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14TH AUG -2009 (IGC-1)

1. a worker has received serious injury from being struck by a reversing vehicle in a loading bay
Reasons why accidents to be investigated: Preventive reasons: to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents in the future. To look for evidence of liability (this is mainly required for claims specialist). To look for evidence of blame (this is required for enforcement agencies). To look for enough material for case study (this is required for trainers). The information to be included in the investigation: The place of accident, the timing and date of occurrence of the accident. The immediate causes of injury or loss. The underlying or contributing factors. The details of those injured (regarding age, sex, occupation, etc.). The details of physical examination including: Simple diagram for the area of the accident. Photos for the area showing important accident features. Recording of events as odours, spillage, fires, etc. Results of sample examination are to be recorded if available. Witnesses statements (including primary, secondary or tertiary witnesses). The corrective actions recommended. The immediate causes of the accidents: Unsafe act by the reversing vehicle driver (lack of attention, lack of concentration and working in hurry due to job pressure). Unsafe condition: faulty vehicle (with no warning facilities "audible or visual"). The underlying causes: Lack of management commitment to safety. Absence of safe system of work. Lack of proper sign & warning system. Lack of proper supervision for workers (example is the vehicle driver). Improper design of workplace (so that no separate routes for pedestrians).

2. Identify the main purpose of first aid treatment To save life. To prevent occurrence of complications. To relieve pain & suffering. To reassure victim and attendants. b) Outline the factors to be considered when making an assessment of first aid requirements in a work place Size of the organization & number of workers. Distribution and composition of workforce. Types of hazard & level of risk present. The proximity to medical assistance. The special needs of workers in remote areas. The special needs of inexperienced workers. Work involving regular travel. Lone or shift work. 1

Availability of means of communication 3. Explain why the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered only after control measures Does not eliminate the hazard Does not reduce the hazard Only protects the wearer May introduce new hazards Relies on worker to use it May not be worn correctly It may be uncomfortable Worn for only part of task of shift Wrong size Used when damaged Not properly maintained Management may not enforce wearing 4. Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system
Setting policy: to show commitment of management to health and safety and to set clear aims and objectives. Organising: there should be a framework of roles and responsibilities for health and safety allocated to individuals throughout the organization from senior management to shop floor Planning & implementing: this refers to: The detailed specification of health and safety standards to be applied in all areas & aspect of work. The measures needed to ensure standards are applied. Important is risk assessment and devising safe system of work. Monitoring and review: monitoring performance by the use of active and reactive monitoring methods. Inspection, surveys, sampling, tours and environmental monitoring are active monitoring methods while accident investigation and enforcement actions are examples of reactive methods. Auditing: this refers to collecting information on the efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of the total safety system in the organization.

5. Identify issues that could be considered at safety committee meeting Reviewing the measuring taken at organization New legislation New work equipment Training Audit reports Accidents / Incidents statistics Risk assessment Management H&S action plan Any other specific issue 6. a) identify reasons why young workers could be at greater risk of being injured at work Lack of experience and or training Body not fully developed 2

More likely to take risks Respond to peer group pressure Be over enthusiastic b) Outline the control measures that should be taken to minimize risks to young workers Their physical condition The workplace Physical , biological and chemical hazards The work equipment The organisation of work and processes Health and safety training 7. Outline the factors that should be considered when assessing the health safety competence of a contractor
The adequacy of the contractor's health & safety policy. The systems in place for implementing the health and safety policy (including risk assessments, monitoring, training, consultation, etc.). The past performance of the contractor. The contractor's experience with the particular type of work. The contractor's reputation. The contractor's membership of relevant professional/trade organization. The contractor's history regarding: *Accidents *Violations & enforcement actions

8. Outline four active (proactive) monitoring procedure that could be used to asses the health and safety performance of an organisation. Safety inspection: are regular scheduled activities with the objectives to identify safety defects. It ranges from simple observations of work and behavior to systematic inspection of premises, plant and equipment. Safety surveys: focuses on particular activity e.g.: Manual handling. Training programs. Employee's attitude towards safety. Tours: are unscheduled workplace inspections to check working practices. House keeping. Wearing PPE. Sampling: which targets specific areas e.g.: unsafe working Practices. Environmental monitoring: to monitor for gases, vapors, fumes, Radiations, etc. Safety audits: are comprehensive examinations of all aspects of an organization's health and safety performance against stated objectives. 9. a) Outline the purpose of the statement of intent section of a health and safety police.
Statement of intent: demonstrate an organization's commitment to health and safety in addition to setting the organization objectives.

b) Identify the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed
Changes in organizational arrangements. Changes in responsibilities. Change of premises. Change of work processes/materials. Change of work pattern. Change of legislation. Risk assessments. Following accidents investigation. Following enforcement action. Following professional advice.

10. Identify the reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety in an organisation. 1. Reduce accidents cost i)Loss of production ii) Loss of key personal iii) replacement of staff cost iv) investigation cost & legal defense cost 2. Good reputation 3. costumer satisfaction 4. Increased productivities 5. Increased moral of workforce 11. Identify the factors to be considered to reduce the risks to workers required to work alone away from the work place. The type of work to be done The hazard and risk The selection of suitability competence person The type of equipment to be used The environment The control measure in place The effective communication with in home base The first aid and emergency procedure Use of required PPE

3 SEPTEMBER 2010 (IGC-1)


1. With respect to undertaking general risk assessment on activities with in a workplace a) outline the key stages of the risk assessment process identifying the issues that would need to be considered at each stage Identify the task being assessed and identify the hazards e.g. Chemical, Physical etc. Identify the people who might be harmed and how. This includes own workers and vulnerable employees such as pregnant women, and others such as the Public, Contractors, etc.

Evaluate the risk by considering the likelihood of the harm occurring and the severity of harm Significant findings are recorded Assessment reviewed regularly b) explain the criteria which must be met for the assessment to be suitable and sufficient Staff have sufficient knowledge and experience All significant hazards addressed All aspects of workplace considered Non-routine operations considered Work organisation is considered Risks to other parties considered Systematic process used Short and long term control measures identified Recommended control measures prioritised c) Outline the factors that the employer should take into account when selecting individuals to assist in carrying out the required risk assessment. Knowledge of the process or activity. Relevant skills as: - Communication skills. - Observation skills. - Reporting skills. Sound personal judgment abilities Technical knowledge of plant or equipment involved. Experience or training in hazard identification and carrying out risk assessment. Positive attitude towards risk assessment process. 2. a) outline why it is important for an organization to set health and safety targets the importance of targets in motivating staff by providing them with something tangible to aim for or the important part they can play in facilitating the measurement & review of performance b) Identify health and targets that an organization could set reduced/zero accidents, zero HSE enforcement & reduced sickness absence Improved audit scores; A reduction in the number of civil claims An increase in the reporting of near misses or minor accidents; An increase in the number of employees trained in H&S & the achievement of a H&S standard (e.g. OHSAS 18001) 3. identify possible influences on an organizations health and safety management standards Reduce accidents cost i)Loss of production ii) Loss of key personal iii) replacement of staff cost 5

4. 5. 6. 7.

iv) investigation cost & legal defense cost Good reputation costumer satisfaction Increased productivities Increased moral of workforce

8. contractors are carrying out a major building project an organization Outline how this organization could reduce the risks to considered before the start of and during the building project The nature and risks of the work involved Method statements Emergency arrangements Co-ordination of, and liaison between, the relevant parties Use of plant and equipment Site rules Welfare arrangements Accident reporting Instruction and training Provision and use of personal protective 9. an organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result Loss business Loss reputation Increased sick leave Increased higher insurance premium Replacement of damage or repair equipments Time spending for investigation , reporting recording etc Legal and fine cost Employee streesed due to concern about ill health or injury 10. a) give the meaning of the term permit to work Permit-to-work system is a formal documented control system applied to a high risk activity to ensure that all safety precautions are carried out. b) Outline the THREE potential situations that may require a permit. Practical situations that may require a permit: Work in confined spaces: a permit is required due to the atmospheric, chemical, physical & other hazards of confined spaces. Work in high voltage electrical system: a permit needed due to risk of electrical shock. - Radiographic work permit. Hot work: a permit is needed to prevent occurrence of fires. Sparks potential work permit

11. a) Outline how the accident dada can be used to improve health and safety performance with in an organisation. Shows trends and patterns Identifies weaknesses in procedures and policies Priorities safety measures Identifies areas for improvements Sets targets for reduction b) explain two active (proactive) monitoring methods that can be used to when assessing an organisations health and safety performance Safety inspection: are regular scheduled activities with the objectives to identify safety defects. It ranges from simple observations of work and behavior to systematic inspection of premises, plant and equipment. Safety surveys: focuses on particular activity e.g.: Manual handling. Training programs. Employee's attitude towards safety. Tours: are unscheduled workplace inspections to check working practices. House keeping. Wearing PPE. Sampling: which targets specific areas e.g.: unsafe working Practices. Environmental monitoring: to monitor for gases, vapors, fumes, Radiations, etc. Safety audits: are comprehensive examinations of all aspects of an organization's health and safety performance against stated objectives.

12. outline the initial actions that should be taken following a major injury accident at work
Immediate action: Call for help (first aid & emergency services). Take victim away from the danger area. Remove hazards with imminent danger. Long-term actions:

Reporting the accident under a RIDDOR. Undertake an investigation. On the basis of investigation findings, work procedures are to be reviewed.

13 an organisation has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill health Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers mechanization of manual handling (use of fork-lift or conveyor belt etc) team handling adoption of the kinetic handling 7

redesign the task and look to reduce stopping, twisting, overreaching etc improve environmental condition smaller, lighter and more stable of the load selection and training he person to carried out manual handling activates 10. Outline with examples the general hierarchy that should be applied in order to control health and safety risks in the workplace. 11. Identify eight health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance delivery driver Using of drugs or liquor : Drowsiness, accident of vehicle, in availability of medical help Flattening the tires: Manual handling, hot and sharpen surface, injuries Break down of vehicle: Robbery attack, wild animals, creatures, In adequate food and water: Dehydration, muscle stress, head ache Sitting& long term in driving : Upper limp disorder, Back ache, Night driving : Limited visibility, missing of vehicle lighting inadequate

28th JUNE 2009 (IGC-1)


1. A. Explain the main features of: -Safety inspection. The main features of a safety inspection: Is a straightforward observation of a workplace, activities or equipment. The aim is to identify hazards, usually carried out routinely. This is carried out by an employee representative, supervisor or a manager (usually carried out by one from within the organization), and is often aided by the use of a check list, not lengthy process -Safety audit. The main features of a safety audit: Is a thorough, critical examination of an organization's safety management system and procedures. This is normally a lengthy process and carried out infrequently (usually yearly) and carried out by a trained auditor (often by someone from outside the organization). The aim is to assess health and safety performance of an organization, usually involves a scoring system, auditing is more formal than inspection. 1. B.Explain how the finding of an audit may be used to improve health and safety performance
Audit provides feedback to management that the standards and procedures are satisfactory and recommends any changes necessary. Together with performance review, it enables an organization to maintain and develop the effectiveness of its health and safety management by reference to performance standards: Policy: its intent scope adequacy and whether or not it sets realistic safety targets.

Organisation: The acceptance of health and safety responsibilities by line management, the adequacy of arrangement to consult and empower employees, the effectiveness of communication on health and safety issues and the arrangements for ensuring the competence of staff. Planning: the overall control and direction of the health and safety effort and the adequacy of risk control measures and risk assessment procedures. Measurement : its adequacy, relevance and design Review: the ability of the organization to learn from experience, improve performance, develop the health and safety management system and respond to change.

2. An organisation has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety .identify the costs that the organisation may incur as a result .
Loss of business. Loss of reputation. Increased sick levels. Increased insurance claims. Cost of replacement or repair of damaged equipment. Legal costs. Time spent in accident investigation, recording & reporting. Increased employees stresses (due to concern about injury or illness).

3. outline the main health and safety responsibilities of a) Employers Provision of safe workplace Provision of safe plant and equipment Provision of information and training Provision of emergency procedures Co-operation with other employers Co-operation/communication with their employees Not charging employees for health and safety measures B. workers Co-operating with their employer Reporting any dangerous situations to employer Right to receive adequate health and safety information Right to receive adequate health and safety training Right to be consulted by their employer 6. A) outline the general content of the THREE sections of a health and safety policy
Statement of intent: demonstrate an organization's commitment to health and safety in addition to setting the organization objectives. Organization: this section identifies the health and safety responsibilities and channels of communication within the organization. Arrangements: this section details the practical means for achieving the objectives laid down in the policy statement. Examples of arrangements are: risk Assessment, monitoring, health surveillance, reporting. Consultation, training, dealing with emergencies, use of PPE, etc.

b) Explain why the health and safety policy should be signed by the most senior person in an organisation , such as a managing director of chief executive officer .
7. A) explain how accident dada can be used to improve health and safety performance with an organisation. 9. outline how induction training programmes for new workers can help to reduce the number of accidents in the workplace Induction training helps to increase awareness of the risk, increase familiarity with procedures and system of work, recognize and report unsafe conditions, share a common commitment to health and safety, and recognize hazardous areas or jobs (no go areas or jobs) and by achieving these aims, induction training can help to reduce accidents.

10. a) identify the key stages of a workplace risk assessment


Identify Hazards Consider Who May Be Harmed Evaluate the Risks and Implement Controls Record Review

b) Outline THREE reasons for reviewing a risk assessment


Changes in process, work method or materials. The introduction of new technology. Any change in control measures. New information Results of monitoring and health surveillance. As a consequence of accidents. As a consequence of enforcement action.

11. a) Outline why an organisation should have a system for the internal reporting of accidents.
a) The reason why an organization should have a system for internal reporting of accident are to meet the requirements of RIDDOR, 1995, to allow accident investigation to be carried out to prevent accident recurrence, to identify weaknesses in the safety management system, to get materials for accident statistics, to help identification of trends, for use in civil law, to satisfy insurance requirements, to help in the identification and reduction of losses, to trigger the review of risk assessment.

b) Identify the reasons why workers might not report accidents at work .
To preserve departments or company's safety record free of accident (especially when an incentive scheme is in operation). Due to the over complicated reporting procedures. Lack of obvious management response to earlier reporting of accidents. Ignorance of the reporting procedures. To avoid receiving first aid or medical treatment (for whatever reason). Peer pressure. Possible punishment by management.

14th DECEMBER 2008


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1. A) Identify the factors that should be considered when developing a programme of health and safety training with in the organisation. b) Outline the various measures that might be used to assess the effectiveness of health and safety training Lecture: is one-way process, usually with no feedback. The benefit from it depends on lecturer personality. Mutual lecture: the group is divided into smaller subgroups and a member from each subgroups or syndicate is selected randomly to conduct a lecture for the other subgroups. Lecturette: is a short lecture where limited information is to be given in a short period of time (5-10 minutes). Group discussion: is suitable for small groups (up to 15). It requires a good discussion leader. Exercise: realistic tasks are chosen based on prior experience and knowledge. Case study: is similar to exercise. Trainees examine real or contrived situation, diagnose its reasons and propose corrective actions. Technical simulation: simulating, the real situation as in technical simulators for training vehicle drivers & pilots. Role-playing: students act out for which they are trained. The drawback of this method is that it is usually not taken seriously. Projects: tasks are given to individuals or groups. It is encourages imagination and creativity and is often aided by little assistance from the tutor. Skills training: is the best method of training. Trainees are involved in seeing & understanding what to do, doing it under supervision and practicing until the skill is mastered. c) Give reasons why it is important for an employer to keep a record of the training provided to each employee. 2. identify EIGHT possible risks to the health and safety of a long distance delivery driver Using of drugs or liquor: Drowsiness, accident of vehicle, in availability of medical help Flattening the tires: Manual handling, hot and sharpen surface, injuries Break down of vehicle: Robbery attack, wild animals, creatures, In adequate food and water: Dehydration, muscle stress, head ache Sitting& long term in driving: Upper limp disorder, Back ache, Night driving : Limited visibility, missing of vehicle lighting inadequate

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3. a) outline the purpose of the statement of intent section of a health and safety policy b) Identify the circumstances that would required a health and safety policy to be reviewed 7. Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system Setting policy: to show commitment of management to health and safety and to set clear aims and objectives. Organising: there should be a framework of roles and responsibilities for health and safety allocated to individuals throughout the organization from senior management to shop floor. Planning & implementing: this refers to: The detailed specification of health and safety standards to be applied in all areas & aspect of work. The measures needed to ensure standards are applied. Important is risk assessment and devising safe system of work. Monitoring and review: monitoring performance by the use of active and reactive monitoring methods. Inspection, surveys, sampling, tours and environmental monitoring are active monitoring methods while accident investigation and enforcement actions are examples of reactive methods. Auditing: this refers to collecting information on the efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of the total safety system in the organization. 8. A) explain using an example the meaning of the term risk
Risk: is the likelihood of harm arising from a hazard together with severity of the injury that may result.

13. Identify reason why a worker could require additional health and safety training during their employment . New or revised legislation, code of practice, guidance note, etc. New or modified equipment. New or revised process or procedure. Deficiencies identified through accident investigations, safety audits, etc. Retraining to maintain standards.

11 JUNE 2010 (IGC-1)


2. Outline precautions that could be taken to reduce the risk of injury to visitors a workplace signing in providing identification badge providing PPE Site induction e.g. fire precautions etc. escorting visitor to area of work 12

remaining with visitor or regular monitoring escorting visitor back to reception area signing out visitor and removing badge

3. Identify reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety in an organisation 4. a) identify four reasons why accident should be reported and regarded with in the workplace Legal reasons: to fulfill legal requirements under RIDDOR. Investigative reasons: accident reporting is the starting point for accident investigation. Monitoring reasons: accident reporting help in monitoring health & safety performance. Reporting provides information relevant to any subsequent civil claim. Reporting demonstrates the need for and assists in reviews of risk assessment. b) Identify the factor that might discourage workers from reporting workplace accidents To preserve departments or company's safety record free of accident (especially when an incentive scheme is in operation). Due to the over complicated reporting procedures. Lack of obvious management response to earlier reporting of accidents. Ignorance of the reporting procedures. To avoid receiving first aid or medical treatment (for whatever reason). Peer pressure. Possible punishment by management. 5. a) give the meaning of the term hierarchy of control Hierarchy of control: a preferred series of measures to control risks in order to prioritise starting with elimination and ending discipline b) Outline general hierarchy that should be applied in order to control health and safety risks in the workplace eliminate : remove trailing cables reduce : exposure time , reduce voltage isolate : cover with guard control : limit exposure time , frequency PPE : issue safety footwear Discipline : enforce rules and procedures 6. outline ways in which the health and safety culture of on organisation might be improved Management commitment to safety and good leadership 13

Health and safety training Use of competent personal Effective communication with the organization Insurance program full fill the job security Reinforcement standards Reward for achievement and penalties for failures Consultation their employer to prior to make decision 8. A) give the meaning of the term hazard b) Give four ways to identify hazards in the workplace 9. a) outline the purpose of an organisation health and safety policy 10. Identify the written information that is likely to be examined during a health and safety audit 14. an organisation has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill health identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce to the workers .

Sample questions
1. following a significant increase in accidents a health and safety campaign is to ba launched within an organisation to encourage safer working by employees a) outline how the organisation might ensure that the nature of the campaign is effectively communicated to , and understood by the employees . ensure that everyone within the organisation knows the part they have to play in the health and safety campaign the campaign should have clear aims and objectives and targets and to be clear on the means of achieving them key responsibilities for aspects of the campaign are allocated and accepted with full commitment to avoid mixed messages ensuring that the workforce are made fully aware of the campaign by means of tool box talks, team briefings, meetings ,training sessions and notice boards use of clear language (no jargon etc) to help understanding of the Champaign show that management is totally committed to the campaign giving ample time to ensure that everyone within the organisation is fully aware of and understands the need for the campaign. b) other than poor communication describe the organizational factors that could limit the effectiveness of the campaign lack of management commitment production or other pressures take priority over health and safety insufficient time , funds and resources are made available 14

a general poor safety culture poor working conditions create lack of interest among employees poor industrial relations and lack of confidence in managements ability work patterns (e.g. shift work) could mean some sections of the workforce are not considered or supported due to lack of key staff 2. outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an organisation 3. a) explain why it is important an organisation to set targets in terms of its health and safety performance c) outline six types of targets that an organisation might typically set in relation to health and safety 4. outline the key areas that should be addressed in the arrangements section of a health and safety policy document Making & reviewing risk assessments. Controlling exposure to specific hazards (e.g.: noise, radiation, hazardous substances, etc.). Measures for monitoring. Use of PPE. Reporting unsafe conditions & accidents. Controlling contractors. Ensuring safety of visitors. Maintenance procedures. Provision of welfare facilities. Dealing with emergencies. Measures for employee's consultation. Measure for training. Dealing with waste. 5. employers have a requirement placed upon them under health and safety to involve their employees a) explain the difference between consulting and informing
The HSE guide to the Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations draws a clear distinction between `informing' and `consulting'. Under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, employers have a duty to inform employees (ie provide information on hazards, risks and control measures) in order to help to ensure their health and safety. This general duty is echoed in a number of Regulations made under the Act. The Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996

b) outline the health and safety matters on which employers must consult their employees
the introduction of any measure at the workplace that may substantially affect employees' health and safety; the arrangements for appointing and / or nominating competent persons; the planning and organisation of health and safety training; the health and safety implications of introducing new technology; the information that the employer is required to provide under other Regulations, such as that relating to risk assessments, preventive measures and emergency procedures.

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6. outline ways in which the health and safety culture of an organisation might be improved 7. outline the main health and safety issues to be included in an induction training programme for new employees
Introduction of company health and safety policy. Importance of immediate reporting of faults, hazards, accidents and any shortcoming in safety arrangements. Importance of using equipment in accordance with instructions. No go areas or jobs .(non accessible areas) Information on employee safety representation. Information on enforcing authority for health and safety. emergency evacuation procedures. First aid facilities.

15. list the written information that is likely to be examined during a health and safety audit ?

12 MAY 2010
1 . A) Give the meaning of the term safe system of work b) identify the sources of information that could be consulted when developing a safe system of work Legislation Codes of practices British/European International Standards HSE guidance Manufactures data Accident record Risk assessment Opinion of the workforce Medical record c)identify the information that should be given to workers in a training session on a safe system of work ? 2. identify the information that should be included in an accident investigation report 1. Identify the factors that should be consider when developing a programme of health and safety training with in the organisation. what employees need to know with what they do know employees responsibilities activities carried out risks associated with activities action required by employees to minimize the risks employees existing knowledge and previous experience type of training already received different requirements for various levels of staff numbers involved resources needed ( cost ,time , facilities ) competence of own staff to deliver training / external sources communicating to employees and getting their commitment

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