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Robotics

Introduction
A robot is a mechanical or virtual agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. Robots can be autonomous or semiautonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility ASIM!" and #!S$'s #!S$ %ing %ong %laying Robot #!%I!" to industrial robots, collectively programmed 's&arm' robots, and even microscopic nano robots. 'y mimic(ing a lifeli(e appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its o&n. #he branch of technology that deals &ith the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as &ell as computer systems for their control, sensory feedbac(, and information processing is robotics. #hese technologies deal &ith automated machines that can ta(e the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and)or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. #hese robots have also created a ne&er branch of robotics* Soft robotics.+rom the time of ancient civili,ation there have been many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and even automata resembling animals and humans, designed primarily as entertainment. As mechanical techni-ues developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and &ireless remote-control. .lectronics evolved into the driving force of development &ith the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by /illiam 0rey /alter in 'ristol, .ngland in 1234. #he first digital and programmable robot &as invented by 0eorge 5evol in 1263 and &as named the 7nimate. It &as sold to 0eneral Motors in 1281 &here it &as used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland +isher 0uide %lant in the /est #renton section of .&ing #o&nship, 9e& :ersey. Robots have replaced humans in the assistance of performing those repetitive and dangerous tas(s &hich humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do due to si,e limitations, or even those such as in outer space or at the bottom of the sea &here humans could not survive the e;treme environments.
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#here are concerns about the increasing use of robots and their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising unemployment as they replace &or(ers in some functions. #he use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. #he possibility of robot autonomy and potential repercussions has been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future.

Overview
#he &ord robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual soft&are agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. #here is no consensus on &hich machines -ualify as robots but there is general agreement among e;perts, and the public, that robots tend to do some or all of the follo&ing* move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and e;hibit intelligent behavior < especially behavior &hich mimics humans or other animals. In practical terms, =robot= usually refers to a machine &hich can be electronically programmed to carry out a variety of physical tas(s or actions. #here is no one definition of robot that satisfies everyone and many people have their o&n. +or e;ample :oseph .ngelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remar(ed* =I can't define a robot, but I (no& one &hen I see one.= #he t&o &ays that robots differ from actual beings are, simply stated, in the domain of cognition, and in the domain of biological form. #he general consensus is that a =robot= is a machine and not a being simply because it is not intelligent it re-uires programming to function", regardless of ho& human-li(e it may appear. In contrast, an imaginary =machine= or =artificial life form= as in science fiction" that could thin( near or above human intelligence, and had a sensory body, &ould no longer be a =robot= but &ould be some (ind of =artificial being= or =cognitive robot=. According to the .ncyclopaedia 'ritannica a robot is =any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanli(e manner.=

History
#he idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the &orld. .ngineers
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and inventors from ancient civili,ations, including Ancient China, Ancient Greece, and Ptolemaic Egypt, attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. .arly descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas, the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu >ie ?i. In ancient 0reece, the 0ree( engineer Ctesi#ius c. @AB 'C" =applied (no&ledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and &ater cloc(s &ith moving figures.= In the 3th century 'C, the Gree$ mathematician Archytas of #arentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called =#he %igeon=. Hero o! Ale"andria %&'()' A*+, a 0ree( mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines po&ered by air pressure, steam and &ater. #he 11th century >o(apannatti tells of ho& the 'uddhas relics &ere protected by mechanical robots bhuta vahana yanta", from the (ingdom of Roma visaya Rome"D until they &ere disarmed by Eing Asho(a. In ancient China, the Frd century te;t of the >ie ?i describes an account of humanoid automata, involving a much earlier encounter bet&een Chinese emperor Eing Mu of ?hou and a mechanical engineer (no&n as $an Shi, an 'artificer'. $an Shi proudly presented the (ing &ith a life-si,e, human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handi&or(' made of leather, &ood, and artificial organs. #here are also accounts of flying automata in the Han +ei ?i and other te;ts, &hich attributes the 6th century 'C Mohist philosopher Mo,i and his contemporary >u 'an &ith the invention of artificial &ooden birds ma yuan" that could successfully fly. In 1B88, the Chinese inventor Su Song built a &ater cloc( in the form of a to&er &hich featured mechanical figurines &hich chimed the hours. an, a =spea(ing= automaton by Hero o! Ale"andria, a yzantium, and a human automaton described in the &ashstand automaton by Philo o!

,O O-. A/* I-. CLA..I0ICA-IO/

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A robot is defined as a mechanical system &hich has fle;ible motion functions analogous to the motion functions of living organism. It combines such motion functions &ith intelligent functions, and &hich acts in response to the human &ill. G :udgment G Recognition G Adaptation G >earning ,o#ots may #e classi!ied in many ways1 .ome o! them are as !ollows2 A" 'ased on level of sophistication '" 'ased on manipulative function C" 'ased on manipulator geometry 5" 'ased on motion characteristics ." 'ased on type of control +" !n the basis of technology involved 0" According to method of input of information and teaching Robots are classified as under* G Manual Manipulator G +i;ed se-uence Robot Modern autonomous ro#ots #he first electronic autonomous robots &ith comple; behavior &ere created by /illiam 0rey /alter of the 'urden 9eurological Institute at 'ristol, .ngland in 1234 and 1232. He &anted to
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prove that rich connections bet&een a small numbers of brain cells could give rise to very comple; behaviors - essentially that the secret of ho& the brain &or(ed lay in ho& it &as &ired up. His first robots, named .lmer and .lsie, &ere constructed bet&een 1234 and 1232 and &ere often described as tortoises due to their shape and slo& rate of movement. #he three-&heeled tortoise robots &ere capable of photo ta;is, by &hich they could find their &ay to a recharging station &hen they ran lo& on battery po&er. /alter stressed the importance of using purely analogue electronics to simulate brain processes at a time &hen his contemporaries such as Alan #uring and :ohn von 9eumann &ere all turning to&ards a vie& of mental processes in terms of digital computation. His &or( inspired subse-uent generations of robotics researchers such as Rodney 'roo(s, Hans Moravec and Mar( #ilden. Modern incarnations of /alter's turtles may be found in the form of '.AM robotics. #he first digitally operated and programmable robot &as invented by 0eorge 5evol in 1263 and &as ultimately called the 7nimate. #his ultimately laid the foundations of the modern robotics industry. 5evol sold the first 7nimate to 0eneral Motors in 128B, and it &as installed in 1281 in a plant in #renton, 9e& :ersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stac( them. 5evolHs patent for the first digitally operated programmable robotic arm represents the foundation of the modern robotics industry. #he first palleti,ing robot &as introduced in 128F by the +uIi $uso(i Eogyo Company. In 12AF, a robot &ith si; electromechanically driven a;es &as patented by E7EA robotics in 0ermany, and the programmable universal manipulation arm &as invented by Jictor Scheinman in 12A8, and the design &as sold to 7nimation. Commercial and industrial robots are no& in &idespread use performing Iobs more cheaply or &ith greater accuracy and reliability than humans. #hey are also employed for Iobs &hich are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are &idely used in manufacturing, assembly and pac(ing, transport, earth and space e;ploration, surgery, &eaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.

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Robotics

Industrial robots manipulating" Industrial robots usually consist of a Iointed arm multi-lin(ed manipulator" and an end effector that is attached to a fi;ed surface. !ne of the most common types of end effector is a gripper assembly. #he International !rgani,ation for Standardi,ation gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in IS! 4FAF* =An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more a;es, &hich may be either, fi;ed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications.= #his definition is used by the International +ederation of Robotics, the .uropean Robotics Research 9et&or( .7R!9" and many national standards committees. Military robots Some e;perts and academics have -uestioned the use of robots for military combat, especially &hen such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions. #here are also concerns about technology &hich might allo& some armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots. #he 7S 9avy has funded a report &hich indicates that, as military robots become more comple;, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to ma(e autonomous decisions. !ne researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could ma(e decisions more effectively. Ho&ever, other e;perts -uestion this. !ne robot in particular, the .A#R, has generated public concerns over its fuel source, as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances. Although the engine for the .A#R is designed to run on biomass and vegetation specifically selected by its sensors, &hich it can find on battlefields or other local environments, the proIect has stated that chic(en fat can also be used. Manuel 5e >anda has noted that =smart missiles= and autonomous bombs e-uipped &ith artificial perception can be considered robots, as they ma(e some of their decisions
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autonomously. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in &hich humans are handing over important decisions to machines. +actory robots Car production !ver the last three decades, automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots &or(ing on fully automated production lines, &ith one robot for every ten human &or(ers. !n an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is &elded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a se-uence of robot stations. Packaging Industrial robots are also used e;tensively for palleti,ing and pac(aging of manufactured goods, for e;ample for rapidly ta(ing drin( cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into bo;es, or for loading and unloading machining centers. Electronics Mass-produced printed circuit boards %C's" are almost e;clusively manufactured by pic(-andplace robots, typically &ith SCARA manipulators, &hich remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to %C's &ith great accuracy. Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.

-ypes o! ,o#ots

Cartesian ro#ot* 7sed for pic( and place &or(, application of sealant, assembly operations, handling machine tools and arc &elding. It's a robot &hose arm has three prismatic Ioints, &hose a;es are coincident &ith a Cartesian coordinator.

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+ig. Cartesian

Cylindrical ro#ot* 7sed for assembly operations, handling at machine tools, spot &elding, and handling at die casting machines. It's a robot &hose a;es form a cylindrical coordinate system.

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+ig. Cylindrical robot

Polar ro#ot2 7sed for handling at machine tools, spot &elding, die casting, fettling machines, gas &elding and arc &elding. It's a robot &hose a;es form a polar coordinate system.

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+ig. %olar robot .CA,A ro#ot* 7sed for pic( and place &or(, application of sealant, assembly operations and handling machine tools. It's a robot &hich has t&o parallel rotary Ioints to provide compliance in a plane.

+ig SCARA robot

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Articulated ro#ot2 7sed for assembly operations, die casting, fettling machines, gas &elding, and arc &elding and spray painting. It's a robot &hose arm has at least three rotary Ioints.

+ig Articulated robot

Parallel ro#ot2 !ne use is a mobile platform handling coc(pit flight simulators. It's a robot &hose arms have concurrent prismatic or rotary Ioints.

+ig. %arallel robot

asic ,o#ot Motions2


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/hatever the configuration, the purpose of the robot is to perform a useful tas(. #o accomplish the tas(, an end effectors, or hand, are attached to the end of the robots arm. It is the end effectors &hich adapts the general purpose robot to a particular tas(. #o do the tas(, the robot arm must be capable of moving the end effectors through a se-uence of motions and positions. #here are si; basic motions or degrees of freedom, &hich provide the robot &ith the capability to move the end effectors through the re-uired se-uences of motions. #hese si; degree of freedom are intended to emulate the versatility of movement possessed by the human arm. 9ot all robots are e-uipped &ith the ability to move in all se; degrees. #he si; basic motions consist of three arm and body motions and three &rist motions. Arm and body motions 1. Jertical traverse* 7p and do&n motion of the arm, caused by pivoting the entire arm about a hori,ontal a;is or moving the arm along a vertical slide. @. Radial traverse* e;tension and retraction of the arm in and out movement" F. Rotational traverse* rotation about the vertical a;is right or left s&ivel of the robot arm" Wrist Motion G /rist s&ivel* Rotation of the &rist G /rist bend* 7p or do&n movement of the &rist, this also involves rotation movement. G /rist ya&s* Right or left s&ivel of the &rist.

Motion system2
Point3to3point %P-P+ control ro#ot2 %oint-to-point %#%" control is capable of moving from one point to another point. #he locations are recorded in the control memory. %#% robots do not control the path to get from one point to the ne;t point. Common applications include component insertion, spot &elding, hole drilling, machine loading and unloading, and crude assembly operations. Continuous3path %CP+ control ro#ot2 C% control, the robot can stop at any specified point along the controlled path. All the points along the path must be stored e;plicitly in the robotHs
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control memory. #ypical applications include spray painting, finishing, gluing, and arc &elding operations. Controlled3path ro#ot2 #he control e-uipment can generate paths of different geometry such as straight lines, circles, and interpolated curves &ith a high degree of accuracy. All controlled-path robots have a servo capability to correct their path.

-echnical 0eatures o! an Industrial ,o#ot2


#he technical features of an industrial robot determine its efficiency and effectiveness at performing a given tas(. #he follo&ing are some of the most important among these technical +eatures. *egree o! 0reedom %*1O10+ - .ach Ioint on the robot introduces a degree of freedom. .ach 5!+ can be a slider, rotary, or other type of actuator. Robots typically have 6 or 8 degrees of freedom. F of the degrees of freedom allo& positioning in F5 space, &hile the other @or F are used for orientation of the end effector. 8 degrees of freedom are enough to allo& the robot to reach all positions and orientations in F5 space. 6 5.!.+ re-uires a restriction to @5 space, or else it limits orientations. 6 5.!.+ robots are commonly used for handling tools such as arc &elders. 4or$ 5olume64or$space - #he robot tends to have a fi;ed and limited geometry. #he &or( envelope is the boundary of positions in space that the robot can reach. +or a Cartesian robot li(e an overhead crane" the &or(space might be a s-uare, for more sophisticated robots the &or(space might be a shape that loo(s li(e a Kclump of intersecting bubblesH. Precision Movement #he precision &ith &hich the robot can move the end of its &rist is a critical consideration in most applications. In robotics, precision of movement is a comple; issue, and &e &ill describe it as consisting of three attributes* 1. Control resolution @. Accuracy F. Repeatability

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Control ,esolution - #his is the smallest change that can be measured by the feedbac( sensors, or caused by the actuators, &hichever is larger. If a rotary Ioint has an encoder that measures every B.B1 degree of rotation, and a direct drive servo motor is used to drive the Ioint, &ith a resolution of B.6 degrees, then the control resolution is about B.6 degrees the &orst case can be B.6LB.B1". Accuracy - #his is determined by the resolution of the &or(space. If the robot is commanded to travel to a point in space, it &ill often be off by some amount, the ma;imum distance should be considered the accuracy. ,epeata#ility - #he robot mechanism &ill have some natural variance in it. #his means that &hen the robot is repeatedly instructed to return to the same point, it &ill not al&ays stop at the same position.

-ypes o! *rive .ystems2


#here are three basic drive system used in commercially available robots* Hydraulic drive2 gives a robot great speed and strength. #hese systems can be designed to actuate linear or rotational Ioints. #he main disadvantage of a hydraulic system is that it occupies floor space in addition to that re-uired by the robot. Electric drive2 compared &ith a hydraulic system, an electric system provides a robot &ith less speed and strength. Accordingly, electric drive systems are adopted for smaller robots. Ho&ever, robots supported by electric drive systems are more accurate, e;hibit better repeatability, and are cleaner to use. Pneumatic drive2 are generally used for smaller robots. #hese robots, &ith fe&er degrees of freedom, carry out simple pic(-and-place material handling operations. ,O O-IC .E/.O,.2 +or certain robot application, the type of &or(station control using interloc(s is not ade-uate the robot must ta(e on more human li(e senses and capabilities in order to perform the tas( in a satisfactory &ay these senses and capability includes vision and hand eye coordination, touch,
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hearing accordingly &e &ill dived the types of sensors used in robotics into the follo&ing three categories. 1. Jision sensors @. #actile and pro;imity sensors F. Joice sensors &1 5ision sensors #his is one of the areas that is receiving a lot of attention in robotics research computeri,ed visions systems &ill be an important technology in future automated factories. Robot vision is made possible by means of video camera a sufficient light source and a computer programmed to process image data. #he camera is mounted either on the robot or in a fi;ed position above the robot so that its field of vision includes the robots &or( volume. #he computer soft&are enables the vision system to sense the presence of an obIect and its position and orientation. Jision capability &ould enable the robot to carry out the follo&ing (inds of operations. Retrieve parts &hich are randomly oriented on a conveyor Recogni,e particular parts &hich are intermi;ed &ith other obIects %erform assembly operations &hich re-uire alignment. 71 -actile and pro"imity sensor #actile sensors provide the robot &ith the capability to respond to contact forces bet&een itself and other obIects &ithin its &or( volume. #actile sensors can be divided into t&o types* 1. #ouch sensors @. Stress sensors #ouch sensors are used simply to indicate &hether contact has been made &ith an obIect. A simple micro s&itch can serve the purpose of a touch sensor. Stress sensors are used to measure the magnitude of the contact force. Strain gauge devices are typically employed in force measuring sensors. %otential use of robots &ith tactile sensing capabilities &ould be in assembly and inspection operations. In assembly, the robot could perform delicate part alignment and Ioining operations. In inspection, touch sensing &ould be used in gauging operations and dimensional measuring activities. %ro;imity sensors are used to
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sense &hen one obIect is close to another obIect. !n a robot, the pro;imity sensors &ould be located n or near the end effectors. #his sensing capability can be engineered by means of optical pro;imity devices, eddy-current pro;imity detectors, magnetic field sensors, or other devices. In robotics, pro;imity sensors might be used to indicate the presence or absence of a &or( part or other obIect. #hey could also be helpful in preventing inIury to the robots human co&or(ers in the factory.

81 5oice sensors Another area of robotics research is voice sensing or voice programming. Joice programming can be defined as the oral communication of commands to the robot or other machine. #he robot controller is e-uipped &ith a speech recognition system &hich analy,es the voice input and compares it &ith a set of stored &ord patterns &hen a match is found bet&een the input and the stored vocabulary &ord the robot performs some actions &hich corresponds to the &ord. Joice sensors could be useful in robot programming to speed up the programming procedure Iust as it does in 9C programming. It &ould also be beneficial in especially in ha,ardous &or(ing environments for performing uni-ue operations such as maintenance and repair &or(. #he robot could be placed in ha,ardous environment and remotely commanded to perform the repair chores by means of step by step instructions.

Automation2
Hard automation2 #his (ind of automation cannot handle product design variations, mass production for e;ampleD conventional machinery, pac(aging, se&ing and manufacturing small parts. AdIustability is possible but it can only handle specific tas(s &ith no possibility of changing its o&n tas(. #hese machines can be seen in our homes &ashing machines, dish &ashers, etc". Programma#le Automation2 #his form of automation began &ith the arrival of the computer.
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%eople began programming machines to do a variety of tas(s. It is fle;ible because of a computer control, can handle variations, batch product, and product design. Autonomous %Independent+2 .ndo&ed &ith a decision ma(ing capability through the use of sensors. A robot belongs to this (ind of automation and it is a combination of microprocessor and conventional automation systems &hich can provide a very po&erful system. Its high level machinery capabilities combined &ith fault recognition and correction abilities provided by highly evolved computer systems. #his means it can carry out &or( traditionally carried out by humans. .;amples of e;isting autonomous systems are animals and human beings. Animals &hen they see food they move to&ard it using sense of smell or they escape &hen they react against danger due to senses of fear sensors". Human beings are the highest level of autonomous systems because they thin( and they can change plan at any moment due to their high intelligence. Robots cannot reach the same high level as humans because they are programmed to do certain tas(s according to certain factors &hich are completely programmed by human beings, but they have no possibilities to change plan li(e humans or plan ne& things unless the programmer programs them to change the plan. 'ecause of high development of machines, sensors, actuator, digital electronics and microprocessor technology it became possible to create a robot &hich is autonomous #eiIo >ahtinen, >ecture at >ahti 7niversity of Applied Sciences @BB2".

.u# systems2
Actuators and transmission systems they are solenoid, motor drive, pneumatic and hydraulic system &hich allo&s the robot to move. Mechanics parts are motors usually rotate and a mechanism to transfer motion to all the necessary parts of a robot to create the motion that is re-uired. 7sually robots re-uire a po&er supply, this (ind of supply depends on &hat a robot is re-uired to do, and if it is a mobile robot then you need to decide the si,e of battery beside the efficiency since po&er supply &ill be in the board of robot, but if it is not mobile robot then electricity can be fed through a supply cable. %o&er storage system is battery or some other electronic devices. Sensors are t&o types Internal and e;ternal, there are many sensors in a robot
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&hich considered as the senses in a robot. Micro- controller and processors are the brain that controls the &hole system. Algorithms and soft&are are t&o models higher level and lo& level, programmer need to create soft&are and algorithms to run the robot in a desired &ay. Actuators2 Actuators are essentially the prime movers providing linear force and motion. Conventional* %neumatics, hydraulics. /ith this (ind of system there is input and output in the cylinder, through these input and output &e pump air for pneumatic system and clean filtered oil for hydraulic system to ma(e the piston move outside and inside to provide us &ith linear force and motion. $ou need to (no& in robot system ho& far the piston should go outside or go inside, in pneumatic system &e cannot control ho& far the piston can go outside or inside unless you put ring in the piston rod, but in hydraulic system &e can control the e;tension of piston by controlling the oil flo& through flo& control valves. %neumatic system is used &hen &e do not need a large force to push, but hydraulics is used &hen a system demands a large force, especially &ith big machines. #he problem &ith hydraulic system is lea(age on the other hand is not a big problem in pneumatic system since it uses air. Permanent magnet motors and stepper motors are the Ioint space in a robot that creates rotational motion.

+ig. stepper motor

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Design consideration for servo motor: /hen &e design a robot, &e ta(e into consideration the tor-ue, speed and the gearbo; si,e &hich should not be so heavy to the motor drive capacity. /e should pay attention to the &eight of motor drives and gearbo;es because the base motor drive needs to carry all the motor drives and gearbo;es &hich re-uire -uite big tor-ue and stronger motor in the base. #he selection should be harmonic and motor should match the load. /hen motor rotates in a certain degree it should send feedbac( to the controller and to ta(e feedbac( from the controller &hen it needs to stop rotating, this happens through an encoder &hich can read the degree of rotation. 9o&adays these controllers are mounted in the bac( of the motor drive. Controller manipulates voltage and ampere to control the motor drive speed. #eiIo >ahtinen, >ecture on >ahti university of Applied Sciences @B11" Linear motors actuators Are used in positioning applications &here high speed and accuracy are re-uired. Main Iob is to produce a linear force along its length &hether up and do&n or left and right. It has almost the same idea li(e hydraulics and pneumatics cylinder but the only difference that these does not use oil or air to generate force but it uses electricity . %aul @BBF, A4".

+ig. >inear motors actuators


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Power supplies PWM amplifiers!: is a device for increasing or decreasing the electrical po&er voltage and ampere. #o be able to increase the velocity of the motor drive you need to increase the voltage and ampere through chart meter po&er supply amplifiers. It is very important to notice that the motor does not heat up because of high voltage or ampere.

-ransmission system %Mechanics+


&1 Gears* the lighter the gear the better motion, less tor-ue and higher speed. Some of this model is spur helical, bevel, &orm, rac( and pinion, and many others. %aul @BBF, 1B4".

+ig. 0ear
Page 20

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Chains2

+ig. Chain -iming #elts* have some (ind of teeth and these teeth go around &ith some (ind of pulley that drives this belt around it to transfer motion. It is used no&adays &ith robot &al(ing machine %aul @BBF, 11F".

+ig #iming 'elt


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+ig. Construction of #iming 'elt Metal #elts9 ca#les and pulleys

+ig. 'elts, Cables and %ulleys

Lin$ages2

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+ig. >in(ages all screws 'all scre&s are very important to create linear motion bac(&ard and for&ard &ith lo& speed. /e can use some (ind of nuts, by tightening the nut &e control the speed of motion.

+ig. 'all scre&s

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Power generation and storage system2


Solar cells are &or(ing on the moon or in space since &e need rene&able energy for e;ample sun light. +uel cells are used in a big heavy robot so a diesel engine is re-uired and fuel to run it, these engines po&er is based on hydrogen and o;ygen burning. Rechargeable cells are more in use no&adays due to the technology advancements means that rechargeable cells can contain -uite a lot of energy for e;ample* batteries that are in use in mobile phones they can last long time.

"ELEC#$%& %' (%)%# A Robot nay is distinguished from other types of automation by the fact that it can be programmed and reprogrammed to suit the varying demands of production as and &hen they occur. Clearly no single robot &ill be useful for all of the applications. #oday Industrial robots are available in a &ide range of capabilities and price ranges and are being used in a variety of manufacturing operations. #he follo&ing factors are considered in determining &hether or not a robot is the right choice on a particular Iob.

G Comple;ity of the operation M Avoid e;tremes of comple;ity.


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G 5egree of disorder M 5isorder is deadly. G %roduction rate M Robots are generally no faster than people. G %roduction volume M +or very short range use people. +or very long runs, use fi;ed automation. G :ustification. If it does not ma(e rupees, it does not ma(e sense. G >ong term potential M If I only need one I am better off &ith none. G Acceptance M If people donHt &ant ma(e it.

'efore using and selection a robot is necessary to e;amine ho& the company needs)characteristics li(e mar(et conditions, production methods, organi,ational climate react &ith the basic robot characteristics li(e fle;ibility, consistency, speed and environmental differences etc.

+inally, in the selection of robot the user has to be concerned about cost, number and types of a;es of motion, po&er drive, logic memory, programming, maintenance, environment, physical si,e and &eight, cycle rate. In addition robot system characteristics should also be considered.

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Advantages o! ,o#otics2
1. Nuality @. %roduction F. Safety 3. Accuracy 6. #ime saving 8. More .fficiency

*I.A*5A/-AGE2 1. .;pensive @. High production cost F. Complicated in construction 3. %o&er is must 6. Initial cost is very high

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APPLICA-IO/. O0 ,O O-IC.2 In current applications the robots are used in the follo&ing fields*1. Material handling @. Handling and the manufacturing processes F. /elding 3. Spray painting 6. Assembly 8. Machining A. Inspection 4. 9uclear +ields 2. Rehabilitation &1 Material handling2 It is further classified into t&o types* 1. Machine loading and unloading @. Material transfer
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71 4elding2 #o the robots &rists the &elding gun is arranged and the Iob is programmed and perform se-uence of &elding. Spot &elding Arc &elding 81 .pray painting2 #his is a dangerous operation of human beings because of the fire ha,ard and a fine mist of a Car Cinogenic . #o overcome this problem these robots are used.

Conclusion
#hese industrial robots play a vital role in manufacturing industries, and there is a bright and &ide future for these robots. 5espite the enormous &or( put in by the earlier researchers, there is an immense scope for research for further development in this field. Robots are an important component in intelligent environments automate devices provide physical services robot systems in these environments need particular capabilities autonomous control systems simple and natural human-robot interface adaptive and learning capabilities robots have to maintain safety during operation &hile a number of techni-ues to address these re-uirements e;ist, no functional, satisfactory solutions have yet been developed only very simple robots for single tas(s in intelligent environments e;ist

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,E0E,E/.E.
&1 +o&ler, Charles '. !ctober 128A". =#he Museum of Music* A History of Mechanical Instruments=. Music .ducators :ournal 63 @"* 36M32.

71 ,osheim9

Mar$ E1 %&::;+1 ,o#ot Evolution2 -he *evelopment o! Anthro#otics1

4iley3IEEE1 pp1 :(&'1 F. /ettels, 9D Santos, J:D :ohansson, RS et al.D >oeb, 0erald .. @BB4". ='iomimetic tactile sensor array=. Advanced Robotics @@ 4"* 4@2M432. 3. 0.:. Mon(man, S. Hesse, R. Steinmann O H. Schun( M Robot 0rippers M /iley, 'erlin @BBA 6. Collins, SteveD Ruina, Andy. <A #ipedal wal$ing ro#ot with e!!icient and human3li$e gait<. %roc. I... International Conference on Robotics and Automation. =1 .!a$iota$is9 et al1 %April &:::+1 ,eview o! 0ish .wimming Modes !or A>uatic Locomotion %P*0+1 IEEE ?ournal o! Oceanic Engineering1 Archived !rom the original on 7'')3':37=1 ,etrieved 7'')3&'37;1

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