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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

U5

RECRUITING AND RETAINING TALENT

prepared for the course team by

Nare ndra Pra sad

Recruiting and Retaining Talent

Recruiting HR

Recruitment Sources

Role of Recruiters

Managing Employee Turnover

Managing Employee Retention

Definition

Internal Sources

Behaviour of Recruiters

Voluntary & Involuntary Turnover

HR Practices

Recruitment Policies

Advantages and Disadvantages

Enhancing Recruiters Impact

Process of Job Withdrawal

Employee Layoff

External Sources

Exit Interview Job Satisfaction

Advantages and Disadvantages

Communication

Unit 5 concept map This map represents the core concepts that well be covering in this unit, and examine the relationships between them.

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Study organiser
Before you begin this unit, please check through your study organiser. It shows the topics that well be covering, the skills you need to acquire (the learning outcomes) and the activities youll do to help you acquire these skills. Unit/Topic Recruiting Human Resources Learning outcomes Outline the recruitment process. Describe various recruitment policies organisations adopt to make job vacancies attractive. Readings & Activities Reading 5.1, Chap.5 in textbook Activity 5.1

Recruitment Sources

Identify and describe various sources from which job applicants can be drawn. Describe the role of a recruiter in a recruiting process

Activity 5.2

Role of the Recruiter

Activity 5.3

Process of Job Withdrawal

Discuss the relationship between job satisfaction and various forms of job withdrawal. Identify the major sources of job satisfaction in work context.

Reading 5.2, Chap. 10 in the textbook Activity 5.4

Employee Retention

Identify strategies managers could employ to promote and retain its key employees

Activity 5.5

It is recommended that you spend at least 12 hours on this unit.

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Introduction
It is essential for the organisation to ensure that their recruitment process is effective so that it delivers the highest calibre of employees. Recruitment serves to create a buffer between planning (described in unit 4) and actual selection of new employees (our topic for discussion in the next unit). In our preceding unit we examined the significance of human resource planning to organisations and its critical relationship to organisational overall strategies. We took in-depth look at the actual development and implementation of a human resource plan. We concluded the unit by scrutinising strategies management may adopt in addressing labour surplus and shortage situations in organisation and the consequences each of these strategies could have on the employees. We begin this unit by outlining the process of recruitment and then describe some recruitment policies organisations use to attract talent. We then focus our attention to recruitment sources before describing the recruiters role in a recruitment process. Towards the end of the unit we briefly describe the job satisfaction aspect of employment and discuss its influence in retaining key employees in organisations You will be required to read specified parts of chapters 5 and 10 of your textbook to get an insight of concepts to be covered in this unit.

Reading 5.1 Now read the section on recruitment in chapter 5 of your textbook. It gives you a descriptive overview of policies and processes, sources of job applicants and the role of a recruiter in a recruitment process

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What is Recruitment?
The role of human resource recruitment is to provide a supply of potential new recruits that organisation can draw on if the need arises. Thus, r ecruitment is the process of attempting to locate and encourage potential applicants for existing or potential job openings. It involves strategies to create a pool of appropriately qualified and experienced people so that selection strategies can be initiated. Recruitment must not be confused with the belief of landing a job at an organisation. It merely involves searching and obtaining qualified applicants for the organisation to consider when filling job openings. Recruitment stops short of deciding which individuals should be hired from the pool of applicants. Now take some time to reflect on the following newspaper advertisement which appeared in one of the local dailies.

Figure 5.1 Situations Vacant Trans International Hotel Position Vacant: Sales Assistant Duties and Responsibilities: Provide a positive selling approach to maximize room and rate yield at the hotel, ensuring a timely response to all reservation enquires Maintain current knowledge of room types, hotel facilities and rates packages In general, doing sales and marketing of the hotel and achieving sales target Maximum of three years of experience is needed in a similar role.

Direct your applications to:


The Manager Trans International Hotel P.O.Box 11231, Nadi Airport.

Source: The Fiji Times, 26th June, 2010: p 73 Advertisements like the one shown above appear almost daily in local newspapers. In the above case Trans International Hotel as an employer informs potential sales assistant applicants about the required competencies for the vacant position. Through this advertisement potential applicants are motivated to apply for the position open to them. Whether or not the position of sales assistant will
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be filled by someone from within the organisation or from outside will depend upon the HR policies of Trans International Hotel, the requirement of the job and the availability of suitable talent within the organisation. The importance assigned to recruitment differs among companies. In general, however, all companies have to make decisions in three areas of recruiting: 1. Human resource policies that affect the types of job companies has on offer 2. Recruitment sources used to solicit applicants 3. Characteristics and behaviours of the recruiter

Re c r u i t m e n t a n d H u m a n re s o u rc e p o l i c i e s
Human resource policies are concerned with decisions on how it will carry out human resource management, including how it will fill job vacancies. Several personnel policies are especially relevant to recruitment. Each of these recruitment policies are described below. i) Internal versus External Recruiting

Most organisations try to follow a policy of filling job vacancies from internal promotions and transfers. Promotion from within can provide current employees with great motivational opportunity as well as a sense that they are being valued in the organisation. This also helps in the retention of high calibre employees. From the organisations perspective, recruiting from within saves training costs since promoted staff possess a sound knowledge of organisational culture, organisational policies, practices and processes. Limitations and advantages for both internal and external types of recruitment will be dealt with under Recruitment Sources. ii) Lead-the-Market Pay Strategies

Pay is an important job characteristic for almost all applicants. Organisations have a recruiting advantage if their policy is to pay more than the current market wage. Increasingly, organisations that compete for applicants based on pay do so using forms of pay other than wages or salary. Housing benefits, free transport, free phone privileges, insurances schemes and free education for children are only some schemes employers offer to attract best candidates from the labour market. iii) Employment-at-Will Policies

In an employment- at- will situation, an employee is hired for an indefinite duration in the absence of a written contract. Either party (the employer or an employee) may end the employment relationship for any cause at any time. An alternative to employment at will is to establish due-process policies. These policies formally lay out the steps an employee may take to appeal an employers decision to terminate that employee. In decisions about employment-at-will policies, organisations should consider not only the legal advantages of employment at will but also the effect of such policies on recruitment. Employees
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nowadays prefer job security at workplace. They refrain from seeking employment at institutions that has a bad image in employment relations especially where employees are fired at will. iv) Image Advertising Advertising designed to create a generally favorable impression of the organisation is called image advertising. Image advertising is especially important for organisations in highly competitive labor markets that perceive themselves as having a bad image. Whether the goal is to influence the perception of the public in general or specific segments of the labor market, job seekers form beliefs about the nature of the organisation well before they have any direct interviewing with these companies. Companies with strong corporate image and sound management practices usually attract best candidates for vacancies compared to organisations who have a bad reputation in labour relations. Multinational companies in US, Australia and the like are exploring new strategies to attract recruits. One such strategy is that of latest social networking technology such as Twitter, Facebook, forums and LinkedIn to recruit the best and the brightest talent.

Activity 5.1
1. Provide an example of a recruiting advertisement which you have recently encountered in the media e.g. newspaper, TV etc. List the job competencies required in the vacancy

2. What is meant by the term recruitment policy ?

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3. What is meant by the term fringe benefits? How does it help in the recruitment process?

Recruitment Sources
A significant element of organisations recruitment strategy is its decisions about where to look for potential applicants. Different sources of applicants can be reached using different methods of recruiting. Companys current employees are a major source of potential applicants, commonly known as internal labour market. Another potential source of applicants is people who dont work for the organisation; they are called the external labour market. Each of the major sources from which organisations draw its recruits has its advantages and disadvantages.

I n t e rn a l S o u r c e s
The effective use of internal sources require a system for locating qualified job candidates and for enabling those who consider themselves qualified to apply for the opening. Qualified job candidates within the organisation can be located by any one or combinations of the following channels: computerised record system, job posting, and temporary worker pools.... i) Computer record Systems

Computers have made possible the creation of data banks that contain the complete records and qualifications of each employee within an organisation. Known as Talent Inventories, the database usually include employees names, prior jobs, experiences, performances, compensation histories and demonstrated competencies. Some advance databanks also contain employees work related interests, geographical preferences and their career goals. Like savings accounts, these information systems allow organisations to screen its entire work force in a matter of minutes and can be withdrawn anytime to fill an internal opening.

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ii)

Job posting

Job posting is a process of communicating information about a job vacancy on company bulletin boards, employee publications or corporate websites or anywhere else the organisation communicates with employees. Job postings usually provide complete job descriptions. A well constructed job description communicates competencies needed as well as organisational goals and objectives. Inclusion of information about compensation and performance standards makes job postings a popular mode of internal recruitment. iii) Temporary Worker Pools

Temporary workers such as those in clerical jobs, accounting and word processing categories often help organisations to meet fluctuations in their labour demand which may arise from illness, vacations, terminations and resignations. Establishing contacts with temporary pool of workers has often been beneficial to education and health sectors. In- house temporary employees are generally protected by the same employment laws, overtime provisions, and minimum wage guidelines as those enjoyed by their full time counterparts

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Re c r u i t m e n t


For the employer, relying on internal sources offers several advantages. Internal recruitment generates applicants who are well known to the organisation, applicants are relatively knowledgeable about the organisations vacancies and its faster and less expensive than external recruiting. Counterbalancing the advantages of internal recruitment are several disadvantages. In some circumstances potential candidates from outside the organisation should be considered in order to prevent inbreeding of ideas and attitudes. Applicants hired from the outside can bring with them the latest knowledge acquired from the previous employers. Political infighting for promotion, discontentment among those who are not promoted, criticism from those outside the organisation who cannot get in are some of the other limitations of recruiting from within.

E x t e r n a l S o u rc e s
Organisations that are growing rapidly and require large numbers of highly skilled professionals often need to recruit from the external labour market as internal recruitment simply cannot produce the number of people needed to sustain continued growth. Even when companies have enough people within the organisation, the internal applicants may not have the right competencies to fill the required positions. Thus, it may be cheaper, quicker and easier for the firm to hire people who have been trained elsewhere. Methods of recruiting from the external labour market include: direct applicants and referrals, advertisements, employment agencies, schools, and web sites sources.

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i)

Direct Applicants and Referrals

Direct applicants are people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from the organisation. Referrals are people who apply because someone in the organisation prompted them to do so. One advantage is that many direct applicants are to some extent already sold on the organisation. Many job seekers use social networks to help find employment. A benefit of such sources is that they cost less than formal recruiting efforts. Considering these combined benefits, referrals and direct applicants are among the best sources of new hires. Some employers offer current employees financial incentives for referring applicants who are hired and perform acceptably on the job. A major downside of referrals is that they limit the likelihood of exposing the organisation to fresh viewpoints. Sometimes referrals contribute to hiring practices that appear unfair such as nepotism i.e. the hiring of relatives at workplace. ii) Advertisements in Newspapers and Magazines

One of the most widely used methods for contracting applicants is through advertisements. Apart from the traditional modes of newspaper and magazine advertising, organisations have now adopted to radio, television, billboards and posters to advertise about their vacancies. The aim of recruitment advertising is to make people aware that a vacancy exists. It is also an ideal opportunity for the organisation to promote a specific corporate image to the community at large. From the applicants perspective, an effective and attractive advertisement is important because, as one study showed, there appears to be a positive relationship between the accuracy and completeness of information being provided through advertisements, and the recruitment process. Advertising places a severe burden on the recruitment office. Many applicants who dont meet the minimum criteria of a job may still be attracted by the advertisements and apply for positions. They do this in a hope that if employers are not able to obtain suitable applicants for the position then their application will be considered. iii) Electronic Recruiting

The Internet has opened up new outlook for organisations trying to recruit talent. There are many ways to employ the internet for recruiting. One of the easiest ways to get into e-recruiting is simply to use the organisations own Web site to solicit applicants. iv) Public Employment Agencies

Employers can register their job vacancies with their local state employment office and the agency will try to find someone suitable, using its computerised inventory of local unemployed individuals. In some developed and developing countries governments provide funding to a variety of local employment agencies. Private employment agencies provide much the same service as public employment agencies, but primarily serve the white-collar labor market. Another difference between the two types of agencies is that private agencies charge employers for providing referrals.

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A d v a n t a g e s a n d D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f E x t e rn a l Re c r u i t m e n t
Hiring from outside the organisation is a relatively inexpensive and an effective method of recruiting. In cases of employees trained by other organisations, hiring companies will already have some background information on employee performance, attendance and safety records through their due diligence process. Employees recruited from outside bring innovate ideas and can be very effective in changing the corporate culture of an organisation. Opponents of external recruitment claim that outsiders may not fit into organisations culture, a longer orientation is required for new recruits and some claim that it can be a very expensive affair especially if recruits are from overseas. Figure 5.2 below gives a brief outline of the merits and demerits of external recruitment.

Source: Nankervis, A., et al 2008:193.

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Activity 5.2
1. Explain the difference between direct applicants and referral categories of applicants.

2. Discuss the merits of internal and external modes of recruiting

3. Explain the difference between an electronic and newspaper advertisement?

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Recruiter s role in a recruiting Process


B e h a v i o u r a n d C h a ra c t e ri s t i c s o f re c r u i t e r s
Research suggests that recruiters make a substantial difference when they do not present themselves well during a recruiting process. Recruiters can have a negative effect on applicants even if the job and the organisation are both appealing. Some studies indicate that students for example, prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personal knowledge of the local universities. They also respond positively to recruiters, who are friendly, knowledgeable, and truthful and who have some personal interest in the applicants. If these characteristics are lacking in recruiters then organisations are highly likely to lose out on some very capable applicants. Behaviour of the Recruiter Many studies have looked at how well realistic job previews background information about jobs positive and negative qualities can help organisations minimise turnover among new employees. Realistic job previews requires that in addition to telling applicants about the nice things a job has to offer like the pay, benefits, opportunities for advancements etc, recruiters must also tell applicants about the unpleasant aspects of the job such as Its hot, dirty and sometimes you will need to work in the weekends. Telling job applicants only about the positive aspects of a job may work in a short run but in longer term it may prove to be counterproductive. When applicants take jobs that do not fit their skills or meet their expectations for career advancement, their performance and morale at work are likely to suffer. Enhancing the Recruiters Impact Although recruiters may have little influence on job choice, this does not mean recruiters cannot have an impact. Researchers have tried to find conditions in which recruiters do make a difference. Based on this research, an organisation can take several steps to increase the impact that recruiters have on the people they recruit such as: Can provide timely feedback Can avoid behaving in ways that convey the wrong impressions about the organisation Can recruit with teams rather than individual recruiters

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Activity 5.3
1. Discuss ways in which organisations could improve the effectiveness of their recruiters

2. Briefly define the tem realistic job previews. How does it relate to employee turnover?

3. Discuss the phrase job applicants respond positively to recruiters who they perceive as warm and informative

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Managing Employee Turnover


Because of increased mobility of the working population, organisations these days encounter numerous challenges in retaining their qualified employees. Employees stay or leave organisations due to a variety of reasons. The number of employees leaving an organisation within a reported period is called employee turnover. The following section briefly explains two types of turnovers experienced by employers: voluntary and involuntary turnover.

Reading 5.2 Read the section on voluntary and involuntary turnover, job withdrawal and job satisfaction in Chapter 10 of your textbook.

V o l u n t a ry a n d I n v o l u n t a ry T u rn o v e r
Involuntary turnover occurs when organisations (employers) initiate the turnover. Many organisations use the word termination to refer to employees who has been discharged for work for a discipline related reason. Termination of employment can also result from internal organisational changes, economic adjustments, plant closure, redundancy decisions or simply moving the factory job to another location. Voluntary turnover is initiated by individual employees, often when the organisation prefers that the person stay as a member of the organisation. Both kinds of turnover are costly, incur loss in productivity and diminish the image of employers and organisations. For involuntary turnover, some former employees may seek to redress their grievances through the courts, which may cost millions of dollars to the organisations. Let us now consider some reasons for employee turnover.

Un d e rs t a n d i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r T u r n o v e r P r o c e s s o f J o b W i t h d ra w a l
Job withdrawal is a set of behaviours that dissatisfied employees perform to avoid the work situation. The overall model of job satisfaction, job withdrawal and manifestations of job withdrawal is illustrated by Figure 5.3 overleaf.

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Figure 5.3 An overall model of the job dissatisfaction-job withdrawal process


Causes of Job dissatisfaction Personal disposition Tasks and roles Supervisors and coworkers Pay and benefits Manifestations of Job withdrawal Behaviour change Physical job withdrawal Psychological job withdrawal

Job dissatisfaction

Job withdrawal

Source: From Human Resource Management, 4th ed, by Kramar, Bartmar & De Cieri, 2008 This model resembles to Figure 10.4 (p.304) in your textbook but has been slightly modified for the purpose of simplicity. On the right hand side of the model, we show a set of behaviours which arises out of employees due to job dissatisfaction. These behaviours are classified under the headings of behaviour change, physical job withdrawal and psychological job withdrawal. We present each of these withdrawals in progression, that is, individuals try the next category only if the preceding form of job withdrawal is either unsuccessful or impossible to implement. Behaviour Change There are various causes of job dissatisfaction as outlined on the left hand side of the model. The first response to dissatisfaction would be to try to change the workplace conditions that generate the dissatisfaction. This is done through pushing for changes in companys policy or personnel which may involve confrontation and conflict w ith the employees supervisor. From the managers point of view, the complaints, confrontations, and grievances may be seen as an act of threat. However, this is an opportunity for the manager to learn and solve important organisational problems. Some employees may engage in whistleblowing, taking their charges to the media with the hope that when the public learns about the situation, the organisation will be forced to change. From the organisations point of view, whistle-blowing is harmful because of the negative publicity. Physical Job Withdrawal If behaviour change fails or seem impossible, a disgruntled worker may physically withdraw from the job. Some options for physically leaving a job range from arriving late to work, calling in sick, requesting a transfer or even leaving the organisation for good.. Psychological Withdrawal If an employee is primarily dissatisfied with the job itself, he may display a very low level of job involvement. Job involvement is defined as the extent to which an individual is dedicated to a job. Someone with high job involvement for example would work beyond expectation to complete a special project. Organisational commitment is defined as the loyalty of an individual to the organisation.

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Job Satisfaction and job withdrawal


Job satisfaction is a pleasant feeling resulting from the perception that ones job fulfills or allows for the fu lfillment of ones important job values. This definition reflects three important aspects of job satisfaction: a. Job satisfaction is related to a persons values, meaning what a person consciously or unconsciously desires to obtain

b. Different employees have different views of which values are important. One person may value high pay above anything else, another may value opportunity to travel and yet another may prefer staying home and doing the work. c. The third important aspect of job satisfaction is based on perception of his or her present situation, relative to his or her values. Organisations can contribute to job satisfaction by addressing the four sources of job dissatisfaction identified in our model, shown on the left hand side in Figure 5.3. Personal Dispositions Employers need to understand that dissatisfaction with other facets of life such as spouse or family may attribute to performance at workplace. To address these issues, employers: Refer employee to employee assistance programs Hire employees who have positive attitudes Tasks and Roles Employers can improve job satisfaction by making jobs more complex and meaningful. This can be done by: Job enrichment Job rotation Developing and appropriate job roles

Supervisors and Co- workers The two primary sets of people in an organisation who affect job satisfaction are co- workers and supervisors. Because supportive environment reduces dissatisfaction, many organisations foster teambuilding (for example through sports or social activities) through employee interaction. Pay and Benefits Human resource specialists can also help job satisfaction by establishing satisfactory pay levels and communicate with employees about their pay structure and pay raises.

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Activity 5.4
1. Discuss any three strategies employers may implement to improve job satisfaction in organisations

2. Discuss the four types of conditions that lead up to job withdrawal

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Managing Employee Retention


The issue of employee retention has become a hot topic among HR researchers and practitioners. Two reasons have been identified for a growing focus on employee retention: Firstly, the ongoing rise in employee turnover rates in many industries and secondly, the cost involved in terms of the additional recruitment and training that is needed to replace workers. However, it is inevitable that some employee will obviously go as they will be lured by better and more attractive terms and conditions from outside employers. Numerous employee retention strategies have been documented in the HR research literature. Some may be more suitable for a given organisation than others. Some suggested retention strategies are discussed below: In addition to addressing issues like personal disposition, tasks and roles, supervisors and co workers, pays and benefits, organisations can also reduce unwanted turnover by improving their HR practices. Implementation of a family friendly culture, allowing autonomy instead of fixed hours of work, child friendly work sites, generous vacations, sabbatical leave program for partners, and provisions of parental leave should allow employers in successfully keeping their annual turnover rates at negligible levels. Another HR practice which may improve employee retention rate is initiating a policy to minimise employee layoffs in organisations. Intelligent managers are well aware of the price organisations pay in sending people home for a reason or another. Once layoffs decisions are instigated, profits may improve in short term but this may come with a long term cost. Those who survive layoffs often display a low morale at the workplace. Because of the fear of being displaced, some best employees may look elsewhere for employment. Facing the threat of job loss and seeing others lose their jobs can often be a bitter and a traumatic experience. Thus some companies do everything possible to avoid layoff in organisations. Conducting exit interviews may present another opportunity for the organisation to gather information for retaining its core employees. An exit interview process will help organisations understand why people leave and give clues as to where some improvements need to be made. The primary purpose of the exit interview has always been the resolution of unresolved and/or outstanding concerns of both the employer and employee. Employers must maintain ongoing and regular communication with staff and a genuine sense of commitment throughout the organisation to address workplace issues. They need to keep in mind that they should treat employees the way they would prefer to be treated. If an employee doesnt prefer to socialise in organisational activities, they should be left

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alone. Each employee is a unique individual and should be given the respect he or she deserves Employers must demonstrate integrity and ethical behaviour, managing in ways they are sustainable and socially responsible. Employers should walk the talk and be an inspirational example to their staff of integrity, honesty and decency. Have in place a transparent style of leadership which refrains from favoring, colluding or even penalising a group of workers.

There are numerous other retention strategies employers can use to retain its key employees. However, the strategies mentioned above are adequate at this level of your studies.

Activity 5.5

1. Why should organisations try to reduce employee turnover in their work places?

2. What are exit interviews and why are they important to organisations?

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3. Identify the four factors that influence an employees job satisfaction (or dissatisfaction). Which of these factors would be most expensive to change?

4. Discuss any four strategies employers could use to retain its key employees.

5. Explain the phrase In spite of surveys and other efforts to retain employees, some employees inevitably will leave the organisation.

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Summary
In this unit we discussed an integral function of human resource management of recruitment and thereafter explored ways on retaining of key employees in organisations. Initially we defined the recruitment process followed by a brief discussion on recruitment policies entities use to attract potential applicants to their organisations. Subsequently, we examined the key recruitment sources of potential job applicants before elaborating on the role of a recruiter in a recruitment process. The second half of the unit basically deliberated on employee retention, focusing on the correlation between job satisfaction / dissatisfaction and employee behaviour. We concluded this unit with a short discussion on some alternative human resource practices which may help organisations in retaining its talent. In the next unit, we describe and evaluate the selection process. We also look at the methods and effectiveness of employment tests, interviews, applications and resumes and the role it plays in the employee selection process. The unit ends by describing the final selection process in choosing the right candidate.

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References
1. Kramar, R.,Bartram T.,Cieri.(2009) . Human Resource Management: strategy, people, performanace. McGraw Hill, New York. Ivancevich, J. M., Hoon, L. S. (2008). Human Resource management. McGraw Hill, New York. Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J., Gerhart, B., Wright, P. (2011), Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, New York 2.

3.

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Glossary
It is important that you have a good understanding of the key terms that will be used throughout this course. Start to develop your own glossary by completing the following table, filling in the meanings that relate to the given terms.

Words Personal policies Internal Recruiting

Meanings Decisions of organisations on how it will carry out its human resource management policies such as that of recruitment.

Job posting

Public Employment Agencies

Realistic Job previews

Involuntary turnover

Job dissatisfaction

Organisational commitment

Exit interviews

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Feedback on selected activities

Activity 5.1
1. Students responses would vary. However, most job advertisements would require competencies which involve applicants previous work experience, their academic qualifications, technical skills, interpersonal skills, ability to work under pressure, some personal skills etc. 2. Recruitment policy specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment program. It, may also involve organisational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programs and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people. A significant recruitment policy would be that of promotion from within. 3. Fringe benefits (also called employee benefits are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. These benefits may come in the forms of housing allowance, subsidized education costs, phone privileges etc.

Activity 5.2
1. Employee referrals occur when current employees of an organisation inform their acquaintances about openings and encourage them to apply. Direct applicants are people who apply for vacancies without prompting from the organisation. They declare their interest in working for the organisation or they may simply have a good impression of the organisation and want to explore the possibility to work there. 2. Refer to Figure 5. 2 3. Online or electronic recruiting generally involve posting career information at company web site to address people who may be interested in the particular company .It may also involve posting paid advertisements at career services to attract people who are searching for jobs. Newspaper or media advertisements are common which contain advertisements to acquire recruits. An example of a media advertisement is given on page 5.5 of this unit.

Activity 5.3
1. The impacts that recruiters have on the people they recruit include: The organisation can have recruiters who could provide timely feedback. Applicants dislike delays in feedback and can draw negative opinions about the organisation without timely feedback being provided to them,
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Organisations can have recruiters, who avoid behaving in ways that might convey the wrong impression about the organisation, and the organisation can recruit with teams rather than individuals 2. RJP requires that in addition to telling applicants about the nice things a job has to offer, recruiters must also tell applicants about the unpleasant aspects of the job as well. Research suggests that RJP have a weak and inconsistent effect on employee turnover. 3. Warm means the recruiters seem to care about the applicant and to be enthusiastic about the applicants potential to contribute to the organisation. Informative means recruiters provides the kind of information the applicant is seeking

Activity 5.4
1.By making jobs more complex and meaningful through such approaches as job enrichment and job rotation, clarifying employees' roles by clearly spelling out work methods, schedules, and performance measures, fostering team building among supervisors and co-workers both on and off the job through activities such as bowling leagues. 2. Job withdrawal is a set of behaviours that dissatisfied individuals enact to avoid a work situation. The four general conditions that may cause job dissatisfaction are: personal dispositions, tasks and roles, supervisors and coworkers, and pay and benefits. Personal dispositionsseveral personal qualities have been found to be associated with job dissatisfaction, including negative affectivity and negative core self-evaluation. Tasks and rolesas a predictor of job dissatisfaction, nothing surpasses the nature of the task itself. While many aspects of a task have a link to dissatisfaction, of particular significance are the complexity of the task, the degree of physical strain and exertion required, and the value the employee places on the task. Supervisors and co-workersNegative behaviour, particularly on the part of supervisors, can produce tremendous dissatisfaction. Research by the Corporate Leadership Council found that employees who said they planned to leave their jobs most often said it was because managers acted as if they did not value the employees. Pay and benefitsEmployees also care about their earnings. For most, a job is their primary source of income. In addition, pay may also be an indicator of status within the organisation and in society at large, so it contributes to some people's self-worth....

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Activity 5.5
1. Organisations should try to reduce both kinds of turnover (voluntary and involuntary) because both are costly due to the need to recruit, hire, and train a replacement. Involuntary turnover also can result in lawsuits and even violence at workplace, something which organisations should avoid at all cost. 2. An exit interview is a meeting of the departing employee with the employer or a supervisor to discuss the employees reasons for leaving the organisation. These interviews are important because they provide feedback to the organisation about their actions toward and treatment of the workers. Additionally, they can indicate problem areas. 3. Four factors that influence an employees job dissatisfaction/satisfaction include personal disposition, tasks and roles, supervisors and coworkers, and pay and benefits. Obviously, modifying the pay and benefits structure could prove to be the most expensive. 4. One of the more common methods to retain key employees would be to try to identify and select employees who have personal dispositions associated with job satisfaction. Jobs could be made more complex and meaningful, reinforcing shared values and encourage social support among employees, establish satisfactory pay levels and constantly communicate to employees on the pay structure and pay raises. In addition to the above, employers could implement HR practice which are child friendly, worker flexibility and other HR policies which inculcate family values among employees. Also minimizing layoffs and conducting exit interviews will to some extent minimise employee turnover.

5. Some employee turnover is unavoidable, even in the best organisations. People retire or move for non- job related reasons. Better opportunities elsewhere, aggressive recruitment by competitors, workload and stress levels, family reasons difficulties with supervisors are only some reasons will leads employees to quit.

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