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Subject matter This poem comes from an early volume of poetry called 'Lupercal'.

Published in 1960, it contains many poems about animals and nature and takes its title from an ancient, pre !oman festival celebratin" sprin". #e can interpret the poem$

literally %celebratin" the ha&k itself'. The ha&k is a bird of prey, kno&n for its intelli"ence and incredibly sharp eyesi"ht. (n medieval times ha&ks &ere also used by kin"s and aristocrats for huntin". metaphorically %e)plorin" themes associated &ith the bird'. #e talk about bein" ha&k eyed observant. #e also think about politicians bein" 'ha&kish' or ha&k like, &hich means bein" aggressive to&ards other countries, favourin", for e)ample, military intervention.

Form and structure Form This poem has a stron", re"ular form. (t is &ritten in si) stan*as of four lines each. The len"th of the lines vary, but even the shorter lines still e)press stron", controlled ideas %e.". line +1'. ,o the overall effect of the form is to express strength and control. Structure

The first two stanzas are about his physical superiority - both in &hat his body is like and &here he can sit. Stanzas three and four reveal his po&er of nature, and ho& he holds everythin", includin" life and death, in his cla&s. The final two stanzas form a kind of .ustification for his actions. /e e)plains &hy he is not .ust ri"ht because of physical superiority but also the &ay he acts &ithout deception %and he has the support of the sun to prove it0'.

The structure takes us throu"h different aspects of his thou"ht process, it arrives &here it be"an. The poem be"ins and ends in lines be"innin" &ith '('. This underlines the key idea of the poem: he is a ruler who will continue to rule exactly how he pleases for years to come. Language and imagery Sound There is one key sound that echoes throu"h all the stan*as. This is the lon" 'ee' sound for e)ample found four times in stan*a one. This sound runs throu"hout the poem. This may su""est the only sound to be heard throughout the wood is the screeching of the hawk itself .

The other sound effect is repetition of &ords referrin" to itself the ha&k's references to itself appear in every stan*a. This shows how egocentric and self important the bird is! Imagery The lan"ua"e is simple. The &ords found in stan*a t&o are &ords you mi"ht find in an office. This kind of lan"ua"e contrasts &ith the threatenin" lan"ua"e of violence as in line 16. This contrast su""ests a leader tryin" to be a calm sophisticated politician, &hile really he is a violent thu". The use of ne"atives %no' in lines +, 11, +0 and +2 makes the phrases sound like political slo"ans. They su""est the ha&k is re.ectin" the political process, relyin" instead on brute force %line 16'. /e also says he does not use clever lan"ua"e in line 11 and ar"uments to put his case for&ard line +0 but then, in line +1, su""ests the sun supports his ar"uments and is behind him. "ttitudes# themes and ideas #hen it came out, this poem &as 3uite controversial. The ima"e of the ha&k sittin" on top of the &orld, controllin" everythin" throu"h the threat of violence made people think of a fascist leader the 4a*i symbol &as an ea"le standin" on top of a &reath. Ted /u"hes said he &anted to sho& 'nature thinkin"', but even so the ha&k's thou"hts are brutal. The bird sees itself as a political leader &ho has sei*ed po&er from the forces that made it %line 1+'. The ha&k clearly re.ects the political process that &orks by different parties puttin" ar"uments before the "eneral public. $omparison ne)t to of course "od america i - this poem is also a political speech. (t also e)amines the lan"ua"e that politicians use and the reasons they use it. The voices in the t&o poems use different means %the ha&k is much more open about its use of force to persuade'. 5ut both su""est the same conclusion$ violence and death for the &eak. The 6allin" Leaves - this poem also uses nature as a source of ne"ative ima"ery about conflict. (deas about ordinary people dyin" in &ar are inspired by the si"ht of leaves fallin". (n a similar &ay, the ima"e of a ha&k is used not to e)press ideas about fli"ht or speed or beauty, but political e)ploitation. #hile the use of lan"ua"e and the tone of each poem are very different, one effect is the same. 4ature offers a timeless, unchan"in" backdrop to the recurrin" tra"edies of mankind. Sample %uestion #hatever "rade you are &orkin" to&ards, the basic structure of any ans&er &ill be the same$

The introduction &ill e)plain the relevance of the 3uestion to &hat feelin"s the poem e)presses and an overvie& of the story the poem tells. Para"raph that covers form. Para"raph that covers structure. Para"raph that covers language %sound and verbal imagery'. $onclusion$ 7ou then conclude on the meanin" that emer"es from this.

6or each point, you need to provide evidence %a 3uote or reference' and an explanation. 8uestion /o& does the poet &rite about death in /a&k !oostin"9 :ns&er Points you could make$

/u"hes &rites about death from the point of vie& of a killer. The re"ular form su""ests the killer is very calm and controlled about &hat he does. The structure sho&s that the ha&k is tryin" to .ustify &hat he does and the social position he holds that enables him to do it. ;ry technical lan"ua"e in stan*a t&o sho&s the ha&k distances itself from his violent actions. The ima"ery of the ha&k in the tree also sho&s ho& far above and far a&ay the ha&k is from &hat it actually does. This also &orks as a metaphor for politicians &ho are a lon" &ay from the conse3uences of their actions. The repetition of the '(' sound sho&s the ha&k is only concerned for itself. The metaphor in the openin" line is therefore also ironic$ the ha&k su""ests he looks like the symbol of .ustice %depicted blindfold to sho& .ustice does not take sides' yet the &hole poem is his attempt to .ustify his actions. /is .ustification ends &ith the claim he has the support of the sun, yet &e kno& &hose side he is on$ his o&n. /u"hes sho&s that by sittin" on top of the &orld &ith his eyes closed, the ha&k is merely i"norin" the conse3uences of its actions. 4either po&er nor &ords can .ustify the cold kills of the ha&k.

:nalysis of Hawk Roosting, Ted /u"hes

This is a dramatic monolo"ue in the character of a ha&k. /u"hes dramati*es the ha&k<s thou"hts and attitudes to the ma.esty of creation, creatin" a character of self focussed, "od like arro"ance, of brutality and beauty. ,T!=>T=!? The structure of the poem is regular, &ith verses of four lines each and similar length lines &hich creates a feelin" of ti"ht control that adds to the theme of po&er and perfect balance in the ha&k. The punctuation is e3ually ti"ht, &ith many sentences contained &ithin the line, &hich "ives an abrupt, sharp, controlled feel. /o&ever, there is some enjambement &hich breaks free of the stanza to run across the line break# as if the ha&k can disre"ard the rules, creatin" a flo&in" effect as he lists his po&ers. T/?@?, (@:A?!7 @any nature poems deal &ith the beauty of nature and Aod<s po&er as creator. This poem subverts these e)pectations. /ere, nature is brutal$ it Bkills< and Beats<. #hat<s sli"htly disturbin" is that the ha&k vie&s these as Bperfect< and Brehearses them<. This almost "ives the feel of a psychopath, yet he is only fulfillin" his natural function. The repetition of Bhooked< from his head to his feet creates a feel of bein" captured, evokin" his sharp, deadly beak and cla&s. These are the parts that the ha&k emphasi*es &hen he describes himself. The ha&k deals in Bdeath<. /u"hes uses the metaphor of the bird flyin" direct Bthrou"h the bones of the livin"<. The uneasy .u)taposition of bones &ith livin" creates an unsettlin" effect, and makes the bird seem almost supernaturally po&erful$ as if he e)ists beyond this one moment in time. The voice of the bird displays "od like arro"ance ChubrisD. /e .ud"es that earth Bholds itself up&ards for my inspection<, as if the &orld only e)ists for his benefit. The /a&k fre3uently uses Bme< and Bmy<, &hich sho&s a possessive, self focussed streak. /e says he holds B>reation in my foot<. This is a literal, visual ima"e of the bird in fli"ht and the earth seemin" small belo&, but also a metaphor of po&er. /u"hes deliberately subverts Cturns upside do&nD traditional nature poems on the ma.esty of creation. The ha&k lists natural features$ Bsun<, Bair< and the Btree<, &hich he thinks e)ist only in as much as they are of Badvanta"e to me<. /e also says it took Bthe &hole of >reation< to produce his Bfeather< and Bfoot<$ the .u)taposition of somethin" so hu"e and old, and biblical a"ainst a tiny footEfeather, sho&s ho& ma"nificent the bird thinks he is$ as if he is the reason creation e)ists. This is interestin" because it t&ists the traditional anthropocentric &orld vie& %i.e. humans are the peak of creation, the &hole point of it all', that is set do&n in Aenesis. #hen he flies up he says he &ill Brevolve< the &orld slo&ly as if he is makin" it turn. /e "ives the "ift %Ballotment<' of death, &hich is an ironic .u)taposition as no one &ould &ant to receive this "ift. (t is as if he<s the "od of death. /e says he has Bpermitted no chan"e< and ends &ith a final, simple declarative statement B( am "oin" to keep thin"s like this<. The use of Bam< stresses his po&er. /e doesn<t say B&ill< or Bmi"ht<F he<s certain. "nalysis The ha&k, a bird of prey, is seen in Ted /u"hesB poem G/a&k !oostin"H restin" on a branch of a tree. The poem is &ritten in the first person as thou"h the ha&k is speakin", so it is a dramatic

monolo"ue. The ha&k seems to see himself as the centre of the universe and creates an impression of arro"ance, as thou"h the &orld &ere made for him and his purposes. (n the first stan*a /u"hes introduces the ha&k Gin the top of the &ood.H This hi"h position is an indication of superiority. The bird is very still and its eyes are closed. /u"hes uses alliteration of the GkH sound several times in the poem, creatin" a harsh feelin". The sound e)ists in the &ord Gha&kH itself, of course, and there are further instances of it in line 2 &here GhookedH is repeated. (n the fourth line GkillsH continues the alliteration. This line describes the ha&k ima"inin" killin" and eatin" its prey even &hile it is asleep. : picture of ruthlessness be"ins to build up. (nterestin"ly, lines 2 and I are the only lines in the poem that rhyme. The second stan*a opens &ith the e)clamation GThe convenience of the hi"h trees0H The ha&k a"ain refers to its hi"h altitude, and the &ord GconvenienceH conveys the idea that its position is an ideal one. The bird can look do&n on the &orld belo&, and the impression is that the &ood has been created to suit its needs. /u"hes links lines 6 and J &ith en.ambment to e)tend the idea that the ha&k can fly &ith ease and make use of the li"ht from the sun. They are Gof advanta"e to me,H once a"ain emphasisin" the fact that the ha&k considers nature to have been created for its o&n purposes. The second stan*a closes &ith the ha&k<s comment that, from the top of the tree, it can see Gthe earth<s faceH lookin" up and easily observe the details. ?verythin" is .ust ri"ht for this bird of prey. (n the openin" line of the third stan*a, /u"hes a"ain uses alliteration &ith the hard GkH sound in GlockedH and Gbark.H The ha&k has a ti"ht hold upon the branch, &hose surface is Grou"h.H /u"hes uses en.ambment once more to link lines 10 and 11, describin" ho& features of the ha&k<s body &ere created. The &ord G>reationH is capitalised, thus makin" it synonymous &ith Aod. The fact that the ha&k considers that it took Gthe &hole of >reationH to make its feet and feathers "ives the bird an arro"ant air. (n the final line of this stan*a, the ha&k sees that positions are no& reversedF it holds >reation in one small foot, therefore havin" become all po&erful. The end of the third stan*a and the be"innin" of the fourth are linked by en.ambment, as the ha&k sho&s that it is free to Gfly upH and circle the &orld belo& at its leisure. Line 1I is an e)tremely tellin" one$ G( kill &here ( please because it is all mine.H The ha&k considers that it has supreme po&er and o&ns the &hole earth that it can see belo&. (ts ruthlessness is apparent a"ain in lines 11 and 16, as the ha&k says it possesses no GsophistryH or subtle reasonin"F it kills by Gtearin" off heads.H There is no attempt to soften the blo& of its huntin" methods. The fifth stan*a continues the ima"e of the ha&k huntin" &ith the brief phrase GThe allotment of death.H The ha&k chooses &hat it kills, and it is brutal. ?n.ambment a"ain links lines 1K and 19, describin" ho& the ha&k<s passa"e takes it GThrou"h the bones of the livin".H The stan*a closes &ith the statement G4o ar"uments assert my ri"ht,H "ivin" the impression that the ha&k<s methods of killin" are un3uestionable. (t does not need to .ustify its actions. The four lines of the si)th and final stan*a are all end stopped, and read as concise, matter of fact sentences. They emphasise the idea that &hat the ha&k says "oes and cannot be contested. The

ha&k states G4othin" has chan"ed,H but this is no accident. The bird considers, in the penultimate line of the poem, that it has not allo&ed anythin" to chan"e. The poem closes &ith the line G( am "oin" to keep thin"s like that,H assertin" the ha&k<s po&er over the &hole of nature. /u"hes appears to be usin" the ha&k in this poem as a symbol for po&er. : ha&k &ould of course act instinctively and kill for the purposes of survival. The implications of G/a&k !oostin"H are therefore that the poem is an e)tended metaphor for the behaviour of a tyrant or po&er seekin" ruler. ,uch a person &ould, as the ha&k is in this poem, be self centred and arro"ant. :n authoritarian despot &ould not allo& himself or his methods to be 3uestioned, and &ould see the &orld around him as bein" desi"ned to suit his purposes. Ted /u"hes, in G/a&k !oostin",H paints a picture of a creature that is ruthless and self involved, sho&in" ho& a lust for po&er can take over a bein" and end in brutality. &awk 'oosting is an "nimal (oem )epicting *iolence and +rutality /a&k !oostin", included in the volume Lupercal is Ted /u"hes< one of the best poems like Lie& of : pi", #od&o, >ro& etc. (t is Ted /u"hes< many sided, vivid, startlin", and yet truthful observation. The ha&k &hile Brestin"< a top the &ood &ith closed eye e)presses his happy state and satisfaction. /e thinks of his prey &ith sense of pride and authority. #e &ill no& analy*e the poem as an animal poem, study of violence, depiction of 4ature and its simple structure under the follo&in" heads. /a&k !oostin" is a monolo"ue of a ha&k, a bird of prey, attackin" smaller birds and eatin" them to feed himself. /u"hes<s reputation as a poet of the &orld of animals to an e)tend relies on /a&k !oostin" &hich is a ha&k<s eye vie& of the &orld. The e"oistic ha&k here asserts his point of ar"ument that trees, air, sun and earth are there only for his convenienceF that the purpose of creation &as solely to produce himF that the &orld revolves at his biddin"F and all other creatures e)ist only as his prey. This e"oistical ha&k says$

M(t took the &hole of creation To produce my foot, my each feather$ 4o& ( hold creation in my footNNNN.M Thus the poem reveals to us the ha&k<s o&n peculiar point of vie& and his peculiar consciousness.

@.L.!osenthal, an eminent critic, says that no poet of the past has 3uite mana"ed to internali*e the murderous 3uality of 4ature throu"h such brilliantly ob.ective means, and &ith such economy, as /u"hes has done in /a&k !oostin". ,imply the poem is about the e"otism of a sin"le minded concern &ith a violence &hich seeks no .ustification for itself. The ha&k says that nothin" has chan"ed since his life be"an, that his eye has permitted no chan"e, and that he is "oin" to keep thin"s like this$ G4othin" has chan"ed since ( be"an @y eye has permitted no chan"e ( am "oin" to keep thin"s like thisH. /a&k is a merciless killer and it is his device the allotment of death. (t is his &him to kill &here he pleases because it is all his o&n. The ha&k<s &hole business in life is Gto tear off headsH. /is &hole concern is to follo& the path leadin" him directly throu"h the bones of the livin" creatures. GN. @y manners are tearin" off heads the allotment of death. 6or the one path my fli"ht is direct Throu"h the bones of the livin"H. @.A. !amanan has e)pressed the vie& that violent ima"ery in this poem is /u"hes imperialistic sense of po&er and authoritarian politics. /u"hes himself denies such accusation of fascist, dictatorial and the bloodthirstiness &hich prevail in 4ature. /o&ever, at a deeper level, the ha&k becomes a mouthpiece of 4ature itself. Tennyson spoke of 4ature Gred in tooth and cla&HF and he felt very unhappy about the cruelty that he sa& in 4ature. /e therefore asked$ G:re Aod and 4ature then at strife9H 5ut /u"hes does not feel the an"uish &hich Tennyson felt. /ere is /a&k !oostin" /u"hes tries to fuse both his admiration for 4ature and his horror of 4ature into a sin"le response &hich mi"ht be described as Ba&e<. /a&k !oostin" is in fact an amusin" poem sho&in" /u"hes< sense of humour too. /a&k<s false sense of pride, of po&er and of e"oism is coupled &ith his e)tremely narro& outlook. 7et it is possible that /u"hes is not lau"hin" at /a&k rather clarifyin" his boost. There may be no sophistry in his body, as he saysF but there certainly is sophistry in his reasonin". @oreover, the thou"ht content of the poem and its ar"ument is simple. 6arther, lucidity and simplicity in the use of lan"ua"e are by no means forei"n to /u"hes, poetic style &hich is a proven truth for /a&k !oostin". (n conclusion, &e may add that /u"hes has attributed to the ha&k a capacity to think and even to ar"ue a case. The ha&k, depicted as an e"ocentric bird, may even be re"arded as symboli*in" man himself because man is actually the most self important, e"oistical and arro"ant creature in the &hole of this universe. ,ee more at$ http$EEardhendude.blo"spot.inE+011E0IEha&k roostin" is animal poem depictin".htmlOsthash.IPQKib;5.dpuf