You are on page 1of 4

Jurnal Natural Vol. 10, No.

1, , 2010

THE EFFECT FFECT of Michelia alba BARK EXTRACT XTRACT to THE GROWTH of Salmonella typhii and Candida albicans
Lenni Fitri
Biology Department Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University Darussalam - Banda Aceh

Abstract. The aim of the research was to know the ability of Michelia alba in various concentrations to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The research was done in Microbiology Laboratory, Mathematics and Sciences Faculty, Syiah Kuala University. This research used Randomized Complete Design (RCD) with two factors and three repetitions of each treatment. The concentrations of each extract were 50, 40, 30 and 20%. The results showed that Michelia alba could inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhii and Candida albicans. The 50% concentration of Michelia alba formed the inhibition zone about 12.33 mm. The 40% concentration of Michelia alba formed the inhibition zone about 11.00 mm, while 30% and 20% concentration formed 9.33 mm and 6.83 mm respectively. The inhibition zones in range 6-12 mm were categorized as s no to low ability of inhibition.

Key words : Michelia alba, Salmonella thypi, Candida albicans, antimicrobes.



Indonesia is one of the richest natural resources countries in the world. There are about 30,000 plant species in Indonesia. Some of them are being used as raw food material, medicines and cosmetics. Therefore, these natural resources have to be protected and wisely used. Beside all of benefits, plants are also useful as antimicrobial. Even though there are many antibiotics are being used, new antibiotics are still needed to overcome the resistance of microbes. Antimicrobial agents are the substances that are re able to kill and inhibit activity of microorganism with various ways [1]. An antimicrobial agent is a natural or synthetic chemical that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganism. Antimicrobial agent vary with regard to selective toxicity. Some act in a rather nonselective manner and have similar effects on all types of cell. Others are more selective and are more toxic to microorganisms than to animal tissues. Antimicrobial agents with selective toxicity are especially useful for treating infectious infectio diseases because they can be used to kill disease-causing disease microorganisms in vivo without harming the host [2].

Previous researchs shown that some plants are indeed have antimicrobial components such as Alpinia galanga L. [3], Piper betle Linn. [4], Eusideroxylon zwageri T et B [5], Centella asiatica [6], and Spilanthes paniculata Wall. [7]. Michelia alba is one of well known medicinal plants. Michelia alba L. has been widely used as herbal medicines to cure some diseases such as chicken pox and itchiness. s. Fruit, flower, leaf, bark, root even sap are among Michelia alba L organs that are used as medicines [8]. Because of those medicinal functions, M. alba may be useful as antimicrobial. This research is focusing on the ability of M. alba extract to inhibit the growth of S. thypii and C. albicans in various concentration extract.


The research was conducted at Microbiology laboratory, Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University. niversity. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) factorial with two factors, type of microbe and concentration of M. alba extract was used.

The Effect of Michelia alba Bark Extract to The growth of Salmonella typhii and Candida albicans (Lenni fitri)

There are 16 units of experiments. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data.

Tabel 1. Analysis of Variance of the effect of plant species to the concentration of Salmonella typhii bacteria
Source DF 7 Sum of Square 115.29 Mean Square 16.47 5.04 33.70 F value Pr > F 3.69 0.01 4* 0.30 1.13 3id 7.56 0.00 2** 0.68 0.57 5id


Model Microbe Concentrat ion Interact ion Error Correct ed Total

There was 500 gram of M. alba bark naturally dried. Drying was done approximately for two weeks without being exposed to the sunlight. After two weeks, those barks were crunched using blender then soaked in 1 liter of N-Hexane for about 48 hours. The solution then was filtered using glass filter. Vacuum rotary evaporator was used to evaporate N-Hexane and left pure M .alba bark extract. The extract then being dissolved in NHexane according to the concentrations that have planned to use in this research i.e. 50, 40, 30 and 20%. b. Antimicrobial test

1 3

5.04 101.12

3 16

9.12 71.33

3.04 4.45



Note: id: insignificantly different ** : significantly different Based on the research, Michelia alba extract has the same ability in inhibiting Salmonella thypii and Candida albicans. This can be concluded by examining the measurements of clear zones. There is no significantly different in diameter of clear zones that were formed in both S. thypii and C.albicans. The average of clear zone in S. thypii is 10.33 mm while the average clear zone of C. albicans is 9.41 mm. The average of clear zone in both microbes is 6-12 mm. This means that there is no to low inhibiting response [11]. Table 2. Clasification of inhibiting response to the growth of bacteria [11].
Clear Zone Diameter 20 mm > 16-20 mm Inhibiting Response Strong Medium Weak No response

The antimicrobial test was conducted by using agar diffusion method and dish paper [9]. Spreading method was used for inoculation [10]. Sterilized MHA media was used for spreading. Another petri dish was used for inoculation S.thypii and C.albicans. 0.5 ml suspension equal to McF 1 was taken using sterilized pipette volume. Then spread evenly using sterilized spreading stick. Let it dries. Put dish paper in the media, and then apply some drops of M. alba extract concentrations 50, 40, 30 and 20%. After that, this media was incubated at 370C for about 24 hours. Observatories were done after that. Three replications were done. If no clear zones were formed after 24 hours, media was incubated again for another 24 hours. The clear zones were measured in millimeter using ruler.


According to the research experiments, M. alba extract can inhibit the growth of both testes microbe, Salmonella thypii and Candida albicans. This can bee seen from the formation of clear zone around the paper dish containing M alba extract in S. thypii and C. albicans suspensions. The clear zone can be formed as a result of microbe growth inhibition. It means no microbe in the clear zone areas [10]. The result also supported by analysis of variance. According to analysis of variance, M. alba extract has significantly different ability in inhibiting the growth of both S. thypii and C. albicans (Table 1.). The concentrations of M. alba extract also have significantly different in inhibiting both microbes. Interaction between type of microbe and concentration extract, on the other hand, showing no significantly different. Analysis of variance can be seen in the table below.

10-15 mm <>

Detail of average clear zone diameters can bee seen in Table 2 while figure of clear zones of Salmonella thypii can be seen in Figure 1 and clear zones of Candida albicans in Figure 2. Table 3. The average of inhibition zone diametre as a result of applying M. alba extract to the growth of microbes
Microbes (M) 20 8.33 ab Concentration (C) 30 40 50 Ave rage M

S. typhii 9.66a 11.00a 12.33a 10.33 C. 9.00 albicans 5.33 b ab 11.00a 12.33a 9.41 Average C 6.83c 9.33bc 11.00ab 12.33a Note: the numbers that are followed by the same letter in the same column and row is insignificantly different based on DMRT test. = 0,05.


The Effect of Michelia alba Bark Extract to The growth of Salmonella typhii and Candida albicans (Lenni fitri)

40 %

50 %


Figure 1. The inhibition zone of M. alba in 50% and 40% concentration extract to the gowth of Salmonella typhii Note : A. Inhibition Zone B. Dish paper C. Colony of Salmonella typhi

metabolites. Therefore, the plant can have more than one pharmacological effect [13]. Beside saponin, M.alba has mikelarbina and liriodenini alcaloids and tanin that assumed can also inhibit the growth of S. thypii and C. albicans. Alkaloid is one of major chemical coumpounds are usually derivates of amino acid and many alkaloids have pharmalogical effects on human and animal [14]. Alkaloids have antimicrobial effect. Working mechanism of alkaloids is related to the ability of intercalating to bacteria DNA. One of cell component in cytoplasm membrane of bacteria is nucleus that contains DNA. All cell activities are controlled by nucleus. Damaging the nucleus will damage the entirely cell [15]. CONCLUSIONS 1. Michelia alba bark extract can inhibit the growth of Salmonella thypii and Candida albicans. 2. The higher the concentration extract, the wider the clear zones diametre was formed. 3. The average of clear zone in both microbes, Salmonella thypii and Candida albicans is 6-12 mm. This means that there is no to low inhibiting response. ACNOWLEGMENTS Thanks to Panitia Pengembangan Bidang Ilmu Unsyiah for supporting this research. REFERENCES 1. S. Fardiaz. 1989, Mikrobiologi pangan, Pusat Antar Universitas Pangan dan Gizi IPB, Bogor. 2. M.T. Madigan. J. M. Martinko, and J. Parker, 2005, Biology of Microoganisms, Tenth Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 3. M. O. K Parwata dan P. F. S. Dewi, 2008, Isolasi Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Dari Rimpang Lengkuas (Alpinia galanga L.), Jurnal Kimia 2 (2), Juli 2008 : 100-104. 4. M. Poeloengan, M.N Susan dan Andriani, 2005, Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle Linn) terhadap Mastitis Subklinis, Abstrak, Prosiding Seminar Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner, 5. Ajizah. Thihana dan Mirhanuddin, 2007, Potensi Ekstrak Kayu Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri T et B) Dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus Secara In Vitro, BIOSCIENTIAE, Volume 4, Nomor 1, Januari 2007.

The more concentration of M. alba extract, the wider the diameter of clear zones in both microbes. 50% concentration extract formed 12.33 mm clear zone in average. 40% concentration extract formed 11.00 mm clear zone in average, while 30 and 20% concentration extract formed approximately 9.33 and 6.83 mm clear zones. The concentration has significant effect to the effectiveness of antimicrobial components in plant extract. The higher the concentration extract, the higher the active solution in the extract is. Therefore, the ability in inhibiting the growth of microbes is even higher. The higher the concentration extract, the higher the number of antimicrobial components that are released. Therefore, the penetration of the component to the cell is even effective [9, 12].

50 % 40 %


Figure 2. The inhibition zone of M. alba in 50% dan 40% concentration extract to the growth of Candida albicans Note : A. Inhibition Zone B. Dish paper C. Colony Candida albicans

Beside concentration, chemical compounds in the M. alba were assumed as a inhibiting factor to the growth of S. Typhii or C. albicans. Michelia alba has saponin and its derivates that can inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Active components in medicinal plants usually form as secondary metabolite. Michelia sp has some secondary


The Effect of Michelia alba Bark Extract to The growth of Salmonella typhii and Candida albicans (Lenni fitri)

6. Sulistiyowati dan A. Widyastuti. 2008, Pemanfaatan Centella asiatica Sebagai Bahan Antibakteri Salmonella typhi, Stigma, Journal of Science, Vol 02 No. 01 : 5-10 7. H.Soetjipto, 2008, Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Bunga Legetan (Spilanthes paniculata Wall), Jurnal Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, Vol 7 No.2 : 53 59. Zumaidar. Suwarno dan Hasanuddin, 2003, Etnobotani dan Biologi Perbungaan Michelia champaca L. Dan Michelia alba DC. Laporan Hasil Penelitian, DUE-like Batch II Unsyiah. E. Jawetz, J.L. Melnick and E.A. Adelberg, 2001, Mikrobiologi Kedokteran, Edisi-22, Diterjemahkan dari Medical Microbiology Twenty Second Ed oleh Bagian Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga, Salemba Medika, Jakarta.

Staphylococcus aureus dengan Metode Difusi Agar, Skripsi, IPB, Bogor. 12. E. A. M. Zuhud. W.P. Rahayu. C. H. Wijaya dan P. P Sari, 2001, Aktivitas Antimikroba Ekstrak Kedawung (Parkia roxburghii G. Don) Terhadap Bakteri Patogen. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, Vol XII No.1 :6. 13. S. Manikandan and R. S. Devi, 2005, Antioxidant property of alphaasarone against noise-stressinduced changes in different regions of rat brain, Pharmacol Res., 52(6):467-74. 14. Sofiyanti, N. Ninik, N. W. Dedek, P. Edi, S dan Kamarudin, M.S, 2008, Alkaloid and Phenolic Compounds of Rafflesia hasselti Suringar and its host Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) Alston ex Mabb. In Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Riau : A Preliminary Study, Jurnal Biodiversitas.,Vol 9 No 1 : 17-20. 15. R. Naim, 2002, Senyawa Antimikroba,, cgi, artikel.



10. W. B. Lay, 1994, Analisis Mikroba di Laboratorium, Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta. 11. M.R. Pratama, 2005, Pengaruh Ekstrak Serbuk Kayu Siwak (Salvadora persica) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus mutans dan