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Strategic Management Journal

Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)

Published online 20 January 2003 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/smj.303



College of Business Administration, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A.
College of Business, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A.

Several approaches have been used to explore environmental dynamism as a contingent predictor
of the relationship between rational-comprehensive strategic decision-making and firm-level
performance. At the decision level of analysis, however, small sample sizes, low statistical
power, and statistical dependence have plagued the research. Through the use of a simulated
decision-making environment and multilevel analysis, this study examined 400 decisions from 54
executive teams. Consistent with much of the existing firm-level research, the results indicated
that environmental dynamism may moderate the relationship between rational-comprehensive
decision making and decision quality. Surprisingly, the form of the relationship differed from
much of the firm-level research. Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Using the firm as the unit of analysis, researchers 1997; Priem et al., 1995), thereby ignoring the
have explored environmental dynamism as a possibility that decision-makers may vary their use
contingent predictor of the relationship between of processes among specific decisions (Hickson
rational-comprehensive strategic decision-making et al., 1986).
(SDM) processes and firm performance (see Examination at the decision level of analysis
review by Priem, Rasheed and Kotulic, 1995; diminishes these concerns. First, causal ambigu-
Goll and Rasheed, 1997). However, relating ity is not an issue since the decision-making pro-
decision processes directly to firm performance cess clearly precedes any evaluation of decision
is problematic since the causal ordering is outcomes. Second, the relationship between pro-
ambiguous, the relationship is likely to be cess and outcome is more direct and therefore
confounded, and firm-level analyses often ask less likely to be confounded by exogenous fac-
questions concerning the extent to which an tors. Third, decision-level analysis allows differ-
organization uses rational decision processes (e.g., ent processes for each decision, thereby elimi-
Glick, Miller and Huber, 1993; Goll and Rasheed, nating assumptions that decision-makers consis-
tently use specific processes across decisions or
Key words: strategic decision-making; environmental time. Therefore, this paper explores the contingent
dynamism; rationality; multilevel analysis relationship between rationality and performance
*Correspondence to: Jill R. Hough, College of Business Admin-
istration, University of Tulsa, 600 S. College Avenue, Business through examination of SDM at the decision level
Administration Hall 301, Tulsa, Ok 74104, U.S.A. of analysis.

Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Received 24 September 2001
Final revision received 23 August 2002
482 J. R. Hough and M. A. White

THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL in more stable environments (Fredrickson, 1984).

BACKGROUND The opposing perspective suggests that decision-
makers faced with dynamic environments increase
Rationality is the use of information for the pur- rationality by accelerating information collection
pose of selecting a sensible alternative in the pur- and analysis so that decisions can be respon-
suit of one’s goals (Dean and Sharfman, 1993; sive to rapidly changing circumstances (Eisen-
Fredrickson, 1984). However, instead of focus- hardt, 1989). In addition to evidence that ratio-
ing on the choice that maximizes expected utility, nality is associated with higher performance in
decision rationality focuses on the decision-making dynamic environments, there is growing evidence
process (Simon, 1955). Derived from the synop- that the relationship does not hold in moderate and
tic (Lindblom, 1959), planning (Mintzberg, 1973), stable environments (Glick et al., 1993; Goll and
and rational (Miller and Friesen, 1984) schools Rasheed, 1997; Priem et al., 1995).
of strategy making, decision rationality empha-
sizes the importance of analysis (Ansoff, 1965), the
need for systematic scanning (Aguilar, 1967), and Decision-level research
methodical planning and unification of strategies
(Ansoff, 1965). Only three studies have addressed the contingent
Rational decision-making research stresses ana- effect of the environment on the relationship
lytic and integrative comprehensiveness. Analytic between rational-comprehensive processes and
comprehensiveness is a decision-level concept that decision-level outcomes. Eisenhardt (1989) and
emphasizes systematic scanning and analysis of Judge and Miller (1991) examined decision
environments (Miller, 1987) in the process of mak- speed, while Dean and Sharfman (1996) studied
ing a particular decision. Integrative comprehen- decision effectiveness. Eisenhardt’s examination
siveness, on the other hand, refers to the overall of 10 decisions from eight firms concluded that
decision-making process and encourages the inte- simultaneous consideration of alternatives leads to
gration of decisions that compose the overall strat- speedier decisions in high-velocity environments.
egy (Fredrickson and Mitchell, 1984) through the Extending these results to other environments,
use of formal planning efforts and precise concep- Judge and Miller argued that decision speed
tualization of overall strategies that facilitate the would be less important in the slower pace of
making of specific decisions (Miller, 1987). When the stable environment but found support for an
overall processes are examined, both analytical overall positive relationship between alternative
and integrative comprehensiveness are included. generation and decision speed that did not differ
Studies at the decision level of analysis, however, in form or strength across environments. Although
emphasize the scanning and analysis aspects of they did not offer any explanation for the
rationality associated with analytical comprehen- failure to support the hypothesized moderation,
siveness. Thus, Dean and Sharfman (1993: 1071) the sample size of 32 decisions provided limited
defined decision-level rationality as the ‘extent to power to detect such effects (Aguinis and Stone-
which the decision process involves the collec- Romero, 1997).
tion of information relevant to the decision and Dean and Sharfman (1996: 372) examined deci-
the reliance upon analysis of this information in sion effectiveness or ‘the extent to which a deci-
making the choice.’ sion achieves the objectives established by man-
agement.’ In a sample of 52 decisions from 24
firms, an overall significant effect between ratio-
Firm-level research nality and decision effectiveness was detected,
Firm-level research on the relationship between while the moderating effect of environmental insta-
rationality and performance in dynamic environ- bility was not supported. Again, no explanations
ments has produced conflicting results (Priem were offered for the discrepancy between these
et al., 1995). Studies by Fredrickson and col- results and the hypothesized relationship, yet the
leagues suggest that rationality leads to lower small sample size rendered detection of a moderat-
levels of performance in dynamic environments ing effect unlikely. Furthermore, no provision was
(Fredrickson and Iaquinto, 1989; Fredrickson and made for the statistical dependence of decisions
Mitchell, 1984) yet supports higher performance made by the same firm.
Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)
Research Notes and Commentaries 483

Understanding how decision-level rational-com- such as environment, size, structure, information

prehensive processes in different environmental availability, and decision content. The simulated
contexts influences SDM quality remains elusive. organization is a $600 million, privately held glass
Yet, the theoretical literature suggests that firm- manufacturer composed of three strategic business
level arguments connecting rationality to perfor- units (SBUs), each led by a top management team
mance will transfer to the decision level of anal- consisting of a Vice President, Director of Sales
ysis. In particular, the use of rational processes in and Marketing, Director of Manufacturing, and
dynamic environments assists managers in identi- Director of Product Development.
fying relevant opportunities and devising success- The 216 participants in this study were members
ful responses. In more stable environments, man- of a Fortune 100, diversified technology company
agers use existing information and mental models that generates approximately 50 percent of its rev-
to formulate effective decisions. enue from the defense sector. The firm sent senior
managers and executives to one of 18 executive
Hypothesis: The environment will moderate the development programs, which included participa-
relationship between rationality and decision tion in the LGI simulation. Following an LGI
quality such that there will be a positive and briefing, participants self-selected positions and
significant relationship in dynamic environments received reports and memos pertaining to their
and a nonsignificant relationship otherwise. job.1 They were asked to spend at least 2 hours that
evening preparing for a bimonthly, day-long staff
meeting among managers of each SBU. Partici-
METHODS pants arrived the next morning to find offices avail-
able for their use as they analyzed information,
The nonroutine nature of strategic decisions makes conducted meetings, and made decisions to move
it difficult to generate large samples from field the organization forward strategically. Ranging
studies. Indeed, the largest sample size reported from the security of confidential information to the
in a decision-level study of environmental moder- potential sale of a plant,2 the embedded issues were
ation was 52 decisions. Yet, small sample sizes designed by a panel of organization researchers
provide low power for the detection of moder- and industry experts to meet the strategic decision
ating effects (Aguinis and Stone-Romero, 1997), descriptors of ‘important,’ ‘ambiguous,’ and ‘com-
perhaps contributing to the discrepancy between plex’ (cf. Mason and Mitroff, 1981; Mintzberg,
firm- and decision-level studies. Thus, methods Raisinghani and Theoret, 1976). Although partic-
that facilitate larger sample sizes and provide ipants were free to act upon all issues embedded
greater control are required to help untangle con- within their division, they were constrained by the
flicting results. day-long meeting. Overall, 400 usable decisions
Behavioral simulations offer a viable solution by were provided by the 18 replications.
controlling many potentially confounding variables
while maintaining contextual relevance. Further- Measures
more, simulations can be administered repeatedly
to increase sample sizes and when conducted in In contrast to survey measures that ask for man-
the context of executive development programs agers’ perceptions, the measures in this study
produce samples from the population of interest. are based on factors designed into the simula-
Simulations are designed to reproduce the behav- tion. Objective measures avoid the potential bias
iors of the real world (Dutton and Stumpf, 1991) of retrospective accounts, while eliminating the
and ‘achieve parity in relevance’ with studies con- need for decision-makers to project actions to
ducted in natural contexts altered by the intro- future decisions.
duction of survey instruments (Gist, Hopper and 1
There was no evidence of systematic bias in the positions
Daniels, 1998: 259). Thus, behavioral simulations selected when participant age, occupational experience, and
balance concerns of external and internal validity. educational level were examined across simulated environments
The Looking Glass Incorporated (LGI) behav- and simulated positions.
ioral simulation, designed by the Center for Cre- For more detail regarding LGI, see McCall and Lombardo
(1982). Chatman and Barsade (1995), Chatman et al. (1998),
ative Leadership as a SDM research environment and Gibson (1999) used the scaled-down, University Edition of
(McCall and Lombardo, 1982), controls variables LGI for OB research.

Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)
484 J. R. Hough and M. A. White

Environmental context represents information known, alternatives recog-

nized, and facts derived from analysis, which are
While it has been argued that the environment indicative of analytical comprehensiveness.
is enacted by the firm’s decision-makers (Weick, Two different measures of decision-level ratio-
1979) and thus should be measured as a man- nal-comprehensive decision making were exam-
agerial perception, others have shown conver- ined: availability and pervasiveness. Availability
gence between perceptual and objective measures captures the degree to which the available cues
of environmental dynamism (Sharfman and Dean, were known by the team when they made their
1991). Indeed, many studies of the contingent decision. High availability indicates that the team
relationship between rationality and performance had a great deal of knowledge about the issue. The
have defined the environment using objective cri- level of availability is diminished when knowl-
teria (e.g., Dean and Sharfman, 1996; Eisen- edge that was embedded in the start-up material
hardt, 1989; Fredrickson, 1984; Fredrickson and goes undetected and/or when the team fails to seek
Mitchell, 1984; Glick et al., 1993). knowledge that was only available from interaction
The external environments of the LGI SBUs with managers from another division or ‘phantom’
were designed using Duncan’s (1972) conceptual- corporate support staff, who were available via
ization of dynamic vs. static environments, which phone during the course of the simulation. Avail-
is consistent with objective measures of environ- ability was calculated as:
mental instability uncovered by Dess and Beard
(1984). LGI designers used customers, technol- Availability
ogy, markets, and competition to clearly differ-
entiate SBU dynamism. Unpredictable markets, Number of unique knowledge bits for
this issue known within the team
rapidly changing technology, and shifting com- = ∗100
petition characterize the dynamic environment of Number of knowledge bits available
Advanced Products, which produces optical fibers, within the simulation for this issue
capacitors, and liquid crystal displays. In contrast, The second measure of rational-comprehensive
the stable environment of Commercial Glass has decision making was derived from Hollenbeck
predictable markets, stable technology, and well- et al. (1995) to assess how widely knowledge is
established competitive relationships in the market held within the team—in other words, to what
for incandescent and florescent lighting. The mod- extent were all team members informed of the
erate environment of Industrial Glass, which pro- available information. Since participants received
duces automobile glass and specialty items such memos and reports pertinent to their position
as insulated glass, exhibits a mixture of the fac- within the division, team members began with dif-
tors from the other two environments (McCall and ferent pieces of knowledge, which may or may not
Lombardo, 1982). have overlapped with other team members. The
measure was calculated as:
Rational-comprehensive decision making
Unlike traditional field studies, simulated decision Sum of the knowledge bits
environments allow for the control of information known by all team members
where each participant begins with a known set = ∗ 100
Number of team members
of information, based on his or her position. At ∗Number of knowledge bits available
the conclusion of the simulation, participants indi-
cate what information was known and what action, Note that pervasiveness could be low while avail-
if any, was taken relative to each issue. While ability is high. This would occur if each member
this discussion of the simulation refers to ‘infor- held a small, but unique, amount of the overall
mation,’ it is important to understand the richness knowledge and would indicate the team’s failure
of the simulated context. Over 227 memos and to engage in interactional processes such as dialec-
reports provide internal and external data, identify tical inquiry and devil’s advocacy that produce
alternative solutions to many issues, and analyze cognitive conflict and ultimately leads to higher-
various problems and opportunities. Thus, a par- quality decisions (Schweiger and Sandberg, 1989).
ticipant’s ‘knowledge’ at the end of the simulation The two measures would be equivalent under two
Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)
Research Notes and Commentaries 485

conditions: (1) no knowledge is held by any team fixed effects. MLwiN software was used to fit the
member, and (2) the same knowledge is held by cross-classified, multilevel model.
all team members. Condition one can not occur
in the context of the simulated environment and
condition two is unlikely. RESULTS

Decision quality The unconditional means model (i.e., a one-way

analysis of variance model partitioning outcome
Each LGI issue raises several possible alterna- variance into within and between components)
tives with the selection of one or more alternatives indicates that the between-team variation is not
constituting a decision. When the simulation was significant (τ = 28.87, p = 0.13). Yet the signifi-
developed, LGI designers asked a panel of indus- cant between issue (i.e., decision) variance (τ =
try and academic experts to rate the quality of 168.52, p = 0.002) confirms the need for mul-
each potential alternative. Having an expert panel tilevel analysis (Pollack, 1998). With a resid-
evaluate quality prior to the administration of the ual variance of 713.22, the proportion of total
simulation reduced concerns of consistency and variance occurring between issues is ρ = 0.19
subjectivity. Discussing each issue to consensus, [168.52/(28.87 + 168.52 + 713.22)].3
the panel identified each alternative as good, poor, The interaction hypothesis was examined by
or indifferent. Raters assigned values ranging from allowing teams and issues to vary randomly while
1 to 10 indicating the extent to which the alterna- specifying the main effects for rationality, the envi-
tive was ‘good’ or ‘poor,’ with 10 representing ronment, and the associated interactions as fixed
the best or worst possible score and 0 representing effects (Table 1). Comparing the residual variance
indifference. Summing the number of good and from the unconditional model to the residual vari-
poor points across alternatives for a given deci- ance of the full model indicates that the level
sion yields: 1 variance in decision quality accounted for by
rational-comprehensive decision making, the envi-
Decision quality ronment, and the interactions is 0.033 (i.e., (713.22
(Number of good points− -689.81)/713.22). While small, this effect size is
Number of poor points) not inconsistent with firm-level studies (e.g., R 2 =
= ∗ 100 0.00 to 0.09, Glick et al., 1993; R 2 = 0.07 to 0.15,
Total possible good points
Priem et al., 1995).4
For a decision where all good alternatives are The coefficients for the interaction between
selected, quality equals 100. When the number of availability and the dynamic and moderate envi-
poor points exceeds the number of good points, ronments are not significant. This indicates that
quality is negative. the slope of availability in the dynamic environ-
ment given pervasiveness does not differ from
the slope in the stable environment (p = 0.80),
Analysis nor do the slopes differ between the moder-
ate and stable environments (p = 0.73). Further
With 54 teams making 400 decisions, the observa- analysis indicates that the slopes do not dif-
tions are not independent, thereby suggesting the fer between the dynamic and moderate envi-
use of multilevel analysis. However, the data do ronments (p = 0.54). However, the pervasive-
not follow a strict nested structure. Instead the ness by dynamic interaction was significant (p =
design is cross-classified (Goldstein, 1995) where
decisions occur within teams and within issues.
That is, each decision was made by one of 54 3
Correlation between: decision quality (µ = 33.0, S.D. = 30.2)
and availability (µ = 89.6, S.D. = 14.5) r = 0.01 (p = 0.8);
teams and represents one of the 37 issues embed- decision quality and pervasiveness (µ = 51.6, S.D. = 14.4) r =
ded in the simulation. Thus, teams and issues are 0.04 (p = 0.4); availability and pervasiveness r = 0.66 (p <
treated as random effects so that between-team 0.001).
and between-decision variation can be controlled. Studies reporting larger effect sizes have included other pre-
dictors beyond rationality and environmental dynamism (e.g.,
Decision quality and both measures of rational- political behavior, favorability, and quality of implementation,
ity occur at the decision level and are treated as Dean and Sharfman, 1996).

Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)
486 J. R. Hough and M. A. White

Table 1. Multilevel analysis of decision quality To avoid criticisms of accepting the null, Frick
(1995) suggested that researchers demonstrate that
Fixed effects Coefficient S.E. t-ratio p-value
(a) the hypothesized predictor explains the hypoth-
Intercept 25.29 4.55 5.56 <0.0001∗∗ esized outcome in a related situation, or (b) the
Availabilitya 0.06 0.27 0.21 0.834 hypothesized predictor explains a different out-
Pervasivenessa 0.58 0.30 1.90 0.058† come. In this study, the observed null effect
Dynamic 3.81 6.42 0.59 0.556 in the dynamic and moderate environments is
Moderate 14.07 6.23 2.26 0.031∗ strengthened by significance in the stable environ-
environmentb ment, which is consistent with the original the-
Availability × −0.09 0.38 0.25 0.803 ory proposed by Fredrickson (1984). Furthermore,
Availability × 0.13 0.37 0.35 0.727 the increased power of this study improved the
Moderate chances of detecting moderating effects. The null
Pervasiveness × −0.77 0.41 1.87 0.062† effects find further support through examination
Pervasiveness × −0.31 0.40 0.78 0.436 of rationality’s effect on a different, but related
Moderate outcome: whether a decision is actually made.
Random effects Variance S.E. Z-value p-value Decision-makers were presented with a number
component of issues, many of which had to be ignored due
Team 21.42 23.71 0.90 0.184
Issue 152.45 52.49 2.90 0.002∗∗ to time constraints. Since quality could be mea-
Error 689.81 sured only for those issues that were acted upon,
only those observations could be included in the
† p ≤ 0.10; ∗ p ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ p ≤ 0.01. main study. However, measures of rationality were
Variables were group mean centered by team. available for the ‘nondecisions.’ Therefore, a logis-
Dummy variables were used to denote environments. When tic regression model using rationality to predict
both the dynamic and moderate environment dummies were zero,
the environment was stable. decision vs. nondecision was tested, resulting in
63 percent of the issues being correctly classified
0.06), suggesting that the slope for pervasive- (χ 2 = 68.7, d.f. = 8, p < 0.0001). Thus, using the
ness given availability does differ between the suggestions of Frick (1995), the conclusion of no
dynamic and stable environments. The simple effects in the dynamic and moderate environments
slope for pervasiveness in the stable environ- seems plausible.
ment is positive (b = 0.58, p = 0.06), indicating
that decision quality increases as pervasiveness
increases. In both the dynamic (b = −0.19, p = DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
0.49) and moderate environments (b = 0.26, p =
0.31), however, decision quality is not significantly Although these results are inconsistent with recent
related to pervasiveness. studies of firm-level effects, they are consistent
Thus, controlling for the pervasiveness of infor- with the theoretical development and empirical
mation, the relationship between availability and evidence of Fredrickson (1984) and Fredrick-
decision quality is not contingent on the environ- son and Iaquinto (1989), who argued that ratio-
ment (Figure 1a). However, controlling for avail- nal processes cannot change the uncertainty of
ability, the relationship between pervasiveness and the dynamic environment. By definition, factors
decision quality is moderated by the environ- within the dynamic environment are in a state
ment (Figure 1b). In particular, controlling for the of change, relationships are ambiguous, and the
amount of unique knowledge held by decision- future is unpredictable (Duncan, 1972). Because
makers in stable environments, higher-quality deci- of this inherent uncertainty, rational processes pro-
sions result from ensuring that all decision-makers vide little assistance to decision-makers. Indeed,
are well informed. In moderate and dynamic envi- new but contradictory information may actually
ronments, however, pervasiveness is not related to slow the decision-making process and negatively
decision quality when controlling for availability. impact performance (Eisenhardt, 1989). Further-
This pattern of results differs from the predicted more, the frequent opportunities provided by the
positive relationship in the dynamic environment rapid pace of the dynamic environment may dimin-
and nonsignificant relationship in moderate and ish the need to ensure that each decision is fully
stable environments. rational. In more stable environments, however,
Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)
Research Notes and Commentaries 487


Decision Quality




0 100
(a) Availability


Decision Quality




0 Pervasiveness 100

(b) Dynamic Environment Moderate Environment Stable Environment

Figure 1. Moderating effects of environment at average levels of (a) pervasiveness and (b) availability

decision-makers can identify the critical variables. analysis, thereby (a) diminishing firm-level con-
As a result, rational processes are used to gather cerns of causal ambiguity between process and out-
information, facilitate cognitive conflict within the come, (b) controlling potentially confounding vari-
team, update cognitive schemas, and ultimately to ables such as environment, organization, and deci-
increase decision quality (Schweiger and Sand- sion contexts, (c) allowing decision processes to
berg, 1989). The slower pace of change causes vary from decision to decision, and (d) providing
each decision to be critical in maintaining strate- an opportunity to gather larger sample sizes and
gic position. increase the power of detecting moderating effects.
In addition to these findings, this study high- By using multilevel techniques to accurately
lights the benefit of using an alternative research account for the statistical dependence of different
context and analyzing the data using a method- decisions made by the same team, this research
ology that acknowledges the multilevel nature of suggests that 19 percent of the variation in decision
SDM data structures. The use of a behavioral sim- quality is explained by the differences between
ulation offered a unique opportunity to examine decisions. Thus, conflicting results in the exist-
strategic decision-making at the decision level of ing literature may be the result of assuming that
Copyright  2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Strat. Mgmt. J., 24: 481–489 (2003)
488 J. R. Hough and M. A. White

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