert the sub-ect and )erb9 /his is not usual +ith other prepositional phrases2 s At se'en o7cloc& arri'ed the remo'al 'an. ; /ut o! the water 8umped the penguins.
+ W8Y DO WE USE FRONTINGO

/here are t+o main reasons for usin& frontin&2 C In En&lish the be&innin& of a sentence contains the topic6 ne+ information normall' comes at the end 3see Anit 24 ,)er)ie+59 Frontin& chan&es the order and so chan&es the emphasis2 0 stopped wor& at "our o$clock. 3S the time is the most important information5 8t "our o$clock 0 stopped wor&. 3S stoppin& +or0 is the most important information5 /ic0 3Hi5 the sentences that include e1amples of frontin&9 a Ap in the air +ent the balloon4 b Earl' the follo+in& mornin& +e all &ot into the car9 T /hat people should &et an&r' nobod' e)er anticipated9 d I rushed out of the room4 &rabbin& m' &lasses from the table4 e 7hat happened ne1t +e shall find out ne1t +ee09

)51

GRAMMAR

FRONTING

Y 8ere is one side of a telephone Y


(han&e the order of information in these sentences to emphasise a different part9 <a0e an' +ith one +ord9 other necessar' chan&es9 a 8e burst in throu&h the +indo+9 b /he' crossed the *tlantic in record time9 T 8e destro'ed the first letter9 d 8e put the second letter into his poc0et9 e /he letter +as on the table9 f It is terrible that he +as punished so se)erel'9 & It is )er' difficult to ima&ine him failin&9 h ItLs perhaps not surprisin& that heLs done so +ell9 i I canLt ima&ine ho+ he &ot here so fast9 - 8eLs useless6 thatLs the problem9

con)ersation9 Fill each of the numbered &aps

B7ell4 the thin&99999999999999999999 3154 +e ha)enLt seen 'ou at colle&e for a +ee0 no+9 BBut the +hole999999999999999999999325 of bein& a student is that 'ou stud'9

9999999 3$5 'ou sa' I donLt doubt is true4 but the9999999999999999999999999 3"5 remains that 'our attendance record lea)es a lot to be desired9 BNo4 I thin0 'ouLre missin& the 9999999999 3 54 +hich is that unless 'ou start attendin& more re&ularl'4 +hat9999999999999999999 3#5 'ou had of passin& 'our e1ams at the start of the course is much reduced9 LBut ILm afraid laJ'999999999999999999999999 3:5 +e cannot tolerate9 /he999999999999999 3!5 is +hether 'ou are &oin& to start ta0in& thin&s seriousl'9 9999999999999999999 395 it difficult to &et up in the mornin&99999999999999999 3105 donLt accept as a reasonable e1cuse9 9999999 3115 is ha)in& too far to +al0 to the colle&e e)er' mornin&9

<atch the prompts 3aBf5 +ith those 31B#5 and +rite complete sentences usin& all +ords in

the order &i)en9 ExampleF *ll films H last monthLs H festi)al H &ood best of all H Polish cartoon de the "ilm! at la!t month$! "e!tival were good, #ut be!t o" all wa! a Doli!h cartoon. *+(ti"%-+(-$ )!-i"i#% H lasa&ne b' far H hectic H casualt' e1hilaratin& H still H parascendin& e)en better H cannelloni absolutel' )ital H a H humour e1ceptionall' impressi)e H letterB+ritin&

a <an' ?ualities H re?uired H this -ob b /he piJJa H e1cellent T I)an H ran&e H lin&uistic s0ills d 7aterBs0iin& H e1citin& e *ll H dishes H &ood H that restaurant f *ll H departments H bus'

1 2 $ " #

B /+o hundred999999999999999999999 3125 +e do not consider a lon& +a'9 Ele)en oLcloc0 +e do not 9999999999 31$5 an unearthl' hour for lessons to be&in9 ,ne hour a da' at colle&e +e do not feel9999999999999999 31"5 unreasonable imposition9 Please tr' to attend more re&ularl' or99999999999999999931 5 'ou &o on 'our ear9

.e+rite each of the follo+in& sentences usin& t+o of the ad)erbial particles listed +ith

went andHor came. ExampleF *s the rain started4 people opened their umbrellas9 Coun came the rain and u went the umbrella!, down up out in bac& o'er on o!! across a 7hen the )alue of the pound increased4 the )olume of e1ports fell9 b /he ne+ technocrats too0 o)er +hen the old &uard retired9 T 7hen she +al0ed in4 all those old for&otten feelin&s returned9 d /he +itches lea)e the sta&e and <acbeth enters9 e *s the ball +as crossed4 the &oal0eeper fell to the &round9

Y .earran&e the +ords in each line to ma0e one sentence9


ExampleF that is incredible it it happened It i! incredible that it ha a b T d e f ened. incredible happened is that this amaJin& to +ant it so lea)e is soon she that should soon she lea)e +ant amaJin& that should so is to m'ster' part' +ent after he a is +here the escaped police m'stif' continues ho+ the to he belie)ed find that incredible I him 'ou

303

SECTION <
0ntroductor$ ,here and )t
1
T*E>E AS SUB6ECT

REFERRING FORWARD

Sometimes 0t refers for+ard to a noun clause in the sentence2 )t7s ama2ing what you learn "rom hanging around bar!. )t !rightens me that there are !o many criminal! around. 7e use 0t especiall' +ith thatBclauses4 +hBclauses and toBinfiniti)e clauses that ma' be formal in sub-ect position9 /he sentences abo)e could be re+ritten2 %hat $ou learn !rom hanging around bars is ama2ing. hat there are so man$ criminals around !rightens me.

7e use here 6 be to introduce ne+ information9 /he +ord there has no real meanin& in this structure B it functions as a &rammatical sub-ect2 ,here were two men in the room. 3S /+o men +ere in the room95 #uddenl$( there wa! a loud explosion. ,here are sure to be casualties.

!T , REPORT VERB

INTRODUCTORY !T

0t often refers bac0 to a noun or noun phrase2 1ext $ear7s sales plan is now a'ailable. it contains a !ew changes. 8o+e)er4 sometimes 0t doesnLt refer bac0 to a noun9 Instead +e use it simpl' as a &rammatical sub-ect2 )t7s 'er$ dar& in here. )t was 8ust unbelie'able what the$7d done. 7e use introductor' 0t especiall' +hen describin& thin&s4 e9&9 +ith ad-ecti)es that canLt normall' function as sub-ects9 7e commonl' use 0t to tal0 about the +eather and the time2 )t7s raining. )t7s nearl$ six o7cloc&. )t smells o!!ish in there. *ll En&lish sentences must ha)e a sub-ect9 7hen there is no ob)ious sub-ect for the sentence4 +e &enerall' use here before nouns or noun phrases and 0t before ad-ecti)es and noun clauses2 s 0s cold( isn7t it> + )t7s cold( isn7t it>

Introductor' 0t is common +ith report )erbs used in the passi)e 3see Anit 24 Section 29$52 )t i! thought that man$ people ha'e been in8ured. /he structure +ith 0t 6 seem ! appear 6 that is common in reportin& e)ents9 7e also use 0t would seem ! appear thatF )t a ear! that he7s been promoted. )t would !eem that someone le!t the door unloc&ed.

VERBS FOLLOWED BY !T

Some )erbs are commonl' follo+ed b' it > clause2 0 "ind it strange that the$ ha'en7t told us. 8ere are more e1amples of )erbs +e use in this +a'2 believe con!ider "eel imagine think !u o!e 5udge count reckon gue!!

' !T , CLAUSE

Introductor' 0t is often follo+ed b' a toBinfiniti)e4 -ing( or thatB clause9 7e do this especiall' if +e +ant to emphasise the ad-ecti)e or a)oid frontin& a noun clause 3see Anit 104 Section 152 )t7s di!!icult to under!tand a word he said. )t7s !un working with $ou. )t turned out that he was l$ing to us all along.

7rite F ne1t to the sentences +here it refers for+ard to a clause4 P ne1t to those +here it refers bac04 and s ne1t to those +here it doesnLt refer to an'thin& in the sentence9 a ItLs &ettin& cro+ded no+9 b It is astonishin& ho+ often IL)e been as0ed that ?uestion9 T I bou&ht a ne+ car and it bro0e do+n almost immediatel'4 d 7hat time is itD e Is it true that sheLs run a+a'D

Practice

Y 7rite there$! or it$! in each of the &aps to complete the follo+in&


sentences9 =#am le@ )t$! a &ood -ob 'ou told me +hen 'ou did9 ,here$! little point in &oin& bac0 o)er the same old &round9 a 99999999999999-ust as +ell +e brou&ht our umbrellas9 b 99999999999999 a stron& possibilit' of the (hairman not ma0in& the meetin&9 /m mm 4 4 _9 4 r 4 Its a flood friLino T I &ather99999999999999999999also doubtful 4 4 4 9 1 I[~ +arriftd meB4 +hether his deput' +ill @ 4BBBBBBB be there9 " I d 99999999999999not thou&ht to be :fee "-bm an' serious ris0 in)ol)ed TU h in the operation9 L &;L e 99999999999999no use pleadin& HHII +ith me6 I ha)e no sa' in I1llII8 g( the matter +hatsoe)er4 f 99999999999999no shame attached to bein& beaten b' a pla'er of his calibre4 & %onLt 'ou thin09999999999999999999999999an' chance at all that he +as unfairl' dismissedD h 99999999999999no &ood feelin& sorr' for 'ourself6 +hatLs done is done4 i 999999999999999a lot to be said for )e&etarianism4 in m' opinion9 - 999999999999999a shame 'ou +onLt be able to see 'our o+n son recei)e his de&ree4 o 99999999999999&enerall' belie)ed to be a &ood thin& to &et ei&ht hoursL sleep a ni&ht9 1 7ouldnLt 'ou sa'99999999999999999999999all a ?uestion of habit ho+ lon& 'ou need to sleepD

T People are optimistic that this ne+ dru& +ill be a success4 hoped d I realised all of a sudden that +e had been stitched up9 occurred e 7e disco)ered e)entuall' that all the &oods had been stolen4 transpired f /he polls point to+ards a landslide )ictor' for the presidential part'4 indication

(omplete each of the follo+in& sentences +ith a suitable

+ord or phrase9 =#am le@ It is common 0no+led&e that superstitious people li)e lon&er4 isnLt itD a I9999999999999999absolutel' amaJin& that in this da' and a&e superstitions are so rife4 b It stri0es99999999999999999999so odd that people still fret for da's o)er a bro0en mirror4 T .estaurants are half full of people999999999999999999999999999999999necessar' to thro+ a fe+ &rains of an' spilt salt o)er their shoulders9 d <ost of the people I 0no+ belie)e999999999999999999999999999999999be an unnecessar' ris0 to +al0 under a ladder9 e It is +idel'999999999999999999999&ro+n men and +omen that crac0s in the pa)ement should not be stepped on9 f But I must confess I consider9999999999999999999999999999999be m' ma-or ambition in life to find a fourBleaf clo)er9

L8!$

Finish each of the follo+in& sentences in such a +a' that it is

as similar as possible in meanin& to the sentence before it9 =#am le@ Sho+ers are 0no+n to be better for 'ou than baths9 It is common knowledge that !hower! are better "or you than bath!. a It loo0s as if thereLs been an accident o)er there9 /here 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b ILm &lad +e decided to come b' train9 ItLs99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T /he speed at +hich 'oun& children ac?uire lan&ua&e is ?uite incredible9 ItLs 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d No doubt there +as a terrible ro+ +hen the mista0e +as disco)ered9 /here is sure 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e Such beha)iour is totall' ine1cusable9 /here 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /he choice of restaurant is entirel' 'ours9 ItLs entirel' up99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

For each of the sentences belo+4 +rite a ne+ sentence as similar as possible in meanin& to the ori&inal sentence4 but usin& the +ord &i)en9 =#am le@ ItLs no &ood sittin& feelin& sorr' for 'ourself4 point ,here$! no oint in !itting "eeling !orry "or your!el". a IL)e onl' -ust realised +hat our director meant b' that comment4 da+ned b Kou should ha)e been at the part'6 'ou +ould ha)e en-o'ed it9 pit'

GRAMMAR

to emphasise a prepositional phrase2 )t wa! "rom -eather that 0 heard the news. )t wa! in 6ondon that he met his !irst wi!e. +ith because to &i)e reasons2 )t wa! becau!e you$re clever that 0 married $ou. +ith when or until to emphasise time2 )t wa! only when he honed that 0 realised #he threw the 8ug out o! what had happened. the window. )t wa!n$t until ,ue!day that the$ !inall$ deli'ered the eAuipment.

SECTION <
Emphasis using (hat, 8ll and )t
) EMP8ASISING AN ACTION WIT8 &*AT

/o emphasise an action4 +e can use a structure +ith %hat 6 do. 3/he full structure is %hat > sub-ect > do 6 be 6 infiniti)e +ith or +ithout to952 -sual W"at))) He put the pot on the table. 07m going to persuade him to come earlier. (hat he did wa! (to) ut the pot on the table. (hat )$m going to do i! er!uade him to come earlier. 7e commonl' use this structure +hen demonstratin& a procedure or tellin& someone about a se?uence of e)ents2 (hat you do ne#t i! "old the top le!t corner bac& on itsel!. "ichard ran into the o!!ice. 7rite 7 ne1t to the sentences that contain a what-clause or allBclause4 Q ne1t to those that contain a cleft sentence4 and s ne1t to an' that contain neither9 a 7hat +e did +as to &o bac0 to the be&innin& and start a&ain4 b Kour pro&ress is all ILm concerned +ith4 T 8e promised to call me but it +asnLt until later that +ee0 that he e)entuall' phoned4 d It is unbelie)able the len&ths I had to &o to in securin& the contract4 e I thin0 itLs because +e ha)e the same sense of humour that +e +or0 so +ell to&ether9

OT8ER WAYS OF USING W8@CLAUSES

7e can emphasise a +hole action or series of actions +ith a similar structure usin& %hat 6 happen 6 be 6 that-clauseF (hat ha ened next wa! (that) he dropped it. (hat ha ened wa! (that) the$ all ran awa$ as soon as the$ saw the police car coming. 7e can also use fronted +hBclauses +ith be as a sort of introductor' phrase2 (hat ) think i! (that) she should resign. (hat you need i! a holida$. (hat %live i! is a pain in the nec&. ,ccasionall'4 the +hatBclause comes at the end of the sentence2 8 good rest is what ) need. Gour lateness is what ) want to talk about.

USING A'' INSTEAD OF &*AT

7e can use all instead of what to mean Lthe onl' thin&L9 /his su&&ests that +hat happens is not )er' bi& or important2 8ll we are going to do i! ta&e $our teeth out. 8ll that ha ened wa! that a window was bro&en.

EMP8ASISING NOUNS WIT8 !T , <E , T*AT ! &*O

/o emphasise nouns4 +e can use a structure +ith 0t 6 be 6 that ! who. /hese structures are sometimes called Lcleft sentencesL2

-sual

Cle!t sentence )t wa! the 5ug (that) she threw out o! the window. 3S not4 for e1ample4 the cup5 or2 )t wa! the window (that) she threw the 8ug out o!. 3S not4 for e1ample4 the door5 )t wa! "ichard who ran into the o!!ice. 3S not Bernard5 or2 )t wa! the o""ice (that) "ichard ran into. 3S not the 0itchen 5

(left sentences allo+ us to stress a noun4 often in contrast to +hat +e ha)e alread' said2 ) lo'e going to Cornwall in summer( but it$! in the winter that it7s at its best.
/ EMP8ASISING OT8ER PARTS OF T8E SENTENCE

7e can also use a cleft sentence to focus on other parts of the sentence4 not -ust nouns9 7e can use it2 to emphasise an action b' usin& a &erund2 )t wa! learning to ! eak /rench that he !ound most en8o$able at school( 3not4 for e1ample4 pla'in& football5

307

Practice

Y In each sentence one of the underlined +ords or phrases does not


fit9 7rite the number beside it in the space and the correct +ord or phrase9 ExampleF *ll 'ou 315 ha)e to do is tell me 325 e)er'thin& +hat 3$5 happened once 'ou 3"5 left the hotel4 that a 7hat 'ou did 315 +ron& +as that 325 'ou started on the top coat before 3$5 the undercoat that +as 3"5 dr'9 99999999999999999999 b *ll that 315 happened that I 325 told him +hat I thou&ht of 3$5 him in no uncertain 3"5 terms 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T It +as 315 +hile tr'in& 325 to mend the +indo+ +hen 3$5 I fell off the ladder9999999999999999999999999999 d 8e claimed to li0e 315 music but it +as 325 literature +hat 3$5 he lo)ed more than an'thin& else 3"599999999999999999 e *ll 3151 lo)e most about the +eather 325 in this countr' is that 3$5 it is totall' unreliable99999999999999999999999999999999999 f 8e left the countr' at the a&e of 315 t+ent' and it +as 325 onl' after se)eral 'ears +hen 3$5 he returned9999999999999999999 & I mislaid m' +eddin& rin& once and it 315 +asnLt before 325 +e e)entuall' mo)ed house that it 3$5 came to li&ht 3"5 a&ain99999999999999999999999999 h ItHs 315 not learnin& 325 ne+ +ords that I find 3$5 difficult4 and 3"5 rememberin& them999999999999999999999999999999999

opened her mouth9 It +as999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d Kour place of birth doesnLt determine 'our accent6 the place 'ou spend 'our childhood in does9 ItLs not +here 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e 8is actions didnLt brin& about his do+nfall6 l'in& about them did9 It +asnLt +hat 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f Kou donLt 0no+ +ho 'our real friends are until a time li0e that9 ItLs onl' 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & 8is -o0es in themsel)es are not funn'6 his manner of tellin& them is9 ItLs ho+ 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h /he salar' increase +asnLt +h' I sta'ed on6 'ou +ere the reason9 It +asnLt 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

EMC?ASIS USING ;?AT, ALL ANA IT

Y .e+rite each of the sentences in such a +a' that it is as similar as


possible in meanin& to the sentence before it9 /he first +ord and one other is &i)en as &uidance9 ExampleF I 0no+ +hat 'ou did to her9 Kou bro0e her heart9 37hat H brea05 7hat 'ou did to her is brea& her heart. k I 0no+ +hat happened9 Kou lost 'our ner)e4 didnLt 'ouD 7hat H chic0ened b I 0no+ +hat she did9 She upset all her collea&ues b' bein& so arro&ant9 7hat H arro&ance T I 0no+ ho+ 'ou feel after &ettin& 'our results9 <an' others are feelin& the same +a'9 8o+ H ho+ 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d I 0no+ +here 'ou made 'our mista0e6 'ou underestimated the competition9 7here H appreciate 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e I 0no+ +h' he +as attracted to this -ob6 he +anted to &i)e people orders9 7hat H authorit'9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

=
1 2 3 4 5 6

.e+rite each sentence in three different +a's9 Be&in +ith the

+ords &i)en9 ExampleF /he risin& tide fri&htened me9 a 7hatIriahtenedL me was the rising tide. b I +asIriahtenedL b' the rising tide. T It +as the rising tide that !rightened me. 7e too0 him to the hospital9 a 7here999 b i t +as999 T /he hospital is999 I +ent to see m' =P9 a<'=P999 b It +as m' =P999 T /he person999 /he spices are amaJin&9 a ItLs the999 b7hat999 T /he spices are +hat999 /he location +as important9 a ItLs the999 b7hat999 T /he location999 I spent W1 on the tic0et9 a W1 +as ho+999 b i t +as W1 999 T /he amount I999 8e loo0s amaJin& for his a&e9 a 8o+999 b 7hat is999 T It is999 Finish each of the follo+in& sentences in such a +a' that it is

as similar as possible in meanin& to the sentence printed before it9 ExampleF 7e onl' noticed the stain on the carpet +hen all the &uests had &one9 It +asnLt until all the guests had gone that we noticed the stain on the carpet. a In some or&anisations +hat 'ou 0no+ is not important6 +ho 'ou 0no+ is9 In some or&anisations itLs not 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b 8e too0 his hat off and then I reco&nised him9 It +asnLt 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T I onl' realised she +as a forei&ner +hen she

308

GRAMMAR

SECTION
1orninalisation
1
W8AT IS NOMINALISATIONO

-sual Nominalised *ersion Nominalised lan&ua&e is especiall' t'pical of formal4 scientific and academic En&lish2 ,hi! intere!ting 8u!tralian develo ment wa! o!!ible becau!e o" the i!olation o" the!e rimitive mammal!. Norninalisation can ma0e it easier to be impersonal9 (ompare2 )t$! alway! ain"ul when eo le critici!e you. %ritici!m i! alway! ain"ul. 3S nominalised5
' *A+E A BA@E A(((, ETC?

It is often possible to use a noun &roup instead of one or more )erb or ad-ecti)e &roups9 /his is called LnorninalisationL2 ,he boy! laughed loudly and woke u the baby. (L /his sentence consists of t+o actions 3)erb &roups54 one causin& the other5 ,he boy!$ loud laughter woke u the baby. 3S /his sentence has one thin& B the bo'sL loud lau&hter 3a noun &roup5 B that causes an action5

7e use a number of )erbs4 e9&9 look, laugh, comment, etc94 as nouns +ith )erbs such as give, have, make, take@ -e gave a !hort laugh. 6et$! have a quick look. She made !ome remark about hi! !melly "eet. 7e do this especiall' if +e +ant to use an ad-ecti)e before the noun B this is more common than usin& a )erb and ad)erbial phrase2 (e had a long talk about it. Sometimes there is no comparable ad)erbial phrase2 She !at down and had a good cry. /his is partl' a matter of collocation2 give a !hout / !igh / hug / welcome / look have a look / belie"/ chat /"all / !lee have belie" V re! ect take a look / bath / walk / hotogra h / holiday make a comment / !tart / claim make rogre!!

W8Y USE NOMINALISATIONO

7e use norninalisation for se)eral reasons2 It can chan&e the emphasis of the sentence9 (ompare2 ) wa!n$t very well !o ) had to !tay at home. &y oor health meant ) had to !tay at home. 3` nominalised5 /he first sentence has t+o parts lin0ed b' !o. Both parts are e?uall' important9 In the nominalised )ersion4 the action B !tay at home - is the focus of the sentence9 Because a lot of information can be pac0ed into a noun &roup4 it can ma0e sentences shorter and lea)e the rest of the sentence free to add ne+ information2 -i! in!atiable a etite "inadventure led to hi! involvement in a ioneering e# edition to 8ntarctica.

Anderline the nominalised phrases in these e1amples4 a * sharp fall in the )alue of sterlin& follo+ed speculation about the &o)ernmentLs economic polic'9 3Sterlin& fell sharpl' in )alue because people +ere speculatin& about +hat the &o)ernment planned to do about the econom'95 b /he total eradication of smallpo1 +as the direct result of an intensi)e pro&ramme of immunisation9 3Smallpo1 +as totall' eradicated because e)er'one +as immunised in a pro&ramme that +as )er' intensi)e95 T It is a truth uni)ersall' ac0no+led&ed4 that a sin&le man in possession of a &ood fortune must be in +ant of a +ife9 (Dride and Dre5udice, Uane *usten2 meanin& LE)er'one 0no+s it is true that a sin&le man +ho has a &ood fortune must +ant to be married9L5

It can refer bac0 to processes alread' mentioned2 8"ter !everal day! they eventually reached the !ummit o" the mountain. ,he a!cent le"t them tired and e#hau!ted. 3S 8ere the ascent summarises the +hole of the process in the pre)ious sentence5 7e often prefer to start a sentence +ith a noun phrase rather than a )erb phrase9 (ompare2 ,hey looked at the evidence and reali!ed that there had been a mi!carriage o" 5u!tice. ,he evidence revealed that there had been a mi!carriage o" 5u!tice. 3S nominalised5

-e had an in!atiable a etite "or adventure and becau!e o" thi! he became involved in a ioneering e# edition to 8ntarctica. b 8o+ fast are 'ou allo+ed to dri)e on motor+a's in BritainD 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T 8o+ do 'ou thin0 'ou +ould react if such a thin& happenedD 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d 8o+ tall are 'ou precisel'D 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e 8o+ far is it from 'our house to the schoolD 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Y Rewrite t"ese Auestions starting wit" (hat.


=#am le@ 8o+ old do 'ou ha)e to be to hire a carD 7hat i! the minimum age "or hiring a car' a 8o+ bi& is the room e1actl'D 7hat9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999D

30

GRAMMAR

f %o 'ou 0no+ ho+ hea)' this pac0a&e isD 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & 7here does he stand officiall' in the firmLs hierarch'D 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 h 7here do the &o)ernment stand officiall' on capital punishmentD 7hat 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

;ill t"e ga(s in t"ese sentences wit" a !orm o! one o! t"ese

sometimes : discre(anc' : outgoings : earnings e ItLs distinctl' possible that she +ill not reco)er from her illness )er' rapidl'9 distinct : ra(id f Kou neednLt pa' an'thin& until 'ouL)e recei)ed the &oods9 T"ere : make : #e!ore : o! & She could do +ith bein& more confident4 su!!ers : o! h I reall' did intend to tr' harder this term4 but I ha)enLt succeeded4 e*er' : more : e!!ort : met : no

*er#s) =#am le@ /he doctor +anted to have /take a loo0 at m' chest9 &i)e ma&e ta&e ha'e a (an I9999999999999999999a +ord +ith 'ou in pri)ateD b /he bo'99999999999999999999 a deep breath and di)ed in9 T (ome on49999999999999999999999me a cuddle9 d (an I999999999999999999 a su&&estionD e She99999999999999999 me a tellin&Boff9 f ILm sure heLll999999999999999999999999a &ood account of himself in the match9 & She al+a's mana&es to9999999999999999999999999999 a success of thin&s9 h Sometimes if 'ou9999999999999999999999999 a &ood cr' 'ou feel better9 3 8e99999999999999the trouble to )isit her later in hospital9 - /he'99999999999999999us a +onderful sendBoff9

Y ;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is as


close as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e sentence (rinted #e!ore it) =#am le@ <' father finds much of modern societ' incomprehensible9 <' father has difficult' under!tanding much o" modern !ociety. a *n' tra)eller to the subBcontinent ob)iousl' has to ha)e a )alid passport9 Possession99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b Beetho)enLs late ?uartets ha)e been )er' influential on modern composers9 Beetho)enLs late ?uartets ha)e e1erted999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T I +asnLt at all surprised to find the builders had alread' &one home9 It came 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d ,ne is constantl' threatened b' )iolence in some lar&e cities9 /here 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e I e1plained +hat had happened but the' totall' refused to accept +hat I said9 /he' found 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /he article onl' referred briefl' to the problem of innerBcit' crime9 /here 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 & E)er'one appro)ed of the decision to implement tou&her par0in& restrictions9 /here 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Rewrite eac" sentence using all t"e (rom(t words (rinted

#elow it) =#am le@ * lot of people ha)e complained in +ritin& to us about ho+ bad the food +as9 recei*ed : num#er : written : standard 7e have received a large number o" +ritten com laint! about the oor !tandard o" the "ood. a ILm shoc0ed that most members ha)e responded so ne&ati)el' to +hat +e proposed9 s"ock : res(onse : (ro(osals : maHorit' b /he ma'or is reputedl' proud of the +a' he loo0s9 re(utation : (ride : a((earance T * soldier must be bra)e4 le)elB headed and obedient9 Aualities : (aramount im(ortance d 7hat +e spend doesnLt al+a's tall' +ith +hat +e earn9

307

Un*t t/e"7e

?ocabular$
SECTION 8
#ubstituting one phrase !or another
7e can use +ords or phrases to replace others +ith more or less the same meanin&9 7e ma' use one phrase rather than another because it is shorter4 more precise or in)ol)es a chan&e of emphasis9
) ADVERBS

eatin& as much as their bod' needs9


' AD6ECTIVES

7e can use ad-ecti)es to replace phrases2 =veryone agreed with the decision to complain to the director( can become2 he decision to complain to the director wa! unanimou!. he$ were loc&ed together in combat, trying to kill each other, can become2 he$ were loc&ed together in mortal combat. $ Re(lace t"e underlined ("rases wit" one o! t"e adHecti*es listed) 6ake an' ot"er c"anges necessar') partial painsta&ing a It +as an in)esti&ation that left no stone unturned4 b /he dri)er of the second car accepted that she +asnLt +holl' +ithout blame for the accident9

- P8RASES AND MULTIPLE C8ANGES

7e can use ad)erbs to replace phrases2 )espite reno'ations( the building remains the !ame in nearly every way. can become2 )espite reno'ations( the building remains !ub!tantially the !ame. #ome students use commas without taking much care. can become2 #ome students use commas indi!criminately. 3 Re(lace t"e underlined ("rases wit" one o! t"e ad*er#s listed) 6ake an' ot"er necessar' c"anges) ine'itabl$ inad'ertentl$ a Such militar' posturin& is almost certain to lead to +ar9 b I +iped the entire dis0 +ithout meanin& to9

7hen +e ma0e &rammatical chan&es4 +e usuall' need to chan&e more than one +ord9 /hese chan&es ma' also be a matter of collocation2 0 had "ully intended to !tart this report this a!ternoon( but 0 couldn7t( can become2 0 had every intention o" !tarting this report this a!ternoon( but 0 couldn7t. he statue i! e#tremely tall, can become2 he statue reache! a con!iderable height. C 7e can also use common phrases and prepositional phrases2 (e$ve been trying to !ell our "lat !or o'er a $ear. can become2 7ur "lat ha! been on the market !or o'er a $ear. 0 was so shoc&ed b$ her re'elations ) couldn$t think what to !ay. can become2 0 was so shoc&ed b$ her re'elations ) wa! lo!t "or word!. 0 Rewrite t"e !ollowing sentences using one o! t"e ("rases listed) all and sundr$ at sixes and se'ens a /he leaflet +as distributed to absolutel' e)er'one +hether the' +anted it or not9 b <' filin& s'stem is hopelessl' disor&anised9

+ NOUNS

7e can use nouns to replace phrases 3see Section " for norninalisation52 &y brother know! nothing about chemistr$( which is wh$ there was an explosion( can become2 <' brother$! ignorance o" chemistr$ led to an explosion. ,hat the two !e#e! are not treated in the !ame way is ta&en !or granted in some Auarters( can become2 )nequality between the !e#e! is ta&en !or granted in some Auarters. S Re(lace t"e underlined ("rases wit" one o! t"e nouns listed) 6ake an' ot"er necessar' c"anges) malnutrition in!eriorit$ a 8is feelin& that he -ust +asnLt as &ood as other people ne)er +ent a+a'4 b *n alarmin& number of dieters are simpl' not

Practice

Re(lace t"e underlined words wit" one o! t"e ad*er#s listed)

6ake an' ot"er necessar' c"anges) prematurel$ single-handedl$ conclusi'el$ consecuti'el$ interminabl$ concurrentl$ scrupulousl$ arbitraril$
SUBSTITUTING ONE P8RASE FOR ANOT8ER

a /he leaderLs speech +ent on for hours and hours until +e +ere all noddin& off9 b I thin0 the' ha)e pro)ed be'ond an' doubt that the paintin& is &enuine4 T <' father +ith e1treme care a)oided an' mention of the comin& +eddin&4 d Ian completed the reno)ation of the house entirel' on his o+n4 e I +or0ed on the farm for three summers in a ro+4 f <' son +as born three +ee0s before he +as due4 & For the e1periments4 the' selected se)eral animals at random9 h ,n this computer 'ou can run se)eral pro&rams at the same time9

inefficient and difficult to deal +ith4 f /he conductor paid close and detailed attention to the composerLs instructions4 & I thin0 'our comments are sill' and not to be ta0en seriousl'4 h *fter a thorou&h and painsta0in& en?uir'4 the conclusions remained unclear9

.e+rite the sentences belo+ usin& one of the common phrases

listed9 /here are more phrases than 'ou need9 with time on m$ hands grow on somebod$ round the bend slow but sure cut and thrust rule o! thumb ins and outs too much o! a good thing lost his touch ran& and !ile ma&e a go o! b$ a hair7s breadth at the best o! times a *t a part' 'ou can rec0on on one bottle of +ine for three people as a rou&h &uideline9 b E)en +hen thin&s are &oin& reall' +ell4 I find it hard to &et on +ith m' boss9 T *s a pianist4 heLs not as &ood as he used to be9 d IL)e &ot plent' of spare time no+ the children are at school9 e /he ordinar' soldiers donLt &et the same food as the officers9 f I thin0 +e could tr' and ma0e a success of this business9 & /hat +oman dri)es me completel' madN h ILm no &ood at the ?uic0 thin0in& needed in a debate9

.eplace the underlined +ords +ith one of the ad-ecti)es listed9

<a0e an' other necessar' chan&es9 antiAuated cumbersome meticulous cursor$ ingenious !ri'olous unwarranted exhausti'e a /his is an e1tremel' cle)er de)ice for openin& bottles +ith no effort4 b /he factor' is still usin& old and outBof date e?uipment on the production line4 T Kour intrusion into m' affairs is un-ustified and unnecessar'9 d /he inspectors merel' &a)e a brief and not )er' thorou&h &lance at the records4 e /he current administrati)e procedures are slo+4

19!

i /hat car onl' -ust missed me9 - I reall' donLt understand all the histor' and details of the contro)ers'9

;inis" eac" o! t"e !ollowing sentences in suc" a wa' t"at it is

/he painter deri)ed 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 f /he bo1er +as se)erel' in-ured b' his opponent9 8is opponent inflicted 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999

as close as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e sentence #e!ore it) a 7hat +as bein& proposed +as farBreachin& in the e1treme9 It99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 b /he builders put in an enormous amount of +or0 to ensure their customers +ere happ'9 /he builders +ent to 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 T /he little &irl loo0ed remar0abl' li0e her &randmother at the same a&e9 /he little &irl bore 9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 d /he +ater is o)er 0 metres deep at this point9 /he +ater reaches999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 e /he painter +as &reatl' inspired b' the Italian masters9
VOCABULARY

;or eac" o! t"e sentences #elow& write a new sentence as

similar as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e original sentence& #ut using t"e word gi*en) ExampleF /he campai&n +as at its most intense -ust before the election4 (eak T"e cam(aign reac"ed its (eak Hust #e!ore t"e election) a Nobod' died in the e1plosion4 !atalities b /he fact that I am the mana&in& directorLs niece is beside the point4 neit"er T <' teacher is al+a's criticisin& m' para&raphin&4 !ault d Solomon couldnLt stop cr'in& +hen he lost his fa)ourite to'9 !loods e /he t+o la+'ers +or0ed in an atmosphere +here neither trusted the other4 mutual

SECTION A
0nterisi!$ing and emphasising
7e can emphasise the meanin& of a statement in man' +a's9

delight"ully eccentric

er"ectly aw"ul

< W"ic" o! t"e !i*e adHecti*es listed does not collocate wit" t"e ad*er# urelyt h$pothetical accidental correct incidental coincidental

5
POWERFUL AD6ECTIVES

SENTENCE ADVERBIALS

/he choice of a stron& ad-ecti)e is a common de)ice9 8ere are some e1amples2 ItLs very hot in here( can become2 ItLs boilin& in here. 0 t cost a lot. can become2 he price was e#orbitant / e#tortionate / a!tronomical. 0t7s a big problem( can become2 0t7s a monumental / va!t / colo!!al /gigantic problem.

Sentence ad)erbials 3see Anit :5 can also lend emphasis to a statement9 8ere are some e1amples2 :elieve it or not, ... 8ma?ingly enough, ... <i""icult a! it i! to believe, ... )ncredible though it i!, ... ,o everyone$! a!toni!hment, ...

P8RASES T8AT INVITE OR EDPRESS SURPRISE

COLLOCATION

(ollocation is important +hen choosin& stron& ad-ecti)es9 For e1ample4 a number of intensif'in& ad-ecti)es close to the meanin& of LcompleteL collocate +ith particular nouns but not +ith others9 8ere are some e1amples2 an eternal optimist a com rehen!ive de!eat !heer stupidit$ arrant nonsense rank disobedience utter madness un!hakeable !aith an unmitigated disaster 3 W"ic" two o! t"e nouns listed collocate wit" utter, w"ic" two wit" !heer and w"ic" two wit" #ot"I a excellence b panic T degradation d ecstas$ e ruin f 8o$

7e can also stren&then a statement4 or ?uestion4 b' addin& a +ord or short phrase before or after a 0e' +ord in the sentence2 he same thing happened a! recently a! last wee&. Gou can pa$ a! much a! D+00 !or a pair o! 8eans there. Bo "ewer than ,0 students turned up !or the lecture. Iill Gates him!el" was at the con!erence. Gou mean the Iill Gates> he very man. %hat in the world was he doing there> (hy on earth didn7t $ou give him m$ name> (hy ever didn7t $ou tell me be!ore>

Practice

-nderline one& two or t"ree o! t"e adHecti*es t"at can

com(lete eac" sentence) ExampleF /he runner collapsed in a state of99999999999999999999999999999999999 e1haustion4 s"eer total !ull a /he fact I had done the e1am essa' a +ee0 earlier +as99999999999999luc09 (ure com(re"ensi*e s"eer b It +as999999999999999999+illBpo+er that enabled me to +in9 s"eer !ull utter T /his is the999999999999999999999thin& I +as dreadin&9 one *er' s"eer

ADVERBS OF DEGREE

*d)erbBad-ecti)e combinations are common to &i)e emphasis9 8ere are some e1amples2 ab!olutely ridiculou! totally wrong downright rude lain !tu id thoroughly a!hamed dead right utterly de"encele!! that$! er"ectly all right *d)erbB)erb combinations are also ?uite common9 For e1ample2 0 quite/ totally agree. 0 quite/"ully under!tand. 0 would much/greatly a reciate it.

CLIC8ES AND EDAGGERATION

7e often hear or read cliches such as2 (e$re running out o" !u erlative! "or this athlete. 7e often use phrases that contain e1a&&eration to stren&then a meanin&6 because +e use them so much4 the meanin& becomes +ea0er9 8ere are some e1amples2 inde!cribably beauti"ul incredibly talented unutterably "ilthy un! eakably rude ine# re!!ibly !ad in"initely better incom arably !u erior If +e +ant to add stren&th to a meanin& +e can tr' to use less fre?uent collocations2

199

d %eliberate handball is999999999999999999999999999 cheatin&9 outrig"t out2and2out com(re"ensi*e e /he athlete has999999999999999999999999 confidence in his abilit'9 uns"akea#le (ure su(reme f B0 is a99999999999999999999 +in in an'bod'Ls boo09 com(re"ensi*e con!irmed com(lete & 8e +as reprimanded for his9999999999999999999999999999999 stupidit'9 crass *er' utter h =i)in& his nephe+ the -ob +as99999999999999999999999999999999 fa)ouritism9 out2and2out outrig"t downrig"t i <an' a time heLs pro)ed to be a3n59999999999999999999999999999999999 liar9 rank com(ulsi*e in*eterate - 8e carried off the role of 8amlet +ith s0ill9 unadulterated consummate !aultless

char&es9 greatl' dee(l' !ull' D She +as9999999999999 absent from the staff meetin&9 downrig"t t"oroug"l' cons(icuousl' E I +as99999999999 dis&usted b' their beha)iour9 t"oroug"l' #itterl' glaringl' 10 It should be999999999999999999999 clear that +e are all under pressure9 cons(icuousl' a#undantl' !ull'

INTENSI8YING ANA EMC?ASISING

Arrange t"ese adHecti*es into

!our grou(s ? preposterous r a&onisin& s daJJlin& t stupendous u )ast ) colossal + brainless 1 fatuous $ surprisin&H " painful impressi)e

according to t"eir meaning) a ludicrous i lau&hable b e1cruciatin& - astoundin& T pathetic o unbearable d sta&&erin& 1 immense e hu&e m &i&antic f absurd n &i&antic & ridiculous [ tremendous h &iant p stunnin& 3 bi& 3ph'sical siJe5 2 sill'

Rewrite eac" sentence wit" t"e two (rom(t words so t"at it

is as close as (ossi#le in meaning to t"e sentence #e!ore it) a /he sheer siJe of m' opponent succeeded in puttin& me off9 alone : enoug" b *s man' as ! 4000 people +atched the (up Final9 !ewer : turned T 7hat the'Lre as0in& of us is eminentl' reasonable9 not"ing : w"atsoe*er d /he part' +as an absolute +ashBout from start to finish9 unmitigated : #eginning e Kou donLt ha)e to pa' more than W10 for a pair of shoes there4 (ick : little f *re 'ou sa'in& it +asnLt the boss +ho su&&ested a pa' cut for his emplo'eesD t"emsel*es : idea

In eac" ga( in t"e !ollowing sentences 31B#5 two o! t"ese

ad*er#s could !it) Write t"e letters !or two ad*er#s in eac" ga() ExampleF 1@ d h a sincerel$ b categoricall$ T strenuousl$ 3d strongl$5 e thoroughl$ f outright & reall$ 3h !iercel$5 i patentl$ - genuinel$ o utterl$ 1 !aith!ull$ m Auite n wholl$

30 /he terms of the +ill +ere99999999999999999999999999999 contested95 1 /he' both999999999999999 denied that the' had been in an' +a' at fault9 2 ItLs9999999999 ob)ious that the bo' has no interest in readin&6 +h' push himD 3 8e promised9999999999999999that he +ould return m' camera before he left the countr'9 4 I re-ect999999999999 the su&&estion that I ha)e been ne&li&ent9 5 I999999999appro)e of se1 education in schools9 5 I999999999hope that one da' +e shall meet a&ain in different circumstances9

K C"oose Hust one o! t"e t"ree ad*er#s gi*en to com(lete eac" o!


t"ese sentences)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I found the +hole e1perience9999999999999999999999999 embarrassin&9 #latantl' "otl' acutel' ,ne or t+o of the class +ere9999999999999999999999999 rude9 (er!ectl' downrig"t entirel' I999999999 resent bein& called +or0in& class9 s"ar(l' !ull' #itterl' /heir second &oal +as999999999999999999999 offBside9 seriousl' #latantl' w"oll' /he +hole team +ere9999999999999999999999 confident9 a#undantl' downrig"t su(remel' I999999999 doubt +hether +e +ill e)er see him a&ain9 seriousl' totall' com(letel' 8e99999999999understands the seriousness of the

E&am p a#t$#% ) +

) Fill each of the numbere# blanks in the 'assage with !n% suitable wor#. It was ,ust before mi#night0 not the ................................... 123 of times for thinking clearly0 ............................ 143 there was a knock on the front #oor. ............................ 1(3 the