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By : Muhammad Faysal
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Rate of reaction [A]a [B]b
Q.1 What is meant by chemical kinetics?
It is that branch of chemistry which helps to study the followings.
(i) Rates of chemical reactions.
(ii) Study the mechanism of reactions.
The rate of a chemical reaction at a specific time or at any moment is called as
instantaneous rate of a reaction. It is very fast at the start and very slow at the end.
Q.2 Differentiate between instantaneous and average rate of reaction.
Q.3 Rate of a chemical reaction is an ever changing parameter under given conditions.

According to law of mass action, the rate of chemical reaction is directly product
of active masses of reactants. When the reaction progress, the reaction is very fast at
the beginning slow, somewhere in the middle and very slow at the end. The
reason is that rate depends upon concentration as conc. decreases every
moment, rate decreases every moment.
Q.4 A student started to work on 200 gms of a compound A whose half
life 10 hours. How much of the compound will be left after 50 hours.

10 hours 10 hours 10 hours 10 hours 10 hours 10 hours
200 gm --->100 gm ---> 50 gm --->25 gm ---> 12.5 gm--->6.25 gm
Q.5 What is meant by rate law?

Rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of concentrations
ofreactants each raised to some power. Consider the following reaction.
aA + bB -----> cC + dD
This equation is called rate law.
Q.6 What is meant by order of reaction?
The order of reaction is the sum of exponents of the concentration terms in
the rate equation.
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Q.10 What is half life period?
Half life period of a reaction is the time required to convert 50% of reactants into
products e.g. half life of decomposition of N2O5 at 45oC is 24 minutes. For
first order reaction, half life period is independent of the initial concentration of

Q.7 What is meant by specific rate constant, or rate constant?
The rate constant of a reaction is the rate when the concentration of reactant are unity.
For the reaction A + B -------> C + D
Rate of reaction = K [A] [B]
This equation is called rate law where K is called specific rate constant.
When [A] [B] = 1 then Rate of reaction = K
Q.8 Explain zero order reaction?

That chemical reaction whose rate is independent of
concentration of reactant e.g. all photochemical reaction are zero order e.g.
6CO2 + 6H2O --------> C6H12O6 + 6CO2
Q.9 What are pseudo order reaction?

When one of reactant is taken in large excess its concentration is consider as constant
and the order becomes pseudo.

| |
CH2CBr + H2O -------> CH3 COH + HBr
| Excess |
Rate = K [(CH3)3 CBr] The conc. of H2O is taKen as constant.

Q.11 The radioactive decay is always first order reaction.
The radioactive decay of a substance is directly proportions to the number of nuclei
in the sample. Its half life period is independent of its initial conc. of reactant.

For first order n = 1
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Q.15 What is difference between dilatometric and refractrometric method?
This method is applicable if a reactant or a product absorbs ultraviolet, visible or
infrared radiations. The rate of reaction can be measured by measuring the
amount of radiations absorbed.
Q.14 Explain briefly spectrometry for the rate determination.
The rate of a reaction involving ions can be studied by electrical conductivity method
the conductivity of such a solution depends upon the rate of change of conc. of the
reacting ions or the ions formed during reaction.
Q.13 Describe electrical conductivity method for determination of rate of reaction.
Q.12 What is meant by rate determining step?
If a reaction occurs in several steps, one of the steps is the slowest whose rate
determines the overall rate of reaction. This step is called as rate determining step.
The number of molecules taking part in the rate determining step appears in the
rate equation of the reaction e.g.
NO2(g) + CO(g) -------> NO(g) + CO2(g)
Rate = K [NO2]2
This equation shows that rate of reaction is independent of conc. of CO.
Q.16 Describe briefly optical rotation method.

In this method, the angle through which plane polarised light is rotated by the
reacting mixture is measured by a polarimeter. The extent of rotation determines the
concentration of optically active substance. If any of the species in the reaction
mixture is optically active, thenrate reaction can be find out by this method.
Q.17 Describe Halflife method for finding the order of reaction?
(t1/2)n 1/an-1
t1 1/a1 n-1 and t2 1/a2 n-1
Dividing the two relations. t1/t2 = [a2/a1]n-1
Order of reaction can be determined if halflife and initial concentration is
inversely proportional to the initial concentration of reactants raised to the power
one less than the order of reaction. Therefore;
For initial concentrations a1 and a2 and with halflife periods t1 and t2 respectively
Dilatometric method is useful for those reactions, which involve small volume changes in
solutions. The volume change is directly proportional to the extent of reaction,
where refractrometric method id applicable to reactions in solutions where there are
changes in refractive indices of the substances taking part in the chemical reaction.
Taking log on both sides: log t1/t2 = log [a2/a1]n-1
log t1/t2 = (n 1) log [a2/a1]
n = 1 + log [t1/t2]
log [a2/a1]
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The substance which increase the rate of reaction is called positive catalyst
e.g. 2H2 + O2 -------> 2H2O
without pt reaction is very slow when the rate of reaction is retarded by adding a
substance, ten it is said to be a negative catalyst e.g. tetra ethyl lead is added to
petrol, because it saves the petrol from preignition.
Q.21 Differentiate between homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis.
4NH3(g) + 5O2 -------------> 4NO(g) + 6H2O
Q.18 Describe how surface area effect rate of reaction?
The increased surface area of reaction increases the possibilities of atoms and
molecules of reactants to come in contact with each other and rate increase e.g.
Al foil reacts with NaOH moderately when warmed but powered Al reacts
rapidly with cold NaOH and H2 is evolved.
Q.19 Differentiate between positive and negative catalyst.
Q.20 Differentiate between auto catalysis and promoter.
In some reactions, a product formed act as catalyst and this phenomenon is
called auto-catalysis. e.g., In the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate, acetic acid acts as
catalyst for further reaction.
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O --------> CH3COOH + C2H5OH
Promoter is the substance which increases the activity of a catalyst and it is called
catalyst of catalyst. e.g. Hydrogenation of vegetable oils is accelerated by Nickle.
The activity of Nickle can be increased by using copper and tellurium.
That process, in which catalysts and reactants have same phase is called as
homogeneous catalysis e.g., NO(g)
2SO2(g) + O2(g) ---------> 2SO3(g)
If the catalyst and reactants have different phases it is called heterogeneous catalysis

Q.23 What is meant by enzyme catalysis?
Those reactions in which enzymes are used as catalyst are called as enzyme catalysis
|| Urease
NH2 CNH2 + H2O ---------> 2NH3 + CO2
Urea undergoes hydrolysis into NH3 and CO2 in the presence of enzyme urease.
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Q.25 What is effect of temperature on catalyst?
Some catalysts are physically changed by a change in temperature and hence their
power will be decreased e.g. colloidal catalysts like pt may be coagulated with rise in
Q.24 What is poisoning of catalyst?

Catalytic poisoning happens due to presence of trace amount of substances, which
renders them ineffective, such substances are called poisons. The poisoning of a
catalyst may be temporary or permanent. In permanent poisoning, the poison reacts
chemically with the catalyst. e.g., the manufacturing of H2SO4 in the contact
process needs pt as catalyst. The traces of arsenic present as impurities in the reacting
gases make platinum ineffective.

Q.23 Can a catalyst can change the equilibrium constant?

A catalyst cannot affect the equilibrium constant of a reaction but it helps the
equilibrium to establish earlier. The rates of forward and backward steps are
increased equally.
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