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Topic: Mass Media.

Hypothesis: What Effect does television has on the behavioral patterns of teens ages 12-18 years in the Community of Parottee. Statement of Problem: To what extent is the behavior of teens ages 12-16 living in Parottee is greatly influenced by the programs broadcasted on the local television stations.

The topic of this research is Mass Media. The researcher plans to focus on one of the main type of mass media, the Television and how it affects the behavioral Pattern of Teens ages 12-18 years living in Parottee, St. Elizabeth. The television is one of the most used means of communication in Jamaica and for the benefit of the reader, Mass media is any means of communication that reach and influence large numbers of people e.g. the newspaper and the television. A Survey was conducted in the town of Black River and a Questionnaire was the means of gathering information to complete this project. At the end of reading this project, the researcher hopes that the reader finds it very knowledgeable and interesting and valuable information is acquired. Enjoy!

Literature Review
According to Ramsawak R and Umraw R (1996) the television operation involves the transmission of information in the picture form via electromagnetic waves. The waves upon received by the television are transformed into pictures which are then painted upon the television picture tube. There are two method of transmitting a television signal; the traditional method, which is the Broadcasting method where the signal is sent out via a powerful transmitter and is received within the border of the country. The broadcasting method has some limitations because the signal cannot travel very far; it is sometimes blocked by mountains and hills. So therefore, to overcome these limitations of the broadcasting method, the Cable television method was introduced. This method transmits the signals via a cable which runs from the ground station to the individual television in each home. With the invention of this new technology of Cable TV, it is the system that influences rapid change in cultural expressions and values among the youths ages 12-18 in Jamaica. Traditionally in the Caribbean, there had been two (2) television stations per territory, but due to technological advancement, government has now decided that it is in the best interest of the society to be exposed to a wider range of messages. This exposure has its negatives as well as its positive effects. As a result of immediacy of television pictures, teenagers are now accepting the cultural patterns and norms of the Metropolitan countries. This is especially evident in the slangs used when teenagers communicate with each other and also in their dressing patterns. This eventually resulted in an apparent falling away of the traditional cultural practices and a growing gap between youths and older generation.

The television is particularly influential in the socialization of youths among the ages of 1218 years. According to Beddoe I et al, the television helps to mold the attitudes, behavior, perceptions, creativity or sense of nationalism in youths. The television makes them see the wider world and builds their knowledge that influences them to think and do what they believe is right. It is very appealing to teenagers as when they are been entertained by famous persons, they try to base their lives on them act and sometimes in most cases appear to be like them. Also the TV can educate them on certain aspects of life. It can teach them both good and bad, but the negative influence far outweighs the positive.


Firstly I must thank god for the successful achievement of this I.A. It would not have been possible without him. I would also like to thank the respondents for their appreciated support and valuable time spent in answering the questionnaires given. My family and friends have also been supportive of me as they assisted me in the distribution and collection of the questionnaires. Finally I must thank my teacher, Ms. Senior who guided and instructed me on how to make the project a superior accomplishment. Thank you!!

Data Collection Sources

To efficiently carry out this investigation the researcher felt that the use of Questionnaires would be most ideal for the completion of the research. The researcher also used secondary sources from books, newspaper articles, and the internet to achieve the objectives of the study. The researcher wanted to complete this study on time, so the Questionnaires were handed out between the end of December 2011 and January 2012. The study was conducted in Black River, St. Elizabeth and questionnaires were given to selected teenagers between the ages of 12-18 years, chosen from the streets of Black River. It was agreed that a total of 20 questionnaires would be adequate to collect the information needed. The questionnaires were issued and completed in the presence of the researcher and the handed back. The questionnaires were evenly distributed between sexes so as to allow a wider range of information to be obtained and data collection would not be biased as response would only come from one sex. The secondary sources that were used to garner information came from books such as Evol Beckford MA (2005), Jennifer Mohammed (2009) and Rampasad Ramsawak (1996) and the internet. These sources provided the researcher with input of different perspectives from different individuals. The different books used gave a better understanding as the researcher read about the topic. The internet also provided a vast amount of articles that professors and teachers written that, in their perspectives have contradicted and agreed on certain information and thoughts.

Presentation of Findings


A pie chart showng samples of favourite types of movies.

Comedies Action Horror Adult Content

15% 30% 30% 25%

Figure 2 above which relates to question 4 of the questionnaire shows the types of programs Teens enjoy watching. 30% of the sample enjoyed horror, another 30% enjoyed watching comedies, 25% enjoyed action and a vast 15% enjoyed watching adult content movies.

Figure 6

A vertical bar graph showing the impact a tv personality has on the samples.
40 35 30 percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 25 35 30


Figure 6 above which relates to question 11 shows the impact that a television personality has on Teens. A vast 35% of the sample stated that TV has a great impact on their every day lives, 10% contradicted and said that they are not impacted by the films they view. On the other hand 30% said that movies has only a little impact and it depended on the type of films and the remaining 25% said that it was only sometimes movies influence what they do.

Figure 4

A table showing the extent to which the samples parent's monitor what they watched on tv

not at all

20 30

large extent small exent

20 percentage



Figure 4 which relates to question 7 shows to what extent parents monitor what their children view on television. Majority of the sample which is 50% stated that their parents dont monitor what they watch any at all. 30% said that their parents monitor what they view, but to a small extent and the remaining 20% said they are monitored throughout the entire viewing of films, so this was to a large extent.


a bar chart showing what the parent's of samples would do if they watched something they were told not to watch.

40 40 30 percentage 20 10 0 15 25 20

punishment administered ignore it say dont do it again get upset then forget

Figure 5 shown above which relates to question 10 shows what parents would do if they caught their child watching film/programmes they are not allowed to watch. They respondents stated that majority of the times their parents ignore them when they are watching something that they are not suppose to. 15% stated that they are punished, while 205 of the respondent state that parents said they are not suppose to do it again. And the remaining 25% said that their parents just get upset and then forget the whole ordeal.

Figure 7

The Bar Graph shows the impact television has on the sample's life
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 10% 30% 10% Lessen time Changes your spent with Modifies personality friends and what you do Changes your and Beliefs family In your spare thoughts on life and goals time 50% Percentage

Figure 7 above relates to question 12 which show the effect television has on Teens life. Television has a major impact on the life of the respondents as it changes their personality and beliefs and this was shown by the majority of 50%. 10%indicated that it modifies what they do in their spare time their, another 10% said that it lessens the time spent with family and friends while the remaining 30% felt that it changes their thoughts on life and goals.

Figure 8

A cone graph showing methods samples felt tv stations should undertake to ensure that teens don't view certain pragram


40 30 pecentage 20 10 0
10 20


none of the above more adds on parental guidance non children programs after certain hours showe more programs for teen views

Figure 8 shown above which relates to question 13 indicates what methods the sample thinks should be undertaken to ensure certain over rated programs are not viewed by teens/children. The majority of 40% felt that TV stations should broadcast more programmes for teens but 20% stated that more parental supervision should be undertaken. 30% of the sample said there should be non children programmes after certain hours and the remaining 20% felt that non of the above are measures that could be under taken.

Figure 3

The Pie chart shows if the sample abides by the ratings set on television Programs
10% 10% No Yes 80% Sometimes

Figure 3 above as it relates to question 5 shows if the sample abides by the ratings set on Television Programs. A total of 80% of the respondents stated that they do not abide by the ratings set on TV programmes, while 10% abides by it and the remaining 10% says sometimes the abide.

The bar graph below shows the age range of the sample

Figure 1

Ages 16-18


Ages 14-16


Ages 12-14



The Bar Chart above shows the age range of the Sample.

Interpretation of Data
In gathering information to complete this study, the researcher issued questionnaires to twenty (20) students. Fifty percent (50%) were females whom were between the ages of twelve (12) to eighteen (18) years and the remaining fifty percent (50%) were males who were between the ages of fourteen (14) to eighteen (18) years. Eighty percent (80%) of the sample felt that it was probably difficult for parents to monitor what their children watches on television, due to the fact that most parents are not always around when their children are viewing television programs. And even if the parents refrain them from watching television at home, children can always go elsewhere and watch programs their parents have prohibited them from viewing. The remaining twenty (20%) of the sample contradicted what the majority believed as they thought that it is not difficult for efficient and responsible parents to monitor what their children see on television. This is so because they are the parents, they have authority and they should lay down strict rules by which the child should follow. They should ensure that their children dont watch programs that are rated over their age. Due to the fact that most parents work between the hours of 8a.m to 5 p.m. during the school term, it may be less difficult for them to monitor what their children watch during the school term than on the holiday. This is because ninety percent (90%) of the respondents sample

schools hours begin at 8 a.m. and ends at 3 p.m. and so by the time the children arrive home they will have only an hour or little over an hour to view television programs unsupervised before their parents gets home and cannot really monitor what they watch. But in the holidays parents are at work, while the child or children maybe home alone; now given the opportunity and freedom to watch what they want regardless of what their parents would have said. Respondents were asked the type of movies they enjoy watching, and fifty percent (50%) enjoyed comedies, thirty percent (30%) enjoyed action packed movies, ten percent (10%) enjoyed horror films, another ten (10%) enjoyed love or high school movies and a vast thirty five percent (35%) enjoy adult content movies. The sample was also asked why they enjoyed those particular movies and their response were that they find that type of movie interesting. Some felt that certain aspects of the movies reflected their own life and provides them with solution to help fix problems they experience, others stated that the movies helps to broaden their knowledge and open their minds to un intentional learning (teaching which is neither formal nor planned and an individual had no intention of learning anything). Some also stated that they view the world differently and have learnt new and interesting information after watching movies. Out of a research sample of twenty (20) individuals, none of the sample abides by the ratings set by the television stations on programs. When asked why, the sample responded

negatively. To them, the rating has no purpose and makes no sense, as hardly anyone follows them. Television stations have no control over the ages of children who view the programs and there is no way they can observe viewers. The researcher had to concur to the fact that ratings on programs do not hinder children from watching programs that they are too young to see.

However, probably television stations should definitely not be the only one blamed for children watching adult programs. Parents should also be held responsible for what their children see. Based on the findings of this study, forty percent (40%) of the samples parents do not monitor what their children watch. Another forty percent (40%) of the parents would ignore it if their children watched a program that they were not told what to watch and only ten percent (10%) of the parents would punish their children for disobeying them and the other ten percent (10%) would calmly tell their children not to do it again and then forget the whole ordeal.

Discussion of Findings
A television can be defined as a system that transmits visual images and sounds that are produced on screens, chiefly used to broadcast programs for entertainment, information and education. A television can be highly influential, both positively and negatively. Positively it educates about people or countries that others had no clue existed, politics is better understood history and culture are better learnt and sometimes practiced. But TV also comes with a great deal of negativity. It gives exposure to sex and violence. Movies with crimes, fights, special effects and sex captures the attention of the viewers; teens who are the most popular and influential viewers. The television influences mood, as every film has its own emotional scenes, so whatever emotions the film shows, that is the behavior the viewer will, at some point portray. Also, television contributes laziness and lethargy. The TV influences and determines how teens spend their time as thirty five (35%) of the respondents have pointed out this. It is very addictive and after been around the television set for many hours, it has undoubtedly left them with not much time to do anything else. The survey showed that (80%) of the sample parents do not monitor what they watch and this is difficult to do because most of their parents work so therefore they are unsupervised when viewing television films. So therefore, it is upon the television stations that broadcast films to supervise what they transmit to the television. They can help to alleviate the negative impact that television has on teens, they can minimize the level of influential programs they air and instead, replace those programs with educational films which helps to

further the knowledge of youths. Also they can place more emphasis on the ratings of the age limit on the different programs; broadcasting more ads advising parents how to alleviate the problem can also make parents more aware and provide them with information as how to assist them with their children.

The television has been shown to have great influence on the development of school aged children. According to Comstock, children spend more time watching television than they spend in any other leisure activity. Television serves nearly thirty (30) hours of entertainment to children ages twelve (12) to eighteen (18) years weekly. Reality television is a phenomenon that is sweeping the globe. .These programs are widely viewed by kids and teens and many of these teens idolize what reality stars and mimic their every move and vocabulary. This alleged reality has negatively affected the well-being of children world wide. Teens tend to imitate what they observe on television and these programs support the worst attributes of behavior Ludwig (2003). Dr Ted Baeher (2003) also stated that whoever controls the media controls the culture. This serves to say that whatever is in the media, that is what will automatically become culture or apart of the culture, which will be widely practiced. It is a known fact that television influences the lives of teens and young adults. Today teens are watching more reality television and revering those they see. They are basing their lives, their wants and their desires on what they perceived is real on these programs and this influence is shown in lower self- esteem, the poor level of respect that is displayed and the idea of happiness the youths possess. The television has many advantages also, some of which are; it provides information, from which can upgrade or increase knowledge and it shapes what youths call World Knowledge. By been exposed to television children learn more about the beliefs of the world and changes their attitude for the future; this is good as

television reflects society. Television thus broaden horizon and stimulates the curiosity of many children who would not otherwise know what the world holds for them. Television therefore has its negative as well as its positive qualities and effects. It is how one uses it that determines what one will get from it.

Limitations of Research

Throughout the progress of the research, few limitations were faced that hindered the success of it. Some of which were: There was limited information at the School and Parish library. There was also a challenge in choosing suitable persons to answer the questionnaires. There was also refusal to answer specific questions by some respondents

The effect that television has on todays youth in the Community of Parottee ages 12-18 is a growing issue. The problem needs to be adjusted so the researcher suggested few possible measures that could be undertaken. The parental supervision needs to be more uptight, strict and firm. Parents should activate locks on the television sets so when the programs are rated older than their age, the channel automatically locks and prevents them from watching it. The television Stations should broadcast more ads that educates parents to improve the supervision of their children watching television. Television stations should air less negative influential programs, and increase the level of educational films they broadcast.

Table of Contents
Introduction Purpose of Research Literature Review Data Collection Sources Presentation of Data Interpretation of Data Discussion Conclusion Limitations of Research Recommendations Bibliography Appendices

This is an investigation to find out the effect (s) that the television has on the behavioral patterns of Teens ages 12-18 living In Parottee St. Elizabeth. Please answer by placing a tick in the box provided. 1. To which sex do you belong? [ ] Male [ ] Female

2. To which age group do you belong? o 12-13 years [ ] o 14-15 years [ ] o 15-16 years [ ] o 17-18 years [ ] 3. How often do you watch television? o 1-4 hours [ ] o 5-8 hours [ ] o 12 hours [ ] o 16 hours and over [ ] 4. What are the types of movies or films you enjoy watching? o Comedies [ ] o Action Packed [ ] o Horror Films [ ] o Adult Content [ ]

5. Do you abide by the ratings set on television stations for programs? o Yes [ ] o No [ ] 6. If yes/no please give reasons _________________________________________________ 7. To what extent do your parents monitor what you watch on TV? o Not at all o Small Extent o Large Extent 8. Do you watch programs that your parents have restricted you from watching? o Yes [ ] o No [ ] 9. Do your parents punish you for watching programs that are rated older than you? o Yes [ ] o No [ ] 10. If not, what does your parent (s) do when you are caught watching films that they have prohibited you from watching? o Ignore it [ ] o Get upset and then after a while forget the whole ordeal [ ] o Tell you not to do it again [ ] o No [ ]

11. Does your favorite television personality have an impact on your life? o Yes [ ] o No [ ] 12. What effect does watching television has on your life? o Lessen time with friends [ ] o Modifies what you do in your spare time [ ] o Changes your personality and your Beliefs [ ] o None of the Above [ ] 13. What methods do you think should be undertaken to ensure certain over rated programs are not viewed by teens? o Provide more ads on Parental supervision [ ] o Broadcast more teen view Programs [ ] o Non children program after certain hours and then restrict the child from watching the television at that time [ ]

Ramsawak, R. and Umraw, R. (1996) Modules for Social Studies. Beddoe, I. Bernard, L. et al (1996) Social Studies for the Caribbean Mohammed ,J. (2009) Caribbean Studies for Cape ( Mac Millian Publishers)

Research Questions
What is Television? To what extent the television affects the behavioral pattern of Teens? What can the local television stations do to ensure that teens do not view over rated programs? What roles are parents supposed to play in the supervision of what their children watches on television?


TOPIC: Mass Media