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CHAPTER 1

KINEMATICS OF PARTICLES
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTION &
RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINUOUS
MOTION
Todays Objectives:R206
Students will be able to:
1. Find the kinematic quantities
(position, displacement, velocity,
and acceleration) of a particle
traveling along a straight path.
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
APPLICATIONS
The motion of large
objects, such as rockets,
airplanes, or cars, can
often be analyzed as if they
were particles.

Why?
If we measure the altitude
of this rocket as a
function of time, how can
we determine its velocity
and acceleration?
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
APPLICATIONS
(continued)
A sports car travels along a straight road.
Can we treat the car as a particle?
If the car accelerates at a constant rate, how can we
determine its position and velocity at some instant?
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
An Overview of Mechanics
Statics: The study of
bodies in equilibrium.
Dynamics:
1. Kinematics concerned
with the geometric aspects of
motion
2. Kinetics concerned with
the forces causing the motion
Mechanics: The study of how bodies
react to forces acting on them.
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINIOUS MOTION
(Section 12.2)
A particle travels along a straight-line
path defined by the coordinate axis s.
The total distance traveled by the particle, s
T
, is a positive
scalar that represents the total length of the path over which
the particle travels.
The position of the particle at any
instant, relative to the origin, O, is
defined by the position vector r, or
the scalar s. Scalar s can be positive
or negative. Typical units for r and s
are meters (m) or feet (ft).
The displacement of the particle is
defined as its change in position.
Vector form: A r = r - r Scalar form: A s = s - s
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
VELOCITY
Velocity is a measure of the rate of change in the position of a
particle. It is a vector quantity (it has both magnitude and
direction). The magnitude of the velocity is called speed, with
units of m/s or ft/s.
The average velocity of a particle during
a time interval At is
v
avg
= Ar / At
The instantaneous velocity is the time-derivative
of position. v = dr / dt
Speed is the magnitude of velocity:
v = ds / dt
Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by
elapsed time: (v
sp
)
avg
= s
T
/ At
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
ACCELERATION
Acceleration is the rate of change in the velocity of a particle.
It is a vector quantity. Typical units are m/s
2
.
As the text indicates, the derivative equations for velocity
and acceleration can be manipulated to get a ds = v dv
The instantaneous acceleration is the
time derivative of velocity.
Vector form: a = dv / dt
Scalar form: a = dv / dt = d
2
s / dt
2
Acceleration can be positive (speed
increasing) or negative (speed
decreasing).
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
SUMMARY OF KINEMATIC RELATIONS:
RECTILINEAR MOTION
Differentiate position to get velocity and acceleration.
v = ds/dt ; a = dv/dt or a = v dv/ds
Integrate acceleration for velocity and position.
Note that s
o
and v
o
represent the initial position and
velocity of the particle at t = 0.

Velocity:
} }
=
t
o
v
v o
dt a dv
} }
=
s
s
v
v o o
ds a dv v or
} }
=
t
o
s
s o
dt v ds
Position:
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
CONSTANT ACCELERATION
The three kinematic equations can be integrated for the
special case when acceleration is constant (a = a
c
) to obtain
very useful equations. A common example of constant
acceleration is gravity; i.e., a body freely falling toward earth.
In this case, a
c
= g = 9.81 m/s
2
downward. These equations
are:

t a v v
c o
+ =
yields
=
} }
t
o
c
v
v
dt a dv
o
2
c o o
s
t (1/2) a t v s s
+ + =
yields
=
} }
t
o s
dt v ds
o
) s - (s 2a ) (v v
o c
2
o
2
+ =
yields
=
} }
s
s
c
v
v o o
ds
a
dv v
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLE 1
Plan: Establish the positive coordinate, s, in the direction
the particle is traveling. Since the velocity is given
as a function of time, take a derivative of it to
calculate the acceleration. Conversely, integrate
the velocity function to calculate the position.
Given: A particle travels along a straight line to the right
with a velocity of v = ( 4 t 3 t
2
) m/s where t is
in seconds. Also, s = 0 when t = 0.
Find: The position and acceleration of the particle
when t = 4 s.
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLE 1
(continued)
Solution:
1) Take a derivative of the velocity to determine the
acceleration.
a = dv / dt = d(4 t 3 t
2
) / dt = 4 6 t
a = 20 m/s
2
(or in the direction) when t = 4 s
2) Calculate the distance traveled in 4s by integrating the
velocity using s
o
= 0:

v = ds / dt ds = v dt
s s
o
= 2 t
2
t
3

s 0 = 2(4)
2
(4)
3
s = 32 m ( or )
} }
=
t
o
s
s
(4 t 3 t
2
) dt ds
o
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING
Given: A particle is moving along a straight line such that
its velocity is defined as v = (-4s
2
) m/s, where s is
in meters.

Find: The velocity and acceleration as functions of time if
s = 2 m when t = 0.
Plan: Since the velocity is given as a function of distance,
use the equation v=ds/dt.
1) Express the distance in terms of time.
2) Take a derivative of it to calculate the velocity and
acceleration.
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING
(continued)
Solution:
1) Since v = ( 4s
2
)


Determine the distance by integrating using s
0
= 2.
Notice that s = 2 m when t = 0.
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
m/s

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING
(continued)
2) Take a derivative of distance to calculate the
velocity and acceleration.
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
The car moves in a straight line such that for a short time its
velocity is defined by v = (0.9t
2
+ 0.6t) m/s, where t is in
seconds. Determine its position and acceleration when t = 3s.
When t = 0, s = 0.


EXAMPLE 2
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
Since v = f(t), the cars position can be determined
from v = ds/dt
( )
| | | |
m
when
t t s
t t s
dt t t ds
t t
dt
ds
v
t
s
t s
8 . 10 ) 3 ( 3 . 0 0.3(3) s
3s, t
3 . 0 3 . 0
3 . 0 3 . 0
6 . 0 9 . 0
) 6 . 0 9 . 0 (
2 3
2 3
0
2 3
0
0
2
0
2
= + =
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ = =
} }
EXAMPLE 2
(continued)
Solution:
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
During a test of a rocket travels upward
at 75 m/s, and when it is 40 m from the
ground its engine fails. Determine the
maximum height s
B
reached by the
rocket and its speed just before it hits
the ground. While in motion the rocket is
subjected to a constant downward
acceleration of 9.81 m/s
2
due to
gravity. Neglect the effect of air
resistance.

EXAMPLE 3
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
( )
m h s s
h
h
as v v
A B
A B
7 . 326 7 . 286 40
m 7 . 286
) 81 . 9 ( 2 75 0
2 ) (
2
2 2
= + = + =
=
+ =
+ = | +
To find s
B
To find v
C
, Consider path BC and
assume +ve upward
( )
( ) + = =
+ =
+ = | +
m/s 1 . 80 m/s 1 . 80
) 7 . 326 )( 81 . 9 ( 2 0
2
2
2 2
C
C
B C
v
v
as v v
EXAMPLE 3
(continued)
Solution:
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.
To find v
C
, Consider path BC and
assume +ve downward
( )
( ) + =
+ =
+ = + +
m/s 1 . 80
) 7 . 326 )( 81 . 9 ( 2 0
2
2
2 2
C
C
B C
v
v
as v v
To find v
C
, Consider path ABC and
assume +ve upward
( )
( ) + =
+ =
+ = | +
m/s 1 . 80
) 40 )( 81 . 9 ( 2 75
2
2
2 2
C
C
A C
v
v
as v v
EXAMPLE 3
(continued)
Solution:
Student Notes Copyright Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
2013. All rights reserved.