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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES

iii xiv xvi

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxiii

INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPOSITES 1.1.1 Characteristics of Composites 1.2 1.3 MANUFACTURING OF COMPOSITES APPLICATIONS OF ALUMINIUM METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

1 1 2 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 11 11 12 15 18 18 18 22 23

1.4

WELDING OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1.4.1 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding 1.4.2 Friction Stir Welding 1.5 1.6 HEAT TREATMENT MODELING 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.7 1.8 2 Response Surface Methodology Regression Analysis

NEED FOR THE RESEARCH WORK ORGANIZATION OF THESIS

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 INTRODUCTION METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Al MATRIX MATERIAL REINFORCEMENT

ix

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

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2.4.1 Effect of Particle Size 2.4.2 Effect of Reinforcement Distribution 2.5 FABRICATION METHODS OF MMCs 2.5.1 STIR CASTING 2.6 WELDING OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES 2.6.1 Classification 2.6.2 Fusion Processes 2.6.2.1 Gas-tungsten arc Welding 2.6.2.2 Gas-Metal Arc Welding 2.6.2.3 Laser beam welding 2.6.2.4 Electron beam welding 2.6.2.5 Capacitor discharge welding 2.6.2.6 Diffusion bonding 2.6.3 Solid State Processes 2.6.3.1 Inertia Friction Welding 2.6.3.2 Friction Stir Welding 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDIES CORROSION ANALYSIS WEAR ANALYSIS

26 27 27 28

29 29 30 31 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 46 48 50 53

FABRICATION, WELDING AND METALLURGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MMCs 3.1 3.2 INTRODUCTION FABRICATION OF MMCs 58 58 58

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

3.2.1 Base Metal 3.2.2 Reinforcement 3.2.3 Experimental Procedure Production of AMMC 3.3 WELDING OF AMMC 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Design of Experimentation 3.3.2.1 Identification of process variables 3.3.2.2 Selection of design 3.3.2.3 Finding the limits of process variables

58 59

59 61 61 61 62 63

65

3.3.3 Experimental Procedure GTAW of MMC 65 3.3.4 Experimental Procedure FSW of MMC 3.3.5 Post Weld Heat Treatment 3.4 METALLURGICAL CHARACTERIZATION 3.4.1 Microstructural Studies 3.4.2 Microhardness Studies 3.4.3 Tensile Testing 3.5 MODELING 3.5.1 Development of Mathematical Models 3.5.2 Testing the Adequacy of Models 3.5.3 Validation of Models 3.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.7 3.8 Microstructural Studies Microhardness Studies Tensile Test 68 70 70 70 71 72 74 74 76 78 79 79 85 89 93 95

OPTIMIZATION SUMMARY

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CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

PITTING CORROSION ANALYSIS OF WELDED MMCs 4.1 4.2 4.3 INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE MODELING 4.3.1 Development of Mathematical Model 4.3.2 Testing the Adequacy of the Models 4.3.3 Validation of Models 4.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.4.1 Microstructural Analysis 4.4.2 GTA Welded MMCs 4.4.2.1 Direct effects of process variables on pitting and corrosion potential 4.4.2.2 Interaction effects of process variables on pitting potential 4.4.3 FS Welded MMCs 4.4.3.1 Direct effects of process variables on pitting and corrosion potential 4.4.3.2 Interaction effects of process variables on pitting potential 4.5 4.6 OPTIMIZATION COMPARISON OF CORROSION PROPERTIES OF GTA AND FS WELDED COMPOSITES 4.7 SUMMARY 124 127 128 128 129 132 120 122 118 116 118 113 97 97 98 105 105 106 107 110 110 113

WEAR ANALYSIS OF WELDED MMCs 5.1 5.2 5.3 INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE MODELING

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CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

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5.3.1 Modeling and Testing the Adequacy of the Models 5.3.2 Validation of Models 5.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.4.1 GTA Welded MMCs 5.4.1.1 Direct effects of process variables on wear rate and coefficient of friction 5.4.1.2 Interaction effects of process variables on wear rate 5.4.2 FS Welded MMCs 5.4.2.1 Direct effects of process variables on wear rate and coefficient of friction 5.4.2.2 Interaction effects of process variables on wear rate 5.5 5.6 OPTIMIZATION COMPARISON OF WEAR PROPERTIES BETWEEN GTA AND FS WELDED MMCs 5.6.1 Results and Discussion 5.7 COMPARISON OF WEAR PARAMETERS OF GTA AND FS WELDED MMCs 5.8 6 SUMMARY 154 157 158 150 151 147 148 145 142 145 138 132 135 138 138

CONCLUSIONS 6.1 FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MMC 6.2 PITTING CORROSION ANALYSIS

158 159

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CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

6.3 6.4

WEAR ANALYSIS SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

160 162

REFERENCES

163

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

178

VITAE

180

xiv

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

3.1 3.2

Composition of LM 25 aluminum alloy Structural comparisons of CCC (CCI), CCF, and box-behnken designs for three factors

59

66 67 74 76

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Process parameters and their levels for GTAW and FSW Microhardness values for GTA and FS welded MMCs ANOVA for microhardness results Confirmation of microhardness tests for GTA welded MMCs

78

3.7 3.8

Confirmation of microhardness tests for FS welded MMCs 78 Chemical composition of the SiC particle, matrix and the interface obtained by EDX 80 93 93

3.9 3.10 3.11

Tensile test results for GTA welded MMCs Tensile test results for FS welded MMCs Confirmation of optimized microhardness test results for GTA welded MMCs

95

3.12

Confirmation of optimized microhardness test results for FS welded MMCs 95

4.1

Design matrix and measured corrosion properties of GTA and FS welded MMCs 101

4.2

ANOVA for Pitting and corrosion potential results of GTA welded MMCs 106

4.3

ANOVA for pitting and corrosion potential results of FS welded MMCs 106

4.4

Confirmation of pitting and corrosion tests for GTA welded MMCs 107

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TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

4.5

Confirmation of pitting and corrosion tests for FS welded MMCs 107

4.6

Confirmation of optimized pitting and corrosion potential test results for GTA welded MMCs 124

4.7

Confirmation of optimized pitting and corrosion potential test results for FS welded MMCs 124 130 131

5.1 5.2 5.3

Wear test conditions Wear test conditions by varying wear parameters Design matrix and measured wear properties of GTA and FS welded MMCs

132 134 134 135 135

5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

ANOVA for wear tests of GTA welded MMCs ANOVA for wear tests of FS welded MMCs Confirmation of wear tests for GTA welded MMCs Confirmation of wear tests for FS welded MMCs Confirmation of optimized wear test results for GTA welded MMCs

150

5.9

Confirmation of optimized wear test results for FS welded MMCs 150

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

1.1 2.1

Plan of research work (a) Schematic illustration of the friction stir welding process (b) An FSW weld between aluminium sheets (c) An actual tool with threaded pin

17

45

2.2

Schematic cross section of a typical FSW weld showing four distinct zones: (A) Base Metal (B) Heat Affected (C) Thermomechanically affected and (D) Stirred (nugget) zone 45 60 67 68 69 69 70 73 73

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9

Stir casting set up GTA welding experimental setup GTA welded composites FSW Experimental setup FSW tool FS welded composites Microhardness testing machine Tensile test specimen Scatter diagram for weld metal microhardness of GTA welded MMCs

77

3.10

Scatter diagram for weld metal microhardness of FS welded MMCs 77 79

3.11 3.12

EDX Analysis of Composite containing 10% SiC Typical photomicrograph of MMCs containing (a) 5% SiC (b)10% SiC and (c)15% SiC

80

3.13

A typical microstructure of MMC (5% SiC) treated at cryogenic temperature 81

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FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

3.14 3.15

A typical microstructure of MMC (5% SiC) treated at elevated temperature Macrograph of cross section of a typical GTA welded composite with 5% SiC: (1) weld bead, (2) HAZ, (3) unaffected base metal 83 81

3.16

Macrograph of of cross section of a typical FS welded composite with 5% SiC: (1) nugget zone, (2) flow arm, (3) TMAZ, (4) HAZ, (5) unaffected base metal 83

3.17

Optical microstructures of the FSW joint containing 15 % SiC (Specimen 8): (a) parent material (b) Thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) (c) weld nugget 84 85 86 87 88 88 89 90 90 91

3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26

Microhardness distributions at different regions in GTA welded specimen treated at cryogenic temperature Microhardness distributions at different regions in FS welded specimen treated at cryogenic temperature Direct effect of % SiC on microhardness for GTA welding and FS welded specimens Direct effect of post weld heat treatment temperature on microhardness Direct effect of welding current on microhardness of GTA welded composites Direct effect of tool rotational speed on microhardness of FS welded composites GTA welded tensile test specimens (a) before tensile test (b) after tensile test FS welded tensile test specimens (a) before tensile test (b) after tensile test Fracture surface of GTA welded MMC (a) 5% SiC (b) 10% SiC (c) 15% SiC

xviii

FIGURE NO. 3.27 3.28

TITLE

PAGE NO.

Fracture surface of FS welded MMC (a) 5% SiC (b) 10% SiC (c) 15% SiC Fractograph of LM25- 5 % volume fraction SiC MMC 92 99 99 92

4.1 4.2 4.3

Schematic diagram of corrosion testing setup Corrosion test experimental setup Typical tafel curve for Base metal treated at (a) cryogenic temperature (b) as welded condition (c) Elevated temperature

102

4.4

Typical tafel curve for GTA welded MMC treated at (a) Cryogenic temperature (b) as welded condition and (c) Elevated temperature 103

4.5

Typical tafel curve for FS welded MMC treated at (a) Cryogenic temperature (b) as welded condition and (c) Elevated temperature 104

4.6

Scatter diagram for (a) Pitting potential for GTA welded MMCs (b) Corrosion Potential for GTA welded MMCs 108

4.7

Scatter diagram for (a) Pitting potential for FS welded MMCs (b) Corrosion potential for FS welded MMCs 109

4.8

A typical microstructure of GTA welded MMC in the weld metal treated at elevated temperature 111

4.9

A typical microstructure of FS welded MMC in the weld nugget treated at elevated temperature 111

4.10

SEM image of GTA welded MMC in the weld metal treated at cryogenic temperature 112

4.11

SEM image of FS welded MMC in the weld nugget treated at cryogenic temperature 112

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FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

4.12

Direct effect of % SiC on pitting and corrosion potential of GTA welded MMC 114

4.13

Direct effect of welding current on pitting and corrosion potential of GTA welded MMC 115

4.14

Direct effect of post weld heat treatment temperature on pitting and corrosion potential of GTA welded MMC 115

4.15

Interaction effect of % SiC and post weld heat treatment on pitting potential of GTA welded MMC 116

4.16

Response surface graph for the interaction effect of % SiC and post weld heat treatment temperature on pitting potential of GTA welded MMC 117

4.17

Interaction effect of post weld heat treatment temperature and % SiC on pitting potential of GTA welded MMC 117

4.18

Interaction effect of welding current and % SiC on pittingpotential of GTA welded MMC 118

4.19

Direct effect of % SiC on pitting and corrosion potential of FS welded MMC 119

4.20

Direct effect of tool rotational speed on pitting and corrosion potential of FS welded MMC 120

4.21

Direct effect of post weld heat treatment temperature on pitting and corrosion potential of FS welded MMC 121

4.22

Interaction effect of % SiC and Post weld heat treatment temperature on pitting potential of FS welded MMC 121

4.23

Response surface graph for the Interaction effect of % SiC and post weld heat treatment temperature on pitting potential of FS welded MMC 122

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FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27

Comparison of pitting potential of GTA and FS welded MMCs for different % composition of SiC Comparison of corrosion potential of GTA and FS welded MMCs for different % composition of SiC Comparison of pitting potential of GTA and FS welded MMCs post weld heat treated at different temperatures Comparison of corrosion potential of GTA and FS welded MMCs post weld heat treated at different temperatures 127 129 136 137 126 125 125

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Wear test experimental setup Scatter diagram for (a) wear rate for GTA welded MMCs (b) Co-efficient of friction GTA welded MMCs Scatter diagram for (a) wear rate for FS welded MMCs (b) Co-efficient of friction FS welded MMCs Typical optical microstructures of (a) GTA welded MMC surface before wear and (b) GTA welded MMC surface after wear (c) FS welded MMC surface before wear and (d) FS welded MMC surface after wear

139

5.5

SEM photograph of the cross-section perpendicular to the worn surface of MMC of a typical specimen after 3000 m of sliding at as welded condition. 140 140 141

5.6 5.7 5.8

Direct effect of % SiC on Wear rate and coefficient of friction of GTA welded MMC Direct effect of welding current on wear rate and coefficient of friction of GTA welded MMC Direct effect of post weld heat treatment temperature on wear rate and coefficient of friction of GTA welded MMC 142

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FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

5.9

Interaction effect of % SiC and post weld heat treatment temperature on wear rate of GTA welded MMC 143

5.10

Response surface graph for the interaction effect of % SiC and post weld heat treatment temperature on wear rate of GTA welded MMC 143

5.11

Interaction effect of % SiC and welding current on wear rate of GTA welded MMC 144

5.12

Interaction effect of welding current and post weld heat treatment temperature on Wear rate of GTA welded MMC 144

5.13

Direct effect of % composition of SiC on wear rate and coefficient of friction of FS welded MMC 145

5.14

Direct effect of post weld heat treatment temperature on wear rate and coefficient of friction of FS welded MMC 146

5.15

Direct effect of tool rotational speed on wear rate and coefficient of friction of FS welded MMC 147

5.16

Interaction effect of % composition of SiC and post weld heat treatment temperature on wear rate of FS welded MMC 147

5.17

Response surface graph for the interaction effect of % SiC and post weld heat treatment temperature on wear rate of FS welded MMC 148

5.18

Comparison of wear rate of GTA and FS welded MMCs containing different % SiC 152

5.19

Comparison of Co-efficient of friction of GTA and FS welded MMCs containing different % SiC 152

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TITLE

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5.20

Comparison of wear rate of GTA and FS welded MMCs post weld treated at different temperature 153

5.21

Comparison of coefficient of friction of GTA and FS welded MMCs post weld heat treated at different temperature 153

5.22

Effect of load on wear rate of MMCs at different sliding velocities: (a) GTA welded and (b) FS welded 155

5.23

Effect of Load on wear rate for GTA and FS welded MMCs at a sliding speed of (a) 2.5 m/s (b) 3 m/s (c) 3.5 m/s 156

xxiii

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Symbols

A CF CG ECorr EFCorr EGCorr DF HG N EP EPF EPG B R SS D WRF WRG C

% of SiC Coefficient of friction for FSW Coefficient of friction for GTAW Corrosion Potential Corrosion Potential for FS welded MMCs Corrosion Potential for GTA welded MMCs Degrees of Freedom Microhardness for GTA welded MMCs Normal Load Pitting Potential Pitting Potential for FS welded MMCs Pitting Potential for GTA welded MMCs Post Weld Heat Treatment Temperature Square Multiple Sum of Squares Tool Rotational Speed Wear Rate for FSW Wear Rate for GTAW Welding Current

xxiv

Abbreviations

Al AMMC ASTM ANOVA BM CD CCC CCF CCI CF DCEN DCEP EIS EB FSP FSW GMAW GTAW HAZ LB Mg MMCs MAO PVD PWHT P/M RSM

Aluminium Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites American Society of Testing of Materials Analysis of Variance Base Metal Capacitor Discharge Central Composite Circumscribed Central Composite Face centered Central Composite Inscribed Coefficient of Friction Direct Current Electrode Negative Direct Current Electrode Positive Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Electron Beam Friction Stir Processing Friction Stir Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Heat Affected Zone Laser Beam Magnesium Metal Matrix Composites Micro Arc Oxidation Physical Vapour Deposition Post Weld Heat Treatment Powder Metallurgy Response Surface Methodology

xxv

SCE SEM SSM SiCp SSRT SZ SCC TWI TMAZ TEM TIG VHN WR

Saturated Calomel Electrode Scanning Electron Microscope Semisolid Metal Silicon Carbide Particles Slow Strain Rate Tests Stir Zone Stress Corrosion Cracking The Welding Institute Thermo Mechanically Affected Zone Transmission Electron Microscopy Tungsten Inert Gas Vickers Hardness Number Wear Rate

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