Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

HUMAN VALUES A value, according to Webster, "the quality or fact of being excellent, Useful or desirable; worth in a thing.

ing. "As a verb it means "to place in a scale of values; as to value honor above riches." An ideology, according to Webster ,is the "manner or content of thinking characteristic of an individual or class

Personal value as an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach, 1973: 5) Personal values occupy a central position in an individuals cognitive makeup and that values influence attitudes and behaviors. desirable, trans-situational goals that vary in importance as guiding principles in peoples lives

Definitions of motivational types of values in terms of their goals and the single values that represent them: POWER: Social status and prestige. control or dominance over people and resources (Social Power. Authority. Wealth). ACHIEVEMENT: Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards (successful, capable, ambitious, and influential) HEDONISM: Pleasure and sensous gratification for oneself (Pleasure. Enjoying Life). STIMULATION: Excitement. novelty and challenge in life (Daring. a Varied Life, an Exciting life). SELF-DIRECTION: Independent thought and action-choosing. Creating. exploring ( creativity Freedom. Independent. (curious. choosing own goals) UNIVERSALISM: understanding. Appreciation. Tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature (Broadminded. Wisdom. Social Justice. Equality. A World at Peace. A world of beauty. Unity with Nature. Protecting the Environment). BENEVOLENCE: Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact (Helpful. Honest. Forgiving. Loyal. Responsible). TRADITION: Respect. commitment and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provides (Humble. Accepting my Portion in Life. Devout, Respect for tradition. Moderate). CONFORMITY: Restraint of actions. inclinations and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms (Politeness. Obedient. Self-discipline. Honoring parents and Elders). SECURITY: safety, harmony and stability of society. of relationships. and of self (Family security, national security Social Order. Clean. Reciprocation of Favors).

Values inuence every facet of human behavior attitudes, decisions, moral judgments, evaluations, and social action People seek these qualities in activities they engage, in objects they acquire, in principles they cultivate, in situations they live through, in professions they work, and in evaluations they make Values are, thus, prime drivers of personal, social, and professional choices.

HOW VALUES ALTER BEHAVIOR (1)VALUES principally determine what he regards as right, good, worthy, beautiful, ethical, and so forth (thus establishing his vocation and life goals and many of his motivations, for it may be assumed that he will seek that which he deems desirable). (2)Values also provide the standards and norms by which he guides his day-to-day behavior. (In this sense they constitute an integral part of his conscience.) (3)Values chiefly determine his attitudes toward the causes and issues (political, economic, social, and industrial) with which he comes into contact daily. (4) Values exert a powerful influence on the kinds and types of persons with whom he can be personally compatible and the kinds of social activities in which he can engage. (5) Values largely determine which ideas, principles, and concepts he can accept, assimilate, remember, and transmit without distortion. (6)They provide him with an almost unlimited number and variety of moral principles which can be employed to rationalize and justify any action he has taken or is contemplating (If his stand is totally unrealistic, ludicrous, or even harmful, he can still defend it "on principle.") The values a person holds are relatively few in number and that most individuals hold the same values, but with differing degrees of emphasis. The principal sources of his values are: The heroes he has worshiped in the course of his development and whose values, beliefs, and standards he has introjectedusually quite uncritically. His associates and peers whose acceptance and esteem are vital to him (Many people feel they must conform absolutely and blindly to the beliefs, standards, and values of their groups on penalty of ostracism. This is why the behavior of young people is frequently so bizarre and unrealistic.)

ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES Values have long been considered important to explaining action in and around organizations Organizations have been thought to reflect the values of their members corporate crises also have been attributed to breakdowns in the practice of organizational values stem from the vision and mission statements of the organization are incorporated in rules, policies, and practices to uphold the integrity of organizational members The top-level managers hold, practice, and promulgate OVs

Organizational values indicate how things ought to be, and how employees are expected to act or live in the organization. Such values are preserved formally by selecting personnel during recruitment whose values match with the organization The extent to which personal values match with OVs is considered to be one indicator of t between the individual and the organization Organizational socialization tactics such as mentoring, interaction with superiors, formal training, and participation in company-sponsored social events help in transmitting OVs