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Advisor:
Professor Dr.A.R.Saleemi

Co Advisor:
Hafiz Zaheer Aslam

Group Members
Asif Masih Sharazi Mohammad Mohsin Saadi Hassan Mufti Saira Rasheed Khan Sundus Fatima 2005-Chem-61 2005-Chem-75 2005-Chem-109 2005-Chem-29 2005-Chem-43

Presentation Contents
y Process Description y Design of CSTR y Design of Separator y Design of Absorber y Design of Heat Exchanger y Design of Distillation Column

Equipment Coding
R E C P M V = = = = = = Reactor Heat Exchanger Column Pump Mixer Vessel

y Selection of Reactor y Reaction Kinetics y Volume of CSTR y Selection of agitator y Wall thickness y Head thickness y Jacket area

Selection of Reactor
y Type of reaction y Temperature and pressure of reaction y Need for removal or addition of reactants and products y Catalyst use consideration y Relative cost of reactor y Available space y Safety

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y Gives a comparison of reaction rate with rate of

diffusion of gas into liquid


F = [k1 CB DA ] /kL = 0.122 Enhancement Factor E=1

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0.02< F<2 and E =1  Reaction takes place in the liquid phase  Reaction is moderate These conditions requires  High interfacial area  High liquid hold-up To fulfill these requirements CSTR is the best
Ref:Coulson, Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Vol: 3, Edit: 3, (196-212), 1994.

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Advantages of CSTR  Very less chances of coalescence  High liquid hold up  High interfacial area  Less resistance in gas diffusion Bubble Column: Greater chances of coalescence Packed Bubble Column: Greater pressure drop
Ref:Coulson, Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Vol: 3, Edit: 3, (196-212), 1994.
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Chemical Reaction
CH3COOCH3+ CO (CH3CO)2 + H2
Slow Fast

(CH3CO)2 CH3CHO + CH3COOH

Complete Reaction 160C CH3COOCH3+CO+ H2


310.2KPa

CH3COOH+CH3CHO

Heat of Reaction Catalyst

7.9x103 KJ/Kg mol CH3COOPd

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T=25C P=312KPa 312Kpa 25 C

T=160C 310.2KPa P=310KPa 160 C

T=160C P=310KPa

190 C 1255.1Kpa

310.2KPa 160 C

368KPa T=160C P=368KPa 160 C


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Reaction Kinetics
rB k1 K1 K2 P B W A* = = = = = = = = (k1K1K2PBWA*)/(1+K1P+K1K1PA*) Rate constant Adsorption coefficient for CO Adsorption coefficient for H2 CH3I Concentration CH3COOCH3 concentration Catalyst (CH3COOPd) concentration Equilibrium dissolved concentration of CO

Ref: Ashutosh, A.Kelkar, Rengaswamy Jaganathan, and Raghunath V.Chaudhari ,Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ACS,Vol.40,No.7,2001
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k1 K1 K2 P B W A* rB

= = = = = = = =
=

0.112 m3/Kgmol.sec 1.75 m3/Kg mol 2.86 m3/Kg mol 0.09 Kg mol/m3 0.09 Kg mol/m3 8.89 Kg mol/m3 0.004939 Kg mol/m3 k1K1K2PBWA*/(1+K1P+K1K1PA*)
0.0016 kg mol/m3.sec
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Volume of Reaction Mixture


Vr/FBO
Vr

=
=

XB/rB
21.2 m3

Ref: Octave Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Edition:3, (91-113)


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Space time & Space Velocity


=
=

Vr/Vo

463 sec 1/ 2.16 x 10-3 sec-1

= =

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Length & Diameter


Length and Diameter Calculation V=(TD2/4) x L L/D = 1 So L = 5.20m D = 5.20m

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Volume of Reactor
If Rated Capacity<1.89m3 Allowable head space is taken 15% If rated capacity >1.89m3 Allowable head space is taken 10% Allowable head space= Reactor Volume = = 21.2 x0.1 = 21.2+21.12 23.32m3 2.12m

Ref:Coulson, Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Vol: 3, Edit: 3, (196-212), 1994.


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Selection of Agitator
Factors affecting the selection
y Mixing pattern(axial, radial) y Capacity of vessel y Density and viscosity of fluid viscosity

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Three basic types of Impeller 1. Flat blade (Rushton) turbines(Suitable for shear controlled processes) 2. Propeller and Pitched blade turbines(suitable for bulk fluid mixing) 3. Anchor and Helical ribbon agitators90Suitable for highly viscous fluids)
Ref: Coulson, Richardson, Chemical Engineering, ButterworthHeinemann, Vol: 3, Edit: 3, (196-212), 1994.

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Agitator Design
For turbine agitator Da/DT = 1/3 ,
J/DT = W/Da = La/Da = E/DT = 1/12 , 1/5 , 1/4 , 1/3 , Da J W La E = = = = = Impeller diameter Width of Baffles Impeller Width Length of Impeller blades Impeller Height above vessel floor
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Da/DT J/DT E/DT W/Da La/Da

= = = = =

1/3 1/12 1/3 1/5 1/4

, , , , ,

Da J E W La

= = = = =

1.73m 0.43m 1.73m 0.35m 0.43m

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Power Calculation
Re Np NP P = = = = = = = Da2 NP V/Q 8.37 x 106 KT Reb Frc KT = NpDa5N3V/g 7290W 9.8hp

6.30

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Material of Construction
Factors affecting the selection of material 1. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength 2. The effect of high and low temperatures on the mechanical properties 3. Corrosion resistance 4. Any special properties required; such as thermal conductivity, electrical resistance, magnetic properties 5. Ease of fabrication-forming, welding, casting 6. Availability in standard sizes-plates, sections, tubes 7. Cost
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y Austenitic Stainless Steel y High Tensile Strength y High Corrosion resistance

Material Specification IS:1570-1961 Designation: Cr=19% Ni=9% Mo=3% Ti=20%


Ref: Bhattacharyya, Chemical Equipment Design Mechanical Aspects,CBS,Edition:1,(261-265),2001

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Design Temperature
 The strength of metals decreases with increasing

temperature so the maximum allowable design stress will depend on the material temperature.  The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working temperature of the material.  We chose austenitic stainless steel for the fabrication of CSTR for which the design stress is evaluated at 200rC. So the Design temperature of the CSTR is 200rC.
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Design Pressure
y This is normally be 5 to 10 per cent above the normal

working pressure, to avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets. y When deciding the design pressure, the hydrostatic pressure in the base of the column should be added to the operating pressure, if significant.
Ref: Coulson, Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Vol: 3, Edit: 3, (807), 1994.

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PHydrostatic

POperating PDesign

= = = = = = =

Vgh 56259.8Pa 56.3KPa 56.3+310.2 366.5KPa 366.5+(366.5 x 0.05) 384.83 KPa

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Wall Thickness
y The thickness of process vessel is chosen so that it is not

only adequate against the induced stresses caused by internal pressure, but also ensures safety against stresses caused by extraneous agencies.
y The thickness of wall depends on the pressure and

temperature of vessel.

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tw tw P Di f

P Di/(2fJ-P) wall thickness design pressure inner diameter of vessel allowable design stress for material specified J = joint efficiency factor tw = 8.86 x10-3m = 8.86mm Standard plate thickness = 9mm

= = = = =

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Selection of Head
Factors affecting selection of Head  Process temperature and pressure  Nature of the materials to be handled  Position of the vessel(Horizontal or vertical)  Nature of the support  Economy
Ref: Bhattacharyya, Chemical Aspects,CBS,Edition:1,(39-42),2001 Equipment Design Mechanical

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Head Type

Characteristics

Flat

High discontinuity stresses , high material cost Suitable for pressure above 1.5MN/m2

Ellipsoidal

Hemispherical

Suitable for heavy duty high pressure vessels, most expensive Suitable for removal of solids from process vessels, commonly used ads reducers Suitable for low pressure vertical vessels
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Conical

Torispherical

Head Thickness
tH = P Do C/2fJ Solution of above equation will require iteration because C(stress concentration factor) is a function of tH. ri = 0.06 x Do assume Ri = Ro = Do

Ref: Bhattacharyya, Chemical Aspects,CBS,Edition:1,(51-56),2001

Equipment

Design

Mechanical

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ho Do2/(4Ro) (Do ro/2)1/2

= = = =

Ro [( Ro - Do /2) x (Ro + Do/2 2ro )]1/2 0.88m 1.302m 0.903m

Effective external height of head hE = 0.903m hE/Do = 0.17

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tH/Do

PC/2fJ

1.704 x 10-3C

By iteration C=1.32 and tH/Do = 0.002 tH = 11.9 x 10-3m = 11.9mm Standard sheet available is of thickness12mm

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Torispherical Head

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Jacket Area
Area of Jacket As L=Di so Area of Jacket = = = = = = Di L + Di2/4 5 Di2/4 106.13m2 14C 160C 6.5 x 106 KJ/h

Jacket Temperature Reaction Temperature Heat Duty of CSTR

Ref: D.Q.Kern, Process Heat Transfer, (716-720, 791-846)


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Heating Media

Water at 10C

Heat Transferred through jacket Qj = Uj Aj (Tj-TR) = 3.16 x 107 KJ/h Qj > QR so only jacket is enough to provide the required heat to maintain the temperature at 160C
Ref: Harry Silla, Chemical Engineering Design and Economics, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, (240,375-394), 2003.

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Specification Sheet
Item Number of Item Item Code Capacity Operating Temperature Operating Pressure Length Diameter Impeller Diameter Wall thickness Material of Construction Head type Head thickness Jacket area CSTR 1 R-100 23.32m3 160C 366.5KPa 5.20m 5.20m 1.73m 9 x 10-3m Austenitic Stainless Steel Torispherical 12 x 10-3m 106.13m2
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