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Hazlett Hercula Introduction Water has the highest specific heat of any substance.

. Due to this property, water is used in car radiators as a coolant. A pump circulates water around the engine. The water is able to absorb a lot of heat energy coming from the car engine, without its temperature rising too high. The hot water then flows to the radiator where it is mi ed with cooler air to cool the water down and the process is repeated !"urup#. $pecific heat is an e tremely important topic of study in science and in this research pro%ect. In this study, e periments were conducted to find the specific heat and linear thermal e pansion of two un&nown metal rods. These 'alues were then compared to the specific heat and linear thermal e pansion of the element molybdenum to determine if the un&nown metal rods were also molybdenum. (esearch was done before conducting the e periment to get an idea of how to test the specific heat and linear thermal e pansion of the metal rods. Also to get an idea of what the outcome 'alues should be if the un&nown metal rods were in fact molybdenum. )aloritmeters and linear thermal e pansion apparatus* were used to test this. $pecific heat is not only used to determine un&nown metals, but in many other ways too besause it is an intensti'e property. When designing coo&ing pots, it is important to ta&e specific heat into consideration. The base of the pot should be made of a metal with a low specific heat. This goes for the body of the pot too. This is so it is able to heat up +uic&ly and stays hot. The handle should be made of a plastic with a high specific heat. $ubstances with high specific

Hazlett Hercula heats do not conduct heat 'ery well so they do not get hot and they can be handled !-Applications of Heat )apacity.#. $pecific heat also needs to be ta&en into consideration when ma&ing insulation and heat storage containers li&e coolers and thermoses. The materials used to ma&e the containers need to ha'e high specific heat 'alues in order to be insulating. This is because heat can not tra'el well through materials with a high specific heat !/ohn#. To continue, linear thermal e pansion has many uses as well. It is important to &now the linear thermal e pansion of different material when building and doing construction. An e ample of this would be when pouring concrete for side wal&. 0'ery few feet there is a small crac& in the side wal&. This is because when it is hot out, the concrete heats up and e pands. This pre'ents the concrete from e panding too much and crac&ing all o'er. It is important to &now how much the concrete is going to e pand. The distance that the concrete e pands would be the size of the crac&. Also, many electronic de'ices are composed of many small metal pieces. When the electronic de'ise is used, it often heats up as well as heating up the metal pieces. The surrounding outside peices that hold the meat pieces together needs to be made large enough so that when the metal pieces inside of it e pand, it will not brea& !-Thermal 0 pansion.#. This e periment was benificial because &nowing about specific heat and linear thermal e pansion can sa'e companies thousands of dollars. They can ta&e these facts into consideration when deciding what types of materials to ma&e their products out of. If a company wants to ma&e an insulating material but chooses to ma&e it out of a material with a high specific heat, the heat would

Hazlett Hercula pass easily through the material. The whole product would ha'e to be redesigned. They can design e periments silmilar to this to see which material would wor& most effecti'ely.

Hazlett Hercula (e'iew of 3iterature 4ac&ground The element molybdenum was disco'ered by )arl Welhelm $cheele in ,556. He did so by decomposing the element in hot nitric acid and then heating it in the air. Thus, it became a white powder. 3ater on carbon was used to chemically reduce the o ide in the element to ma&e it in to a dar& metal powder. 7olybdenum is most commonly found within the mineral molybdenite, but can also be found within ore bodies. 7olybdenum is naturally found in an organic solution within the mineral, molybdenite. Alamine 228 is applied in a+ueous solutions at ,1.9:, separating the molybdenum from the molybdenite mineral, turning it into an a+ueous state. ;inally, <a 1)=2 is applied to strip it away from the molybdenite into its organic phase, a solid !)hem#. $ubstances can also be roasted to isolate elements and compounds. (oasting 7o$ 1, molybdenum disulfite, concentrate con'erts it into 7o= 2, molybdenite !International 7olybdenum Association#. 2MoS2 + 7O2 MoS2 + 6MoO3 2MoO2 + O2 ;igure ,. ;igure , shows the chemical reaction as to the roasting of 7olybdenum. 7olybdenum disulfate is con'erted to molybdenite. 7olybdenum has many uses, including the main metal component of aircraft and missile parts. A relati'ely new use of molybdenum is its role in an 2MoO3 + 4SO2 7MoO2 + 2SO2 2MoO3

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Hazlett Hercula e perimental e plosi'e detector. This detector can be sprayed onto a bag supposedly containing an e plosi'e, and will turn form dar& blue to yellow?clear. This color change is from the molybdenum reacting with hydrogen pero ide within bombs !@eriodic Table of 0lements#. The a'erage density of molybdenum is ,A.1 g?cm 2. Its specific heat is A.19 /?gB), whereas waters specific heat is >.,6> /?gB). This means it ta&es less heat to raise the temperature of molybdenum by one degree )elsuis than it does to change the temperature of water. The linear thermal e pansion of molybdenum is >.6 ,AC8 at 19 B). Within the periodic table, molybdenum is

found in group 8 and period 9. Its atomic number, the a'erage number of protons, is >1. 7olybdenum*s atomic mass, the number of protons and neutrons, is D9.D8.

;igure 1. =rbital Diagram ;igure 1 shows the orbital Diagram of 7olybdenum. 7olybdenum is within the d shell on the periodic table. The electron configuration of molybdenum is ,s1 1s1 1p8 2s1 2p8 >s1 2d,A >p8 9s1 >d>. 7olybdenum has properties that ma&e it uni+ue and e ceptional for ma&ing products. When added to steel and cast irons, molybdenum enhances strength, hardenability, toughness, and ele'ated temperature strength. In nic&elC base alloys, it impro'es resistance to both corrosion and highCtemperature creep deformation. 7olybdenumCbased alloys also ha'e a uni+ue combination of properties including high strength at ele'ated temperatures, high thermal and

Hazlett Hercula electrical conducti'ity, and low thermal e pansion !7olybdenum#.

$pecific Heat $pecific heat is the amount of heat per unit of mass that is re+uired to raise temperature by one degree )elsius. The specific heat of molybdenum is A.19 /?gB). This means that for molybdenum to be raised one degree )elsius, it re+uires A.19 /oules of energy. To understand this atomically, one needs to &now that when heat is absorbed by a solid, the atoms in the solid begin to 'ibrate. A raise in temperature also raises the energy of the 'ibrations. The lower the specific heat 'alue is, the easier it is for that element or compound to heat up because it re+uires less energy. The atoms need less energy to 'ibrate !-$pecific Heat.#. $pecific heat is a physical property. It is also an intensi'e property. 0'ery element and compound has a different specific heat. This is why it can be used to identify different metals. =nce the specific heat is found properly, it can be determined which metal it is. To analyze specific heat, the following e+uation may be used. +Esm In the e+uation + represents heat, measured in %oules. $pecific heat in the e+uation is represented by s and is measured in /?gB ). 7ass is represented by m, measured in grams. ;inally the change in temperature is represented by T. This can be found by subtracting the initial temperature from the final temperature. This can be measured in degrees )elsius or "el'in. Farious e periments can be conducted to determine the specific heat of a

Hazlett Hercula metal in a classroom setting. =ne e periment in'ol'es filling a $tyrofoam cup half full of water at room temperature. The mass of the water was found and the temperature of the water was ta&en. Ice water is then added to the $tyrofoam cup. The mass of the cup was found again to determine how much ice water was added. The temperature of the water was ta&en for a second time after it was allowed to come to e+uilibrium. This information was filled into the e+uation to find the specific heat of the water. This e periment can be modified to find the specific heat of a metal. Instead of adding ice water to the $tyrofoam cup, a rod of the certain metal can be added. The cup can be massed to determine the mass of the metal rod and temperature change would be noted. This would find the specific heat of the metal rather than the water !-)uta.#. A second e periment in'ol'es a calorimeter cup made of aluminum. The specific heat of aluminum is going to be found. The calorimeter cup creates an isolated system so limited endothermic and e othermic reactions can ta&e place with the outside en'ironment. This helps to get a more e act 'alue for temperature and heat. ;irst the aluminum sample and the calorimeter cup were massed. A bea&er full of water was heated on a 4unsen burner with the aluminum sample in it. The calorimeter cup was then filled half way with cool water. Temperatures of the water in the bea&er and the calorimeter cup were ta&en and recorded. Then the aluminum sample was transferred from the bea&er of boiling water to the calorimeter cup. When e+uilibrium was reached, the temperature of the water was ta&en. The specific heat of aluminum was then found using the e+uation stated earlier !-0 periment FIIIG $pecific Heat and

Hazlett Hercula )alorimetry.#. These e periments carry out the idea of calorimetry. This is the idea that when two ob%ects are placed in an isolated system, initially at different temperatures, they will come to e+uilibrium. 0+uilibrium occurs when two opposing forces are balanced !-0+uilibrium.#. In this case, the temperature of the water and the metal rod will become balanced and e+ual the same 'alue. The 3aw of Thermodynamics states that energy can not be created nor destroyed. This means that in the isolated system, heat energy will transfer from the ob%ect with more energy to the ob%ect with less energy. In the second e periment, the heat lost by the aluminum sample was gained by the water in the calorimeter cup. 4oth of the e periments can be slightly modified for this research pro%ect to test for the specific heat of molybdenum. 7olybdenum samples can be used in place of the other ob%ects being tested for their specific heat. $pecific heat 'alues are important to industry and designing products. When transferring dangerous chemicals, it is important to &now their specific heats so they can be placed in a proper container so they stay contained and do not lea& out !-Hayden Industrial @roducts.#. The specific heat of a material may be ta&en in consideration when determining which material to use. ;or e ample when determining which material to use for flooring, the specific heat is ta&en into consideration. )eramic tile has a higher specific heat than carpet. The heat transfer occurs +uic&ly and is sensed as colder than with carpet !-"uhn.#.

Hazlett Hercula 3inear Thermal 0 pansion =ne of the properties that was used within the course of the e perimental process was linear thermal e pansion. 3inear thermal e pansion is the change in length of a substance, due to a change in temperature !<a'e#. In the case of this specific e periment, it was the change of length of the metal rod. =n an atomic le'el this means that as the rod heats the atoms e pandH in other words mo'e farther apart. As the rod cools it contracts, or the atoms mo'e closer to one another, until it reaches its original length. This e pansion and contraction is due to &inetic molecular theory, "7T. "7T can be simply described as when molecules get warmerH they 'ibrate faster and begin mo'ing in different directions. This, in turn, causes e pansion !4lauch#. There are many possible ways to measure this property. Two of these e periments are as follows. =ne of these two e periments is pro'ided by the physics department at )lemson Ini'ersity !Hester#. The primary instrument used within the e periment is the linear thermal e pansion apparatus. This apparatus contains a dial gauge which wor&s as a sort of ruler. It measures both the initial and final lengths. ;irst, the initial length and temperature of the rod are measured. Heat is then applied in the form of a thermistor, a sprayer filled with hot water in order to change the length. 3astly, the final length and temperature are recorded. Another e periment that can be used is pro'ided by $t. 3ouis )ommunity )ollege !-)oefficient of 3inear 0 pansion.#. =nce again, the initial temperature and length are recorded. Hot water is then applied through a thermistor to the metal rod in order to change its temperature and conse+uently,

Hazlett Hercula the length. 3astly, the final temperature and length are recorded. 4oth of these methods are applicable to a classroom setting. The tools needed to perform the e periment are either easily accessible or easily replicable. A thermal e pansion apparatus with a dial gauge is pro'ided in the classroom. Although a thermistor can be e pensi'e and hard to come by, it is easily replicable with a spray bottle filled with water. The recorded lengths and temperatures found within the e periment are then used within the following e+uation to disco'er the linear thermal e pansion coefficient. 3final represents the final length of the metal rod, after heating. $imilarly, 3initial represents the initial length of the metal rod, before heated. 4oth lengths are measured in millimeters. The final temperature is represented by Tfinal, while the initial temperature is represented by T initial. 4oth temperatures are measured in degrees )elsius. The final 'alue alpha, J, is &nown as the linear thermal e pansion coefficient and is measured in Km?B).
=
Lfinal Linitial Linitial * (Tfinal Tinitial )

4ecause linear thermal e pansion is an intensi'e property, it can be used to identify elements. This means it is a property that does not depend on how much matter is within the system. Also, each element has a uni+ue e pansion coefficient. ;or e ample, molybdenum*s e pansion coefficient is 9.2 Km?B) !7olybdenum#. This is different from calcium*s e pansion coefficient of 11.2 Km?B). =nce the e periment has been performed and the coefficient calculated, it is 'ery easy to identify the element. 3inear thermal e pansion can be summarized as the change in length of a ,A

Hazlett Hercula metal rod due to a change in temperature. 3inear thermal e pansion can easily identify an un&nown set of metal rods as a certain element. Its intensi'e properties as well as its uni+ueness to each element help to identify elements. =nce the e pansion coefficient is determined using the linear thermal e pansion e+uation, it may becompared to the coefficient of 7olybdenum to determine if they are the same element.

@roblem $tatement

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Hazlett Hercula @roblem $tatementG To determine if a set of metal rods are the element 7olybdenum, the 'alues of specific heat and linear thermal e pansion will be e'aluated.

HypothesisG If the specific heat, A.19 /?gB), and the linear thermal e pansion, 9.2 ,AC8 mm?B), are within a ,A: error, then the un&nown element is 7olybdenum.

Data 7easuredG $pecific heat, s, is measured in /?gB). Waters specific heat, >.,6> /?gB), was &nown while the metal rod*s specific heat was be sol'ed for. 7ass of the metal rods, m, was measured using a scale massing in grams. LT represented the change in temperature of the waterH this was found from subtracting the initial temperature of the water from the final temperature of the water. All temperatures are measured in degrees )elsius with a thermometer. To calculate linear thermal e pansion, the final lengths as well as the initial lengths of the metal rods were measured in millimeters. The temperature of the water was measured in degrees )elsius. The final linear thermal e pansion coefficient was measured in mm?B).

0 perimental Design

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Hazlett Hercula $pecific HeatG 7aterials ,AA m3 Mraduated )ylinder !1# 3oaf @ans !1# 7etal (ods !A, 4# Hot @late Temperature @robe !A.A,N)# !1# )alorimeters !$ee Appendi A# @rocedures ,. 1. @ut on protecti'e clothing including goggles and an apron for safety. Assign (od A the number one and (od 4 the number two. Ise the random integer feature on the TiC<spire calculator to determine which rod will be used for which trial. Assign )alorimeter A the number one and )alorimeter 4 the number two. Ise the random integer feature on the calculator to determine which test will use which calorimeter. 7ass the first metal rod to the nearest thousandth and record the information in the data table. 7easure out 2AA m3 of tap water with the graduated cylinder and place it in a loaf pan. Heat the water in the loaf plan on the hot plate until it is between DAN) and ,AAN). @lace the metal rod in the boiling water in the loaf pan for 9 minutes, &eeping trac& of time with the timer. Ise the thermometer to find the e act temperature of the boiling water in the loaf plan to the nearest tenth of a degree. (ecord this in the data table. @ut 6A m3 of tap water between 1AN) and 19N) in the calorimeter. (ecord the e act temperature in the data table and the mass of the water. 7a&e sure the lab +uest is on and ready. @ut the temperature probe from the lab +uest in the small top opening of the calorimeter. @ush start on the lab +uest and a graph of the change in temperature of the water will begin to appear. Thermometer !N)# Timer Tongs 3ab Ouest TiC<spire )alculator $cale !A.AA, g precision#

2.

>. 9. 8. 5. 6. D. ,A. ,,.

,2

Hazlett Hercula

,1. ,2.

7o'e the metal rod from the boiling water to the calorimeter using tongs. Wait until the graph starts to le'el off at the e+uilibrium temperature. This will be the final temperature measurement for the water and the metal rod. (ecord this 'alue in the data table. Ise the specific heat e+uation and the 'alues found from testing to find the specific heat of the metal rod !$ee Appendi 4#. (epeat this process fourteen more times with the appropriate rods so that fifteen trials are completed.

,>. ,9.

Diagram 4ea&er )alorimeters Mraduated )ylinder

3oaf @an

Hot @late Tongs

3ab Ouest

;igure 2. 0 perimental $etup ;igure 2 shows the all of the materials needed to perform the e periment to find specific heat of the metal rods.

3inear Thermal 0 pansion

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Hazlett Hercula 7aterials ,AA m3 Mraduated )ylinder $pray 4ottle !1# 3oaf @ans Timer !1# 7etal (ods !A, 4# Tongs Hot @late 3ab Ouest Temperature @robe !A.A,B)# TiC<spire )alculator Ice )aliper !A.A, mm# Thermal 0 pansion Apparatus !A.A, mm# @rocedures ,. 1. @ut on protecti'e clothing including goggles and an apron for safety. Assign (od A the number one and (od 4 the number two. Ise the random integer feature on the TiC<spire calculator to determine which rod will be used for which trial. 7easure initial length of metal rod using a caliper and record length in data table. 7easure out 2AA m3 of tap water with the graduated cylinder and place it in a loaf pan. Heat the water in the loaf plan on the hot plate until it is between DAN) and ,AAN). ;ill spray bottle with ice and tap water. @lace the metal rod in the boiling water in the loaf pan for 9 minutes, &eeping trac& of time with the timer. Ise the lab +uest and the temperature probe to find the e act temperature of the boiling water in the loaf plan to the nearest tenth of a degree. (ecord this in the data table as the initial temperature. 7o'e the metal rod from the boiling water to the thermal e pansion apparatus using tongs. Immediately mo'e dial to correspond A with the tip of the arrow. $pray the metal rod with sprayer filled with ice water to speed along cooling process. After 9 minutes, obser'e the change in length and record in the data table. Ising the temperature probe, obser'e the temperature of the ice water. Hold the temperature probe in the air to determine room temperature and

2. >. 9. 8. 5. 6.

D.

,A. ,,. ,1.

,9

Hazlett Hercula record the final temperature in the data table. A'erage the two temperatures and record as the final temperature. ,2. Ise the linear thermal e pansion e+uation and the 'alues found from testing to find the linear thermal e pansion of the metal rod !$ee Appendi 4#. (epeat this process fourteen more times with the appropriate rods so that fifteen trials are completed.

,>.

Diagram $pray 4ottle Apparatuses 7etal (ods 3oaf @an

Hot @late

3ab Ouest

)aliper

Tongs

;igure >. 0 perimental $etup ;igure > shows the setup needed to perform the e periment to find the linear thermal e pansion coefficient of the metal rods. $ome of the materials abo'e include the thermal e pansion apparatus, (od A, (od 4, the loaf pan, and the lab +uest.

Data and =bser'ations

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Hazlett Hercula $pecific Heat Table , 7olybdenum $pecific Heat Data


Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 *+era!e Initial Temp. (C) (ater 19.6 15., 15.5 15.2 16.2 12., 1,.5 19.8 1>.5 11.8 11., 12.A 12.2 11.8 11.D 1>.9 Metal D8.1 D8.8 D8.1 D9.8 D9.8 D5.8 D5.1 D8.8 D5.1 D5.8 D5.8 DD.> D5.8 D5.> D5.9 D5., Equilibrium Temp. (C) 15.D 1D.8 1D.6 1D.8 2A.2 19., 12.6 15.8 18.5 1>.5 1>.5 19.5 19.5 1>.D 19.1 18.6 C an!e in Temp. (C) (ater 1., 1.9 1., 1.2 1.A 1.A 1., 1.A 1.A 1., 1.8 1.5 1.> 1.2 1.2 1.1 Metal 86.2 85.A 88.> 88.A 89.2 51.9 52.> 8D.A 5A.9 51.D 51.D 52.5 5,.D 51.9 51.2 5A.2 Ma"" (ater (m)) 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A Metal (!) >1.6256 >1.6,>5 >1.5216 >1.6,12 >1.511D >1.6,>D >1.5128 >1.5128 >1.6,,D >1.5125 >1.6,19 >1.5125 >1.5A,6 >1.6,2, >1.6,98 >1.5512 Spe#i$i# %eat (&'!C) A.1>A A.1D1 A.1>6 A.151 A.1>A A.1,8 A.11> A.115 A.111 A.118 A.15D A.165 A.181 A.1>6 A.1>D A.1>D

Table , shows the data collected during the e periment. ;ifteen trials were conducted with two rods of 7olybdenum. The specific heat of 7olybdenum is A.19 /?gB). The a'erage specific heat from this e periment was found to be A.1>D /?gB). This was found using the specific heat formula !see Appendi 4#.

Table 1 7olybdenum $pecific Heat =bser'ations

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Hazlett Hercula
Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 Ob"er+ation" (od 4 was in boiling water for fi'e minutes. It was put into )alorimeter 4 while the 3ab Ouest recorded the change in temperature for three minutes. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter A. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. The water in )alorimeter 4 was a bit warm. (od A was put into calorimeter A. The water in )alorimeter A was a bit warm. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter A. The water in )alorimeter A was a bit warm. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. The water in )alorimeter A was a bit warm. (od A was put into )alorimeter 4. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. (od A was almost dropped, which delayed the time of entering )alorimeter A. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. The mass of (od 4 was not ta&en until after it was ta&en out of )alorimeter 4. (od A was put into )alorimeter 4. The mass of (od A was not ta&en until after it was ta&en out of )alorimeter 4. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4.

Table 1 shows the obser'ations ta&en during the fifteen trials of the &nown metal for specific heat.

Table 2 In&nown $pecific Heat Data

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Hazlett Hercula
Initial Temp. (C) (ater , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 *+era!e 11.2 2A.A 11.5 18.8 15.2 1D.> 16.5 16.6 16.2 2,.6 2,.2 1,.2 15.8 1,.> 15.1 15.A Metal D5.2 D9.1 D5.2 D8.5 D8.5 D5.8 D8.2 D9.1 D5.1 D5.9 D5.9 D5.1 D5.8 D5.1 D6.> D5.A C an!e in Temp. (C) (ater 8.6 9.6 8.6 8.2 8., 8.A 8.5 9.6 9.> 9.2 9.5 8.8 8.1 5., 9.D 8.1 Metal 86.1 9D.> 85.6 82.6 82.2 81.1 8A.D 8A.8 82.9 8A.> 8A.9 8D.2 82.6 86.5 89.2 82.6

Trial

Equilibrium Temp. (C) 1D., 29.6 1D.9 21.D 22.> 29.> 29.> 2>.8 22.5 25., 25.A 15.D 22.6 16.9 22., 22.,

Ma"" (ater (m)) 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A 6A.A Metal (!) 59.8259 59.116A 59.1159 59.12>9 59.1829 59.1199 59.9D8D 59.826A 59.261, 59.8>A> 59.11DD 59.11D2 59.8259 59.82D6 59.116, 59.>A18

Spe#i$i# %eat (&'!C) A.>>, A.>2> A.>>8 A.>2D A.>1D A.>1D A.>65 A.>1> A.256 A.266 A.>,D A.>1> A.>2A A.>95 A.>A1 A.>1D

Table 2 shows the 'alues recei'ed during the e periment. ;ifteen trials were conducted with randomization of the rods and the calorimeters. The a'erage specific heat 'alue of the un&nown metal rods was found to be A.>1D /?gB).

Table > In&nown $pecific Heat =bser'ations

,D

Hazlett Hercula
Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 Ob"er+ation" (od 4 was in boiling water for fi'e minutes and put into )alorimeter 4. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter A. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. (od A was almost dropped, which delayed the time of entering the )alorimeter A. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter A. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. (od A was put into )alorimeter 4. (od 4 was dropped. Trial performed again. (od 4 was placed in )alorimeter 4. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4. )older water was put into )alorimeter 4 than in pre'ious trials. (od A was almost dropped, delaying the entrance time into )alorimeter 4. (od A was put into )alorimeter A. )older water was put into )alorimeter 4 than in other trials. (od 4 was put into )alorimeter 4.

Table > shows the obser'ations ta&en during the un&nown metal trials for specific heat.

3inear Thermal 0 pansion

1A

Hazlett Hercula Table 9 7olybdenum 3inear Thermal 0 pansion Data


Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A *+era!e Initial )en!t (mm) ,1D.2> ,1D.>2 ,1D.21 ,1D.15 ,1D.1> ,1D.2A ,1D.>2 ,1D.2> ,1D.16 ,1D.29 ,1D.22 ,) (mm) A.A9A6 A.A26, A.A9A6 A.A9A6 A.A9A6 A.A26, A.A9A6 A.A9A6 A.A9A6 A.A9A6 A.A>62 Initial Temp. (C) D5.A D9.2 D6.9 D6.9 D9.8 65.D D9.8 65.D D,.6 D,.6 D>.A -inal Temp. (C) 11., 11.2 11.> 11.> 11.8 ,D.2 11.8 ,D.2 ,5.8 ,5.8 1A.6 *lp a Coe$$i#ient (mm . /016) 9.1>> >.A21 9.,81 9.,8> 9.26> >.1D9 9.255 9.519 9.1D8 9.1D2 9.AD5

Table 9 shows the data collected during the ten trials conducted with two rods of 7olybdenum. The linear thermal e pansion of 7olybdenum is 9.2A ,AC8 mm. The a'erage linear thermal e pansion found from the e periment ,AC8 mm. The alpha coefficient was found using the linear thermal

was 9.AD5

e pansion formula !see Appendi )#.

Table 8 7olybdenum 3inear Thermal 0 pansion =bser'ations


Trial Ob"er+ation"

1,

Hazlett Hercula
, 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A (od 4 was placed in boiling water for fi'e minutes then put into Apparatus 4. (od A was placed in Apparatus 4. (od A was placed in Apparatus A. (od 4 was placed in Apparatus 4. (od 4 was placed into Apparatus A. (od 4 was placed into Apparatus 4. (od A was placed in apparatus A. (od A was placed in Apparatus A. Window open in room, room temperature cooler. (od 4 was placed in Apparatus 4. Window open in room, room temperature cooler. (od A was placed in Apparatus A. Window open in room, room temperature cooler.

Table 8 shows the obser'ations ta&en during the ten trials of the &nown metal for linear thermal e pansion.

Table 5 In&nown 3inear Thermal 0 pansion Data


Trial Initial ,) Initial -inal *lp a

11

Hazlett Hercula
)en!t (mm) ,29.>> ,28.82 ,28.5A ,29.>6 ,29.>8 ,29.51 ,28.81 ,28.82 ,29.81 ,28.5, ,29.1A ,28.5, ,28.9D ,29.85 ,29.59 ,28.A8 (mm) A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A829 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A581 A.A59> Temp. (C) D9.> D5.A D9.> DD.8 D8.6 D5.6 D8.5 D9.8 D5.8 D5.D D8.6 D8.6 D5.1 D8.8 D5.1 D5.A Temp. (C) D.9 D.A ,,.1 ,1.A ,2., 8.6 5.D ,,.A D.D 8.> 5., 5.8 D.D D.5 ,,.1 D.9 Coe$$i#ient (mm . /016) 8.99A 8.226 8.81A 8.>1, 9.8A, 8.,5A 8.16, 8.9D1 8.>A5 8.AD1 8.162 8.1>D 8.2DA 8.>82 8.915 8.22,

, 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 *+era!e

Table 5 shows the data collected during the fifteen trials of linear thermal e pansion conducted using two rods of an un&nown metal. The a'erage linear thermal e pansion of the un&nown metal was found to be 8.22, ,A C8 mm.

Table 6 In&nown 3inear Thermal 0 pansion =bser'ations


Trial Ob"er+ation"

12

Hazlett Hercula
, 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 @re'ious data was lost and all ,9 trials had to be conducted for a second time. (od 4 was placed into Apparatus 4 for three minutes. (od A was slightly slanted in Apparatus 4. (od A was not perfectly centered in Apparatus A. (od 4 was placed into Apparatus 4. (od A was found to be slightly shorter than rod 4. (od 4 was placed into Apparatus A. (od 4 was placed into Apparatus 4. (od A was slightly off center in Apparatus A. (od A was slightly off center in Apparatus A. (od 4 was placed in Apparatus 4. Window open in room, room temperature cooler. (od A was placed in Apparatus A. Window open in room, room temperature cooler. (od 4 was delayed slightly upon entering Apparatus 4. (od A was not perfectly centered in Apparatus 4. (od A was placed in Apparatus A. Door open in room, room temperature cooler. (od 4 was placed in Apparatus A. Door open in room, room temperature cooler. (od 4 was placed into apparatus A.

Table 6 shows the obser'ations recorded for the fifteen trials of the un&nown metal for linear thermal e pansion.

Data Analysis and Interpretation The data collected in the e periment includes the specific heat and linear 1>

Hazlett Hercula thermal e pansion of two rods of molybdenum and two un&nown metal rods. A comparati'e e periment was done to compare the specific heat and linear thermal e pansion 'alues. These 'alues were compared for the molybdenum rods and the un&nown rods to see if the un&nown rods are also molybdenum. Due to the fact that it was a comparati'e e periment, a )(( was used. )(( stands for control, randomization, and repetition. This is to ensure that good data was collected. The controls for the e periment were all of the &nown 'alues. This includes molybdenum*s specific heat of A.19 /?gB) and linear thermal e pansion of 9.2 ,AC8 mm. )ontrols are used to ma&e sure that it is in fact a different metal

and not another factor changing the results. Which rod was used for each trial is part of the randomization. ;or specific heat, which calorimeter was used for each trial was randomized. ;or linear thermal e pansion, which apparatus was used was also randomized. (andomization helps to ensure that there is no bias occurring in the e periment or in other words, so no one result is more li&ely to occur rather than another. (epetition was also used in this e periment. 0ach trial was completed se'eral times to ensure that the results did not occur by chance and that the data is 'alid.

$pecific Heat Table D 7olybdenum $pecific Heat 7etal @ercent 0rror

19

Hazlett Hercula
E.perimental 2alue A.1>A A.1D1 A.1>6 A.151 A.1>A A.1,8 A.11> A.115 A.111 A.118 A.15D A.165 A.181 A.1>6 A.1>D A.1>D True 2alue A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 3er#ent Error 2.DA ,8.86 A.D, 6.D6 >.A1 ,2.52 ,A.2> D.,8 ,,.16 D.52 ,,.9> ,>.6, >.88 A.5D A.91 6.A5

Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 *+era!e

Table D shows the true specific heat 'alue of 7olybdenum and the 'alues found in the e periment. ;rom this, the percent error was calculated. The a'erage percent error was found to be 6.A5:. This 'alue is low which means that the e periement was run properly and the data is usable.

Table ,A In&nown $pecific Heat 7etal @ercent 0rror

18

Hazlett Hercula
Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 *+era!e E.perimental +alue A.>>, A.>2> A.>>8 A.>2D A.>1D A.>1D A.>65 A.>1> A.256 A.266 A.>,D A.>1> A.>2A A.>95 A.>A1 A.>1D True 2alue A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 A.19 3er#ent Error 58.>D 52.56 56.9A 59.52 5,.>2 5,.8D D>.69 8D.>1 9,.A> 99.21 85.86 8D.9A 51.A1 61.D2 8A.6, 5,.>,

Table ,A shows the true specific heat 'alue of 7olybdenum and the 'alue found from the e periment. ;rom this, the percent error was calculated and the a'erage was found to be 5,.>,:.

15

Hazlett Hercula

;igure 9. 7olybdenum @robability @lot ;igure 9 shows the normal probability plot for the molybdenum specific heat trials. The data points show a linear pattern so this means that the data collected is normally distributed and it is usuable.

;igure 8. In&nown @robablility @lot ;igure 8 shows the probablility plot for the un&nown metal specific heat trials. The data points show a linear pattern, meaning that the data collected is normally distributed and it is usuable.

16

Hazlett Hercula

$pecific Heat /?gB)

;igure 5. $pecific Heat 4o @lots ;igure 5 shows the bo plot for the data collected during the specific heat trials. The top bo plot shows the data for 7olybdenum and the bottom shows that for the u&nown metal. ;or the 7olybdenum data, there are no outliers and the spread of the data is rather small. The data appears normally distributed. ;or the un&nown metal data, there are two outliers. The spread of the data is also 'ery small and is slightly s&ewed to the left. This means that good data was collected with only a small range of 'alues. The two bo plots do not o'erlap, therefore the metals are not the same. A twoCsample t test was done on the data. This statistical test is appropriate to do because it compares the means of the molybdenum data and the un&nown metal data. All of the assumptions were met to complete this test. The two groups being compared are independent populations. There were less than thirty data points so normal probability plots were created to show that the data was normally distributed. A simple random sample was done.

1D

Hazlett Hercula
Ho : 1 = 2 Ha : 1 2

;igure 6. <ull and Alternati'e Hypotheses ;igure 6 shows the null and alternati'e hypotheses for specific heat. Ho represents the null hypothesis and Ha represents the alternati'e hypothesis. K, is the mean of the 7olybdenum specific heat and K 1 is the mean of the un&nown metal specific heat. Table ,, TwoC$ample t Test

Table ,, shows the twoC sample t test specific heat to compare the 'alues for molybdenum and the un&nown metal.

2A

Hazlett Hercula

;igure D. Distribution )ur'e ;irgure D shows the distribution cur'e for the twoCsample t test. ;irst the t 'alue was found to be C,D.1A58. ;rom this, the p 'alue was found to be ,.2226 ,AC,5.

The null hypothesis was re%ected. The un&nown metal is not the same as molybdenum. There is a A: chance that the un&nown metal is molybdenum if the null hypothesis was true, by chance alone.

2,

Hazlett Hercula 3inear Thermal 0 pansion Table ,1 7olybdenum 3inear Thermal 0 pansion 7etal @ercent 0rror
Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A *+era!e E.perimental 2alue (mm . /01 6) 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 9.2AA0CA8 True 2alue (mm . /01 6) 9.1>>0CA8 >.A210CA8 9.,810CA8 9.,8>0CA8 9.26>0CA8 >.1D90CA8 9.2550CA8 9.5190CA8 9.1D80CA8 9.1D20CA8 9.AD50CA8 3er#ent Error ,.A8 12.D1 1.8A 1.95 ,.9D ,6.D9 ,.>> 6.A2 A.A6 A.,2 8.A>

Table ,1 shows the true linear thermal e pansion of 7olybdenum and the 'alue found in the e periment. ;rom this, the percent error was found for each trial and the a'erage was found to be 8.A>:. This 'alue is small, meaning good data was collected during the e periment. The 'alues recie'ed were close to the actual 'alue.

Table ,2 21

Hazlett Hercula In&nown 3inear Thermal 0 pansion 7etal @ercent 0rror


Trial , 1 2 > 9 8 5 6 D ,A ,, ,1 ,2 ,> ,9 *+era!e E.perimental 2alue (mm . /016) 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA 9.2AA True 2alue (mm . /016) 8.99A 8.226 8.81A 8.>1, 9.8A, 8.,5A 8.16, 8.9D1 8.>A5 8.AD1 8.162 8.1>D 8.2DA 8.>82 8.915 8.221 3er#ent Error 12.96 ,D.96 1>.D, 1,.,> 9.85 ,8.>, ,6.9, 1>.26 1A.66 ,>.D> ,6.99 ,5.DA 1A.95 1,.D9 12.,9 ,D.>6

Table ,2 shows the true linear thermal e pansion of 7olybdenum and the 'alue found in the e periment using the two un&nown metal rods. ;rom this, the percent error was found for each trial. The a'erage was found to be ,D.>6:.

22

Hazlett Hercula ;igure ,A. 7olybdenum @robability @lot ;igure ,A shows the normal probability plot for the molybdenum linear ermal e pansion trials. The data points do not show a linear pattern so this means that the data collected is not normally distributed. Although a twoCsample t test would not normally be preformed, it will still be conducted in this case.

;igure ,,. In&nown @robablility @lot ;igure ,, shows the probablility plot for the un&nown metal linear thermal e pansion trials. The data points show a fairly linear pattern which means that the data collected is normally distributed and the data is usable. There are a few outliers within the data, but the spread of the data is 'ery small.

3inear Thermal 0 pansion ,AC8 mm

2>

Hazlett Hercula ;igure ,1. 3inear Thermal 0 pansion 4o @lots ;igure ,1 shows the bo plot for the data collected during the thermal e pansion trials. The top bo plot shows the data for 7olybdenum and the bottom shows that for the u&nown metal. ;or the 7olybdenum data, there are three outliers present. The o'erall spread of the data is rather small. The data was not normally distributed. ;or the un&nown metal data, there is only one outlier. The spread of the data is also 'ery small. This means that good data was collected with only a small range of 'alues. The two bo plots do not o'erlap e cept for the outliers, therefore the metals are not the same. A twoCsample t test was done on the linear thermal e pansion data. This statistical test also compares the means of the molybdenum data and the un&nown metal data. <ot all of the assumptions were met to complete this test. The two groups being compared are independent populations. A simple random sample was done. There were less than thirty data points so normal probability plots were created to show that the data was not normally distributed. ;or the purpose of the e periment, the statistical test was still run.

Ho : 1 = 2 Ha : 1 2

;igure ,2. <ull and Alternati'e Hypotheses ;igure ,2 shows the null and alternati'e hypotheses for linear thermal e pansion. Ho represents the null hypothesis and Ha represents the alternati'e hypothesis. K, is the 7olybdenum linear thermal e pansion and K 1 is the un&nown metal linear thermal e pansion.

29

Hazlett Hercula Table ,> TwoC$ample t Test

Table ,> shows the twoCsample t test for linear thermal e pansion to compare the 'alues for molybdenum and the un&nown metal.

;igure ,>. Distribution )ur'e ;irgure ,> shows the distribution cur'e for the twoCsample t test. ;irst the t 'alue was found to be C8.DD5D. ;rom this, the p 'alue was found to be A.AAAA,>.

28

Hazlett Hercula The null hypothesis was re%ected at the A.A9 significance le'el. The un&nown metal is not the same as molybdenum. There is a A.AA,>: chance that the un&nown metal is molybdenum if the null hypothesis is true, by chance alone.

)onclusion Water, ha'ing the highest specific heat, is used in many different ways. 4ecause it has a 'ery high specific heat it can absorb large amounts of heat energy, ma&ing it 'ery 'ersatile. $pecific heat is %ust one of the 'ital aspects of the research process, along with linear thermal e pansion. In order to disco'er if two metal rods are molybdenum, two e periments were run including specific heat and linear thermal e pansion. The specific +ualities of these e periments allowed for the two metal rods to be correctly e'aluated. These +ualities include the uni+ue 'alues for each element. This allowed for the un&nown metal rods to be tested and compared to the &nown

25

Hazlett Hercula 'alues of molybdenum. After the e periments were run and the data analyzed, the hypothesis was re%ected. The un&nown metal rods were not within a ,A: error, therefore they were not molybdenum. This con%ecture was made from the calculated percent error as well as the twoCsample t tests. The a'erage percent error of the un&nown element for specific heat was found to be 5,.>,:, well outside of the acceptable ,A: range. The pC'alue found from the twoCsample t test was ,.2226 ,AC,5. This 'alue means that there was a ,.2226 ,AC,9 : chance of

getting results this e treme if the un&nown metal was molybdenum. The percent error of the un&nown element for linear thermal e pansion, ,D.>6:, and the pC 'alue, A.AAAA,>, also support the re%ected hypothesis. In both tests there were outliers such as a 9.85: error within the linear thermal e pansion trials, which could ha'e made the metal rods appear as molybdenum. Howe'er, the o'erall a'erages and statistical analysis pro'ed this to be false. While conducting trials the researchers found that preforming a linear thermal e pansion test on molybdenum was 'ery difficult. 7olybdenum is strongly resistant to heat, therefore it does not e pand at great amounts when heated !7olybdenum#. This property of molybdenum made it difficult to collect accurate data. Another problem that occurred was the 'ariation of position within the thermal e pansion apparatus. Due to the different placements, such as the metal rod not being perfectly centered, some of the data appeared as outliers. The last problem that occurred during the e periment was the difficulty of mo'ing the hot metal rods from the boiling water into the calorimeter or apparatus. A

26

Hazlett Hercula different pair of tongs, or a different method to remo'e the hot rods would ha'e been more effecti'e and time sa'ing. Due to procedural problems, a few outliers appeared within the data for each test. $ome of these outliers include a A.256 specific heat 'alue and a 9.8A, ,AC8 linear thermal e pansion coefficient. Although there were only a few

outliers out of the total data points, it influenced the o'erall outcome of the e periments. Although there were a few outliers, there was an o'erall consistency within the data. This consistency allowed for a smooth analysis as well as a reliable outcome. The foremost mista&e made within the e periment was the failure to sa'e the data in more than one place. An error occurred and a few sets of data tables were deleted therefore the e periments had to be done again, wasting time. It is 'ery important to ha'e at least one set of bac& up tables to ensure that if a mista&e, li&e this one was made, the data would be able to be found somewhere else. To further help researchers replicating the e periments, a few recommendations would be made. The first would be to find an effecti'e and fast way to transport the hot metal rods to the calorimeters and apparautses. A different set of tongs could perhaps be more effecti'e. Another suggestion is to find a way to safely center the metal rods within the thermal e pansion apparatus. This would create a e'en more consistent set of data. The final recommendation would be to sa'e all data in more than one place. It is essential to ha'e a least one bac& up set of the data.

2D

Hazlett Hercula In addition to the e periments preformed, other e periments could be successful in identifying the metal rods. 4ecause molybdenum does not dissol'e in acids, an e periment could be preformed to see if the metal would dissol'e !7olybdenum#. 7aterials needed would be an acid such as hydrochloric acid, and a way to crush the metal into a powder. If the powder dissol'es, then it is not molybdenum. If it does dissol'e then it there is a possibilty that it is molybdenum. Although this test is not a way to ,AA: correctly identify it as molybdenum, it would narrow down the options. Another type of e periment that could be preformed is to test if the specific heat and linear thermal e pansion e periments were set up correctly. This could be done by testing other metals. The same materials would be needed as used for the original e periments.

Ac&nowledgements We would li&e to than& our three wonderful teachers here at 77$T). We want to than& 7rs. )ybals&i for helping us with all of our formatting errors. Also for helping us correct sections of our paper. We would li&e to than& 7rs. Hilliard for helping us find out the research behind our topic and chec&ing our science. We would li&e to than& 7rs. Dewey for helping us to better understand what the data we collected means. ;inally, we would li&e to than& "en Hazlett for assistance in ma&ing the calorimeters used for testing in the specific heat e periment.

>A

Hazlett Hercula

Appendi AG )alorimeter )onstruction 7aterials !1# 8.9. @F) @ipe ,. Diameter @F) Mlue !># ,.19. @F) )aps !1# >. by >. Wood 4loc& @rocedures ,. 1. 2. Ta&e one of the 8.9. @F) pipes and put @F) glue on the bottom edge. @ush one cap o'er the glue on the bottom of the @F) pipe and hold it until it is dry. Ta&e one of the wood bloc&s and drill a hole through the center that has a ,.9. diameter. Drill ;oam @ool <oodle Duct Tape

>,

Hazlett Hercula >. 9. 8. 5. 6. D. @ut se'eral layers of duct tape around the bottom cap so it fits snugley in the wood bloc&. @lace the @F) pipe in the wood bloc& with the cap end down. Drill a > mm hole through the top of a second @F) cap and place the cap loosely on top of the @F) pipe in the wood bloc&. Ta&e the foam pool noodle and cut it to fit around the @F) pipe in between the two caps. @lace duct tape around the top and bottom of the pool noodle to ensure it will stay on the @F) pipe. (epeat the steps to ma&e the second calorimeter.

Appendi 4G $pecific Heat )alculations To analyze the data and disco'er the specific heat of the un&nown metal, the following e+uation was used. The un&nown specific heat, Smetal , was found by di'iding the specific heat of water, Swater , multiplied by the mass of the water,
Mwater , and the change in temperature, Twater .
Smetal = Swater * Mwater * Twater Mmetal * Tmetal

A sample calculation to find the specific heat can be found below in figure ,9 using the abo'e specific heat e+uation.
Smetal = Swater * Mwater * Twater Mmetal * Tmetal

>1

Hazlett Hercula
= 4.184 J / g C * 80.0mL * 6.8C 75.6375g * 68.2C

= 0.441J / g C

;igure ,9. $pecific Heat $ample )alculation ;igure ,9 shows a sample calculation of specific heat. The 'alues used can be found within the Data and =bser'ations section in Table 2, trial ,.

Appendi )G 3inear Thermal 0 pansion To analyze the data and disco'er the linear thermal e pansion coefficient of the un&nown metal the following e+uation was used. The un&nown 'ariable, , was found by di'iding the change in length, L , by the initial length of the rod,
Linitial , and the change in temperature of the rod, T .

L Linitial * T

A sample calculation to find the linear thermal e pansion coefficient can be found below in figure , using the abo'e specific heat e+uation.

L Linitial * T

0.0762mm 135.44mm * (95.4C - 9.5C)

>2

Hazlett Hercula
= 6.550 6mm / C

;igure ,8. 3inear Thermal 0 pansion $ample )alculation ;igure ,8 shows a sample calculation for the linear thermal e pansion coefficient. The 'alues used can be found within the Data and =bser'ations section in Table 5, trial ,.

Appendi DG TwoC$ample t Test To analyze the data and disco'er if the un&nown metal was molybdenum the following e+uation was used where the un&nown 'ariable, t , was found by di'iding the mean of the un&nown data, x 2 , mean of the 7olybdenum data, x 1 , by the s+uare root of the 'ariance of molybdenum s+uared,

s1 , di'ided by the s2 ,

sample size, n1 , then added to the 'ariance of the un&nown data s+uared, di'ided by the sample size,

n2 .
t

x1 x 2 s1 2 s 2 2 + n1 n2

A sample calculation to find the t 'alue to in turn find the p 'alue can be found below in figure ,5 using the abo'e twoCsample t test e+uation.

>>

Hazlett Hercula

x1 x 2 s1 2 s 2 2 + n1 n2

(5.10E - 6) - (6.34E - 6) (5.21E - 7) 2 (2.60E - 7) + 10 15

= -6.99

;igure ,5. TwoC$ample t Test $ample )alculation ;igure ,5 shows a sample calculation for the twoCsample t test. This t 'alue was then used to find the p 'alue using a table.

>9

Hazlett Hercula

Appendi 0G @ercent 0rror To analyze the data and disco'er if the un&nown metal bar was molybdenum, the percent error was calculated. This was found by subtracting the e perimental 'alue from the true 'alue and di'iding the whole thing by the e perimental 'alue.
PercentError = Truevalue Experimentalvalue 100 Experimentalvalue

A sample calculation to find the percent error can be found below in figure ,6 using the abo'e percent error e+uation.
PercentError = Truevalue Experimentalvalue 100 Experimentalvalue

6.55E - 06 - 5.30E - 06 * 100 5.30E - 06

= 23.58

;igure ,6. @ercent 0rror $ample )alculation ;igure ,6 shows a sample calculation for the percent error. The 'alues used can be found within the data analysis section, Table ,2, trial ,.

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Hazlett Hercula

Wor&s )ited -American )hemical $ociety C The World*s 3argest $cientific $ociety.. New Nanomaterial Can Detect and Neutralize Explosives !1A,,#. American )hemical $ociety, 2, 7ar. 1A,,. Web. 1D 7ar. 1A,1. PhttpG??portal.acs.org?portal?acs?corg?contentQRnfpbEtrueS.

-Applications of $pecific Heat )apacity.. : 4.2 Specific Heat Capacity. @hysics Intensi'e <otes, 6 $ept. 1AA6. Web. A6 7ay 1A,1. PhttpG??heatmozac.blogspot.com?1AA6?AD?>1CspecificCheatCcapacityC applications.htmlS.

4lauch, Da'id <. -"inetic 7olecular Theory.. irtual C!emistry. 4asic)oncepts, ,2 Apr. 1AAD. Web. ,, Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??www.chm.da'idson.edu?'ce?&ineticmoleculartheory?basicconcepts. htmlS.

)hem, Tur& /. -$eparation of 7olybdenum, Fanadium and <ic&el by.. !,DD6#G 25DC68. Tubita&. Web. 1D 7ar. 1A,1. PhttpG??%ournals.tubita&.go'.tr?chem?issues?&imCD6C11C>?&imC11C>C,AC D5A25.pdfS.

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-)oefficient of 3inear 0 pansion.. "!ysics and #natomy. $t. 3ouis )ommunity )ollege. Web. D Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??users.stlcc.edu?dedmonds?0@,?instructions?thermal.pdfS.

)uta, "ristin. -In'estigation of Heat )apacity and $pecific HeatG Ising Different Temperatures of Water and $olids.. $innesota Science %eac!ers Education "ro&ect. )enter for Mlobal 0n'ironmental 0ducation, ,8 ;eb. 1A,1. Web. A5 Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??serc.carleton.edu?sp?mnstep?acti'ities?15,6,.htmlS.

-Density )hart of 0lements.. Educational C!emistry Software for Hi'! Sc!ool( Colle'e #nd)niversity Students. Web. ,8 7ar. 1A,1. PhttpG??www.standnes.no?chemi ?periodictable?densityCchartC elements.htmS.

-0+uilibrium.. *iolo'y+,nline. 4iologyC=nline, ,, Apr. 1AAD. Web. ,, Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??www.biologyConline.org?dictionary?0+uilibriumS.

-0 periment FIIIG $pecific Heat and )alorimetry.. -su.edu. ;$I. Web. 5 Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??www.physics.fsu.edu?courses?fallA>?phy1A92c?labs?heat.pdfS.

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-Hayden Industrial @roducts.. Hayden .ndustrial "roducts. Hayden Industrial @roducts, 5 Apr. 1A,1. Web. A5 Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??www.haydenindustrial.com?S.

/efferson, Thomas. -The 0lement 7olybdenumT)lic& for Isotope DataU.. .t/s Elemental. /efferson 3ab, 1D 7ar. 1A,1. Web. 1D 7ar. 1A,1. PhttpG??education.%lab.org?itselemental?eleA>1.htmlS.

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/ohn, Dean. -Application of $pecific Heat )apacity.. "!ysics Notes for Secondary Sc!ool. 6 7ay 1A,1. Web. A6 7ay 1A,1. PhttpG??fizi&nota.blogspot.com?1AA6?A8?applicationCofCspecificCheatC capacity.htmlS.

"uhn, Howard A. -Industrial DesignG What 7a&es @roducts WarmQ. $ac!ine Desi'n. @enton 7edia I<), 6 /an. 1AAD. Web. A5 Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??machinedesign.com?article?industrialCdesignCwhatCma&esCproductsC warmCA,A6S.

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"urup, @rableen. -What Are the Ad'antages of High $pecific Heat )apacity of WaterQ. 0!at #re t!e #dvanta'es of Hi'! Specific Heat Capacity of 0ater1 @reser'e Articles, 6 7ay 1A,1. Web. A6 7ay 1A,1. PhttpG??www.preser'earticles.com?1A,A,112,996?highCspecificCheatC capacityCofCwater.htmlS.

V7olybdenum.V )hemicool @eriodic Table. )hemicool.com. 1> ;eb. 1A,,. Web. 9?,A?1A,1 PhttpG??www.chemicool.com?elements?molybdenum.htmlS.

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<a'e, (. -Thermal 0 pansion.. %!ermodynamics. Hyper@hysics, ,9 =ct. 1AA,. Web. ,, Apr. 1A,1. PhttpG??hyperphysics.phyC astr.gsu.edu?hbase?thermo?the p.htmlS.

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-@eriodic Table of 0lements.. Sorted 2y Density 4EnvironmentalC!emistry.com5 . Web. ,8 7ar. 1A,1. PhttpG??en'ironmentalchemistry.com?yogi?periodic?density.htmlS.

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