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Terms of Reference

Assignment: Preparation of Research Report on repatriation services for survivors of violence Program: Ending Violence against Women in PNG Project code: PNG-0032 Funding: Support to Human Rights Defenders Network Project/SPSN Commissioning Manager: Phillippe Allen, Associate Country Director, Oxfam in PNG

1. Background, rationale and purpose Although PNGs Constitution provides equality of rights to all citizens, women, in general, do not enjoy the benefits of economic growth, access to basic services, or the protection of the law. Traditional gender relations in PNG are characterised by the subordination of women. Women develop networks and structures to cope with daily challenges, but these tend to operate at the margins of a male-dominated society. PNG continues to slip down the global gender rankings. In 2002, Papua New Guinea had a Gender-related Development Index of 0.536 (ranking 106) and by 2006 this had fallen to 0.529 (ranking 124). In 2011, the Gender Inequality Index, although not directly comparable to the GDI, was 0.674 which ranked PNG 140th out of 146 countries. Family and Sexual Violence (FSV) is a particularly pervasive manifestation of gender inequality in PNG. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Violence against Women (CEDAW) highlighted that traditional harmful practices, including bride price and polygamy, perpetuate structural discrimination and contribute to FSV. The 2013 World Bank Country Gender Assessment for PNG identified seven main types of FSV: Intimate partner violence. This is the most common form of FSV with victims presenting at hospitals reporting domestic abuse as the most common cause. Forced marriage. This customary practice encourages sister exchanges where two men give one another their sisters in marriage, thus avoiding the need for a bride price. Polygamy. This is a complex cause of FSV and often involves violence between co-wives. An Amnesty International survey from 2006 found many women attending health facilities had sustained injuries from the women with whom they shared a partner. Honour violence. Young women are often subject to violence by the relatives of the male who do not support the relationship she has with her husband. Violence and the girl child. Violence against girl children is widespread. Multiple reports have confirmed that they are at particular risk of commercial sexual exploitation. Violence by state agents. Police discipline has collapsed and there are regular reports of attacks against women, men, boys and girls.

The seventh type of FSV identified by the World Bank is community violence, including attacks on women in public places such as public transport stops and markets. Sorcery-related violence is a major driver of community violence in the Highlands region of PNG, and addressing this is one component of Oxfams Ending Violence against Women (EVAW) Program. The Oxfam EVAW Program has five objectives: 1. Increase the supply of crisis support services for survivors. 2. Improve partner capacity to deliver service improvements.
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3. Reach more men and boys with awareness raising messages. 4. Strengthen aid effectiveness and demonstrate value for money through a robust monitoring, evaluation and learning system. 5. Secure legislative and policy change in areas critical to program success with targeted research and advocacy. The EVAW Program provides support for those subject to, or at high risk of, violence in all its manifestations. This support is provided through local partners and extends to the provision of crisis services including counselling, safe-house accommodation, paralegal advice, and referral to specialist service providers. To address the underlying causes of violence, the EVAW Program also funds outreach sessions targeting men and boys in violence hot spots. Between July 2013 and December 2013, over 10,000 people benefited from the EVAW Program. There are some situations where the violence being experienced is so serious and sustained that the only appropriate course of action is to repatriate the survivor. The need for repatriation is often brought into sharp relief in cases involving sorcery-related violence. In these cases there is usually a direct threat to life and repatriation is seen as the most appropriate course of action. This research directly supports two of the 5 EVAW Program objectives: (1) increase the supply of crisis support services for survivors, and (5) secure legislative and policy change in areas critical to Oxfams work. The repatriation research will support the first objective by assessing the current availability of repatriation services and recommending ways to increase the availability of this type of support. The research will support the fifth objective by building an evidence base around the scope and nature of repatriation services to support Oxfam and partner advocacy with Government specifically to: (1) fund additional repatriation services; (2) establish common criteria and guidelines to regulate the provision of such services; and (3) construct a purpose-built safe house facility in the Highlands for survivors of violence as foreshadowed in the Governments Medium Term Development Plan. The conduct of the research will also indirectly support other related advocacy objectives including raising general awareness, with Government officials, around the repeal of the Sorcery Act. The research is being funded through a project that supports the Human Rights Defenders Network in the Highlands. This activity is part of the broader EVAW Program and is funded by the Australian Government through the Pacific Women Shaping Pacific Development Program. The research has five distinct components. First, a national assessment will be undertaken of the availability of Government and nonGovernment sponsored repatriation services. It is anticipated this will include collection of data including the numbers and types of services available, service location, and the numbers of survivors know to have been repatriated through formal and informal mechanisms. Where possible the research should identify trends such as high-frequency provinces, and assess the extent to which criteria are being applied - if at all - to the provision of repatriation support. This work is expected to be undertaken in Port Moresby over a 4 day period. The second component will involve a field visit to the Highlands to undertake more provincialspecific work. The focus of this work will be to assess the extent to which national policies, processes and funding are operating or available to survivors of violence. The field work will also examine the practical challenges confronting service providers and survivors in accessing repatriation support. It is expected that 3 days in the field will be required to undertake this component.

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The third component is the development of a small number of case studies that summarise actual repatriation cases including survivor experiences at the point of destination. The completion of this component will be dependent on the agreement of survivors to participate, consistent with Oxfam Australias Research Ethics Guidelines at Annex 2, and the availability of participants to engage with researchers in the time allowed. It is anticipated that 3-5 case studies will be prepared and this may involve additional travel to Madang, Lae, or Popondetta and could take up to an additional 3 days The fourth component is a summary of recommendations concerning measures to improve the quality and availability of repatriation services. This should include recommendations to central and provincial governments, as well as for civil society. The final component is the conduct of a half-day dissemination workshop in Port Moresby. This workshop would present the preliminary findings of the research and draft recommendations. 2. Audience and use of findings The primary audience for this research are policy makers, Government officials, members of Parliament, INGO representatives, and community-based organisations within PNG active in the response to gender-based violence. The research will be primarily used for lobbying to secure a greater resource allocation to the repatriation from Government and non-Government sources. The report will be disseminated in PNG and circulated through specialist networks in Australia. The Report will be an important input into Oxfams wider global work on gender -based violence and as such will be transmitted through knowledge and learning networks. The audience will have a sophisticated awareness of gender policy and issues, and accordingly the Report will need to exhibit a strong methodology in relation to gender analysis. 3. Research outputs This contract will entail meeting the following two objectives: 1. To prepare a short 20 to 30 page research report in plain English. Attachments are not counted in overall length of report. The report should be structured as follows: TITLE Executive Summary CONTENT Key findings, recommendations, and summary of research methodology. Summary of discussions with stakeholders, identification of gaps, reference to data sets where possible Highlands specific, availability of services at provincial level, summary of field-level challenges 3-5 case survivor case studies APPROXIMATE LENGTH 5 pages

National assessment of repatriation arrangements

8 pages

Provincial assessment

8 pages

Case studies Summary of findings and recommendations

5 pages 3 pages

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2. Conduct a half-day dissemination workshop in Port Moresby for stakeholders including Government officials and civil society. 3. Key research questions There are four core research questions to address. Q1. What is the scope and type of repatriation mechanisms available for survivors of violence in PNG? Q2. What funding, guidelines, and criteria are currently documented for formal repatriation support in PNG? Q3. How do formal and informal repatriation mechanisms operate in Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, and Jiwaka? Q4. What measures could be considered at national and provincial levels to improve the quality and availability of repatriation services for survivors of violence in PNG?

In addressing these research questions and in formulating a set of recommendations, it will be imperative that the researchers take into consideration the distinct needs of men and women consistent with best-practice on gender analysis. Recommendations must take into account gender-based discrimination, gender-based violence, and the structural and systemic barriers that women face. 4. Suggested research methods It is expected that the consultant will collect most of the relevant information from interviews with key interlocutors. The national assessment will involve discussions with representatives from state agencies, community-based organisations involved in the GBV response including other INGOs, key contacts within the Family and Sexual Violence Action Committee architecture, interested donors, and mandated agencies within the United Nations system. In the absence of a national database, data collection will probably be limited to analysing organisational specific data at project or program level where this is available. Provincial consultations will be with partners directly involved in repatriation, Oxfam staff assisting with repatriation, senior Government officials, law enforcement agencies, and research institutes. Case studies will be prepared following direct interviews with affected survivors consistent with ethics guidance. Although it is not anticipated, Oxfam will mobilise interpretation support if this is required. 5. Ethics and risk The research will require careful management, particularly around engaging with survivors of violence, and the presentation of case studies. These issues will be discussed in more detail with the Oxfam, Port Moresby Office once the consultant is engaged. The consultant will be required to conduct the research in accordance with Oxfam Australias Research Ethics Guidelines (Annex 2). 6. Scope, deliverables & proposed schedule The preliminary reading and field work would be undertaken between 8 May and 28 May 2014 in accordance with the Schedule at Annex 1. The deliverables would be required soon after this period as set out below and at Annex 1. The three deliverables are: Draft Research Report required by close of business 2 June 2014. Draft Dissemination Workshop materials required by close of business 4 June 2014. Final Research Report required by close of business 13 June 2014.

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4. Management and key contacts This contract will be managed by the Associate Country Director, Phillippe Allen (Port Moresby based): (phillipea@oxfam.org.au). It is expected that throughout the consultancy, the researcher(s) and the Commissioning Manager will discuss progress and identify solutions to any critical issues. Other key Oxfam contacts for liaison include: 5. Payment Kamane Wauga (Kundiawa based): kamanew@oxfampng.org.pg Helen Haro (Port Moresby based): helenharo@oxfam.org.au Catherine Natera (Port Moresby based): catherinen@oxfam.org.au

Payment will be made in 3 tranches based on the agreed quote upon the basis of successfully meeting the conditions below: Tranche 1 2 3 Condition Amount

Upon acceptance of the ToR and signing of the contract and 50% within 14 days of submission of invoice Upon delivery of Product 1 Draft Research Report 25%

Upon satisfactory submission of the Final Research Report and 25% within 14 days of submission of invoice

Oxfam will provide transport support while the research team is in the field. Reasonable per diems and hotel costs will be met (in addition to professional fees) paid as reimbursements and these should be separately identified when the invoices are submitted. 6. Budget The maximum budget allocation for professional fees for this consultancy is 46,000 kina. Air fares, associated travel costs (including per diems and sundry expenses) will be additional to this amount. The costs for the dissemination workshop and printing of the final report are separate and will be paid by Oxfam direct to suppliers. 7. Qualifications and experience required Expressions of interest (EOI) should be submitted by close of business Wednesday 2 April by email to: phillippea@oxfam.org.au. EOIs will not be accepted by any other means. The EOI should contain a statement of no more than 3 pages addressing the five criteria below: 1. Capacity to undertake the research in the time-frame described at Annex 1 (25%) 2. Demonstrated capacity to prepare short and succinct research reports that meet donor standards (25%) 3. Clearly articulated methodology which reflects best practice on gender analysis (30%) 4. Experience or knowledge of the PNG context (10%) 5. Value for money (10%)

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The weighting given to each criterion is set out above in brackets. This weighting will assist Oxfam in ranking the various EOIs. The weighting should not be seen as a guide to the length of the explanation expected under each criterion. While the overall budget figure for professional fees is capped at 46,000 kina, bids will be entertained at a lower price on the value for money assessment if the other criteria are deemed to be met. In addition to the statement against the criteria, EOIs should also attach the CVs of the nominated researcher(s) and include a recent written product prepared by the nominated researcher(s).

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Annex 1: Proposed research schedule

ACTIVITY Preliminary reading and background preparation Briefing with Oxfam Port Moresby Office National assessment meetings with government, civil society, research bodies & donors. Highlands field visit and case study collection. Possible additional time allocated for case study development outside Highlands or NCD. Draft Report preparation Submission of Draft Report to Oxfam. Preparation of Dissemination workshop materials. Dissemination Workshop Submission of Final Research Report

LOCATION Consultant home-base Port Moresby Port Moresby

DATES 8 & 9 May 12 May 13 16 May

Goroka To be determined

19 23 May 26 28 May

Port Moresby Port Moresby Port Moresby Port Moresby From consultant home base (3 billable days allowed)

29 30 May Close of business (PNG time) 2 June 3 4 June 6 June Close of business (PNG time) 13 June

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