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Caribbean Studies Questions & Answers

2006 Paper 2 module 1,2,3

Q: Identify at least four challenges faced by the justice system and explain them :
A: (1) Increase in violent crime against women, examples to be noted are: rape, incest and other forms of physical abuse. (2) Increase in narcotics, trafficking and drug related violence. (3) The increase in poverty, amidst the apparent need to acquire the means of social capital such as brand-name wear, has led many young persons, most of them drop outs from the education system, into a life of crime. (4) Deportation of convicted criminals, from Europe and North America to the Caribbean, has led to an increase in crime. There is also the increase in crime involving the use of weapons. (5) There are also the alleged cases of policemen and judges accepting bribes. (6) The Pratt and Morgan ruling has imposed a time frame on the resolution of serious crime brought before the court. (7) Archaic laws. Many of the laws need revision to deal with the types of crimes in the Caribbean

Q: impact of Caribbean society and culture upon the economies of extra -regional countries
A: (1) Carnival celebrations created by the large Caribbean populations in New York, Toronto, London,

and other cities of the North present opportunities to boost the economies of these extra-regional cities because they are attended by thousands.
(2) The Caribbean, Canadian and US governments have allowed temporary migrant workers from the Caribbean to pick fruit in Florida and Canada at the end of summer. They work for minimum wages. These economies are, therefore, dependent on Caribbean workers to harvest fruit before the onset of winter.

(3) Crime and violence impact negatively on the economies of extra-regional countries. A number of Caribbean people are in British and American prisons and when they are released they find themselves on welfare in those countries or are deported to the Caribbean. (4) With Caribbean citizens in extra-regional countries, there is a demand for Caribbean foodstuff vegetables, goods. Small businesses and some major distributors import these from the region for sale in the metropole with an impact on the economy.

Q: Describe four ways in which globalization is affecting development in the Caribbean.:

A: (1) Emphasis on efficiency/productivity holds a competitive edge. This entails downsizing and automation, which results in unemployment and a preference for workers with technical skills who can adapt to rapid changes in technology. In terms of development, more students and workers are becoming trained in ICT as a basic requirement for work, study and leisure; and consumer benefits - cheaper prices. (2) Closing down of companies and operations which cannot compete in a liberalized trade environment: for example, car assembly has become a thing of the past in the economies of the Caribbean countries as the roll-on-roll-off service, using ICT, is now widely available. In terms of development, consumerism is mushrooming and there are challenges posed to the environment and the roads since vehicle ownership has grown. (3) Culturally, goods produced for Caribbean consumers, for example cornflakes and peanut butter compete directly with products from the metropole. Also, Caribbean arts, films and videos compete. This has a direct impact on development in the Caribbean as key elements that would lead to cultural confidence, a sense of identity and national zeal are suppressed. (4) More multinational corporations are establishing a presence in the Caribbean, especially food and hotel chains which may be significant for employment over short and medium term but do not aid in the strengthening the institutions of a country for sustainable development; in such circumstances a compromise may be the best course of action where development is concerned. Development then is a process of negotiation and bargaining with MNCs rather than prohibiting their entry.

Q: Describe four challenges Caribbean governments face in their effort to promote tourism development:
A: (1) the lack of finance or capital and infrastructure to promote tourism, develop sites and maintain properties; (2) fragility in the industry and any failure in the economy in Europe or North America could result in the failure of the tourist industry; (3) high level of crime against tourists - the challenge is not only to provide adequate security but to address the issues which lead to the crime; (4) an epidemic, a natural or man-made disaster could adversely affect the tourist industry. (there is the belief that the islands are the same and the challenge is to convince tourists that the islands are separate); (5) difficulty in organizing airlines with adequate seating capacity to bring passengers to the Caribbean. (Caribbean has two ailing airlines - the challenge is negotiating with foreign-owned airlines); (6) hotel occupancy depends on the airline and hotel rates. The challenge is to provide a range of rooms and hotel rates

Q:, All ah we is one, discuss the social challenges faced by Caribbean people in achieving Caribbean unity.
A: (1) Class distinctions provide a varied understanding of what it is to belong to one Caribbean. The underclass, the middleclass and working class concepts create divisions and barriers to the realization of the all ah we is one. (2) Race and colour continue to provide distinctions for Caribbean people. Historically, race and colour created a rigid stratification for Caribbean people. (3) Culturally, music serves to unite Caribbean peoples. Calypso and reggae are played across the region regardless of the country of origin. Caribbean peoples share similar foods, sayings/proverbs,

stories. (4) Parochialism: the tradition of seeing one country as better or more influential than the other the big island versus small island issue. Countries have traditionally competed against each other and still do so today. (5) Festivals, such as carnival and CARIFESTA, unite Caribbean people. Each festival emphasizes the common elements in Caribbean culture. Yet festivals, by their nature, are held for short periods of time. It can be argued that this sense of unity is temporary

Q: Freedom of movement poses the greatest challenge to the establishing of CSME. comment on the statement indicating the extent to which you agree

A: Additional challenges which candidates could have included are listed below. (1)The need to change legislation which restricts other CARICOM nationals from employment. (2) Work permits. Under the existing CARICOM regulations work permits are not required for five categories of CARICOM nationals university graduates, musicians, other artistes, sports persons and media workers, self-employed persons, technical managers and artisans all require work permits. (3) Trade imbalance in goods within the Caribbean. (4) Political independence sovereignty and its exercise have become impediments to regional programmes such as movement of labour and capital. (5)The devising of a treaty to avoid double taxation of incomes of citizens who move from country to country to work

Q: Education and sports with great facility but experienced difficulty in explaining the as well as a route to Caribbean nationalism.
A: (1) A sense of identity is created when Caribbean people in sports meet, for example, at the Olympics pride in success Bahamas, Jamaica, St. Kitts, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago even though at

these meets they competed or participated as citizens of their respective countries. (2) Sports transcend race, colour, and creed. (3) Sports which give Caribbean people educational opportunities include: swimming, cricket, football, athletics, volleyball, netball and basketball. (4) A description of the sports which are played at a regional level and internationally. A candidate may consider how sports played at a regional level contribute to integration and hence a sense of Caribbean nationalism. (5) award of sport scholarships Caribbean Studies Questions & Answers 2006 Paper 1 module 1,2,3

Q: explain -cultural diversity, hybridization and societal institutions

A: (i) Cultural

diversity: A range of cultures within one society or community.

The existence of multi-cultures in one society or the existence of a plurality of cultures. (ii) Hybridization: Hybridization refers to a mixture of races and cultures within a society (Creolisation). (iii) Societal

institutions: Any institution which represents individuals with a shared common purpose or a

clearly defined territorial space.

Q: adult


A: Part (a): (1) Adult suffrage allowed the participation of a significant mass of the population in a process whereby they could determine their political future. (2) Voting rights were now conceded to the population. (3) Members of the population were now eligible to participate in the government.

Part (b): Some of the reasons for the growth of support for adult suffrage in Caribbean societies in the 20th century were:

(1) the effects of the 1930s riots, including labour discontent with economic and political conditions; (2) the growth of economic institutions giving a sense of self-sufficiency and self-determination to each country; ( 3) the economic distress suffered in the colonies through the 1930s brought about the rise of trade unions whose leaders made a bid for political power, for example, Butler in Trinidad and Tobago; Bustamante in Jamaica.

Q: Define plate tectonics

A: Plate tectonics refer to the movement and shifting of the plates which form the earths crust.

Q: Describe two ways in which volcanic activity influenced Caribbean society and culture.

A: Some of the ways in which volcanic activity has influenced Caribbean society and culture: (1) volcanic rocks weather over time to form fertile soils, full of minerals that plants need, thus encouraging agriculture in high risk areas; (2) it brings to the consciousness of all Caribbean people the nature of environmental hazards, for example, the destruction and loss wrought on Montserrat; (3) it results in the migration of Caribbean people from the territory at risk to other regional countries or to the metropole, for example, Montserratians to England; (4) it increases the tourism potential of certain countries through the creation of spectacular scenery.

Q: sustainable development.
A: Sustainable development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs, for example, by making conscious efforts to protect the environment.

Q: Identify one challenge faced by your country in implementing a policy on

sustainable development:
A: (1) national development plans which emphasize economic/development growth may conflict with efforts to preserve natural resources (viz. tourism development facilities marinas and wetlands); (2) lack of capital, expertise and policies required to prevent erosion and to conserve the top

Q: show why modern knowledge is considered an indicator of development.

A: (1) modern knowledge refers to concepts, practices, habits and attitudes appropriate to the era in which we live and which allow people to live satisfying lives. More of this kind of knowledge is likely to enable development to take place; (2) improvement in peoples knowledge and skills to enable them to be optimally productive in a safe Environment

Q: Outline three ways in which tourism poses challenges to the development of

Caribbean Countries.

A: (1) Tourism has the potential to cause great harm to the environment waste management problems, and destruction of fragile ecosystems in countries where institutions and infrastructure to monitor environmental standards are minimal.

(2) Local economic activities and resources are used less for the development and benefit of the communities and increasingly for export and the benefit of others tourists and consumers in other areas of the world, for example, golf courses and condominiums rather than agriculture and affordable housing. (3) In Guyana, Belize and other countries with significant numbers of indigenous people, there is the threat that the tourist industry is encroaching on the remote areas where it may affect the way of life, for example, indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights, sacred rights, social structures. (4) Most of the hotels are foreign-owned and the profits are repatriated instead of being used to help in the development of the country. (5) Hotels may also import a large proportion of foods to satisfy the tastes of their guests rather than promote/support local agriculture.

Q: The content related to the objective which makes reference to Marxist thought.

A: (1) Work is very important for human happiness and if workers are only involved in menial, repetitive tasks for menial wages, under bad working conditions, they will become alienated from their work and conflicts with the owners of the means of production will result. (2) Political change is the only way the workers rights can be upheld, so that they may actually come to own the means of production, for example, through a change to socialism and communism. (3) Marxism predicts the eventual and inevitable overthrow of capitalism by communism. (4) Western religion exists to seduce the masses into uncritical acceptance of social stratification. (5) Capitalists exploit the labour of the working classes - the wages they are paid are minimal compared to the value capitalists get from selling the products workers produce.

Q: Identify one Caribbean country in which the political regime was influenced by

Marxist ideas and also to name the leader of the regime indicated.

A: Jamaica - Michael Manley,,,,, Grenada Maurice Bishop,,,,,,Suriname Desi Bouterse,,,,,,Cuba Fidel Castro Guyana Forbes Burnham/Cheddi Jagan

Q; suggest three ways in which the mass media in the Caribbean can be organized

to support developmental goals of the region.

A: (1) the media could be a promotional form of the government with vested interest in capital venture; (2)find innovative/interesting ways to introduce information, news, music, artistes and other cultural products from Caribbean territories to increase the understanding Caribbean people have of their own space; (3) use the persuasive power of the media to heighten awareness of the challenges to our development posed by health-related issues, HIV/AIDS, narcotics traffic, youth and crime, violence, pollution, where habitual/traditional behaviours need to be examined.

Q: explain the term systematic inquiry

A: The candidate should indicate that this term has to do with: (1) research or investigation of an issue (2) using procedures which are rigorous/unbiased/logical/coherent. It can be quantitative or qualitative.

Q: Criteria that are important in identifying a research problem are:

(1)researchable (that available / accessible data exist about it) (2) clear (or unambiguous) (3) feasible (manageable and can be completed in a timely way) (4) ethical.

Q: four questions to be included in a checklist when evaluating information from the internet.:
A: Candidates listed questions pertaining to: (1) authority (2) adequacy (3) objectivity

Q:sources for information

A: Internet oral history minutes of meetings archives Hansard reports newspaper reports

Q: explain why sampling is an important procedure used in research

A: (1) to ensure that the findings in the study are generalizable to the larger population from which the sample was selected (the target population); (2) a researcher may not be able to include all the persons relevant to the study, so sampling limits the participants, but still allows for findings to be generalized to persons who cannot be included; (3) saves human resources.

Q:distinguish between probability and non-probability sampling.

A: Probability sampling depends on chance in the selection of the sample. Thus, in probability or random sampling every individual has an equi-probable chance of being chosen. In non-probability sampling, chance is not the important factor in determining who is included in the sample; for example, in purposive sampling deliberate judgment on the part of the researcher, or factors such as circumstances or convenience determine who is selected.

Q: reason for ethical practices being employed in research,

A: Part (a): In social research the main sources of information are human beings and as humans they ought to be treated fairly and with respect. OR Research involves making judgments at every stage which may have serious moral implications for human subjects. OR In the case of a research study being conducted where the participants experienced harm, then the findings of that study would be considered to be flawed. Part (b): Ethical practices to be observed include: the subjects anonymity should be preserved protecting their wishes, interests and possible wellbeing; the report should not contain confidential data and if it did there should be no way of tracing data back to the source; the report should in no way be used to victimize or cause harm to the participants. Research is normally conducted on subjects with a view to helping or benefiting them in some way; the report should portray the findings of the study and not the wishes of the researcher.

2010 Question : 5 Answer: Candidates who were awarded full marks noted that the historical situation of Caribbean soldiers in Britain during World War II who served the Mother Country in the army, navy and air forces was important (A) Caribbean migrants were vital for the operation of essential services in Britain and that nurses kept Britains hospitals performing satisfactorily at a critical time (A) Caribbean migrants contributed to various areas of metropolitan economies, particularly agriculture, transportation, entertainment, technology, food handling and processing of the service sector in which Caribbean migrants worked hard providing new services, skills and knowledge (A) migrant labour provided these countries with relatively cheap labour, especially in the manual, menial jobs which the natives of European and North American counties did not wish to perform <> Caribbean migrants became consumers in the host economies and so further contributed to the economies <> several festivals such as the Notting Hill Carnival and Caribana, which were introduced into the metropolitan countries by Caribbean migrants, provided large amounts of revenue to their host countries every year.

Q : Define the term per capita income

A: Per capita income is the total income earned from goods and services produced by a

country in one year divided by the total population for that country in that year.

6(A) :Q : Explain why the gross national product per capita is not an accurate indicator of development ?

A: However, per capita income cannot be used in this way as this measure speaks to the average income of the population, and does not take into consideration the unemployed, old and retired individuals as well as children, who, in most cases, earn no income but are included in per capita income calculations.


Q 1 (a) what is a plural society ?

Ans: A plural society was one in which there were several distinct ethnic/racial groups who interacted with each
other, but where there were clear lines between them in certain fundamental areas.

(b) what is meant by the term mestizo ?

Ans: Mestizo was the name given to individuals of European and Amerindian or indigenous parents. It can also be noted that historically, a Mestizo was someone who was born of Spanish and indigenous parents

(c ) what is meant by the term dougla ?

Ans: refers to an individual who is mixed with African and East Indian ancestry.

Q (2)a: Define the term soil erosion ?

A: The continuous removal of the top layer of soil from the surface of the land whether by the action of the wind, water, gravity, earth movements or by mankind.

(2)b: Describe TWO processes that have contributed to soil erosion in the Caribbean?

(i) Landslides, flooding, hurricanes, extreme wave action. (ii) Deforestation in places like Haiti could be a major cause of soil erosion.

Q: (3)A) NameTWO groups of indentured labourers who were brought to the

Caribbean after emancipation in 1838.

A: (i) East Indians (ii) Chinese

Q:(B)GiveTWO reasons why EACH group of indentured labourers were brought to the Caribbean.

A: (i)The search for the cheapest supply of labour. (ii)The shortage or scarcity of labour in some colonies. (iii)The deliberate use of indentured immigrants to frustrate the formerly enslaved.

Q(4) Explain what is meant by the term the family as a social institution.

A: This referred to the primary social unit which socialised the infant and growing young person in the mores, values and practices of the basic human unit and the wider society or group.

Q(B) Give two reasons why many Caribbean family forms were considered

dysfunctional by colonial authorities

A: (i) The nuclear family was seen as the norm and the colonial authorities did not regard Caribbean families, such as those with single parents, or extended families, as properForms .

(ii) These families were matrifocal as in Africa and this offended the sense of male superiority held by colonial authorities and the belief in male supremacy in the European household.

(iii) Western Christian teachings were highly ethnocentric and idealised a sense of Whit European norms and values.

Q5(a)Describe Two ways in which immigrant labour from the Caribbean has

impacted on the economies of Europe and North America.

A: (i) Caribbean migrants contributed to various areas of metropolitan economies, particularly agriculture, transportation, entertainment, technology, food handling and processing of the service sector in which Caribbean migrants worked hard providing new services, skills and knowledge (ii)migrant labour provided these countries with relatively cheap labour, especially in the manual, menial jobs which the natives of European and North American counties did not wish to perform (iii) Caribbean migrants became consumers in the host economies and so further contributed to the economies (iv) several festivals such as the Notting Hill Carnival and Caribana, which were introduced into the metropolitan countries by Caribbean migrants, provided large amounts of revenue

to their host countries every year.

Q: 5(b) Describe One way in which Cuban immigrants have influenced policy in North America.

Ans: The powerful Cuban lobby in Florida has had a direct impact on legislation, regulating legal and illegal
migration from Cuba to the US. IT has also served as a powerful pressure group that has affected governance and voting in the U.S.

Q(6a) Define the term per capita income. Ans: Per capita income is the total income earned from goods and services produced by a country in one year
divided by the total population for that country in that year.

(6b) Explain ONE way in which levels of income is a better indicator of development than per capita income.
Ans: (i) Level of income is a better indicator of development because levels of income speaks to
categories of income of a variety of individuals such as teachers, lawyers, construction workers, engineers, minimum wage workers. These categories/levels can be used to indicate the growth levels in an economy especially, for example, when these levels of income are rising. (ii) However, per capita income cannot be used in this way as this measure speaks to the

average income of the population, and does not take into consideration the unemployed, old and retired individuals as well as children, who, in most cases, earn no income but are included in per capita income calculations.

Q 7(a) Define the term popular movement


A popular movement is one that is initiated by the ideas of the masses, or was developed for the masses. It can have local or international appeal.

7(b)Describe Two ways in which a named popular movement in the Caribbean has contributed to national identity.
Ans: (i) Rastafarianism has created a sense of black consciousness
(ii) Rastafarianism has contributed to our rejection of colonial/European rule.

2. Outline one disadvantage of using a geographical basis of defining the Caribbean.

-Using a geographical basis to define the Caribbean results in anomalies such as the fact that territories like Guyana, which is considered to be Caribbean, borders the Atlantic Ocean and is not in the Caribbean Sea

3. Explain why Guyana is described as a part of the Caribbean.

-Guyana is considered to be a part of the Caribbean because the social and cultural experiences of its people are similar to those of the people of the islands in the Caribbean Sea.

4. With reference to specific examples, distinguish between material and non-material culture.
-Non-material culture refers to the intangible or unseen aspects of culture. Eg values and morals Material Culture refers to the visible aspects of culture such as food, dress, music etc.

5. Define the term social stratification.

-the ranking of social groups according to one or more criteria deemed important in the society.

6. Briefly describe two features of the plantation society.

-it is one that is rigidly stratified in its social and economic relations -it focusses on the legacy of slavery and indentureship and the system of economic organization, the plantation, which used this form of labour.

7. Explain one way in which education contributed to a new class format in the Caribbean society.
-Education reduces to some extent the level of social stratification in society in that it is the tool used by the traditional poorer groups (blacks, those of mixed heritage, Indians) to gain some form of upward social mobility.

8. Explain cultural diversity.

-different ethnic traditions (evident in race, language, religion, customs, family practices) found in one society or region.

Q: Explain two differences between the 1958 West Indian federation and Caricom.

(1) The aim of the WIF was to establish political union among its members for the major purpose of

gaining independence. Emphasis was not placed on the economic aspect of trade , not even free trade was introduced during this period.

(2) Caricom was formed in the aftermath of the members gaining their political independence and its

major objectives differed from WIF in that it sought economic integration, co-ordination of foreign policies and functional co-operation in areas such as health , education , culture and human social development. One of its major emphases was free trade to facilitate intra-regional trade and to establish free trade areas.

Explain the Pan Africanism

This is a movement based on the ideas that people of African descent are a unit who share a common destiny . the forced dispersal of African people because of the slave trade and slavery and the exploitation of their labour have led to a desire to regenerate and unify all people of African descent