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IS : 875 ( Part 2 I- 1987

Indian Standard


( Second Revision )
Third Reprint MARCH 1993

UDC 624.0423

: 00676

0 Copyright I989








March 1989






(Second Revision)
Structural Choirmon BR,O L. V. RAMAKRISHNA Members Dn K. 0. BnArrA SFIRI M.,S. BHATIA SW., N. K. BHAITACHARYA Sent _.... S. K. MALHOTRA ( AI~ernare ) Dn S. C. CHA KRABARTl S,,n, A.DntrA ( Akwzafe ) SHR CHIEF E~omun CHEP EN ( ND2 ) II p,pEn,NTBNolNG SURVEYOR OF WOPXS SU(Lz j.ii ( NDZ ) II c Alrernore ) Dn P. P. DAVARATN DAvARATNAM Dn DK A. S. R. SAI ( Alrernare ) DEPW, MUN,C,PAL ~MMlSSlONER ( EN30 ) DEP~T;~MuNLCIP~ c,rv ENG,NEER ( Alternate ) D,nec~on ( CMDD-I ) Dwr, D,n~cro~ ( CMDD-I ) ( ANernefe ) MAPGEN A. M. GOQLEKAR PROP D. N. TRIKHA ( Alrernale ) SHR, A. C. Gum.\ SHRI P. SEN GuvrA SHR, M. M. GHOSH ( Akrnare ) Smr G. B. JAHAGIRDAR ,o,p,r D,n~cmn STANDARDS ( B & S ), CB SHRl s. P. JOSHI SHR, A. P. MULL ( Alkwiote ) Smr S. R. KULKARNI SHN S. N. PAL ( A/lwMIe ) SHM H. N. MICRA SHR, R. K. PUNHAN~ ( A/fernUfe ) SHRI T. K. D. MUNSHI De C. RAJRUMAR Dn M. N. KESHWA RAO SHRI S. GOMATH~NAYAOAM ( Ahernate ) DR T. N. SunsA RAO Dn S. V. LONKAR ( Ahernate ) Smr P. K. RAY SHR, P. K. MIJKI%RJ~ ( Altewtate ) SHR, s. SEETHARAMAN sm, S. P. CHAKRABOR~ ( Ahemote )

Safety Sectional



37 Army Headquarters, New



Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd ( Corporate. Research & Development,Division ), Hyderabad In pe;w& capacnty ( A-2136, Safdarjong Enclave, New Engin;ee;bi:-Chiefs Central Building Branch, Army Headquarters, NCW

Research Institute ( CSIR ). Roorkee New Delhi

Central Public Works Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Municipal Cential Corporation

Kanpur Bombay

of Greater Bombay, New Delhi

Water Commission,


of Engineers ( India ), Calcutta

National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. New Delhi Stewarts and Lloyds of India Ltd, Calcutta Natiol;alhydustriaI Development Corporation Ltd. New

Ministry of Railways Tata Consulting Engineers,

New Delhi

M. N. Dastur & Co, Calcutta Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Debra Dun Engineers National New Structural Gammon India Ltd, New Delhi Council for Cement and Building Materials. Delhi Engineering Research Centre ( CSIR ), Madras India Ltd, Bombay Association, Calcutta Roads Wing ), New Delhi

Indian Engineering Ministry

of Surface Transport(

0 Copyright 1989 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the lndian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957) and reproduction i? whole Or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be 80 lnfrlngement of copyright under the said Act.

( conhuedfrom pee I ) Members smt M. c. SnAnMn

Sm, K. S. SRINIVASAN Smt A. K. LAL ( Allernofe ) SHIUSUSR~L Kmmn

SAnl 0. RAMAN.

India Meteorological Department, New Delhi National Buildings Organization, New Do&i National Building Construction. Corporation Limited. New Delhi

Director ( Civ Bngg ? SRRIB. R; NARAVANAPPA Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ), BIS Panel on Loads (Other than Wind Loads), BDC 37:


DR T.,N. SUmA RAQ MemberS

DR S. V. LONKAR( Alternafe )

Gammon India Limited, Bombay Strun~;$~a~gine$riag Rescareh Ccntre, CSIR Campus, Ltd.

DR T. V. S. R. &PA R&O ,,I, M. N. KESWVARAO( Alfernafa ) SHARI S. R. KULKARNZ smt M. L. Maw.4 Smt S. K. hUTA ( RherMIe ) ,,R C. N. SnlNNAsAN ~mmmwm~t~~ ENOINBBR (D)

M. N. Da?tur & Co Gtd. C+tta Metdlll;ggxl & Eogmeermg Consultants (India)

MIS C. R. Narayana Rae, Madras Central Public Works Department (Central Designs Organization 1. New Delhi National Council for Cement and Building Materials, New Delhi


0. 1. FORBWORD ... ... ...
... ...

4 5 5 6 6 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17

... SCOPB ... ... .. . 2. Ttxr.mior.o~~ ... ... J.MPOSBD LOADSON FLOORSDUE To USB AND OCCUPANCY 3. 3.1 Imposed Loads ... . .. 3.1.1 Load Application ... .. . 3.1.2 Loads Due to Partitions ... :.. Reduction in Imposed Loads on floors ... 3.2 ... Posting of Floor Capacities ... 3.3 4. 4.1

















IMPOSED LOADS ON ROOFS . .. .. . Imposed Loads on Various Types of Roofs ... Concentrated Load on Roof Coverings ... 4.2 ... . .. Loads Due to Rain 4.3 ... ... DWLoad 4.4 Loads on Members Supporting Roof Coverings 4.5 IMPOSBD HORIZONTAL LOADS ON PARAP~ AND BALUSTRADES 5. L,OADINOEpmm Dun TO I~IPACTAND VIBRATION 6. Impact Allowance for Lifts, Hoists and Machinery 6.1 Concentrated Imposed Loads with Impact and Vibration 6.2 ... Impact Allowances for Crane Girders 6.3 ... Crane Load Combinations .. . 6.4 ... .. . 7. Onim LOADS ... APPENDIX A ILLUSTRATE EXAMPLBSHOWINGBXXYXON OPUNIPORMLY DISTRIBUT~!J ~M;;M~~~FLOOR LOADS 1~ MULTI-STXWBD BUILDINGS FOR DESIGN OP
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...









. .






Indian Standard



(Second Revision)
0.1 This Indian Standard (Part 2 ) (Second 0.3.1 With the increased adoption of the Code, Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian a number of comments were received on the proStandards on 31 .A@ 1987, after the draft visions on live load values adopted for different finalized by the Structural Safety Sectional Comoccupancies. SimuItaneousIy live load surveys mittee had been approved by the Building Divihave been carried out in America and Canada to sion Council. arrive at realistic live loads based on actual determination of loading ( movable and immovable ) 0.2 A building has to perform many functions satisfactorily. Amongst these functions are the m different occupancies. Keeping this in view utility of the building for the intended se and other developments in the field of wind and occupancy, structural safety, fire safety; engineering. the Sectional Committee responsible for the preparation of the Code has decided to and compliance with hygienic, sanitation, ventilation and day light standards. The design of prepare the second revision of IS : 875 in the following five parts : the buildiaa. is devendent van the minimum requireme& prescribed for each of the above Part 1 Dead loads functions. The minimum requirements perta$ng Part 2 Imposed loads to the structural safety of bu ildings are oerng Part 3 Wind loads covered in this Code by way of laying down minimum design loads whmh have to be assumed Part 4 Snow loads for dead loads, imvosed loads. snow loads .and Part 5 Suecial loads and load combinations other external loids, the structure would be Earthquake load is covered in a separate required to bear. Strict conformity to loading _.__~. ~~1 sldaro, namely IS : 1893-1984* which should standards recommended in this Code, it is hoped; will not only ensure the structural safety of the be considered sIong with above loads. 0.3.2 This Code ( Part 2 ) deals with imposed buildings which are being designed and constructed in the countrv and therebv reduce the hazards loads on buildings produced by the intended to life add property caused by unsafe struct.ures, occupancy or se.- In this revision, the following but also eliminate the wastage caused by assumiaa important changes have been made: unnecessarily heavy loadings. al The se of the term live load has been modified to imposed load to cover not 0.3 This Code was first published in 1957 for the only the physical contribution due to guidance of civil engineers, designers and archipersons but also due to nature of oqutects sssociated with the planning and design of panty; the furniture and other equipments buildings. It included the provisions for the basic which are a part of the character of the design loads ( dead loads, live loads, wind loads occupancy. and seismic loads ) to be assumed in the design of buildings. In its first revision in 1964, the b) The imposed loads on floors and roofs wind pressure provisions were modified on the have been rationalized based on the basis of studies of wind phenomenon and its codified data available in large number of latest foreign national standards, and ettects on structures, undertaken by the special other literature. Further, these values committee in consultation with the India have been spelt out for the major occ Meteorological Department. In addition to this, panties as classified in the National new clauses on wind loads for butterfly type structures were included; wind pressure coeffiBuilding Code of India as well as the cients for sheeted roofs, both Curved and sloping, various service areas appended to the major were modified; seismic load provisions were deletoccupancies. ed. I separate code shaving been prepared ) and metric system of weights and measurements was *Criteria for earthquake resistant d&an of structures adopted. (fourth revision ). 4

IS:875(Part2)-1987 c) The reduction of imposed loads for design of vertical supporting members in multi-storeyed buildings has- been further increased from 40 to 50 percent. d) Provision has been included .for sign posting of loads on floors .in view of the different loadings specified for different occupancies and to avoid possible misuse in view of conversion of pcdupancies. e) The value of loads on parapets and balustrades have been revised with its effect taken both in the horiiontal and vertical directions. f) Landhe ezcigygdof $velling units planned accordance wnh IS: 8888-1979;. an imposed load of 1.5 kN/m*is allowed. g) SI Units have been used in the Code. 0.3.3 The buildings and structural systems shall provide such structural,integrity that the hazards associated with progressive collapse such as that due to local failure caused by severe overloads or abnormal loads not specifically covered therein are reduced to a level consistent with good engineering practice. 0.3.4 Whenever buildings are designed for future additions of floor at a later date, the number of storeys for which columns/walls, foundations, etc. have been structurally designed may be posted in a conspicuous place similar to posting of floor capacities and both could be placed together. 0.4 The Sectional Committee responsible for the preparation of this Code has taken into account *Guide for

the prevailing practices in regard to loading standards followed in this country by the various municipal authorities and has also taken note of thedevelopments in a number of countries abroad. In the-preparation of this Code, the following national standards have been examined : a) BS 6399 : Part 1 : 1984 Design Loading for Buildings Part 1: Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Loads. British Standards Institution. b) AS: 1170, Part I-1983 - SAA Loading Code, Part I Dead and Live Loads. Australian Standards Institution. c) NZS 4203-1976 New Zealand Standard General Structural Design and Design Loading for Building. Standards Association of New Zealand. d) ANSI. A 58.1 - 1982American Standard Building Code Requirements for Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures. e) National Building Code of Canada ( 1977 ) Supplement No. 4. Canadian Structural Design Manual. f) DIN 1055 Sheet 3 - 1971 Design Loads for Buildings - Live Load (West German Loading Standards ). g) IS0 2103-1986 Loads due to use and occupancy in residential and public buildings. h) IS0 2633-1974 Determbmtion of Imposed Floor Loads in Production Buildings and Warehouses. International Organization for Standardization.

of low income housing.

1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 2) covem imposed loads* ( live loads ) to be assumed in the design of buildings. The imposed loads, specified herein, are minimum loads which should be taken into Consideration for the pInpOSe of StruCtUral safety of buildings. 1.2 This Code does not cover detailed provisions for loads incidental to construction and special cases of vibration, such as moving machinery, heavy acceleration from cranes, hoists and the like. Such loads shall be dealt with individually in each case.

2.1 Imposed Load - The load assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of a building, including the weight of movable partitions, distributed, concentrated loads, load due to impact and vibration, and dust load but exeluding wind, seismic; snow and other toads due to temperature changes, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement, etc. 2.2 Occupancy or Use Group - The principal OCCUpancyfor which a building or part of a building is used or intended to be used; for the purpose of classification of a building according to occupancy, an occupancy shall be deemed, to include subsidiary occupancies which are contingent UDO~ it. The. occunancv classification is given from 2.2.1 to 2.2.8. . 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.2.1 Assembly Liddings - These shall include 2.0 For the purpose of this Code, the following any building or part of a building where groups definitions shall apply. of people congregate or gather for amusement. recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel The word imposed load is used through out instead and similar purposes, for example, theatres, motion picture houses, assembly halls, city halls, of live load which is synonymous.

IS:875(PartZ)-1987 marriage balls, town balls, auditoria, exhibition halls; museums, skating rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants ( also used as assembly balls ); places of worship, dance hells, club rooms, passenger stations and terminals of air, surface and other public transportatjon services, recreation piers and stadia, etc. These shall include any building or part of a building, which is used for transaction of business ( other than that covered by 2.2.6 ); for the keepingofaccounts and records for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional est~blisbments, court houses, and libraries shall be classified in this group so far as principal function of these is transaction of public business and the keeping of books and records. Ofice buildings - The buildings primarily to be used as an office or for office purposes; office purposes include the purpose of admjnistrarion, clerical work, handling money, telephone and telegraph operating and operating computers, calculating machines; clerical work includes writing, book-keeping, sorting papers, typing, filing, duplicating, punching cards or tapes, drawing of matter for publication and the editorial preparation of matter for publication.
2.2.3 Educational Buildings These shall include any building used for school, college or day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by 2.2.1. 2.2.4 lndusfrial Buildings - These shall include any building or a part of a building or structure in which products or materials of various kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled or processed like assembly plants, power plants, refineries, gas plants, mills, dairies, factories, workshops, etc. 2.2.5 InstirutioMlBuildings-These shall include any building or a part thereof. which isused for purposes, such as medical or other treatment in case of persons suffering from physical and mental illness, disease or infirmity; care of infants, convalescents of aged persons and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. lnsritutional buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants. It includes hospitals, sanitaria, custodial institutions or penal institutions like jails, prisons and reformatories. 22.6 Mercantile Buildings-These shall include any building or a part of a building which is used as shops, stores, market for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail. Office, storage and service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located in the same building shall be included under this, group. 2.2.7 Residential Buildings -These shall include any building in which sleeping accommodation is 2.2.2 Business Buildings -

provided for normal residential purposes with or without cooking or dining or both facilities (except buildings under 2.2.5). It includes one or multi-family dwellings,. apartment houses ( flats), lodging or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hotels. Dwellings - These shall include any building, or part occupied by members of single/ multi-family units with independent cooking These shall also include apartment facilities. houses ( flats ).
2.2.8 Storage Buildings - These shall include any building or part of a building used primarily for the stqrage or sheltering of goods, wares or mercbandize, like warebodses, cold storages, freight depots, transity sheds, store houses, garages, hangers, truck terminals. grain elevators, barns and stables.

3. IMPOSED LOADS ON FLOORS DUE TO USE AND OCCUPANCY 3.1 Imposed Loads -The imposed loads to Lx assumed in the, design of buildings shall be the greatest loads that probably will be produced by the intended use or occupancy, bukshall not be less than the equivalent minimum loads specified in Table 1 subject to any reductions permitted by 3.2. Floors shall be investigated for both the uniformly distributed load ( UDL ) and the corresponding concentrated load specified in Table I and designed for the most adverse effects but they shall not be considered to act simultaneously. The concentrated loads specified in Table 1 may be assumed to act over an area of 0.3 x @3 m. However, the concentrated loads. need not beconsidered where the floors are capable of effective lateral distribution of this load. All other structural elements shall be invcstigated.for the effects of uniformly distributed loads on the floors specified in Table 1.
Nom 1 - Where in Table 1, no values are &en fOr concentrated load, if may be assumed fhat the tabula-

ted distributed load is adequate for design purposes. Nm 2 -The loads specikd in Table 1 are equivalent unif&mly distributed loads on the plan area and provide tor normal eRw.t of impact and acceleration. They do not take into consideration special conccntrated loads and other loads. Nom 3 - Where Ihe use of an area or floor is not provided in Table 1. the imposed load due lo thq use and occupancy of such an area shall be determined from the analysisof loads resulting from: a) weight ot fhc probable assemblyof persons; b) weight of thr probable accumulation of equipment and furnishing; c) weight of the probable dorage. materials; and, d) impact factor, if any.

IS : 875(

Part 2 ) - 1987


(C/ouses 3.1, 3.1.1 and4.1.1 )

%. (1)


) RESIDENTlAL BUILDINS a) Dwelling houses: I) All roonw and kitchens 2) Toilet and bath roomy 3) Corridors, passages, staircases in&din& fire escapesand store roam 4) Balconies b) Dwelling units planned and executed in accordance with IS : 88881979 only: 1S
2) 3)

20 20
30 3.0


15 permetre run MIIC~W trated at the outer edge

14 14

Corridors, passages and staircasesincludng fire escapes Balconies


1) Living rooms, bed rooms and dormitories 2) Kitchens and laundries 3) Billiards rcom and public IOUOxes 4) store *OOmS 5) Dimng rooms. cafeterias and restaurants 6) office rooms 7) Rooms for indoor games 8) Paths and toilets 9) Corridors, passages, stairc&es including fire escapes, lobbies -as per the Boor serviced ( excluding stores and the like ) but not lessthan 10) BalCOnieS d) Boiler worn9 and plant rooms-to be calculated but not leas than

30 30 50 40 25 3.0 20 30

45 27 45 27 27 18 -. 45

Bamcas roomy to which they give aaxss but with a minimum of 40





(2) e) Garages: 1) Garage Boors ( including parking area and repair workshops ) for passenger cars sod vehiclea not exceeding 25 tonnes gross weight, including access ways and ramps - to be calculated but not less than 2) Garage floors for vehiclesnot exceeding 40 tonnes gross weight ( including accessways and ramps ) - to be calculated but not less than


kN/m* 25

(4) kN 90



ii) EDU,CATIONAL BUlLDINGS a) Classrooms and lestwe rooms ( not used for assemblypurposes ) b) Dining. rooms. cafeterias and restaurants c) Offices. lounges and staff roomr d) e) f) g) II) j) Dormitories ~Projection*ooms Kitchens Toilets and batbrooms store rooms Libraries and archives: 1) S@ckroom/stack ama


27 27

23 20 VO 30 20 50

l-1 27 43 45 43

60 kN m for a minimum he d t of 22mi.20 kN/m per mltrc hoi&t beyond 22 m

40 30 40 40

9 Reading rooms (without separate storage ) 3) R&h&g rooms ( with separate Boiler rooms and plant rooms -to be calculated but not lossthan m) Corridors, passages,lobbies, staircases including fire escapes -as per the Boor serviced( without accountiog for storage and projection rooms ) but not lessthan

45 45 45 45

iii) INSTlTUTIONAL BUILDlNGS 3 Bed rooms, wards, dressingroomr, dormitories and lounges b) K.i~ens, lsundriu and labora.

20 30

TABLE I IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS FOR DIFFZRENT OCCUPANCIES - Confd UNI@a)RMLY DISTRlFJWEo Lo*o( UDL) (2) C) Dining rooms, c?.feterias and reSta*tS Toilets and bathrooms d) e) x-ray rooms, operating rooms. general storage areas -to be calculated but not lessthan fl Oilice rooms and OPD rooms 8) Corridors. ,passages, lobbies and staircases rncluding. fin escapes~ger the floor sawed but not less h) 3 iv) .&!SEMBLY BUILDINGS 3 Assemblyareas: 1) with tied seats! 2) without fixed seats subject to assembly), b) ,,,u~eum~ and art gallerien and
restaurants (

&. (1)



kN/m w 20 30
25 40

kN 21

43 27 43



Sam0 as the rooms to which they give access but with 8 minimum of 40

1.5 per metrc No conca. trated at the outer edge

40 50 40 50 50 30 TO 20 20 40 sameas

36 4.5


Toilets and bathrOoms Corridors, PaJW~% staircases including fire escapsll .W Balconies m) Boiler rooms and plant rooms including weight of macbi~cry

C) 8) d 0 S) h) j)

Projection moms Stases Offi& rooms, kitchens and lauadrics Dressing rooms ~Oungw and billiards rooms

they give access but with *minimum of 40



to which

n) Corridors. passages subject to loads 90 greater than from crowds, suchas wheeled vehicles, trolleys and the like. Corridors, staircases and pas-es in grandstands v) BUSINESS AND OFPlCE BUILDINGS (seerrlro 3.12 a) Rooms for general use with separate 25 storage b) Rooms without separate storage 4-o

TABLE 1 IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS FOR DIPFBRECYT OCCUPANCIES SL NO. (1) (2) Cl Banking halls d) Business computing machine *cmm ( with fixed computers or similar quipment ) kN/m 30 35 50 strong room - to be calculatedbut not lessthan Cafeterias and dining rooms Kitchens Corridors, paswges, lobbies and staircases including fire escapes-as per the floor serviced (excluding stores) but not lessthan k) Bath and toilet rooms m) Balconies 0) Stationary stores p) Boiler rooms and plant moms - to be calculated but not lessthan 9) Libraries vi) MERCANTILE BUILDINGS a) Retail shops b) Wholesaleshops - to be calculated but not lea than 4 office IOOrnS d) 6 Toilets 0 Kitchens and laundries 8) Boiler roooms and plant raxns to be calculated but ilot lessthan h) 3 Corridors. passages, staircases subject to loads sreater than from crowds. such as wheeled vehicles. trolleys and the like



27 45

45 45
27 27 45

Vaults and

3.M 3.0 40

20 Same as reams to which they give aceZss bui with a minimum of 40 40 for each metre of storageheight 90 seeSl No. ( ii )
40 60 25 3ot 20 30 90

1.5 permetre N.coLN%Dtratqi at the oute.r edge 9.0


36 45
27 2.7

45 67

40 5.0

45 45


Sameas rcdns to which they give docess but with. a minimum of 40





(3) kN/m 25

14) kN

vii) INDUSTRYAL BUILDINQS *, Work areas without machinery/ equipment b) Work areas with machinery/equipmen@ I) Light duty 1 To becalcula2) Medium duty > ted but not 3) Heavy duty J lessthan - to C) Boiler rooms and plant IOO~S be calculated but not lessthan d) Cafeteriasand dining rooms 4 Corridors, passagesand staircases including fire escapes 0 Corridors, passages,staircasessubject, to machine loads, wheeled ;$~l&s- to be calculated but not

9) Kitchens h) Toilets and bathrooms viii) STORAGE BUILDINGS II a) Storage rooms (other than cold storage ) warehouses- to be c&ulated based on the bulk density of materials stored but not lessthan b) Cold storage - to be calculated but not lessthan C) Corridors, passagesand staircases including fire eseapcs -as per the floor servicedbut not lessthan d) Corridors. passases subjectto loads greater than, from crowds, such as ;tewled vehtcles, trolleys and the e) Boiler rooms and plant rooms

30 20

24 kN/m per each mctre of storage height with a minimum of

75 kN/m

50 kN/m per each metre of storage hei@ with a minimum of IS kN/m 40 50


*Guide for requirements of low income housing. +where unrestricted assemblyof persons is anticipated;the value of UDL should be increased to 40 kN/m!. $With fixed seatsimplies that the removal of the seating and the use of the spa= for other purposes IS improbable. .The maximum likely load in this caseis, tberefore,~closely$0Dtroll@. $Tbe loading in industrial buildings ( workshops and factones ) vanes considerably and so, three @adings under the terms Ii&t, medium and heavy are introduced in order to allow for more economtcal de$%ns,but the terms have no sqecialmeaning in themselvesother than the imposed load for which the r&van1 floor ISdesignrrl rt is hourever. mmortant oarticularlv in the caseof heaw w&&t load?.. to assess the actual loads to ensure i&t ideya;i %i %iiii-& ofi kN/m*; in casewhere they are in e%ess,the design shall be based on the actual kkadiigr. ~For various mechanicalhandling equipment which are used to tramport goods, as in warehouses, workshops, store rooms, etc. ths actual load coming from the use of such equipment shall be ascertainedand de&n should eater to suchloads. 11

IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987

NOTEI4 -While selecting a particular loadifig. the possible change in use or occupancy of the building should be kept in view. Designers should oat necessarily select in every case thelower loading appropriate to the first occupancy. In doing this, they might intrcduce considerable restrictions in the USCof the building at a later date and thereby reduce its utility. Nom 5 - The loads specified herein which are based on estimations, may be considered as the characteristic loads for the purpose of limit state method of design till such time statistical dataare established based on load surveys to be conducted in the country. Nom 6 -When an existing building is altered by an extension in height or area, all existing structural pans affected by the addition shall be strengthened, where necessary, and all new structural parts shall be designed to meet the requirements for building thereafter erected. Nom 7 - The loads specified in the Code does not include loads incidental to construction. Therefore, close supervision during construclion is essential to ensure that overloading of the building due to loads .by way of stacking of byilding materials or useof equipment ( for example, cranes and trucks ) during construction or loads which may be induced by floor to Boor propping in multi-stowed construction. does not occur. HoweverT if construction loads were of short duration, permiwble increase in stresses in the case of working stress method or permissible decrease in load factors in limit state method, as applicable to relevant design codes, may be allowed for.

weight per metre run of finished partitions, subject to a minimum of 1 kN/m: proyided total weight of partition walls per square metre of the wall area does not exceed 1.5 kN/mz and the total weight per metre length is not greater than 40 kN. 3.2 Reduction in Imposed Loads on Floors 3.2.1 For Floor Supporting Structural Members Except as provided for in, thefollowing reductions in assumed total imposed loads on floors may be made io.designing columns, load be&ag walls, piers, then supports and foundaNumber

ing the Roof) to be Carried

by Member under Consideration

of F~OOIS f In&d-

Reduction in Total Distributed Imposed Load on all Floors to be Carried by the Member under Consideration ( Percent ) 0

sidered as an imposed load OLIthe roof/floor tc which it is 6xed. 3.1.1 Load Application - The uniformly distributed loads specified .in Table 1 shall be applied as static loads over the entire floor ~arca under consideration or a portion of the floor area whichever arrangement produces critical effects on the structural elements as provided in respective design codes. In the design of floors, the concentrated loads are considered to be applied in the positions which produce the maximum stresses and where deftection is the main criterion, in the positions which produce the maximum deflections. Concentrated load, when used for the calculation of bending and shear are assumed to act at a point. When used for the calculalion of local effects, such as crushing or punching, they are assumed to act over an actual area of application of @3 x @3 m. 3.1.2 Loads Due to Light Parfifions - In office and other buildings where actual loads due to light partitions cannot be assessed at the time of planning, the floors and the supporting structural members shall be designed to carry, in addition to other loads, a uniformly distributed load per square metre of not less than 33& percent of

NOTE 8 -The loads in Table I are grouped together as applicable to buildings havin& separate principal occupancy or use. For a building with multiple occopanties, the loads appropriate to the occupenoy with comparableuseshall be chosenfrom other occupancies. Non 9 -Regarding loading on machine rooms No reduction shall be made for any including storage space used for repairing, ,l@t machines, designers should go by the recnmmendatmns plant or machinery which is specifically al!owed &lift manufacturers for the present. Regarding the for, or in buildings for storage purposes, wareIoadingXue to false ceiling the game should be Coo-

2 3 4 5 to IO Over 10

10 20 30 40 50

houses and garages. However, for other buildings where the floor is designed for an imposed floor load of 90 kN/ml or m0re, the reductions shown in 3.2.1 may be taken, provided that the loading ,assumed is not less than it would have been if all the floors had been designed for 50 kN/m* with no reductions:
then the reduced adopted. load of the upper Boor will

Nom 7 In case if the reduced load in the lower floor is lesserthan the reduced load in the upper Boor, be An example &given in Appendix A illustrating the reduction of imposed loads in a multi-stqreyed building in the design of column members. 3.2.2 For Beams in Each Floor Level - Where a single span of beam, girder or truss supports not less than 50 ma of Boor at one general level, ,the imposed floor Load may be reduced io the design of the beams, girders or trusses by 5 percent for each 50 m area supported subject to a maximum reduction of 25 percent. However, no reduction shall be made in any.of the following types of loads: a) Any superimposed moving load,


IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987 b) Any actual load due to machinery or similar concentrated loads, c) The additional load in respect of partition walls, and d) Any impact or vibration. NOTE- The above reduction does not apply to beams,girders or trussessupporting roof loads. 3.3 Posting of Floor Capacities - Where a fiOOr or part of a floor oC a building has been designed to sustain a uniformly distributed load exceeding 90 kN/me and in assembly, business, mercantile, industrial or storage buildings, a permanent notice in the form as shown in the label, indicating the actual uniformly distributed and/or concentrated loadings for which the floor has been structnrally designed shall be posted in a conspicuous place in a position adjacent to such floor or on such part of a floor. _ DESIGNED IMPOSED FLOOR LOADING . . .. .. ..kN/ma . . kN where it is ensured that the roof coverings would not be transversed without suitable aids. In any case, the roof coverings shall be capable of carrymg the loads in accordance with 4.1,4.3, 4.4 and snow load/wind load. 4.3 Loads Due to Rain - On surfaces whose positioning, shape and drainage systemsare to make accumulation of rain water possible, loads due to such accumu!ation of water and the imposcd loads for the roof as given in Table 2 shall be considered separately and the more critical of the two shall be adopted in the design. 4.4 Dust Load - In areas prone to settlement of dust on roofs ( example, steel plants, cement plants ), provision for dust load equivalent to p;Eabd; thickness of accumulation of dust may 4.5 Loads on Members Supporting Roof Coverings - Every member of the supportiqg stiucture which is directly supporting the roof covering(s) shall be designed to carry the more severe of the following loads except as provided in 4.5.1 : a) The load transmitted to the members from rhe roof covering(s) in accordawe with 4.1, 4.3 and 4.4, and b) An incidental concentrated load of 0.90 kN concentrated over a length of ~12S~cm placed at the most un~avourable positions on the member. Non - Where it is ensured that the roofs would be traversed only with the aid of planks and ladders capable of distributing the loads on them to two OFmore supporting members. the intensity of concentrated load indicated in(b) may be reduced te W kN with the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge. 4.5.1 In case of sloping roofs with slope greater than lo, members supporting the roof purlins, such as trusses, beams, girders, erc, may be designed for two-thirds of the imposed load on purlins or roofing sheets. 5. IMPOSED HORIZONTAL LOADS ON PARAPETS AND BALUSTRADES 5.1Parapets, Parapet Walls and Balustrades Parapets, parapet walls and balustrades together with the members which give them structural support shall be designed for the minimum loads given in Table 3. These are expressed as horizontal forces acting at handrail or coping level. These loads shall be considered to act vertically also but not simultaneously with the horizontal forces. The values given in Table 3 are. minimum values and where values for actual loadings are. available, they shall be used instead. 5.2 Grandstands and the Like-Grandstands, stadia, assembly platforms, reviewing siands and the like shall be designed to resist a horizontal force applied to seats of @35!kN par linear metre 13



NOTE1 --The lettering of such notice shall be embossed6r cast suitably on a tablet whose least dimension shall be net le% lhan025 m andlocated net len than 15 m above floor Ievcl with lettering OSa minimum size of 25 mm. Nore 2 - If a concentrated load or a bulk load has to occupy a definite position onthe r%or, the wne could also be indicated in the label above. 4. IMPOSED LOADS ON ROOFS

4.1 Imposed Loads on Various Types of Roofs On flat roofs, sloping roofs and curved roofs, the imposed loads due to use or occupancy of the buildings and the geometry of the types of roofs shall be as given in Table 2. 4.1.1 Roofs of buildings used for promenade or incidental to assemhly purposes shall be designed for the appropriate imposed floor loads Table 1 for the occupancy. 4.2 Concentrated Load on Roof Coverings - To provide for loads incidental to maintenance, unless otherwise, specified by the Engineer-in-Charge, all roof coverings ( other than glass or transparent sheets made of fibre glass ) shall be capable of carrying an incidental load of 0.90 kN concentrated on an area of 12.5 cm* so placed as to produce maximum stresses in the covering. The intensity of the concentrated load may be reduced with the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge,

IS : 875 ( pati 2 ) - 1987 along the, line of seats and @I5 kN per linear metre perpendicular to the line of the seats. These loadings need not be applied simultaneously. Platforms without seats shall be designed to resist a minimum horizontal force of @25 kN/m2 of plan area. 6. LOADING EFFECTS DUE TO IMPACT AND VIBRATION 6.0 The crane loads to be considered under imposed loads shall include the vertical loads, eccentricity effects induced by vertical loads, impact factors, lateral and longitudinal braking forces acting across and along the crane rails respectively. 6.1 Impact Allowaace for Lifts, Hoists and Macbinery - The imposed loads specified in 3.1 shall be assumed to include adequate allowance for ordioary impact conditions. However, for structures carrying loads which induce impact or vibration, as far as possible, calculations shall be made for increase in the imposed load, due to impact or vibration. In the absence of sufficient data for


I%. (0

(2) i) Flat,, sloping or curved roof wth slopesup to and iwluding 10 degrees a) Accessprovided

13 kN/m

375 kN uniformly distributed OYor any span of onemetre widthof the roof slab and 9 kN uniformly distributed over the sqat of any beam or truss or 19 kN uniformly distributed over any.span of one metro width of the roof slab and 45 kN uniformly distributed over the span of any beam or trw or wall Subject to a minimum of 04 kNIna

b) Access not provided oxcopt for maintenance

075 kN/m*

ii) Slopingroofwithslope greater than 10 degrees iii) Curved roof with slope of line obtained by joining spring. ing point to the crown with the horizontal, greater than
10 degrees

For roof membrane sheets or PUTIin& kN/m* less 002 kN/m for every degree increasein slope over 10 degrees ( O~~o;o032 y* ) kN/m* = /i/l x = the height of the highest point of the strixture measuredfrom its spring ing; and 1 = chord width of.the roof if -singly curved and shorter of the two sides if doubly curved where structural Alternatively. analysis iin be carried out for curved roofs of all slopes in B simple manner applying the laws of statistics. the curved roof shall be divided into minimum 6 equal seamonts and for each seament imposed~load shall be calc&ted appropriate to the slope of tho chord of eachsegment as given in

(i)and(ii)above Nom 1 -The Ioads given above do not include loads due to snow. rain, dust collection, etc. The roof shall be designedfor imposed loads given above or for snow/rain load, whichever is greater.
NOIX2 -For specialtypes of roofs with highly permeable and absorbent material, the contingency material increasinain weiaht due to absorotion of moisture shall be orovided for. of roof

IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987



i) ii)



L&t access stairs gangwaysand the like cot more than 600 mm wide Light access stairs, gangways and the like, mere than 600 mm wide: stairways, landings, balconies and pars et walls ( private and part of dwellings e AU other stairways. landings and bafccties, and all parspots and handrails to roofs except those subject tc cwrcrcwding covered under ( iv ) Parapets and balustrades in place of assembly, such as theatres, cinemas, churches, schoc!s,, places of entertainannt%sjcrts, buddmas hkely to be over-





~cm - fc the case of guard parapets cc a Boor of multi-storeyed car park or crash barriers provided in certain buildings for fire escape, the value of imposed horizontal load ( together with impact load ) may bc determined. such calculation, the io~rease in the imposed loads shall be as follows: Impael SfNcfures


For frames supporting lifts and hoists For foundations, footings and piers supporting lifts and hoisting apparatus F& suppo&g structures and foundations for light machinery, shaft or motor units For supporting structures and foundations for recimachinery Of procating power units

100 percen 40 percent

20 percent

4.2 Concentrated Imposed Loads with Impact and Vibration - Concentrated imposed loads with impact and vibration which. may be due to iostalled machinery shall be considered and provided for in the design. The impact factor shall not Lx fess than 20 percent which is the amount allowable for light machinery. 63.1 Provision shall also be made for carrying any concentrated equipment loads white the eqpipment is being installed or moved for servicing and repairing. Allowancea for Craoe Girders - For crane gantry gtiders and supporting columns, the following allowances shall be deemed to cover +I1 forces set up by vibration, shock from slipping or slings, kinetic action of acceleration, and retardation and impact of wheel loads :
Addifional Load 6.3 Impact

50 percent

of Load

a) Vertical loads for electric overhead cranes

b) Vertical loads for hand operated cranes

25 percent of maximum static loads for crane girders for all classes of cranes 25 percent for columns supporting Class III and Class IV cranes IO percents for columns supporting Class I and Class II cranes No additional load for design of foundations IO percent of maximum wheel loads for crane girders only
(Continued) 15

IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987 c) Horizontal forces transverse to rails: I) For electric overhead cranes with trolley having rigid mast for suspen-* sion of lifted weight ( such as soaker crane, stripper crane, em ) percent of weight of crab and tht weight lifted by the cranes, acting on any one crane track rail. acting in either direction and equally distributed amongst. all the wheels on one side of rail track For frame analysis this force shall be applied on one side of the frame at a time in either direction. -5 percent of weight of crab and the weight lifted by .the cranes. acting on anyone crane track rail, acting in either direction and equally distributed amongst the wheels on one side of rail track For the frame analysis, this force shall be applied on one side of the frame at a time in either direction -5 percent of all static wheel loads -I@

2) For all other electric overhead cranes and hand operated cranes

d) Horizontal traction forces along the rails for overhead cranes. either electrically operated or hand operated Forces specified in ( c) and ( d ) shall be considered as acting at the rail level and being appropriately transmitted to the supporting system. Gantry girders and their vertical supports shall be designed on the assumption that either of the horizontal forces in ( c ) and ( d ) may act at the same time as the vertical load.

accommodated on the span but without taking into account overloading according to 6.3( a ) to give the maximum effect. 6.4.2 Lateral Surge - For design of columns and foundations, supporting crane girders, the following crane combinations shall be considered: a) For single-buy frames - Effect of one NoTT-S~~ IS : 807-1976 for classification( Classes crane in the bay giving the worst effect 1 to 4 ) of Cranes. shall be considered for calculation of surge force, and 6.3.1 Overloading Factors in Crane Supporting structures - For all ladle cranes and charging b) For multi-bay froma - Effect of twp cranr?s, where there is possibility of pverfoading cranes working one each in any of two from production considerations, an -pverloading bays in the cross-section to give the worst factor of 10 percent of the maximn?l.%$reel loadeffect shall he considered for calculation ing shall be taken. of surge force. 6.4 Crane Load Combinations - Jn the absence of any specific indications, the load combinations 6.4.3 Tractive Force shall be as indicated in the following sub-clauses. Where one crane is in operation with 6.4.1 Vertical Loads - In an aisle, where more no provision for future crane, tractive force from than one crane is in operation or has provision only one crane shall be taken for more than one crane in future, the following Where more than one crane is in load combinations shall be taken for vertical operation or there is provision for future crane, loading: tractive force from two cranes giving maximum a) Two adjacent cranes working in tandem effect shall he considered. with full load and with overloadmg Nore- Lateral surge force and longitudinal treeaccording to 6.3( a ); and tive force actingacrossand along the crane rail respeolively, shall not beassumed to sot simultaneously. b) For long span gantries, where more than However, if there is only one crane in the bay, the one crane can come in the span, the girder lateial and longitudinal forces may act together simulshall be designed for one crane fully loaded taneously with vertical loads. with overloading according to 6.3(a) plus as many loaded cranes as can he 7. OTHER LOADS *Code of practice for design. manufacture, erection 7.1 Dead Load - Dead load includes the weight and testing ( stroetoral portion) of cranes and hoists of all permanentcomponents of a building includ-. ing walis, partitions, columns, goors, roofs, finishes (jirsr revision). 16

IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987

and fixed permanent equipment and fittings that are an integral part of the structure. Unit weight of building materials shall be in accordance with IS : 875 ( Part 1 )-1988. 7.2 Wind Load -- The wind load on buildiogs/ structures shall be in accordance with IS : S75 ( Part 3 j-1988. 7.3 Seismic Load - Seismic load on buildings/ structures shall be in accordance with

IS : 1893-1984*. 7.4 Snow Load - Snow loading on buildings shall be in accordance with IS : 875 (Part 4)-1988.
7.5 Special Loads and Load Combinations -

Special loads and load combinations shall be in accordance with IS : 875 ( Part 5 )-1985.
(fwrurrh revision ).

*Criteria for earthquake resistant design of stmctures




A-l. The total imposed loads from different floor levels ( including the roof) coming on the central column of a multi-storeyed building ( with mixed occupancy ) is shown in Fig. 1. Calculate the reduced imposed load for the design of co!umn members at diffeteni floor levels as given in 3.2.1.

Floor loads do not exceed 5.0 kN/m2. A-l.1 Applying reduction coefficients in actordance with 3.2.1, total reduced floor loads on the column at different levels is indicated along with Fig: 1.



Loads for which Columns are to be Designed, kN 30 (30+40)(1-0'1)=63


(30+40+50+50t40+4s+50) (l-@4)-183 ( 3(01+_4,4;5J ;,;o t 40 t 4s + so + SO)

( 30 + 40 + so i so + 40 + 4s + so + su +,40)(1-0'4)=237 (30+40+50+50+40+4s+s0+50 +40+40)(1-0'0'4:)=261 ( 30 t 40 + so + so + 40 + 4s + so + so &,40+40+40)(1-OT)=237'S< :. adopt 261 for design ( 30 t 40 + so + so + 40 + 4s + 50 + 50 +40+40+40+55) (l--S)=269 ( 30 + 40 + so + so + 40 + 4s + so + so ~~2~40+40+sSt5s)(1-02) ( 30 + 40 t 50 + so t 40 + 4s + 50 t so +40.+40+40+55+59+70) (I-03)=3WS ( 30 + 40 + so + 50 + 40 + .4s + 50 t 50 + 40 + 40 + 40+ SS+ 59 + 70 + 80) (I-0'0'5)=367'5