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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises

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David N. Blauch
Some of the virtual chemistry experiments and exercises employ applets representing chemical equipment. These applets are available for use in creating new web pages.

System Requirements
Browsers must support Java 1.1 or higher in order to execute the applets employed in these pages. JavaScript support is also required. These pages and applets have been tested and found to run correctly under Netscape Navigator 4.73 and Internet Explorer 5. Some pages employ VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) to display "three-dimensional" images of molecular structure and orbitals. A VRML viewer such as SGI Cosmo Player is required. These pages have been tested and found to display correctly under Netscape Communicator 4.73 with CosmoPlayer 2.1.1. Some pages function correctly under Internet Explorer 5.0 while other pages cause Internet Explorer 5.0 to crash. Some of the VRML files are relatively large (several hundred KB) and may take a few minutes to download if your internet connection is slow. Feedback on the performance of these pages with other browsers would be appreciated. EAI is required for modifications of the VRML image. If a browser does not support EAI, the VRML image may still appear, but the buttons will not be functional and use of the buttons may cause the browser to crash.

Physlets
Physlets (Physics Applets) are small flexible Java applets designed for science education. Data Connections is a component of Physlets that permits inter-applet exchange of data and is used in many of the chemistry applets listed below. For more information on Physlets and to obtain the archives and documentation, visit the Physlet home page. A good introduction to Physlets technology is the Physlets book by Wolfgang Christian and Mario Belloni.

Archives
The Chemistry Applets, including the relevant Physlet jar files, are available in compressed archives that may be downloaded and deployed on local systems. To deploy an archive, designate a root directory for the Chemistry Applets and decompress the files into the root directory. (All archives should be extracted into the same Chemistry Applets root directory. Subdirectories will be created as needed for the individual topics.) ChemistryApplets.zip (13.6 MB) Contains entire set1of Chemistry Applets, including the common files. / 15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises

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Archives are available for subsets of the Chemistry Applets collection (e.g., calorimetry or atomic orbitals). Download and deploy both the archive for the individual topic and the common.zip (558 KB) archive, which contains files common to many different topics.

Topics
Atomic Structure
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Chemical Equilibria
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Gases
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Atomic Orbitals (VRML) Hybrid Orbitals (VRML)

Chemical Equilibria

Gas Laws Kinetic Molecular Theory

Chemical Kinetics Chemical Analysis


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Phase Changes Chemical Kinetics


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Elemental Analysis Spectrophotometry Crystal Structure

Phase Changes

Thermodynamics Chemical Bonding


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Hybrid Orbitals (VRML) Molecular Orbitals (VRML)

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Closest-Packed Structures (VRML) Structure of Solids (VRML) Unit Cells (VRML)

Calorimetry

Send comments, suggestions, and bug reports to dablauch@davidson.edu.

Atomic Orbitals
Archive: AtomicOrbitals.zip (4.8 MB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Atomic Orbitals Orbitals Concepts Isosurfaces of various atomic orbitals and some hybrid orbitals are displayed. Isosurfaces, radial distribution plots, and electron density plots of various atomic orbitals are displayed. Experiment

The quantum numbers for hydrogen orbitals A radial distribution plot, an electron density 2 / 15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

Graphical

Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Representations of Orbitals are explained. Three ways of representing orbitals (radial distribution, electron density, and isosurface plots) are described. The quantum numbers for s orbitals are identified.

Page 3 of 15 plot, and a virtual reality isosurface plot for the hydrogen 1s orbital are displayed to illustrate the significance and use of each type of orbital representation. The shape of s orbitals is explored. For s orbitals with various principal quantum numbers, radial distribution, electron density, and isosurface plots are examined to determine the number and shapes of nodal surfaces and the region where the electron is most likely to be found. The shape and orientations of p orbitals are explored. For p orbitals with various principal quantum numbers, radial distribution, electron density, and isosurface plots are examined to determine the number and shapes of nodal surfaces. The shape and orientations of d orbitals are explored. For d orbitals with various principal quantum numbers, radial distribution, electron density, and isosurface plots are examined to determine the number and shapes of nodal surfaces.

s Orbitals

p Orbitals

The quantum numbers for p orbitals are identified.

d Orbitals

The quantum numbers for d orbitals are identified.

Sizes of Atomic Orbitals

The shell designations for atomic orbitals are A virtual reality isosurface display is used to presented. compare sets of atomic orbitals with various quantum numbers. This display allows direct comparison of the sizes of the orbitals. The effect of shielding and the concept of an effective nuclear charge are explained. A virtual reality isosurface display is used to compare the sizes of hydrogen 1s and 2s orbitals with various effective nuclear charges with the sizes of fluorine 1s and 2s orbitals. A virtual reality isosurface display is used to compare the sizes of a hydrogen s orbital with a user-defined Zeff and an s orbital of a multi-electron atom. The best Zeff for the s orbital of the multi-electron atom is determined by matching the sizes of the orbitals and this value is compared with that predicted by the Slater rules. - Topics -

Effective Nuclear Charge

Effective Nuclear Charge and Orbital Size

Slater rules for predicting shielding factors and Zeff are introduced.

Calorimetry
Archive: Calorimetry.zip (43 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) 3 / 15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Topic Heat Capacity Concepts Heat capacity and calorimetry are defined and explained. The use of calorimetry to measure heat capacity is described. Specific heat capacity is defined and explained. The calorimeter system is divided into components, in this example the calorimeter itself and the water in the calorimeter. A heat balance equation is written for the calorimeter system. The heat balance equation is written for a calorimeter containing ethanol. A graphical strategy is described for analyzing calorimetric data to simultaneously determine both the heat capacity of the calorimeter and the specific heat capacity of ethanol. In this calorimetry experiment, the components do not all have the same initial temperature. The mathematical handling of this situation is explained. In this experiment, a chemical reaction serves as a source of heat in the heat balance equation. The molar enthalpy of reaction is defined and explained. The neutralization reaction is explained. There are two reactants in the neutralization reaction; thus the limiting reactant must be identified in order to determine the molar enthalpy of neutralization. Experiment

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The heat capacity of an entire calorimeter system is determined. The heat capacity of the calorimeter is determined.

Heat Capacity of a Calorimeter

Specific Heat Capacity of Ethanol

The heat capacity of the calorimeter and the specific heat capacity of ethanol are determined.

Specific Heat Capacity of Copper

In the first experiment, the heat capacity of the calorimeter is determined using a metal (iron) with a known specific heat capacity. In the second experiment, the specific heat capacity of copper is determined. The molar heat of solution of ammonium nitrate is determined.

Heat of Solution of Ammonium Nitrate

Heat of Neutralization

The molar enthalpy of neutralization is determined.

Heat of Combustion of Methane

The combustion reaction for methane is The molar enthalpy of methane is explained and used to calculated the standard determined and used to determine the molar enthalpy of formation of methane. standard molar enthalpy of formation of methane. The amount of methane that undergoes combustion is determined using the pressure of methan and the ideal gas law. The nonideal loss and gain of heat during a calorimetry experiment is discussed. A graphical strategy for experimentally compensating for heat loss or gain is explained. The heating or cooling rates of the calorimeter before and after an experiment are determined graphically. The molar enthalpy of solution of sulfuric acid is determined.

Heat of Solution of Sulfuric Acid

Heat of Solution of Calcium Hydroxide

Strategies are discussed for studying systems The molar enthalpy of solution of calcium in which two chemical reactions occur hydroxide is determined. Nonideal heat simultaneously. loss/gain is modeled graphically.

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises

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Chemical Equilibria
Archive: Equilibria.zip (31 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Basic Concepts Concepts The equilibrium state is describe in terms of the rate of the forward and reverse reactions for the reaction. The equilibrium constant (KP and KC) and the Law of Mass Action are introduced. Equilibrium Constant The equilibrium constant and its significance The equilibrium constants for two reactions are discussed. with a single gas-phase product are measured. Reaction Table Le Chatelier's Principle: Adding and Removing Reactants and/or Products Le Chatelier's Principle: Temperature Changes Le Chatelier's Principle: Volume Changes The use of a reaction table to manage stoichiometric calculations is described. Le Chatelier's Principle is introduced in the context of adding or removing reactants and/or products. The distinction between analytical amounts and equilibrium amounts of material is discussed. Le Chatelier's Principle is used to predict the effect of a change in temperature on the composition of a system at equilibrium. Le Chatelier's Principle is used to predict the effect of a change in volume on the composition of a system at equilibrium. - Topics The equilibrium constants for two reactions are measured. The equilibrium amounts of carbon, water, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen for the steam reforming reaction are measured as the analytical amounts of the various species are changed. The equilibrium amounts of carbon, water, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen for the steam reforming reaction are measured as the temperature of the system is changed. The equilibrium amounts of carbon, water, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen for the steam reforming reaction are measured as the volume of the system is changed. Experiment A stopped-flow apparatus is used to initiate and follow the progress of a reaction using concentration-time curves.

Chemical Kinetics
Archive: Kinetics.zip (47 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Reaction Rates Concepts The stopped-flow technique and its use in studying chemical reactions is described. The speed or rate of a reaction is discussed. Experiment Concentration vs time plots are recorded for reactants and product in a chemical reaction. Characteristic features for rates of change in the concentrations of reactants and product are explored.

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Rate of Reaction The relationships between the relative rates of change in concentration of reactants and products is discussed. The general expression for the rate of reaction is presented. Differential rate laws for zero-, first-, and second-order reactions are described and explained. Integrated rate laws for zero-, first-, and second-order reactions are described and explained. The half-life of a reaction is defined and explained.

Page 6 of 15 The stoichiometric coefficients for a chemical equation are determined by comparing the slopes of concentration-time plots for the reactants and products. The differential rate law and the rate constant are determined for a reaction by examining how the rate of reaction varies with the reactant concentration. The rate law and the rate constant are determined for a reaction by preparing characteristic kinetics plots from concentration-time data. The half-life is measured for various initial concentrations for zero-, first-, and secondorder reactions. The data is analyzed graphically to determine the relationship between the half-life and reactant concentration for each order reaction and to determine the rate constant for each reaction. The rate law and rate constant for a reaction is determined using the Method of Initial Rates. The rate law and rate constant for a reaction is determined using the Isolation Method. The rate law and rate constant for the bromate-bromide ion reaction is determined. A selection of solutions and a stopped-flow apparatus are available. Students must devise their own experimental strategy for determining the rate law and the rate constant.

Differential Rate Laws

Integrated Rate Laws

Half-life

Method of Initial Rates Isolation Method Kinetics of the Bromate-Bromide Ion Reaction

The determination of a rate law by the Method of Initial Rates is described. The determination of a rate law by the Isolation Method is described. The reaction between bromate ion and bromide ion in acidic aqueous solution is described.

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Closest-Packed Structures
Archive: Crystals.zip (500 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Closest-Packed Structures Concepts The efficient packing of hard spheres is described. A sequence of interactive images are employed to illustrate the packing process for hexagonal closest-packed and cubic closest-packed structures. Experiment

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Cubic ClosestPacked Structure Hexagonal ClosestPacked Structure The properties and unit cell of the cubic closest-packed structure are described. The properties and unit cell of the hexagonal closest-packed structure are described. - Topics -

Page 7 of 15 An animation is provided and the viewer is asked to determine the number of atoms within the face-centered cubic unit cell. An animation is provided and the viewer is asked to determine the number of atoms within the hexagonal unit cell.

Gas Laws
Archive: GasLaws.zip (33 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Pressure Concepts The physical meaning of pressure and the operation of a U-tube manometer are explained. Experiment Three exercises are provided: reading a manometer, measuring pressure when the manometer contains a liquid other than water, compensating for the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid in the manometer. Students repeat Boyle's historical experiments and use the experimental data to formulate the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas.

Boyle's Law

Boyle's experiments involving pressure and volume are discussed.

Boyle's Law Calculations

The use of Boyle's law to predict how the A sample of gas is allowed to expand. volume of a gas will change with a change in Students are asked to predict the change in pressure is explained. pressure for the gas, and this prediction is tested. Charles's and Gay-Lussac's experiments involving temperature and volume are discussed. The significance of absolute zero is also discussed. Various characterizations of a gas are defined, including density, molar concentration, and molar volume. The various gas laws (e.g., Boyle's and Charles's laws) are employed to formulate a general gas law, the ideal gas law. The application of the ideal gas law to gas mixtures is explained, and the partial pressure of a gas is defined. - Topics Students repeat Charles's historical experiments and use the experimental data to formulate the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas and to determine absolute zero. The density, molar concentration, and molar volume of various gases are measured. The validity of the ideal gas law is tested by measuring the pressure of a gas at various molar concentrations. The value of the gas constant is determined graphically. Two gases are allowed to mix, and students are asked to predict the final pressure of the gas mixture.

Charles's Law

Avogadro's Law

Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

Dalton's Law

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises

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Hybrid Orbitals
Archive: AtomicOrbitals.zip (13.6 MB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Atomic Orbitals Hybrid Orbitals Concepts Isosurfaces of various atomic orbitals and some hybrid orbitals are displayed. The origin and significance of hybrid orbitals is explained and illustrated with electron density plots and energy diagrams. The purpose of hybrid orbitals is explained. Small balls are arranged in a linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral geometry. Various hybrid orbitals may be displayed and oriented towards the balls. Only the proper hybridization scheme will provide a set of orbitals that can simultaneously be directed at all of the balls. Experiment

Geometry of Hybrid Orbitals

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Kinetic Molecular Theory


Archive: KineticMolecularTheory.zip (23 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Basic Concepts Concepts The postulates of the kinetic molecular theory of gases are presented and discussed. Experiment A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is presented. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of temperature on the shape of the Maxwell distribution. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of particle mass and number of particles (in a fixed volume) on the pressure of a gas. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of system volume on the pressure of a gas under isothermal conditions.

Maxwell Distribution The meaning of the Maxwell distribution is discussed.

Pressure of a Gas

The physical origin of the pressure of a gas is discussed.

Pressure-Volume Relation

A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of system temperature on the pressure of a gas under isochoric conditions. 8 / 15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

PressureTemperature Relation

Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Diffusion

Page 9 of 15 A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the random-walk motion of a molecule. - Topics -

Molecular Orbitals
Archive: MolecularOrbitals.zip (7.5 MB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Overlap of Atomic Orbitals: Sigma Bonding Overlap of Atomic Orbitals: Symmetry Requirements Overlap of Atomic Orbitals Concepts The significance of orbital overlap in forming a chemical bond is explained. Sigma, pi, and delta bonding interactions are explained. The role of wave function sign and orbital symmetry in the overlap of atomic orbitals is discussed. The symmetry requirements for overlap to produce a bonding/antibonding interaction are discussed. Orbitals not having compatible symmetries do not interact. The overlap of two hydrogen 1s orbitals to form a sigma bond in the H2 molecule is illustrated. Experiment The overlap of two s orbitals is illustrated.

The overlap of an s and py orbital along the z axis is illustrated. Isosurfaces for pairs of orbitals are displayed and allowed to overlap in order to determine whether the orbital symmetries permit a bonding/antibonding interaction. Electron density and isosurface plots are used to illustrate the interaction between two hydrogen atoms as the two atoms are brought close together. The energy diagram is used to predict various properties of the H2 molecule.

Bonding in the Hydrogen Molecule

Molecular Orbital Diagrams

The structure and use of a molecular orbital diagram is explained.

Isosurfaces of the various atomic and molecular orbitals are displayed for a series of molecules (see below). Comparison of the atomic and molecular orbitals permits determination of the which atomic orbitals interacted to form the molecular orbital. This page displays the H2 molecular orbital diagram and isosurfaces.

Molecular Orbital Diagram: Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Molecular Orbital Diagram: Nitrogen (N2)

The molecular orbital diagram for hydrogen fluoride is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital. The molecular orbital diagram for dinitrogen is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital.

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Molecular Orbital Diagram: Fluorine (F2) Molecular Orbital Diagram: Carbon Monoxide (CO) Molecular Orbital Diagram: Nitric Oxide (NO) Molecular Orbital Diagram: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Molecular Orbital Diagram: Water (H2O) - Topics -

Page 10 of 15 The molecular orbital diagram for difluorine is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital. The molecular orbital diagram for carbon monoxide is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital. The molecular orbital diagram for nitric oxide is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital. The molecular orbital diagram for hydrogen fluoride is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital. The molecular orbital diagram for water is displayed. Clicking on an orbital on the diagram displays the isosurface for the orbital.

Phase Changes
Archive: PhaseChanges.zip (44 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Heating Curve Concepts Experiment

The processes that occur when a substance is A heating curve is recorded for a substance, heated are explained. which is displayed to illustrated the accompanying phase changes. The viewer is asked to determine the melting point, boiling point, and enthalpies of fusion and vaporization. The liquid-gas and solid-gas equilibria are examined and the Claussius-Clapeyron is presented. The vapor pressure of ethanol is measured at various temperatures. A Classius-Clapeyron plot is prepared, and the viewer is asked to determine the normal boiling point and standard enthalpy and entropy of vaporization for ethanol. The viewer is asked to determine the stable phase at various temperatures and pressures. A sample is heated isobarically such that the process crosses a phase line in the phase diagram. The viewer is asked to determine

Vapor Pressure

Phase Diagram: Part 1 Phase Diagram: Part 2

The properties of a phase diagram are described. The effect of crossing a phase line in a phase diagram is discussed.

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises

Page 11 of 15 the sublimation temperature at the experimental pressure.

Phase Diagram: Part 3

The effect of crossing a phase line in a phase diagram is discussed.

A sample is compressed isothermally such that the process crosses a phase line in the phase diagram. The viewer is asked to determine the pressure at which the phase change occurs at the experimental temperature. Temperature or pressure changes are used to drive a substance through the triple point. The viewer is asked to determine the triplepoint temperature and pressure. The transition between a liquid and gas is examined via two different routes, one of which crosses a phase line and one of which does not (passing through the super-critical region instead). Colors are used to represent the sample density and illustrate how it is possible to convert a sample from a liquid to a gas (or vice-versa) without producing a phase-change reaction. A phase diagram is presented along with a sample confined in a cylinder with a movable barrier. The viewer may alter the temperature and pressure of the sample in order to explore the features of the phase diagram.

Phase Diagram: Part 4

The triple point is defined and its significance is discussed.

Phase Diagram: Part 5

The critical point is defined and its significance is discussed.

Phase Diagram

The features of a phase diagram are described.

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Spectrophotometry
Archive: Spectrophotometry.zip (29 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Spectrophotometry Concepts The basic principles of spectrophotometry and the operation of a spectrophotometer are explained. Experiment The transmittance and absorbance are measured for a sample. A blank is used to calibrate the spectrophotometer.

Absorbance Spectrum Effect of Cell Path Length Effect of Concentration

The absorbance spectrum is described and its The absorbance spectrum for a sample is importance explained. measured. The significance of the cell path length is discussed. The effect of the cell path length on transmittance and absorbances is explored.

The significance of the analyte concentration The effect of the analyte concentration on is discussed. transmittance and absorbances is explored.

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Beer's Law Beer's Law is presented and explained.

Page 12 of 15 A plot of absorbance vs concentration is prepared, and the molar absorptivity is determined from the slope of the plot. A calibration curve is prepared and used to determine the analyte concentration in an unknown solution.

Analysis of an Unknown Solution

The construction of a calibration curve is described, and the use of a calibration curve in determining the analyte concentration in an unknown solution is explained. - Topics -

Stoichiometry
Archive: Stoichiometry.zip (24 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Carbon-Hydrogen Elemental Analysis Concepts The determination of the weight percents of carbon and hydrogen in a sample is described. Experiment The weight percents of carbon and hydrogen in an unknown compound are determined, and this information is used to determine the empirical formula. The empirical formula and molecular weight of the unknown compound are employed to determine the molecular formula.

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Structure of Solids
Archive: Crystals.zip (500 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Network Solids Concepts The distinctions between ionic, molecular, metallic, and network solids are discussed. Experiment Structures are shown for diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene, and cristobalite (silica) and questions are asked about the chemical bonding in these solids. Electron density plots for CO2 and SiO2 are used to illustrate differences in chemical bonding that produce the radically different physical properties of these compounds. Holes in ClosestPacked Structures Trigonal Hole The existence and properties of holes in closest-packed structures are discussed. The geometry of a trigonal hole is described. A virtual reality representation of three atoms forming a trigonal hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises ratio. Tetrahedral Hole The geometry of a tetrahedral hole is described.

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A virtual reality representation of four atoms forming a tetrahedral hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.

Octahedral Hole

The geometry of an octahedral hole is described.

A virtual reality representation of six atoms forming an octahedral hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.

Cubic Hole

The geometry of a cubic hole is described.

A virtual reality representation of eight atoms forming a cubic hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.

Holes in the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure

An interactive virtual reality representation of a cubic closest-packed structure is presented, and the viewer is asked to determine types of holes present in the structure and the number of each type in the unit cell. An interactive virtual reality representation of a hexagonal closest-packed structure is presented, and the viewer is asked to determine types of holes present in the structure and the number of each type in the unit cell. The factors governing the structure of ionic solids composed of monatomic ions are discussed. The crystal structure of Wurtzite is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Wurtzite is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Zinc Blende is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Rutile is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of sodium chloride is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.

Holes in the Hexagonal ClosestPacked Structure

Structure of Ionic Solids Structure of Wurtzite

Structure of Zinc Blende

The crystal structure of Zinc Blende is described.

Structure of Rutile

The crystal structure of Rutile is described.

Structure of Sodium Chloride

The crystal structure of sodium chloride is described.

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Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises Structure of Cesium Chloride The crystal structure of cesium chloride is described.

Page 14 of 15 A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of cesium chloride is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Fluorite is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.

Structure of Fluorite

The crystal structure of Fluorite is described.

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Unit Cells
Archive: Crystals.zip (500 KB). Requires common.zip (556 KB) Topic Simple Cubic Concepts The geometry of the simple cubic unit cell is described. Experiment A virtual reality depiction of the simple cubic unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell. A virtual reality depiction of the bodycentered cubic unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell. A virtual reality depiction of the facecentered cubic unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell. A virtual reality depiction of the hcp unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell.

Body-Centered Cubic

The geometry of the body-centered cubic unit cell is described.

Face-Centered Cubic

The geometry of the face-centered cubic unit cell is described.

Hexagonal ClosestPacked Structure

The geometry of the unit cell of the hexagonal closest-packed structure is described. - Topics -

If you encounter any bugs or technical problems, please send me the details, including how to reproduce the problem. In addition, I am eager for any ideas for new applets or improvements for existing applets. Thanks. David N. Blauch 14 / 15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

Virtual Chemistry Experiments and Exercises

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Davidson Homepage

Chemistry Homepage

Copyright 1999-2007, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 Send comments, questions, and suggestions to David N. Blauch:

dablauch@davidson.edu

Last updated Wednesday October 12 2005

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