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Notes for Psychology-March 14th Dissociative Disorders: Any kind of disorder that centers on an impairment of memory, identity, or consciousness

!hose "ho suffer from such a disorder may feel disconnected from their immediate e#periences or their environment !hey may manifest themselves as a coping mechanism, so as to shield the su$%ect from the shock or trauma "hich lies at the root of the a$normality Dissociative Amnesia &udden ina$ility to remem$er important info a$out oneself !his may also involve a memory gap for a specific traumatic event or long periods of time !herefore, this gap can span an incredi$ly long period of time !"o different incarnations of this dissociative amnesia are: 1 'etrograde Amnesia-An ina$ility to recall one(s past up to a certain point !his is e#emplified $y the cult classic, The Bourne Identity ) Anterograde Amnesia-An ina$ility to form any ne" memories Dissociative *ugue: +omplete loss of a personal comprehension of identity for a temporary span of time !his means that the individual "ill eventually try to form an entirely ne" self-perception, resulting in une#pected travel and aimless vagrancy !here is an a$rupt, full-force adaptation to a completely ne" and fa$ricated identity !hey are revoking their previous one, thro"ing out the $a$y "ith the $ath "ater, in favor of adopting an entirely ne" one devoid of the trauma they had e#perienced Dissociative ,dentity Disorder !his "as more collo-uially kno"n as .Multiple Personality Disorder . !his is easily one of the most controversial a$normalities, fueled $y a de$ate as to "hether or not it can even $e constituted as a .disorder . !hese personalities are cognitively distinct from one another, as e#hi$ited $y the fact that each personality isn(t cogni/ant of the activities, memories, or thoughts of any other ones 0nly one personality is dominant and present at a time !his means that a shift from one personality to another occurs under distress !his is mostly prominent in "omen, and can typically $e attri$uted to an history of early childhood a$use, primarily of a se#ual nature &chi/ophrenia !his is a pattern of serious, symptoms involving severely distur$ed thinking, emotion, perception, and $ehavior &ome of them may include: Disordered thought 0dd communication ,nappropriate emotion

A$normal motor $ehavior &ocial "ithdra"al !hey are entirely $eyond the plane of reality 1psychotic2, .split mind. $ut N0! D,D !his is first diagnosed in late adolescence and early childhood 3iological *actors: 4hile there is a firm genetic predisposition, "ith structural $rain a$normalities !his entails enlarged ventricles, and a small frontal corte# and less activity 'egulation of neurotransmitters-dopamine Psychological factors: Diathesis-stress model !his means that the genetic component to this disorder is not fully determinant, yet it comes into play "hen certain life stressors evolve Distur$ances in !hinking: !here is often a presence of language-related symptoms !his is e#emplified $y .neologisms,. "hich are "ords only used and created $y them .5oose associations,. continuous and disconnected "ords and ideas "hich, "hile they may ostensi$ly not $e linked $y any overarching meaning, yet it makes complete sense to the mind of the su$%ect .+lang associations,. language disruptions $ased on ho" the "ords sound as opposed to stringing together a concrete association .4ord salad,. speech that has a percepti$le synta# "hen put together $ut are then revealed to $e devoid of any meaning Delusions: false, persistently held $eliefs 6#amples may include: Delusions of $eing "atched, of persecution, of grandeur, of reference, thought control, or thought $roadcasting Distur$ances in 6motion: *lat or $lunted affect, or "hen an affect is present, they may display inappropriate affect Distur$ances in Perception and Attention: Attention difficulties and memory pro$lems ,mpaired a$ility to interpret information and make decisions !his means that they have an a$normal a$ility to interpret ne" information into something completely different *eeling detached from "orld !his means that no one truly feels real to them, and thus they cannot fully connect "ith anyone 7allucinations-&ensations "ithout su$stance Distur$ances "ith Movement and 3ehavior: Agitated Movement +atatonia Decreased Motivation Decreased &ocial &kills

Decreased Personal 7ygiene !his certainly impacts one(s daily functioning &chi/ophrenia &u$types: Disorgani/ed su$types typically e#perience delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, flat affect, poor hygiene !hey may also e#ert infantile or o$scene $ehavior +atatonic su$types are much more $uilt on an alternating se-uence of immo$ility $ehavior, to pure stupor, and hyperactivity and "ild movement Paranoid su$types focus specifically on delusions of grandeur and persecution and an#iety !hey display erratic and unpredicta$le $ehavior, specifically in the name of preserving themselves against the perceived threat to their life !hey are conse-uently argumentative and angry in their interactions "ith others 8ndifferentiated su$types e#hi$it a various mi# of different symptoms !hey can(t $e typed into any of the a$ove categories Personality Disorders 1yaay2 Antisocial Personality disorder Disregard for the rights and rules of others and society !hey entirely disregard the emotions or feelings of others 5ack of remorse 1guiltless, la"$reaking, violence, deceit, impulsive, irrita$le, reckless, irresponsi$le, etc 2 !hese are all e#ternali/ed symptoms "hich manifest themselves in their day-to-day life 6tiology: !here are $iological components 1such as genetic, neurological, and nervous system differences2 !hese may make themselves present in either early childhood or adolescence 3orderline Personality Disorder: ,nsta$ility in their interpersonal relationships and self-image !hey additionally hold irrational $eliefs that they are po"erless, unaccepta$le, and that all others are hostile *rantic, irrational efforts to avoid a$andonment, even "hen there is no su$stance to it &plitting: 9ie"s others as either deeply $eloved or hated, depraved enemies !his $lackand-"hite mode of thinking results in impulsive, insecure, unsta$le, and e#treme emotions !here is typically an a$undance of self-mutilating or suicidal $ehavior e#hi$ited 4hile there is a slight genetic component, it can typically $e rooted $ack to childhood a$use Additionally, it is far more common in "omen

&tereotypes and &tigma: !here is, more often than not, a negative attitude to"ards the mentally ill &tereotypes are perpetuated $y the uninformed pu$lic, "hich often leads to an element of humiliation to those "ho are suffering from these disorders !his means that their life is further complicated $y their futile efforts to suppress their symptoms 0ne must educate the pu$lic to reduce these stereotypes Another important strategy "ould $e to use .person-centered. language !his means that one must focus primarily on the person as opposed to their respective disorder Not .my uncle is a schi/ophrenic. $ut, rather, .my uncle has schi/ophrenia .