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Education in the Philippines during the First Republic

Prepared by: Jessica Anne C. Reyes

The Malolos Republic: Brief History Also called The First Philippine Republic Established by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo with his adviser Apolinario Mabini Aguinaldo had with him a draft of a plan prepared by Mariano Ponce for the establishment of a revolutionary government 2 types of government established during the first republic: - Dictatorial government - Revolutionary Government On May 24, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing the Dictatorial Government Aguinaldo thought that it was necessary to declare the independence of the Philippines On June 12, between four and five in the afternoon, Aguinaldo, in the presence of a huge crowd, proclaimed the independence of the Philippines at Cavite el Viejo (now Kawit) For the first time, the Philippine National Flag, made by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, assisted by Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herboza, was officially raised. Marcha Nacional Filipina or the Philippine National March, composed by Julian Felipe, was first played in public at the same day. The dictatorial government lasted for only a month, from May 24 to June 23, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree setting up the Revolutionary Government. The decree provided for the creation of congress In the morning of September 15, the basilica of Barasoain was filled with delegates and expectators.

Education Because of the destruction of many schools and to the peace and order condition, all the schools were closed for the time being. Aguinaldo decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null and void Article 23 of the Malolos Constitution mandated that public education would be free and obligatory in all schools of the nation under the First Philippine Republic Aguinaldo included an item for public instruction amounting P35, 000 in the budget for 1899. On August 29, 1898, the Secretary of the Interior ordered the provincial governors to reestablish the schools that had been abandoned before. Schools Established during the First Republic A. Literary University of the Philippines (Literaria Universidad de Filipinas) First Philippine state university In a decree issued on October 19, 1898, Aguinaldo created the Literaria Universidad de Filipinas. Inaugurated on November 10, 1898 It was first situated in Navotas and Tambobong (now Malabon) then moved at the convent of Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan Offered courses in law, medicine and surgery, pharmacy, and notarianship Dr. Joaquin Gonzales was appointed first president of the university. He was succeeded by Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero, who delivered the commencement address on September 29, 1899 B. Burgos Institute (Burgos Instituto) On October 24, 1898, a decree was issued outlining the curriculum of the Burgos Institute. The countrys first law school An exclusive school for boys Was under the supervision of Enrique Mendiola

The curriculum of the said school included Latin grammar, universal geography and history, Spanish literature, Mathematics, French, English, physics, chemistry, philosophy and natural laws.

C. Military Academy (Academia Militar) It was also called Academia Militar The countrys first military school Following the decree of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the academy was established on October 25, 1898 at Malolos, Bulacan. It was aimed at providing training for future officers who were to lead the regular army of the Philippines after the revolution. Its director was Manuel Sityar

People who contributed to education during the First Republic 1. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo First president of the Philippine Republic Issued decrees that established schools Included P35, 000 to support the education in the Philippines in the budget for 1899.

2. Apolinario Mabini Wrote the True Decalogue

3. Dr. Joaquin A. Gonzales First rector of the first Philippine state university Joined the medical faculty and taught legal medicine in Universidad Literaria de Filipinas (Literary University of the Philippines)

4. Dr. Leon. Ma. Guerrero Second president of the Literary University of the Philippines Professor of pharmacy in the said school

5. Salvador V. Del Rosario A member of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery Taught general anatomy at LUP

6. Enrique Mendiola Rector of the Burgos Institute

7. Manuel Sityar Spanish lieutenant of the Civil Guard Director of the Academia Militar

Outcomes The Literary University of the Philippines did not live long because the conflict with the Americans led its faculty and students in disperse. The Military Academy was forced to close down on January 20, 1899, however, as hostilities broke out between the Americans and Filipinos. However, the Military Academy later turned out as the Philippine Military Academy presently situated in Baguio.