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# CS213 Numerical Analysis and Computer Applications

## Prof. Dr. Wafaa El-Haweet

3/11/2014

Outlines
Error analysis & numerical instabilities Approximation of roots of equations Simultaneous linear algebraic equations and matrix inversion Numerical differentiation & integration Interpolation and Extrapolation Least square approximation Eigenvalues and eigenvectors Ordinary differential equations

References

Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for engineering and Scientists, Steven C. Chapra, McGraw Hill. Numerical Methods for Engineering, Steven C. Chapra and Raymond P. Canale, McGraw Hill. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, John H. Mathews and Kurtis D. Fink, Pearso Printice Halln. Numerical Methods with Fortran IV case studies, Dorn & McCracken, Wiley

Weighting of Assessments

## 12 % (15 pts) 72 % (90 pts) 16 % (20 pts) 100% (125 pts)

Numerical Methods
ISSUES IN NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

## WHAT IS NUMERICAL ANALYSIS?

It is a way to do highly complicated mathematics problems on a computer. It is also known as a technique widely used by scientists and engineers to solve their problems.

TWO ISSUES OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: How to compute? This corresponds to algorithmic aspects;
How accurate is it? That corresponds to error analysis

aspects.
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ADVANTAGES OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: It can obtain numerical answers of the problems that have no analytic solution. It does NOT need special substitutions and integrations by parts. It needs only the basic mathematical operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, plus making some comparisons. IMPORTANT NOTES: Numerical analysis solution is always numerical. Results from numerical analysis is an approximation

NUMERICAL ERRORS When we get into the real world from an ideal world and finite to infinite, errors arise. SOURCES OF ERRORS: Mathematical problems involving quantities of infinite precision. Numerical methods bridge the precision gap by putting errors under firm control. Computer can only handle quantities of finite precision.

Summery
Types of Errors Usually we come across the following types of errors in numerical analysis: i.Inherent Errors. These are the errors involved in the statement of a problem. When the problem is first presented to the numerical analysis it may contain certain data or parameters.

ii.

Analytic Error. These are the errors introduced due to transforming a physical or mathematical problem into a computational problem.
iii.Rounding and Chopping Errors The most widely and important errors caused by applying numerical methods is Error caused by chopping and rounding: For example 1. 1/3=0.3333 2. e= 2.718 3. 1.0000
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## where 1/3=0.333333. where e=2.7182818. where 0.99995

http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

iv. Formulation Errors When solving the problem using mathematical method, usually a simple model would be used to describe the source problem, there for some of the factors will be put away which means simplifying the problems which cause some error and this error is called Formulation Error. For example. the second law Newton F= m.a where m is a mass of a particle, a is acceleration In the fact m0 is initial mass of particle V is velocity C is velocity of light since V < C so V/C 0 and m=m0

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http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

## STABILITY AND CONVERGENCE

STABILITY in numerical analysis refers to the trend of error change iterative scheme. It is related to the concept of convergence. It is stable if initial errors or small errors at any time remain small when iteration progresses. It is unstable if initial errors or small errors at any time get larger and larger, or eventually get unbounded. CONVERGENCE: There are two different meanings of convergence in numerical analysis: a. If the discretized interval is getting finer and finer after dicretizing the continuous problems, the solution is convergent to the true solution. b. For an iterative scheme, convergence means the iteration will get closer to the true solution when it progresses.
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Condition of a Problem
For a problem with input (data) x and output y, y=F(x). The problem is said to be well-conditioned if small changes in x, lead to small changes in y. Otherwise, we say the problem is illconditioned.

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Stability of an Algorithm
Stability indicates the sensitivity of an algorithm for solving a problem. An algorithm is said to be stable if small changes in the input x lead to small changes in the output y. Otherwise, the algorithm is said to be unstable.
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## Condition and Stability

Condition => data Stability => algorithm

## Ill-conditioned very hard to get a good result

with even the best algorithm. Stable given good data (not ill-conditioned), the algorithm will not yield drastically different results if round-off or small noise is added to the input data.
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THE END