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"The Piotestant Ethic anu Spiiit of Capitalism Chapteis 1,2 anu S"

By: Webei
Summaiizeu by: Chris Somos-Stroutzas
CBAPTER 1- Religious Affiliation anu Social Stiatification
Business leaueis anu owneis of capital, as well as skilleu laboi, anu technically anu
commeicially tiaineu peisonnel of mouein enteipiises, aie oveiwhelmingly
Piotestant.
!"#"$ &$'(") *+&* *+,) -+"./0"./. 0&1 #" "2-3&,."4 ,. *"$0) /5 +,)*/$,6&3
6,$6(0)*&.6")7 +/8"9"$: +" #"3,"9") *+&* */ & 6"$*&,. "2*".* ,* &--"&$) */ #"
*+" $")(3* /5 $"3,',/() &55,3,&*,/.;
The majoiity economically uevelopeu towns, with lots of natuial iesouices, went
ovei to Piotestantism; this leu to the benefit of Piotestants in the stiuggle foi
economic existence.
The emancipation fiom economic tiauitionalism appeais to be a factoi, which woulu
gieatly stiengthen the tenuency to uoubt the sanctity of tiauition.
Webei states that the iule of the Catholic Chuich was a lot moie toleiateu by the
people in his time that weie of mouein economic chaiactei, anu it was boin by the
tuin of the 1Sth centuiy.
- Be states that foi most people, incluuing himself, the iule of Calvinism woulu be
unbeaiable fiom ecclesiastical contiol of the inuiviuual that coulu possibly exist.
<,)*/$,6&3 &$'(0".*= >+" ?$/*")*&.*)@ '$"&*"$ -&$*,6,-&*,/. ,. 0/4"$.
"6/./0,6 3,5" 0&1 +&9" #"". (.4"$)*//4 &) & $")(3* /5 *+" '$"&* 0&*"$,&3
8"&3*+ *+"1 ,.+"$,*"4;
The peicentage of Catholics among the stuuents anu giauuates of highei euucational
institutions in geneial laggeu behinu in piopoition to the total population anu
Piotestants.
Noie young than Piotestant that Catholic men engageu in factoiy woik, because
Piotestants weie attiacteu to a laigei extent into the factoiies in oiuei to fill the
uppei ianks skilleu laboi anu auministiative positions.
Accoiuing to Webei, Piotestants, both as majoiity anu minoiity, showeu a special
tenuency to uevelop economic iationalism that cannot be obseiveu to the same
extent among Catholics.
!ABAC@D EFGH ?IGH>= The piinciple of explanation of this uiffeience must be
sought in the peimanent intiinsic chaiactei of theii ieligious beliefs, anu not only in
theii tempoiaiy exteinal histoiic-political situations.
Supeificial analysis:
-Catholicism: the gieatei othei-woiluliness of Catholicism, the ascetic chaiactei of its
highest iueals, must have biought up its auheients to a gieatei inuiffeience towaiu
the goou things of this woilu.
- Piotestantism: it is useu a ciiticism of the ascetic iueas of Catholicism; !"#$% '"%
()'"*$#+, )-,!%. !#'" '"% )++/,)'#*- '")' 0)'%.#)$#,0 .%,/$', 1.*0 '"%
,%+/$).#2)'#*- *1 )$$ #3%)$, '".*/4" 5.*'%,')-'#,06
"The Piotestant piefeis to eat well, the Catholic to sleep unuistuibeu."
Piotestants in ueimany, accoiuing to Webei, weie absoibeu in woiluly economic
life, anu theii uppei ianks weie most inuiffeient to ieligion! Similai to the
ciicumstances in Fiance, wheie Catholics weie in the lowei ianks anu gieatly
inteiesteu in the enjoyment of lifepiotestants weie in the highei ianks anu weie
hostile to ieligion.
Theii tiaits aie chaiacteiistic of many of the most impoitant Chuiches anu sects in
the histoiy of Piotestantism. This was especially tiue foi Calvinism (has shown
tiaits of piety anu capitalistic business sense).
J/*+",. ! calls the Calvinistic uiaspoia the seeubeu of capitalistic economy.
!"# %&# '(( #)* +,&#*-#'%# .*%&/0%'#0&%- -**/ #& )'1* )'. '% *2"'((3 -#,&%4
0%5("*%6* 0% #)0- .0,*6#0&%7
- Ex: Calvinism, even in ueimany, seems to have piomoteu the uevelopment of
capitalism, much moie than Lutheianism.
- Ex: Quakeis anu Nennonites- Connection of a ieligious way of life with the most
intensive uevelopment of business acumen among those sects whose
otheiwoiluliness is pioveibial as theii wealth.
- Ex: Pietists- combination of intense piety with just as stiong of a uevelopment of
bus iness acumen.
The spiiit of haiu woik, which is often asciibeu to Piotestantism, is not to be
unueistoou as the joy of living noi in any othei sense connecteu with the
Enlightenment.
The olu Piotestantism of Luthei, Calvin, Knox, voet hau piecious little to uo with
what touay is calleu piogiess.
Ceitain expiessions of the olu piotestant spiiit anu mouein capitalistic cultuie is to
be founu in its puiely ieligious chaiacteiistics, anu not allegeu mateiialistic oi anti-
ascetic joy of living.

CBAPTER 2- The Spiiit of Capitalism
In this chaptei, Webei mostly gives histoiical examples of the uiffeiences between
tiauitional anu mouein capitalist societies, anu he also illustiates how the ethos of
mouein capitalism aie iiiational.
The spiiit of capitalism, accoiuing to Webei, is not so much a histoiical concept, as it
is a ieligious one.
It is veiy uifficult to uefine the Spiiit of capitalism; it must be giauually put togethei
out of the inuiviuual paits, which aie taken fiom histoiical ieality to make it up.
Foi the puipose of this stuuy, it is impoitant to note that othei stanupoints woulu,
foi this as foi eveiy histoiical phenomenon, yielu othei chaiacteiistics as the
essential ones.
In this case, theie cannot be a cleai conceptual uefinition of the teim, but only a
piovisional uesciiption.
!+&* ,) +"$" -$"&6+"4 ,) ./* ),0-31 & 0"&.) /5 0&K,.' /."L) 8&1 ,. *+" 8/$34:
#(* & -"6(3,&$ "*+,6;
- The infiaction of its iules is tieateu not as foolishness but as foigetfulness of uuties.
- This ethos, oi ethic, is what is of inteiest to Webei.
Although Capitalism was piesent in, foi example, China (it lackeu the ethosethic
Webei is inteiesteu in), he specifies that he is stuuying the spiiit of 0*3%.-
capitalism-Which is founu in Ameiican anu Westein capitalism.
B".M&0,. N$&.K3,. (a majoi capitalist) ! viitues, like honesty, aie only in so fai
viitues as they aie actually useful to inuiviuuals. It is a conclusion, which is inevitable
foi stiict (*,3,*&$,&.,)0.
Fianklin asciibes his utility of viitue to uivine ievelation that will leau him to
iighteousness.
Fianklin's ethic Piotestant ethic: make moie anu moie money, without enjoying life
uevoiu of euuemonistic aumixtuie.
- Naking money is thought of puiely as an enu in itself (in teims of happiness).
- Nan is uominateu by making money; economic acquisition is no longei suboiuinateu to
man as the means foi the satisfaction of his mateiial neeus. >+,) $"9"$)&3 /5 8+&* 8"
)+/(34 6&33 *+" .&*($&3 $"3&*,/.)+,-: )/ ,$$&*,/.&3 5$/0 & .&,9" -/,.* /5 9,"8, is
eviuently as uefinitely a leauing piinciple of capitalism as it is foieign to all peoples not
unuei capitalistic influence.
- It expiesses a type of feeling that is closely ielateu with ceitain ieligious iueas, like the
Calvinist iueals.
The conception, that an inuiviuual feels a ceitain obligation towaius hishei
piofessional occupation, has not only unuei capitalistic conuitions.
- Webei's histoiical explanation of the spiiit of capitalism is that capitalism euucates
anu selects the economic subjects that it neeus thiough a piocess of economic suivival
of the fittest.
Accoiuing to Webei, the spiiit of capitalism was piesent befoie capitalism itself.
Webei uistinguishes the spiiit of capitalism fiom those who submitteu to capitalism
without ieseive as an uncontiolleu impulse.
- Ex. At all peiious of histoiy, wheievei it was possible, theie has been iuthless
acquisition bounu to no ethical noims whatevei (like wai anu piiacy).
?$"O6&-,*&3,)* )/6,"*1! iational utilization of capital in a peimanent enteipiise anu
the iational capitalistic oiganization of laboi hau not yet become uominant foices in the
ueteimination of economic activity.
The most impoitant opponent capitalism has hau to go up against was tiauitionalism.
-See examples of tiauitionalism, in teims of employment wages) on page 7,8 anu 9
Accoiuing to Webei's theoiy: laboi must be peifoimeu as if it weie an absolute enu in
itself, a calling. But such an attituue is by no means a piouuct of natuie. It cannot be
evokeu by low wages oi high ones alone, but can only be the piouuct of a long anu
aiuuous piocess of euucation.
The chances of oveicoming tiauitionalism aie gieatest on account of the ieligious
upbiinging.
The iising stiata of lowei inuustiial miuule class iepiesenteu the spiiit of capitalism
anu not the commeicial aiistociacy.
The management, foi instance, of a bank, a wholesale expoit business, a laige ietail
establishment, oi of a laige putting-out enteipiise uealing with goous piouuceu in
homes, is ceitainly only possible in the foim of a capitalistic enteipiise; howevei, they
may also be caiiieu out by a tiauitionalistic spiiit.
>$&4,*,/.&3,)*,6 #(),."))! one consiueis the spiiit which animateu the entiepieneui:
the tiauitional mannei of life, the tiauitional iate of piofit, the tiauitional amount of
woik, the tiauitional mannei of iegulating the ielationships with laboi, anu the
essentially tiauitional ciicle of customeis anu the mannei of attiacting new ones. 7$$
'"%,% 3*0#-)'%3 '"% +*-3/+' *1 '"% 8/,#-%,,9 !%.% )' '"% 8),#, *1 '"% %'"*, *1 '"#, 4.*/: *1
8/,#-%,,0%-6
; >+" ,4133,6 )*&*" 6/33&-)"4 (.4"$ *+" -$"))($" /5 & #,**"$ 6/0-"*,*,9" )*$(''3":
$")-"6*&#3" 5/$*(.") 8"$" 0&4": &.4 ./* 3".* /(* &* ,.*"$")*: #(* &38&1)
$",.9")*"4 ,. *+" #(),.")); >+,) 8&) 4(" */ *+" )-,$,* /5 EIPACH 6&-,*&3,)0;
0ne is tempteu to think that these peisonal moial qualities have not the slightest
ielation to any ethical maxims, to say nothing of ieligious iueas, but that the essential
ielation between them is negative.
>+&* ,) ,. 5&6* *+" /.31 -/)),#3" 0/*,9&*,/.: #(* ,* &* *+" )&0" *,0" "2-$"))") 8+&*
,): )"". 5$/0 *+" 9,"8-/,.* /5 -"$)/.&3 +&--,.")): )/ ,$$&*,/.&3 &#/(* *+,) )/$* /5
3,5": 8+"$" & 0&. "2,)*) 5/$ *+" )&K" /5 +,) #(),.")): ,.)*"&4 /5 *+" $"9"$)".
The pie-capitalists woulu finu mouein capitalists to be totally iiiational because they
make life woik theii sole puipose, without enjoying any of theii wealth.
The conception of money-making as an enu in itself, to which people weie bounu, as a
calling, was contiaiy to the ethical feelings of whole epochs.
Accoiuing to Webei, it might seem that the uevelopment of the spiiit of capitalism is
best unueistoou as pait of the uevelopment of iationalism as a whole, anu coulu be
ueuuceu fiom the funuamental position of iationalism on the basic pioblems of life. In
the piocess Piotestantism woulu only have to be consiueieu in so fai as it hau foimeu a
stage piioi to the uevelopment of a puiely iationalistic philosophy.
- But it eviuent that such a simple way of putting the question will not woik, simply
because of the fact that the histoiy of iationalism shows a uevelopment which by no
means follows paiallel lines in the vaiious uepaitments of life.
<%8%. #, #-'%.%,'%3 #- the oiigin of the iiiational element that lies in this spiiit of
capitalism, as in eveiy conception of a calling.
CBAPTER S- Asceticism anu the Spiiit of Capitalism
Foi Webei, Calvinism is the most consistent ieligious basis, out of all the Piotestant
movements, foi the iuea in question.
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-/))")),/.: *+" ".M/10".* /5 8"&3*+ 8,*+ *+" 6/.)"S(".6" /5 ,43".")) &.4 *+"
*"0-*&*,/.) /5 *+" 53")+: &#/9" &33 /5 4,)*$&6*,/. 5$/0 *+" -($)(,* /5 & $,'+*"/()
3,5";
O B"6&()" -/))")),/. ,.9/39") *+,) 4&.'"$ /5 $"3&2&*,/. *+&* ,* ,) /#M"6*,/.&#3" &*
&33;
!&)*" /5 *,0" ,) *+() *+" 5,$)* &.4 ,. -$,.6,-3" *+" 4"&43,")* /5 ),.);
- Even the wealthy must woik, even though they uo not neeu the money.
- uou's Pioviuence, accoiuing to Piotestantism, has piepaieu a calling, in which a
peison shoulu piofess anu laboi in.
Accoiuing to Webei's ieseaich, scholais such as Aquinas, stateu that vaiious social
uimensions such uiffeient social stiata anu the uivision of laboi weie all a pait of uou's
plan anu it was up to each inuiviuual to live out the ioles assigneu to them.
A man without a calling lacks the systematic, methouical chaiactei that is uemanueu by
woiluly asceticism.
In the Puiitan concept of the calling the emphasis is always placeu on this methouical
chaiactei of woiluly asceticism, not on the acceptance of the lot that uou has
iiietiievably assigneu to man (as seen in Lutheianism).
T(&K"$ A*+,6= &3)/ +/34) *+&* & 0&.L) 3,5" ,. +,) 6&33,.' ,) &. "2"$6,)" ,. &)6"*,6
9,$*(": & -$//5 /5 +,) )*&*" /5 '$&6" *+$/('+ +,) 6/.)6,".*,/().")): 8+,6+ ,)
"2-$"))"4 ,. *+" 6&$" &.4 0"*+/4 8,*+ 8+,6+ +" -($)(") +,) 6&33,.';
O !+&* J/4 4"0&.4) ,) ./* 3&#/$ ,. ,*)"35: #(* $&*,/.&3 3&#/$ ,. & 6&33,.';
Accoiuing to Puiitan belief, it is not bau if a peison answei to moie than one calling (if it
is useful), now is it bau if they change theii calling (if it is not thoughtless anu maue foi a
puisuing a calling moie pleasing to uou). Also, if uou shows you a way to make moie
piofit, anu you ueny it, uou will get angiy.
!"&3*+ ,) *+() #&4 "*+,6&331 /.31 ,. )/ 5&$ &) ,* ,) & *"0-*&*,/. */ ,43".")) &.4
),.5(3 ".M/10".* /5 3,5": &.4 ,*) &6S(,),*,/. ,) #&4 /.31 8+". ,* ,) 8,*+ *+" -($-/)"
/5 3&*"$ 3,9,.' 0"$$,31 &.4 8,*+/(* 6&$";
- Even begging is consiueieu a sin.
The emphasis on the ascetic impoitance of a fixeu calling pioviueu an ethical
justification of the mouein specializeu uivision of laboi.
8'(10%0-/= 6/.6"-*,/. /5 *+" &#)/3(*" )/9"$",'. 0&M")*1: /5 J/4: #"1/.4 &33
+(0&. 6/0-$"+".),/.;
+",0#'%0-/= ,* 6/0#,."4 *+" 6"$*&,.*1: 8+,6+: *+/('+ ,.6,4".*&3 5/$ U&39,.: 6&0" */
#" /5 '$"&* ,0-/$*&.6" 5/$ *+"0: *+&* J/4 8/(34 #3")) <,) /8. ,. *+,) 3,5" &.4 &3)/
,. *+" 0&*"$,&3 )".)";
Basically, what Webei uoes foi a couple of pages is that he shows how contempoiaiies
wiiteis have uiawn the business-oiienteu ethics of the Puiitans fiom the Bible's
sciiptuie.
The }ews stoou on the siue of the politically anu speculatively oiienteu auventuious
capitalism; theii ethos was, in a woiu, that of paiiah-capitalism. But Puiitanism caiiieu
the ethos of the iational oiganization of capital anu laboi. It took ovei fiom the }ewish
ethic only what was auapteu to this puipose.
The feuual anu monaichical foices piotecteu the pleasuie seekeis against the iising
miuule-class moiality
- The anti-authoiitaiian ascetic conventicles, just as touay capitalistic society tenus to
piotect those willing to woik against the class moiality of the pioletaiiat anu the anti-
authoiitaiian tiaue union.
Enjoyment (such as spoits foi iecieation, because Webei aigue that spoits can seive a
puipose foi health) which leaus away both fiom woik in a calling anu fiom ieligion was
as such the enemy of iational asceticism.
An euucation in science anu technology was often not lookeu uown upon, howevei, one
in fine aits (in most cases) was.
G;
The iuea of a man's uuty to his possessions, to which he suboiuinates himself as an
obeuient stewaiu, was iooteu fiom the belief that they shoulu holu them
unuiminisheu foi the gloiy of uou anu inciease them by iestless effoit.
- Founu a basis in Piotestantism
- Restiicteu consumption anu enjoyment.
They appioveu the iational anu utilitaiian uses of wealth, which weie willeu by uou
foi the neeus of the inuiviuual anu the community.
- They uiu not wish to impose moitification on the man of wealth, but the use of his
means foi necessaiy anu piactical things.
The 'evil' in possessions is the temptation that they holu.
The iestiaints that weie imposeu upon the consumption of wealth natuially seiveu
to inciease it by making possible the piouuctive investment of capital.
The influence of the Puiitan outlook extenueu, unuei all ciicumstances was that it
favoieu the uevelopment of a iational bouigeois economic life.
In many cases, these Puiitanical iueals tenueu to give way unuei excessive piessuie
fiom the temptations of wealth.
The whole histoiy of monasticism is in a ceitain sense the histoiy of a continual
stiuggle with the pioblem of the seculaiizing influence of wealth. The same is tiue
on a gianu scale of the woiluly asceticism of Puiitanism.
!")3"1 ! Piesenteu a histoiical uilemma, the moie economic uevelopment
incieaseu, the less inteiest theii was in the puisuit of a pious life.
Bouigeois economic ethic hau giew! "<#'" '"% +*-,+#*/,-%,, *1 ,')-3#-4 #- '"%
1/$$-%,, *1 =*3>, 4.)+% )-3 8%#-4 ?#,#8$@ 8$%,,%3 8@ A#09 '"% 8*/.4%*#, 8/,#-%,, 0)-9 ),
$*-4 ), "% .%0)#-%3 !#'"#- '"% 8*/-3, *1 1*.0)$ +*..%+'-%,,9 ), $*-4 ), "#, 0*.)$
+*-3/+' !), ,:*'$%,, )-3 '"% /,% '* !"#+" "% :/' "#, !%)$'" !), -*' *8B%+'#*-)8$%9
+*/$3 1*$$*! "#, :%+/-#).@ #-'%.%,', ), "% !*/$3 )-3 1%%$ '")' "% !), 1/$1#$$#-4 ) 3/'@ #-
3*#-4 ,*6"
Calvin himself hau maue statement that only when the mass of laboieis anu
ciaftsmen, weie pooi uiu they iemain obeuient to uou.
The tieatment of laboi as a calling became as chaiacteiistic of the mouein woikei as
the coiiesponuing attituue towaiu acquisition of the businessman.
Calvinism opposeu oiganic social oiganization in the fiscal-monopolistic foim,
especially in the conceptions of Lauu, this alliance of Chuich anu State with the
monopolists on the basis of a Chiistian, social ethical founuation.
The Puiitans iepuuiateu all connection with the laige-scale capitalistic couitieis anu
piojectois as an ethically suspicious class. 0n the othei hanu, they took piiue in
theii own supeiioi miuule-class business moiality.
Since asceticism undertook to remodel the world and to work out its ideals in the world,
material goods have gained an increasing and finally an inexorable power over the lives
of men as at no previous period in history.
- Weber! The spirit of religious asceticism has escaped from the cage.
In this essay, theie's only been an attempt to tiace the fact anu the uiiection of its
influence to people's motives in one, though a veiy impoitant point.
- But Webei aigues that it woulu also fuithei be necessaiy to investigate how
Piotestant Asceticism was in tuin influenceu in its uevelopment anu its chaiactei by
the totality of social conuitions, especially economic.
Webei concluues by saying that it is not his aim to substitute foi a one-siueu
mateiialistic an equally one-siueu spiiitualistic causal inteipietation of cultuie anu
of histoiy.
- Each, he says, is equally possible, but each, if it uoes not seive as the piepaiation,
but as the conclusion of an investigation, accomplish equally little in the inteiest of
histoiical tiuth.

"#$#%& '(# )%*'#+',-' "*%. #'(/0 0(,)'#% 12
Summaiizeu by: Baueai Shaheen
Nakes the aigument that those of highei socio-economic status aie "
oveiwhelmingly piotestant" business leaueis, owneis of capital, those who piactice
highei giaues of skilleu laboi, positions of owneiship, management of economic life
Enueavouis to pioviue a spiiitualistic causal inteipietation of cultuie anu histoiy
fiom an economic peispective
Result affiliation is a iesult of economic ciicumstances
"emancipation fiom economic tiauitionalism"
Nouein laboui has an ascetic chaiactei
F)6"*,6= Chaiacteiizeu by seveie self-uiscipline anu abstention fiom all foims of
inuulgence, typically foi ieligious ieasons.
A6/./0,6 >$&4,*,/.&3,)0: built on time-testeu moues of exchange anu commeice,
such as agiicultuie anu uiiect tiaue with community membeis anu neighbois.
Accoiuing to EconomyWatch.com, 4uu million people still use tiauitional economic
systems, as opposeu to contempoiaiy systems such as the maiket economic system
Economic tiansfoimation is moie iapiu in piotestant iegions
Bow uo we go about assessing the uiffeiences between piotestant catholic
economic auvancement anu success. By assessing the peimanent intiinsic chaiactei
of theii ieligious beliefs anu not only in theii histoiico-political situations
><A UF><IVGU U<WCU< FHP FW><CIG>X
Contiol of the catholic chuich: " veiy lax, at times, scaicely peiceptible in piactices
UIH>CGBW>GHJ NFU>ICD >I AUIHIEGU FPYFHUAEAH>
Inheiitance
Euucation- webei iuentifies uiffeiences in the levels of euucation pioviueu to
catholic piotestant chiluien by theii paients, piotestants climbing highei in the
acauemic lauueis than catholics
" catholics piefei the kinu of tiaining to which the humanistic gymnasium affoius" -
too few catholics aie engageu in the capitalistic enteipiise
CD"% '@:% *1 %3/+)'#*- 1)?*/.%3 8@ '"% .%$#4#*/, )'0*,:"%.% *1 '"% "*0% )-3 :).%-')$
+*00/-#'#%, 3%'%.0#-% '"% +"*#+% *1 *++/:)'#*- )-3 '".*/4" #'9 '"% :.*1%,,#*-)$
+).%%.E
?WCG>FHD Q -$/*")*&.*)R UF><IVGUD
Risk
Inteiesteu in the enjoyment of life
Reach highei ianks of euucation than
catholics uo
" absoibeu in woiluly economic life"
Nateiialism
Wealth is only uangeious as fai as it
piomotes the temptation of iuleness
Secuiity
Suivival, sustenance vs. suiplus
Paiauise vs. woiuly gains
Iuea of inteiest that is pievalent
within the piotestant iueology is
vieweu as a foim of usuiy with
catholics anu is theiefoie immoial
anu unethical
anu the " sinful enjoyment of life"

Impulsive enjoyment of life leaus one
to ueviate fiom the iesponsibilities of
woik in theii calling anu theiefoie
uistances them fiom gou

Bazaiuous to spenu money on
anything that uoes not seive the
gloiy of gou on eaith

Acquisition of wealth anu goous is
not only legal, but seen as uiiectly
willeu by gou

Conuemnation of the |puisuit of
iiches foi one's own sake j= bau

The attainment of wealth as a fiuit of
laboui = goou
Beem the acquisition of wealth as
uangeious, nevei-enuing
temptations, the puisuit to wealth is
senseless compaieu to the puisuit of
ieaching the kinguom of gou


?CI>AD>FH>D=
The piomotion of tiaue
Sii William Petty " Calvinistic uiaspoia the seeubeu of the capitalistic economy"
Calvinism most stiongly piomotes the uevelopment of capitalistic enteipiise
Thioughout histoiy, uespite animosity towaiu the piotestants, they weie iegaiueu
as essential to inuustiy anu economic giowth
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Webei suggests that theie is a coiielation between theii piety ( ieligious convictions) anu
the fieeuom of theii political institutions


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Attempts to offei not a conceptual uefinition, but a piovisional uefinition of what is
meant by the spiiit of capitalism
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Inteiest
uoou cieuit ( assuieu by honesty)
Punctuality anu justice in financial uealings
Fiugality
Consciousness of income in ielation to expenses
All the above aie useful because they ensuie economic wellbeing
Stiict avoiuance of spontaneous enjoyment of life - iejects iuea of heuonism
Acquisition of moie anu moie capital, money
We all have " callings" that we must puisue
Inciease the piouuctivity anu efficiency of human laboi
Acquisitive instinct - obstacle 1
A uevelopeu sense of iesponsibility conceining laboui - the feeling of obligation to
one's job
Laboui must be peifoimeu as if it weie an absolute enu in itself, a calling, without
iegaius to comfoit, gain - obstacle 2, as this iuea is not a piouuct of natuiethis
minuset can only be gaineu thiough a long socialization piocess, ( economic)
euucation, it cannot meiely be motivateu by the piospect of highei wages etc.
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>+" -$,.6,-3" /5 $&*,/.&3,[&*,/.: those who uo not follow suit ( comply with
mouein capitalistic piactices) go out of business
Competition
Eaining, not consuming
Beuication to business
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Avoiuance of unnecessaiy expenuituie
Save vs. spenu
Bevotion to the calling of making money - money making as a goal in anu of itself
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AUIHIEGU >CFPG>GIHFVGDE
The economy of neeus
Woiking only enough to sustain youiself
Nannei of life, iate of piofit, amount of woik
Suivival anu sustenance
Leisuie
Spenu vs. save

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uoal: inciease in capital
the eaining of money, so long as it is uone legally is the piouuct of viitue anu
pioficiency in a ceitain calling
Economic suivival of the fittest
Aigues that the spiiit of capitalism existeu befoie capitalistic oiuei
The spiiit of capitalism was meant by hostile foices
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>$&4,*,/.&3,)0= See Piece Rates exampleI.E a man by natuie uoesn't wish to eain
moie anu moie, he just wishes to eain enough to sustain himself, to live as he is
accustomeu to live, howevei, Piotestantism is about the puisuit of suiplus
Pietei ue la coui " people only woik because anu so long as they aie pooi"
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Satisfaction of neeus vs. acquisition
F6S(,),*,/.= the stiuggle foi piofit fiee fiom the limits set by neeus
Tiauitionalism: the economy of neeus
ueimany: those who expiess the spiiit of capitalism tenu to be hostile to the
|catholicj chuich
Pioviuing foi themselves anu theii families on eaith vs. paiauise
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Coiielates the uevelopment of capitalism to the uevelopment of iationalism as a
whole
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!IC_: ?GA>X FHP ><A ?WCDWG> IN F UFVVGHJ=
Possession of wealth can connote iuleness
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uloiify gou on eaith thiough woik, via puisuing youi calling
Woik is seen as the active peifoimance of the will of gou on eaith
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Even those who aie wealthy shoulu not cease to woik. Woik anu puisuing one's
calling is not solely foi the puipose of the acquisition of wealth, but foi the puipose
of fulfilling gou's will on eaith
The uivision of laboui, the sepaiation of classes is a uiiect iesult of uivine will - the
uivision of laboui also allows foi impiovement in piouuction anu thus seives the
common goouutilitaiian aspect of Piotestantism
A man's life in his calling is pioof of giace thiough his conscientiousness- economic
activity is neaily pait in paicel of an inuiviuual's chaiactei
What gou uemanus is not laboui itself, but $&*,/.&3 3&#/($ in its calling - the calling
has to be pleasing to gou ( i.e an activity that allows you to be the most efficient anu
piouuctive on eaith)

?WCG>FHGDE=
Rational oiganization of capital anu laboui
All activities ( even spoits) hau to be accompanieu by a uegiee of iationality-
Puiitanism is about puipose, that all activities in one' life have to somehow
contiibute to theii piouuctivity efficiency in theii calling
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The accumulation of capital thiough the ascetic compulsion to save
P0RITANISN ANB TBE EC0N0NY:
The seculaiization of the influence of wealth
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4*3E
Religious uevotion= piouuctivity of laboi
Tieatment of laboui as a calling becomes chaiacteiistic of the mouein woikei
The above is what sii William petty attiibutes the economic success of Bollanu in
the 17
th
centuiy to
Niuule class life anu asceticism go hanu in hanu
Asceticism anu mouein economic oiuei
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?CI>AD>FH>GDE FHP DGHHGHJ
uieatest sin is the waste of time, lack of piouuctivity
loss of time thiough sociability, iule talk, luxuiy, moie sleep than necessaiy
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