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Tarvin 1 POPES EPISTLE TO DR. ARBUTHNOT (pp. 2562-73) This handout was prepared by Dr.

William Tarvin a retired pro!essor o! literature. "lease visit my !ree website www.tarvinlit.#om. $ver 5%% wor&s o! 'meri#an and (ritish literature are analy)ed there !or !ree. *ote+ Te,t used+ W. -. 'brams ed. The *orton 'ntholo.y o! /n.lish 0iterature 7th 1ol. 2. *ew 3or&+ *orton 2%%%. ed.

I. INTRODUCTION 2. Dr. 'rbuthnot (4ohn 'rbuthnot was a physi#ian &nown as a man o! wit.) was hopelessly ill and had written "ope a 5last re6uest7 that the poet should #ontinue to atta#& vi#e in his satires. 2. This poem basi#ally written durin. the summer o! 2738 was published in 4an. 2735 less than two months be!ore 'rbuthnot9s (2667-2735) death. 3. 'rbuthnot was :ueen 'nne9s !avorite do#tor and later held a similar relation to "rin#ess ;aroline who in 2727 be#ame :ueen ;aroline. 8. 'lso durin. 2733 "ope was the vi#tim o! two bitter atta#&s by 0ady <ary Wortley <onta.u and 0ord -ervey (pronoun#ed -arvey). 5. The poem is less an 5epistle7 than a dialo.ue between 5".7 ("ope) and 5'.7 ('rbuthnot who is not introdu#ed until line 75). II. THEME 2. The poem is an atta#& on "ope9s detra#tors and a de!ense o! his own #hara#ter and #areer ('brams 2562). 2. "ope uses every devi#e o! persuasive rhetori#+ reasonable ar.ument and emotional appeals subtly su..estive ima.ery and superbly #ontrolled shi!ts in tone and style (2562). 3. The poem e,presses a span o! emotions+ an.er #ontempt amusement sar#asm mo#& sel!pity indi.nation hatred a!!e#tion .ratitude and tenderness (2562). 8. 'lso very e!!e#tive is that "ope addresses 'rbuthnot a man &nown to be honest and &ind= this a#6uisition o! virtue throu.h asso#iation is an e!!e#tive stro&e (2562). 5. >n de!ense o! his own #hara#ter in the !inal se#tion o! the poem "ope portrays himsel! as a virtuous man !ull o! love nursin. his a.ed mother and as&in. -eaven9s blessin. !or his !riend. This shows him !urthest removed !rom the popular #on#eption o! the satirist as a malevolent man. III. STRUCTURE AND IMAGERY A. ANIMAL IMAGERY 2. ?ive main ima.es emer.e all #onne#ted+ animal !ilth disease perse#ution and the virtuous man but the #entral one is the animal ima.ery. 2. The animal ima.e yields the !ilth the no,ious element out o! whi#h disease arises disease turns into perse#ution and perse#ution reveals the virtuous man. 3. The animal ima.e #omprises all re!eren#es to animals worms and inse#ts in the poem. 8. "ope asso#iates the poetasters with 5low @rub Atreet7 (37B but mentioned earlier 222= a .rub is the larva o! #ertain inse#ts espe#ially o! a beetle). These people write and a#t without thin&in. in automati# response to #ertain stimuli. 5. They are li&e trained haw&s 5<ay Dun#e by Dun#e be whistled o!! my handsC7 (258) or li&e !ro.s that live on !lies word #at#hers that live on syllables (266).

Tarvin 2 6. ?urthermore li&e spiders (BD) they live in their own !ilth so that disease !lourishes in @rub Atreet. 7. ?rom there in swarms and pa#&s the #reatures des#end on "ope #arryin. their in!e#tion with them. Thus "ope Eusti!ies satire !rom a man o! pea#e. B. 'n analysis o! the stru#ture o! the poem will reveal the persistent use o! animal ima.ery. B. STRUCTURE LINES 1-6: 2. The poem opens with "ope spea&in. not to Dr. 'rbuthnot but to his .ardener 4ohn who is ordered to 5shut the door7 (2) o! "ope9s house Twit9nam even 5tie up the &no#&er7 (2) and admit no-one. 2. The house seems to be surrounded by mad poets+ 5'll (edlam7 is a re!eren#e to a mental institution and 5"arnassus7 is the mountain o! the #lassi#al poeti# <uses (8). 3. >n the se#ond line o! the poem the disease ima.e 5>9m si#& >9m dead 7 is o! #ourse #omi# e,a..eration+ "ope is simply not at home to the poetasters. 8. 0ine 3 uses animal ima.ery by su..estin. that the would-be poets are mad do.s. 5. 0ine 8+ 0i&ewise the #orrelation o! (edlam and "arnassus implies a mo#&-heroi# metaphor in the #onne#tion o! luna#y with poetry. 6. The openin. is e!!e#tive be#ause it builds suspense about why "ope9s house is under sie.e. LINES 7-14 2. "ope lists e,amples o! how these poetasters besie.e and pester him+ #limbin. throu.h his shrubbery wall usin. an under.round entran#e or stoppin. him as he traveled in either his #arria.e or his boat. 2. -e protests that he #annot even .o to #hur#h in pea#e without bein. bothered by the 5man o! rhyme7 (23). 3. 'ntithesis+ -e is under sie.e above .round and under.round on land and on water. LINES 15-26 2. -avin. listed how they atta#& "ope ne,t spe#i!ies some o! the atta#&ers+ ' beer-besotted parson (25) a poetess a 5rhymin. peer7 (26) a le.al #ler& (27-2B) and a madman (2D-2%). 2. 5'll !ly to Twit9nam 7 see&in. the advi#e and en#oura.ement o! "ope (22-22). 3. *ot Eust a bother in themselves they en#oura.e their !amily members to slander "ope9s name+ ' !ather !aults "ope be#ause his son imitates 5my damned wor&s7 (23-28) and a husband 5#urses7 5"ope7 be#ause his wi!e has 5elopeFdG7 to Twit9nam to .et "ope9s opinion o! her poetry (25-26). LINES 27-4 2. "ope now turns and addresses Dr. 'rbuthnot as 5?riend o! my li!e 7 his physi#ian who had ta&en #are o! "ope throu.h many illnesses (27-2B). 2. The pla.ue o! "ope9s #on.enital ill health is now added to the 5pla.ue7 (2D) o! poetasters. 3. "ope now e,amines his 5dire dilemma 7 whi#h is speedin. him to his death (3%-33)+ These would-be poets demand that he read their wor&s e,pe#tin. praise but "ope is trapped+ he #annot 5lie7 (by tellin. them that their poetry is .ood) yet dare not spea& the truth (!or !ear o! hurtin. them). 8. >n a mo#&-heroi# pi#ture "ope portrays himsel! as the martyr on the ra#& (33-3B). 5. -e !inally de#ides to tell them to !ollow -ora#e9s advi#e o! waitin. nine years be!ore they

Tarvin 3 attempt to publish their wor&s (3D-8%). LINES 41-4! 2. This advi#e is re#eived with ama)ement. 2. $ne petitioner su..ests that i! there is somethin. wron. with his poetry "ope #ould spend some time in #orre#tin. it (85-86). 3. 'nother poet9s modest wishes7 (87) are that "ope will write a prolo.ue !or his wor& and (in addition) lend him ten pounds. LINES 4"-6! 2. "ope then shows how these poetasters ta&e advanta.e o! and intimidate him usin. one #alled "itholeon (8D). 2. "itholeon as&s "ope9s help in se#urin. a sponsor (5patron7) !or his poetry even thou.h he had previously 5libeled7 "ope (5%-52). 3. "ope is #autioned that unless he helps this person "itholeon will atta#& "ope in the newspaper (53-53) a not-so-subtle !orm o! bla#&mail. 8. "ope ne,t notes that he re#eives unsoli#ited manus#ripts o! plays !rom 5stran.erFsG7 (55). -e says that i! he writes disapprovin.ly o! a play the person threatens him with 5?uries death and ra.e7 (57). -owever i! it praises it the person see&s somethin. more+ !or "ope to use his in!luen#e to .et the play sta.ed (5B). 5. The assault #ontinues be#ause even when the play is reEe#ted by theater produ#ers the writer su..ests that "ope use his in!luen#e to .et the play published o! #ourse a!ter "ope has 5reviseFdG7 it. -e even o!!ers to .ive "ope a share o! the pro!its as "ope is es#ortin. him out the door (62-6B). 6. (oth o! these e,amples show that "ope tries to treat with #ourtesy these ha#& writers who impose their wor&s on him. 7. Hnli&e Dryden "ope seldom uses #omi# !eminine rhymes but does here in 62-62 where 5print it7 and 50intot7 (the name o! a publisher) are rhymed. LINES 6"-!2 1. "ope uses the <idas analo.y basi#ally #allin. the poetasters asses. 2. 'lso !ootnote 2 p. 2565 states the re!eren#es to 5minister7 and 56ueen7 probably re!er to Walpole and :ueen ;aroline thus ma&in. the ass-eared <idas Iin. @eor.e >>. 3. 't this point (75) 'rbuthnot spea&s .ivin. "ope the advi#e not to atta#& personally parti#ularly 56ueens ministers or &in.s7 (76). 8. -owever "ope interrupts 'rbuthnot in an atta#& upon all the !oolsJeven re!errin. to his own previously published Dun#iad (7D)--#allin. ea#h irritatin. writer 5an ass7 (B%). LINES !#-1 ! 2. "ope as&s i! it is 5#ruel7 to tell a !ool that he is a !ool. -e answers no be#ause they do not believe you (B3-B8). 2. Those !ools li&e ;odrus (B5) #an be en.ul!ed in 5peals o! lau.hter7 (B5) but be 5un#on#erned7 with the lau.hter (B6). 3. "ope avers that it is impossible to 5shame . . . a s#ribbler7 (BD) !or he brushes the #riti#ism o!! and is soon 5at his dirty wor& a.ain7 (D2). 8. -ere "ope9s indi.nation supports the dis.ust o! the animal and !ilth ima.es where writers are portrayed as spiders (B3-D2).

Tarvin 4 5. "ope then #ontends that his satiri# atta#&s upon ha#& poets and writers su#h as the "oet 0aureate ;ooley ;ibber and 'mbrose "hilips have not #han.ed them at all (D5-2%%) so 5Whom have > hurtK7 (D5). 6. When "ope re!ers to AapphoJ0ady <ary Wortley <onta.uJ'rbuthnot interrupts and says 5!or .od9s sa&e . . . learn pruden#e7 (2%2-%2). 7. 'rbuthnot9s interruption also re!ers to "ope9s e,treme shortness+ 5> F'rbuthnotG am twi#e as tall Fas you "opeG7 (2%3). This is an instan#e where "ope shows that he #an ma&e !un o! himsel!. B. "ope however a.ain i.nores the #ounsel and #ontinues his s#orn!ul atta#& usin. the re!eren#es to 5mad #reatures7 and 5>t is the slaver FslobberG &ills and not the bite7 (2%8-%6). LINES 1 "-24 2. "ope ridi#ules even those !rom 5@rub Atreet7 (222) who praise and de!end him (2%D-22). 2. "ope &nows they have an ulterior motive e,pe#tin. 5a bribe7 or !or "ope to 5subs#ribe7 to one o! their literary proEe#ts (223-28). 3. -e ne,t des#ribes the ridi#ulous homa.e (225) whi#h his suitors pay him= they #ompare him to -ora#e (226) 'le,ander the @reat (227) $vid (22B) 1ir.il (222) and -omer (228). This is probably the most #omi# passa.e in the poem. 8. "ope puns on his !irst name !or the poetasters #ouple him with 'le,ander the @reat (227). LINES 125-#4 2. The same tension between sel!-depre#iation and sel!-.lori!i#ation is #arried over into lines 225-26 where "ope #ries that his talent is a #ursed inheritan#e or Eud.ment o! his .uilty sel!. 2. 0ine 225 is ton.ue-in-#hee& yet the (ibli#al re!eren#e (4ohn D.2) #arries with it a su..estion o! solemnity+ 5'nd his dis#iples as&ed him sayin. <aster who did sin this man or his parents that he was born blindK7 3. 0ine 226 5dipt me in in& 7 may re!er to '#hilles whose parent dipped him in the Aty, to ma&e him invulnerable. 8. The !a#t that "ope has Eust been po&in. !un at himsel! espe#ially at his physi#al short#omin.sL5am short7 (226) 5one shoulder . . . too hi.h (227)7--enables him to ma&e a serious and movin. re!eren#e to his ill health without seemin. maudlin (232-38)+ 5This lon. disease my li!e7 (232). 5. Thus !rom the previous predominantly humorous passa.e "ope turns to pathos the transition e!!e#ted by the serious su..estion o! "ope as a .reat poet. LINES 1#5-46 2. 'rbuthnot as&s "ope why he publishes sin#e he &nows that he will e,pose himsel! to ridi#ule (235). 2. "ope9s answer lists the writers who en#oura.ed him to develop his writin. talent. 's !ootnote D pp. 2566-67 states this list establishes "ope as the su##essor o! Dryden and thus pla#es him !ar above his @rub Atreet perse#utors. 3. 'll o! the writers mentioned were asso#iated with Dryden in his later years and had all en#oura.ed the youn. "ope. LINES 147-56 2. "ope maintains that he never initiated any literary atta#&s. 2. -is early poetry was pastoral and des#riptive not satiri# (287-5%). 3. /ven when two early #riti#sJ@ildon and DennisJatta#&ed him "ope says that he 5sat still7

Tarvin 5 and did not respond a##eptin. that these ha#& writers were either provo&ed by 5madness7J5(edlam7-- or a need !or moneyJ5the <int7 (252-56). LINES 157-72 2. "ope then tells how he responded to 5some more sober #riti#7+ -e said that i! their #ommentary on his literary wor& was 5wron. 7 he did not respond but simply 5smiled.7 -owever i! the #riti#s were 5ri.ht 7 "ope said that he .ra#iously a#&nowled.e the #orre#tion J5>! ri.ht > &issed the rod7 (257-5B). 2. While positin. that they la#&ed .ood 5sense7 (26%) "ope a#&nowled.es these #riti#s9 e,a#tin. s#holarshipJtheir mania that 5#ommas and points FperiodsG7 be 5set e,a#tly ri.ht7 (262). 3. -e then damns by praisin. Theobald (pronoun#ed and o!ten spelled Tibbald) and (entley. ?irst he puns on their sel!-importan#e (mi.ht) and their insi.ni!i#an#e (mite) in the word mite+ 5'nd Mtwere a sin to rob them o! their mite7 (262). 8. '.ain in order to ridi#ule he uses a #omi# !eminine rhymeJribalds and TibbaldsJin lines 263-68. 5. -e in!lates only to de!late+ 5/a#h word-#at#her that lives on syllables N /ven su#h small #riti#s some re.ard may #laim 5 (266-67) by atta#hin. their names to Aha&espeare9s or <ilton9s throu.h editin. these .reat writers9 wor&s (26B). 6. Hsin. animal ima.ery "ope then #ompares them to 5.rubs or worms7 (27%). LINES 17#-"2 2. *e,t "ope Eusti!ies his atta#&s on some poets as simply .ivin. them 5but their due7 (278). 2. -e says that these poets were barren o! talent but !illed with an overblown sel!-esteem+ 5pride adds to emptiness7 (277). 3. -e !irst mentions 'mbrose "hilips who "ope #ontends writes !or money that is to .et 5hal! a #rown7 (a prostitute9s #ustomary !ee). 8. -e #ensures "hilips9s pretensions o! laborin. over his poems whi#h #auses him to publish little by sayin. that the 5barrenness7 o! his ideas is more li&ely the #ause o! his 5hard-bound brains7 turnin. out only 5ei.ht lines a year7 (2B2-B2). 5. ' se#ond poet is atta#&ed !or pla.iari)in. most o! his ideas !rom other writers+ 5steals mu#h7 (2B8). 6. ' third poet tries to impress by ma&in. his poems appear to be di!!i#ult while in truth the poet does not &now what he is writin.+ 5blunders round about a meanin.7 (2B6). (-ere "ope uses a rare !eminine rhyme+ leanin. and meanin..) 7. ' !ourth poet is atta#&ed !or his a!!e#ted style o! writin.+ 5>t is not poetry but prose run mad7 (2BB). B. "ope says that his own 5modest satire7 was dire#ted at 5all these7 poets 5nine7 o! whom it would ta&e to ma&e one un6uali!ied poet laureate+ 5'nd owned that nine su#h poets made a Tate7 (2D%) a re!eren#e to *athan Tate the poet laureate !rom 26D2-2725. 's !ootnote B p. 256B states 5The line re!ers to the old ada.e that it ta&es nine tailors to ma&e one man.7 D. "ope says these insi.ni!i#ant poets !umed and roared at his appraisal o! them and swore 5not 'ddison himsel! was sa!e7 (2D2) "ope9s not-so-subtle lead-in to his portrait o! 'ddison as 'tti#us. LINES 1"#-214: ATTICUS PASSAGE 2. The 'tti#us portrait .rammati#ally is one senten#e o! 22 lines.

Tarvin 6 2. @enerosity &indness #oura.e wholeheartedness and humility seem mainly what 'tti#us la#&s. 3. The passa.e be.ins by #ommentin. on line 2D8. 5"ea#e to all su#hC7 (2D3) asserts that 5all su#h7 who would dare atta#& 'ddison will &eep their 5pea#e.7 $! #ourse "ope then starts a subtle atta#& on 'ddisonJwho dies in 272D si,teen years be!ore the poemJwho is #alled 'tti#us here. 8. "ope be.ins by praisin. 'tti#us !or his 5.enius7 (2D8) and his 5talent7 as a writer and #onversationalist (2D6). 5. -owever the praise turns to #riti#ism when "ope wonders whether 'tti#us was so e.otisti#al that he would allow no-one to #hallen.e his 5rule7 (2D7). 6. Hnpleasant words are brou.ht !orward and asso#iated with 'tti#us+ 5Eealous7 (2DD) and 5hate7 (2%%). 7. These 6ualities #aused 'tti#us to Eud.e other writers #ir#umspe#tly+ 5Damn with !aint praise7 (2%2). B. 'tti#us was #owardly and snea&y in his approa#h to #riti#ism o! others= he would not 5stri&e7 (2%3) but would nevertheless 5wound7 (2%3) by 5hintFin.G a !ault and hesitatFin.G disli&e7 (2%8). D. -e la#&ed #oura.e but retained .uile+ 5' timorous !oe and a suspi#ious !riend7 (2%6). 2%. -e was a literary tyrant who loved to hear his admirers applaud him (2%D-22). 22. "ope #on#ludes that in perspe#tive su#h a #ontradi#tory man deserves to be lau.hed at althou.h the lau.hers would #ry i! they were li&e 'ddison+ 5Who but must lau.h i! su#h a man here beK N Who would no weep i! 'tti#us were heK7 (228-25). LINES 215-# 2. "ope says that thou.h 'tti#us9s .roup smeared his name (225-2B) he never #urried !avor !rom that .roup (22D). 2. -e states that he no more 5heeded7 what this .roup said o! him than did Iin. @eor.e pay attention to the poem annually written by the poet laureate on the monar#h9s 5birthday7 (222). 3. "ope says he avoided su#h 5witlin.s7 (223) usin. the disease ima.e+ 5To spread about the it#h7 (228) probably su..ests .onorrhea. 8. -e #ontinues that he re!used to be#ome a 0ondon lapdo.+ 0ines 225-26 #ontain this animal ima.ery+ the !oppish wit both in his a#tions and his poetry seems as me#hani#al and senseless as the puppy in its proud retrievin. o! the trainer9s sti#&. 5. "ope says he wanted nothin. to do with a #ulture where a poet had to #urry !avor !rom a patron su#h as 5(u!o7 (23%). LINES 2#1-4!: BU$O PASSAGE 2. -ere "ope atta#&s the tasteless patron o! the arts. 2. (u!o means 5toad7 in 0atin but it is similar to the ?ren#h word bu!!oon meanin. 5pu!!ed up.7 3. "ope puns on this meanin. in 5!ull-blown (u!o pu!!ed by every 6uill Fhired poetG7 (232). 8. Those who #alled on (u!o #ame only pretendin. to want his Eud.ment o! their poems= a#tually they sou.ht his help in .ettin. them a position or to spon.e o!! o! his ample table o! !ood and wine (23B-8%). 5. @reat poets su#h as Dryden avoided (u!o (285-86) whose /n.lish identity is never established. 6. 'lthou.h (u!o never helped Dryden while Dryden was alive (in !a#t "ope a##uses (u!o

Tarvin 7 5helped to starve7 Dryden) (u!o 5helped to bury him 7 that is he #ontributed to the lavish !uneral Dryden was .iven (28B). 7. This episode shows that (u!o is #om!ortable around !latterin. minor poets or .reat dead poets but never .reat livin. poets sin#e these would show (u!o up as the literary !raud he is. LINES 24"-7 2. "ope says that (u!o would be a per!e#t mat#h !or (avius the bad poet mentioned above in line DD+ 5<ay every (avius have his (u!o still7 (25%). 2. >n !a#t "ope says he is pleased that the bad poet #an .ive 5!lattery7 to the tasteless patron on demand (253) !or this situation will !ree "ope !rom havin. to #on!ront either+ 5<ay dun#e by dun#e be whistled o!! my handsC7 (258). 3. "ope then re#alls his !riend the poet and playwri.ht 4ohn @ay now dead three yearsJhe died in 2732. 8. "ope #ondemns literary 0ondon whi#h let @ay a 5ne.le#ted .enius7 (257) 5ne.le#ted die7 (25B). 5. @iven this shame!ul treatment o! @ay "ope pre!ers to live away !rom 0ondon so#iety maintainin. 5a poet9s di.nity7 (263) and a li!e 5above a patron7 (265). 6. -owever he does say that he has as 5my !riend7 a !ormer #hie! politi#al minister -enry At. 4ohn 0ord (olin.bro&e (266). 7. "ope #on#ludes that he was not meant to be a #ourt poet (267) sin#e he #an pay his debt does not wish to sa#ri!i#e his reli.ious belie!s does not #are to be always thin&in. up a poem to sell or to be used to !latter a patron (26B-6D) and does not have to &eep up with the latest literary .ossip (27%)Jall whi#h dis.ra#e!ul a#tivities presumable a (avius would have to. LINES 271-!2 2. "ope then shi!ts to mo#& sel!-pity. 2. /veryone in literary 0ondon he states is #ontinually as&in. 5what ne,t7 wor& o! "ope9s 5shall see the li.ht7 (272). 3. "ope seems to disdain this attention protestin. piti!ully that 5li!e7 has 5no Eoys !or me7 (273) people !eel e,#ept !or his poetry (272). 8. "ope says that when Awi!t visits him the .ossips spe#ulate about the nature o! "ope9s ne,t satire presumably inspired by his #onversations with Awi!t (275-76). 5. >! "ope denies he is plannin. any new poem (277) the #riti#s #ounter that his 5.enius never #an lie still7 (27B) a sel!-a..randi)in. te#hni6ue "ope uses to have his enemiesJnot himsel!J praise "ope as a .enius. 6. When lesser witsJAir Will or (uboJturn out somethin. many #laim mista&enly it is by "ope (27D-B%). 7. The i.noran#e o! su#h spe#ulation and mis#al#ulation "ope says he smiles at espe#ially those who pro!ess to &now "ope 5by my style7 (2B2-B2). LINES 2!#-# 4 2. "ope then #urses any verses o! his own whi#h --have turned a worthy person into his 5!oe 7 --have #aused an inno#ent person to 5!ear 7 or --have #aused a 5vir.in7 to shed a 5tear7 (2B3-B6). 2. -e #ensures anyone --who uses verse wi#&edly to brin. 5distress7 to 5harmless7 people (2B7-BB)

Tarvin 8 --who 5loves a lie7 and helps to 5slander7 someone --who libels (2BD-D%). --who atta#&s an author behind his ba#& or pretends to li&e somethin. he does not (2D2-D8) and --who to one9s !a#e #alls a person his !riend but will not de!end this !riend a.ainst slander (2D5D6). 3. "ope #ontinues his atta#& on hypo#risy #itin. a person --who betrays a person9s #on!iden#e by revealin. what was said in private (2D7-DB) --who deliberately mis#onstrues a person9s poems (2DD-3%2) 8. Au#h 5blo#&heads 7 "ope says he will 5lash7 (3%3-%8) althou.h 5' lash li&e mine no honest man shall dread7 (3%3). LINES # 5-##: SPORUS PASSAGE 2. (e!ore 'rbuthnot interposes "ope be.ins by sayin. that Aporus is su#h a blo#&head and should 5tremble7 (3%5). 2. Aporus as !ootnote 2. p. 257% revels is 4ohn 0ord -ervey an e!!eminate #ourtier who with 0ady <ary <onta.u had atta#&ed "ope in pamphlets. 3. The ori.inal Aporus was a boy whom the emperor *ero publi#ly married (257%). 8. >n all other pla#es where 'rbuthnot interrupted it was to stop "ope9s an.er but here he interposes to a.ree. 5. To 'rbuthnot Aporus is simply a 5thin. o! sil&7 (3%5) a 5mere white #urd o! ass9s mil&7 (3%6) who has no !eelin. (3%7) and is so insensitive that he 5brea&s a butter!ly upon a wheel7 (3%B). 6. To "ope Aporus is a .ilded bu. that stin&s and stin.s (3%D-2%). -e is a !awnin. mumblin. spaniel (323-28) a shallow stream (326) or a puppet (32B). 7. Then all beauty and deli#a#y .one Aporus be#omes an u.ly !ilth-spittin. toad (32%). 's su#h he is a perpetual mena#e as the tempter powerless himsel! but always lur&in. 5at the ear o! /ve 7 to usurp the powers o! .ood and pervert them (32D-2%). B. '!ter introdu#in. this ima.e "ope returns to it later where Aporus is #alled 5/ve9s tempter7 (33%). 0i&e Aatan as the serpent Aporus with his 5#herub9s !a#e 7 but 5a reptile all the rest7 (332) 5#reepFsG7 and 5li#&s the dust 7 its belly in the dirt (332-33). D. Aporus9s ambivalent se,uality is also subtly atta#&ed+ 5all seesaw between that and this (323)= 5now master up now miss7 (328) Aporus #an a#t 5either part7 (328)Jthe male or the !emale. 2%. 5$ne vile antithesis7 (325) this 5amphibian thin.7 (326) 5FnGow trips a ladyJand now struts a lord7 (32D). 22. The Aporus passa.e has the .reatest #on#entration o! animal ima.es in the poem and is the pinna#le o! the animal-!ilth ima.ery. 22. >n its #lima#ti# pro.ression it be#omes an a##umulation o! dis.ust with Aporus .oin. !rom a beneath-#ontempt spe#iously attra#tive almost none,istent bein. at the be.innin. o! the passa.e to a !ilthy abhorrent #reatureJa toad whi#h is spittin. !roth and venom--at its end. LINES ##4-5" 2. Hpon rea#hin. this pit#h o! !eelin. "ope drops !or .ood his mas& o! irony and shows himsel! as the solemn and ri.hteous man. 2. *ow he #an spea& o! himsel! in the third person and in an e,alted mode (338-37). 3. -is virtuous 6ualities #ontrast with those vi#ious ones o! 'tti#us (lavius (u!o Aporus and the bad poets.

Tarvin 9 8. Hnli&e them "ope says he never wrote !or money or to !urther his ambition (338-35). 5. -e never !latteredJ5even to &in.s7 (33B)Jand never used his poetry to 5lie7 (33D). 6. -is poetry a!!irmed 5truth7 and stressed 5morality7 (382). 7. ?or sti#&in. to these prin#iples "ope says he has had to endure the 5!urious !oe 7 5the timid !riend7 (383) and 5The damnin. #riti# hal! approvin. wit7 (388). B. 'lso he has su!!ered 5treats o! ven.ean#e7 (38B) and !alse reports (#ir#ulated by -ervey and <onta.u) that "ope had been subEe#ted to a whippin. (38D). D. >n addition mu#h 5trash and dullness not his own7 was published whi#h some attributed as his own poetry (352). 2%. "ope says many even ridi#uled him be#ause o! his physi#al de!ormity as in #ari#atures showin. him as a hun#hba#&ed ape (352-53). 22. -e says they even mali.ned his dead !ather (355). 22. '.ainst all o! these atta#&ers and atta#&s "ope says he has maintained his 5!air virtue7 (35B5D). LINES #6 -!7 2. This se#tion #ontinues to .radually re!ine away the s#orn that emanates !rom the Aporus passa.e by stressin. "ope9s patien#e and poetry. 2. 'rbuthnot interposes to as& why "ope atta#&s both the low and the .reat (36%). 3. "ope answers that he disli&es all &naves no matter their station whether Aporus (who had the :ueen9s ear) or a #ommon !or.er (362-63). 8. >t #ould be someone who "ope says usin. antithesis may 5.ain his prin#e9s ear or lose his own7 (as a !or.er does whose ears are #ut o!! when he is #onvi#ted o! !or.ery) (366-67). 5. "ope #on!esses that !ar !rom bein. mean and spite!ul he was even .ullible= be#ause o! his 5so!t7 5nature7 (36B) he was o!ten de#eived in !riends su#h as Aappho (0ady <ary <onta.u) ((36D). 6. "ope then lists those who atta#&ed him but whom he still helped when they needed him+ Dennis Tibbald ;ibber and even <oore (37%-73) althou.h the last was unintentionally helped sin#e <oore .ot his assistan#e by pla.iari)in. !rom "ope9s poetry. 7. "ope a.ain as&s+ 5?ull ten years slandered did he on#e replyK7 (378). B. /ven when 5the two ;urlls o! town and #ourt7Jthe publisher and -erveyJatta#&ed his !amily "ope says he !elt he had to reply (3B%). D. *ow he shows his !amily pride by praisin. the virtues o! his !ather and mother whose 5unspotted names7 will live in memory and poetry (3B2-B7). LINES #!!-4 5 2. >n the wist!ul des#ription o! his !ather9s li!e whi#h !ollows "ope not only demonstrates a proper !ilial devotion but also announ#es his own ideal li!e the li!e o! pea#e on a !ew paternal a#res (3D8-D5 8%%-%3). 2. -e says his !ather was a sel!-made man who earned his !ortune honorably (3BB-D%). 3. ' mild man who married an e6ually .entle wi!e his !ather never ra.ed did harm to others or lied. 8. -is !ather never used any lan.ua.e but 5the lan.ua.e o! the heart7 (3DD)= he was honest wise and temperate dyin. o! old a.e not o! disease (3D2-8%3). 5. "ope says that he wished he had been a##orded su#h a li!e and hopes that he himsel! will be .ranted su#h a death (8%8).

Tarvin 10 LINES 4 6-1" 2. ?inally the love and yearnin. o! this passa.e is brou.ht to an even hi.her pit#h in the prayerli&e #lose the #lima, o! the .ood man ima.e and thus o! the poem itsel!. 2. "ope turns and addresses 'rbuthnot as 5!riend7 and hopes that 'rbuthnot will have 5domesti# bliss7 (8%6-%7). 3. "ope hopes that he #an spent his own old a.e prin#ipally doin. only one thin.Jta&in. #are o! his a.ed mother (8%B-23). 8. *ote+ "ope9s mother died in 2733 two years be!ore this poem was published but as !ootnote 5 (p. 2573) states these lines were written in 2732 when "ope was nursin. his mother throu.h a serious illness. 5. -e #loses by a.ain wishin. happiness !or the ailin. 'rbuthnot (826-27). 6. The last two lines o! the poem are .iven to 'rbuthnot who pronoun#es that -eaven will determine what is to #ome. Ai.ni!i#antly the last word o! the poem is 5-eav9n7 (82B-2D). E%&'() The poem in#ludes #hara#ter s&et#hes o! O'tti#usO (4oseph 'ddison) and OAporusO (4ohn -ervey). 'ddison is presented as havin. .reat talent that is diminished by !ear and Eealousy= -ervey is se,ually perverse mali#ious and both absurd and dan.erous. "ope mar&s the virulen#e o! the OAporusO atta#& by havin. 'rbuthnot e,#laim OWho brea&s a butter!ly upon a wheelKO in re!eren#e to the !orm o! torture #alled the brea&in. wheel. (y emphasi)in. !riendship "ope #ounters his ima.e as Oan envious and mali#ious monsterO whose Osatire sprin.s !rom a bein. devoid o! all natural a!!e#tions and la#&in. a heart. >t was an Oe!!i#ient and authoritative reven.eO+ in this poem and others o! the 273%s "ope presents himsel! as writin. satire not out o! e.o or misanthropy but to serve impersonal virtue. 'lthou.h reEe#ted by a #riti# #ontemporary with "ope as a Omere lampoon O Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot has been des#ribed as one o! "opePs Omost stri&in. a#hievements a wor& o! authenti# power both tra.i# and #omi# as well as .reat !ormal in.enuity despite the near-#haos !rom whi#h it emer.ed.

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