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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT

Outline
Notes to Students Assembling Te m ! Sel" Sele#tion

Condu#ting E""e#ti$e Meetings P%o&e#t Pl nning ' si#s P%o&e#t E(e#ution S)stem Cost*'ene"it An l)sis +o%, '%e ,do-n St tement G ntt C. %t ' si#s /sing E(#el to M ,e G ntt C. %ts P%o&e#t M n gement P #, ges PERT*CPM Te#.ni0ue "o% P%o&e#t Pl nning T.e P%o&e#t Re1o%t

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

Notes to Students
This book is designed to provide an in-depth introduction to the use of Data Flow Diagramming techni ues in the !nal"sis and Design of #nformation S"stems$ Since it will be of most use to students of #nformation S"stems Development, it begins with coverage of methods of planning and organi%ing #nformation S"stems Development &ro'ects$ &lanning is an important first step in the comple( undertaking of an #nformation S"stems Development &ro'ect$ )ach student must locate himself*herself in a group, i$e$ self-selection of groups$ Students, thus coalesced into groups, must begin to nurture this group into a team$ The group must document its e(istence and its products continuall" during its e(istence, starting with a name$ The first piece of documentation that is a +product, - meaning that it must be handed in to the lecturer - is the group cover sheet$ This one-page document will include -roup .ame, names of group members, student #D .umbers, e-mail address of group, phone contact number, roles of group members /such as 0eader, Secretar", Technical Specialist, Documentation Specialist, 1ommunications Specialist, 2esearcher3$ 4ther activities include group nurturing and development, having group meetings, determining ob'ectives, selecting sub'ect compan" /client3, planning and scheduling pro'ect work$ The ne(t important issue to be covered is the determination of re uirements, which is one of the most challenging tasks facing the S"stems !nal"st$ Determining 2e uirements simpl" means finding out what t"pe of s"stem the organi%ation needs, and what are the specific things needed to be done in order to produce a s"stem which will meet the needs of the organi%ation$ 4f course, this is not reall" simple at all$ There are reall" no pre-e(isting re uirements that are +cast in stone,$ #f the anal"st is fortunate enough to find a well-documented information s"stem in place, he should be happ" because his 'ob ma" be simplified$ #t is sometimes easier to fi( a broken s"stem than to build one from scratch - sometimes$ The needs of the organi%ation are placed first$ 4f course, the anal"st must have his needs taken care of even before this$ #f the anal"st is unhapp" /or unethical3 the organi%ation ma" end up being unhapp" with the resultant s"stem$ These needs must be goal-directed towards the achievement of goal achievement and goal congruence with all of the stakeholders of the information s"stems pro'ect$ #t is important for "ou to gain a deep understanding of the concepts "ou will encounter$ Such understanding will be particularl" relevant if "ou now work, or plan to work, in an organi%ation$ The tools "ou will learn to use can be e(tremel" helpful in facilitating

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

organi%ation discourse towards organi%ational effectiveness$ #nformation is crucial for sound decision-making in an" organi%ation and it would definitel" be an asset to be able to gain a deep understanding of organi%ations so that "ou ma" be better able to make a significant contribution to "our own organi%ation$

Assembling

Te m ! Sel" Sele#tion

During the first week of this course "ou are re uired to organi%e "ourselves in groups, then schedule and plan the pro'ect$ #t is important when choosing group members to6 1$ Do this earl" 7 get moving, talking, networking 5$ Take full names, #D numbers, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses$ 8$ 1hoose people who do similar courses or at least have similar time schedules to allow sufficient meeting times$ 1oordination and coherence in this pro'ect is important$ 9ou cannot simpl" divide the pro'ect into sections and allocate, meeting in the end$ 9ou must have continuous communication$ :$ 1hoose people who "ou can work well with, and make friends with them$ ;$ 1hoose people who are industrious and would read ahead$ <$ 1hoose people who would pull their workload$ This pro'ect is large and demanding$ #t re uires the participation of all$ =$ Select a -roup 0eader, 1ommunications Specialist, Documentation Specialist and a Technical Specialist, and then let the 0eader lead$ !fter selecting "our group members, the ne(t step is planning and scheduling how the pro'ect work should be completed$ This is a rigorous pro'ect and too man" times groups are left scrambling in the end and spending man" sleepless nights$ )ffective planning is necessar"$

Do#ument tion
The importance of documentation cannot be overemphasi%ed$ The group will use documentation as an essential component of its establishment of identit", discourse and negotiation, claims of legitimac", and goal attainment$ Documentation is also a ke" facilitator of communication, ensuring that all group members remain +on the same

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

page,$ #t can also be used most effectivel" for purposes of control, from the perspectives of self-control and goal-directed control$

G%ou1 Nu%tu%ing nd De$elo1ment


The group, now formed, must go through the stages of storming, norming and conforming$ Feel free to bring out "our issues to the group, fight over leadership, argue "our principles, whatever$ Fight it out and settle down, make "our rules, norming, - then conform, through "our attention to getting the 'ob done$ Tough 0ove$ 4f course, some group members ma" need a more gentle +touch"-feel", approach$ The point is to satisf" one another>s needs first, then get on with determining organi%ational needs$

Gi$ing Good Meetings


The management of meetings is a specific set of skills often overlooked b" managers and professionals$ There is no department of meetings, "et the meeting is a well-used /even if not used well3 event geared towards getting things done after the meeting and sometimes before the ne(t meeting$ Man" people focus on the agenda and then on the minutes of meetings$ These are important, but # like to emphasi%e an often overlooked device, the !ction #tems, which # will define later$ The ne(t approach # want to take is to make some suggestions as to the things "ou ma" do to make "our meetings a success$ Since there are man" kinds of meetings there are no standard rules for success, "ou have to make "ou own rules to reflect "our uni ue circumstances$ The attendees The agenda The ground rules 4pening the meeting Documenting - Minutes - !ction items Managing time 1losing the meeting

T.e ttendees The group secretar" or group leader usuall" takes the initiative in calling the meeting$ The decision about who is to attend depends on what "ou want to accomplish in the meeting$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007) -

Chapter One

#f possible, call each person to tell them about the meeting, its overall purpose and wh" their attendance is important$ Follow-up "our call with a meeting notice, including the purpose of the meeting, where it will be held and when, the list of participants and whom to contact if the" have uestions$ Send out a cop" of the proposed agenda along with the meeting notice$ ?ave someone designated to record minutes, action items and due dates during the meeting$ This person should ensure that this information is distributed to all participants shortl" after the meeting$

T.e gend The group leader would normall" develop the agenda together with ke" participants in the meeting$ Think of what overall outcome "ou want from the meeting and what activities need to occur to reach that outcome$ The agenda should be organi%ed so that these activities are conducted during the meeting$ #n the agenda, state the overall outcome that "ou want from the meeting$ Design the agenda so that participants get involved earl" b" having something for them to do right awa" and so the" come on time$ .e(t to each ma'or topic, include the t"pe of action needed, the t"pe of output e(pected /decision, vote, action assigned to someone3, and time estimates for addressing each topic$ !sk participants if the"@ll commit to the agenda$ Aeep the agenda posted at all times$ Don@t overl" design meetingsB be willing to adapt the meeting agenda if members are making progress in the planning process$ Think about how "ou label an event, so people come in with that mindsetB it ma" pa" to have a short dialogue around the label to develop a common mindset among attendees, particularl" if the" include representatives from various cultures$

T.e g%ound %ules 9ou don@t need to develop new ground rules each time "ou have a meeting, surel"$ ?owever, it pa"s to have a few basic ground rules that can be used for most of "our meetings$ These ground rules cultivate the basic ingredients needed for a successful meeting$ Four powerful ground rules are6 participate, get focused, maintain momentum and reach closure$ /9ou ma" want a ground rule about confidentialit"$3 0ist "our primar" ground rules on the agenda$ #f "ou have new attendees who are not used to "our meetings, "ou might review each ground rule$ Aeep the ground rules posted at all times$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

O1ening t.e meeting !lwa"s start on timeB this respects those who showed up on time and reminds late-comers that the scheduling is serious$ Celcome attendees and thank them for their time$ 2eview the agenda at the beginning of each meeting, giving participants a chance to understand all proposed ma'or topics, change them and accept them$ .ote that the secretar" will take minutes and action items, and provide these to each participant shortl" after the meeting$ 1larif" the roles of participants in the meeting$

Do#umenting ! Minutes 2 A#tion items Ce have alread" discussed the !genda - it starts the meeting$ The ma'or Dproducts> of the meeting however are the Minutes and the !ction #tems$ The Minutes are a record of the discussions that took place during the meeting$ The" ma" be recorded b" hand b" the Secretar" during the meeting, or the" ma" be recorded and transcribed later$ E! summar" rather than full te(t is acceptable$ This is ke" documentar" evidence of the group>s e(istence and activities 7 it is a +product,$ The !ction #tems is a list or a Dgrid> of the things that need to be done b" members of the group$ These would have been agreed to b" members$ The !ction #tems is also a group Dproduct> and would include task name, estimated time, responsible member, and task details$

M n ging time 4ne of the most difficult facilitation tasks is time management -- time seems to run out before tasks are completed$ Therefore, the biggest challenge is keeping momentum to keep the process moving$ 9ou might ask attendees to help "ou keep track of the time$ #f the planned time on the agenda is getting out of hand, present it to the group and ask for their input as to a resolution$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007) Closing t.e meeting -

Chapter One

!lwa"s end meetings on time and attempt to end on a positive note$ !t the end of a meeting, review action items and assignments$ Set the time for the ne(t meeting and ask each person if the" can make it or not /to get their commitment3$ 1larif" that meeting minutes and action items will be provided to members in 5: hours /this helps to keep momentum going3$

This section was adapted from +Basic -uide to 1onducting )ffective Meetings, b" 1arter Mc.amara /http6 **www$ managementhelp$org *misc*mtgmgmnt$htm3$

/sing Po-e%Point to Im1%o$e Meetings


C%e ting n Agend Slide !genda slides have multiple purposes$ The" can be used to create meeting agendas or the" can be used to create a table of contents to a long presentation$ To create an agenda slide, move into Slide So%te% or Outline view and b" holding down the S.i"t ke", select the slides whose titles "ou want to use$ Then from the toolbar click Summ %) Slide$ The Summar" slide will appear at the beginning of "our presentation$ !genda slides can be h"perlinked$ This is ver" useful if "ou want to 'ump around in "our presentation$ Meeting Minde% During a presentation "ou can take notes or meeting minutes b" right clicking on the Meeting Minde% or S1e ,e% Notes and selecting the appropriate item$ This enables "ou to electronicall" incorporate feedback "ou get during the meeting into action items and meeting minutes$ 9ou can E(1o%t the notes "ou take to Cord for fanc"ing up the te(t, assigning action items, or scheduling other meetings$ #f "ou select Speaker .otes, an" notes "ou make will go with the slide that "ou are viewing at the time "ou select Speaker .otes$ This might be preferred if "ou have lots of notes to take$ http6**courses$washington$edu*hs;FGa*modules*18*advanced*advppt18a$htmlHmeetings

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

P%o&e#t Pl nning ' si#s


! Project is a set of activities which ends with specific accomplishment and which has the following6 /13 .on-routine tasks /53 Distinct start and finish dates /83 2esource constraints /e$g$ time, mone", people, e uipment3$ Tas s are activities that must be completed to achieve the pro'ect goal$ Break down the pro'ect into tasks and sub-tasks$ Tasks have start and end points$ The" are short, relative to the pro'ect, and are significant$ Ise a verb-noun form for naming tasks, e$g$ Jcreate drawingsJ or Jbuild protot"peJ$ Ise action verbs such as JcreateJ, JdefineJ and JgatherJ rather than Jwill be madeJ$ )ach task has a specific time period /duration3, but it ma" be ver" difficult to estimate length of time periods accuratel"$ Doubling "our best guess usuall" works well$ !ilestones are important checkpoints or interim goals for a pro'ect$ The" can be used to catch scheduling problems earl"$ Ise the noun-verb form for naming milestones, e$g$ Jreport dueJ, Jparts orderedJ, Jprotot"pe completeJ$ #t also helps to identif" risk" areas for the pro'ectB for e(ample, things "ou don@t know how to do but will have to learn, or how long it will take to receive components "ou purchased for the pro'ect$ These are risk" because "ou do not have a good idea of how long the task will take$ Your plan will need to evolve, so be flexible and update it on a regular basis. Pl nning nd S#.eduling t.e P%o&e#t 1$ Take note of the &ro'ect 2eport format at the end of this 1hapter$ 5$ #dentif" the tasks that "ou will need to complete for the &ro'ect$ -enerate a -antt 1hart and allocate responsibilities for completion of all tasks$ -antt 1harts are discussed later on in this 1hapter$ 8$ #t is important to take minutes at ever" meeting, and assign action items$ :$ !ction items are the same tasks when the" are assigned to members of the group$ )ach group member is responsible for the completion of specific action items$ ;$ )ach week the group should assess whether the pro'ect work is completed as initiall" scheduled and take corrective steps to ensure timel" pro'ect e(ecution$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

<$ D4 .4T break the pro'ect into parts, give a part to each group member, and have each member hand in a completed part one week before the end of the semester$ =$ D4 .4T leave all the work up to one or two group members$ .on-participants will be graded accordingl"B be prepared for a minimum of %ero /G3 in the pro'ect$

P%o&e#t E(e#ution
34 S)stems Stud) 4ne of the initial stages of the pro'ect is the outline of the S"stems Stud" that involves the overview of compan" documents, uestionnaires, observations and interviews$ This is one of the most important steps in the pro'ect$ The aim at this stage is to understand the 4rgani%ation, its goals and ob'ectives, and its information needs$ 54 Det iled Results o" S)stems Stud) !fter stud"ing the e(isting s"stem, "ou should anal"%e e(isting input and output documents of the current s"stem, write narrative descriptions of processes and generate dataflow diagrams$ The aim is to prepare narratives, which tell a stor" of the organi%ation>s processes, i$e$ the things the" do, to produce data and information$ The stories can then be represented b", or translated into, Data Flow Diagrams$ The DFDs are a tool, which is used to facilitate communications between the various persons involved in the s"stems building e(ercise$ These people include designers, end-users, anal"sts, programmers, and management$ 64 S)stems Alte%n ti$es 1onsider various alternatives of full computeri%ation, partial computeri%ation, reorgani%ation of manual s"stem and maintaining the status uo$ )valuate these alternatives and carr" out a cost*benefit anal"sis$ 1ost*Benefit !nal"sis is discussed later in this 1hapter$ 74 Re#ommend tion 9ou need to generate Dataflow Diagrams for "our proposed s"stem$ 9ou also have to do a preliminar" design of "our proposed s"stem including .arratives, Data Flow Diagrams, Data Store Descriptions, &rocess Specifications, Design of #nterface, and &reliminar" 4utput*#nput Design /protot"pes3$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

S)stem Cost*'ene"it An l)sis


Because the process of developing information s"stems can be costl", a preliminar" stud" called a "easi#ility st$%y is often re uired$ The goal of feasibilit" studies is to evaluate alternative s"stems and to propose the most realistic and desirable s"stem for development$ The ma'or categories for feasibilit" evaluation are6 organi&ational' economic' technical' an% operational( Organizational: 4rgani%ational Feasibilit" focuses on how well a proposed information s"stem supports the ob'ectives of the organi%ation and its strategic plan$ )conomic Feasibilit" addresses whether e(pected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, and other t"pes of benefits will e(ceed the cost of developing and operating a proposed s"stem$ Technical Feasibilit" determines whether reliable hardware and software e(ist or can be developed within the re uired time$ 4perational Feasibilit" looks at the willingness and abilit" of the management, emplo"ees, customers, suppliers and others to operate, use and support a proposed s"stem$

Economic:

Technical: Operational:

Feasibilit" studies usuall" involve Cost)*ene"it Analysis$ 1osts and benefits ma" be tangible / uantifiable3 or intangible /difficult to uantif"3$ Tangible Costs: ntangible Costs: 1ost of hardware, software, emplo"ee salaries, cost of services, office space, training, furniture and fittings$ 1ost of loss of customer goodwill, cost of training for customers, cost of loss of emplo"ee morale, cost of internal political turmoil and disruptions to operations$ #ncreases in sales or profits Decrease in information processing costs Decrease in operating costs Decrease in re uired investment #ncrease in operational abilit" and efficienc"

Tangible !enefits:

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

1G

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007) ntangible !enefits: .ew or improved information availabilit" #mproved abilities in computation and anal"sis #mproved customer service #mproved emplo"ee morale #mproved management decision-making #mproved competitive position #mproved business and communit" image

Chapter One

+o%, '%e ,do-n St tement


!nother tool used in planning the pro'ect is the Cork Breakdown Statement /CBS3, which is a categori%ed list of tasks with an estimate of resources re uired to complete the task$ !n e(ample CBS appears below$

+'S No4 1$ 5$ 8$ :$ ;$ <$ =$ K$ F$ 1G$ 11$ 15$ 18$ 1:$ 1;$

T s, Des#%i1tion ?igh level anal"sis Selection of hardware platform #nstallation*1ommissioning of hardware Detailed anal"sis of core modules Detailed anal"sis of supporting utilities &rogramming of core modules &rogramming of supporting modules Lualit" assurance of core modules Lualit" assurance of supporting modules 1ore module training Development of accounting reporting Development of management reporting Development of management anal"sis Detailed training Documentation

Estim ted +.o Du% tion ; da"s 1 da" 5 weeks 5 weeks 5 weeks 8 weeks 8 weeks 1 week 1 week 1 da" 1 week 1 week 5 weeks 1 week 5 weeks

Resou%#es M 2 S

/MMS N Materials M Supplies3

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

G ntt C. %t ' si#s


Your group is expected to produce a "antt Chart and to #eep it up$to$date for use in planning and reporting on %our pro&ect. 'se () Excel or () *ro&ect +or e,uivalent- to produce %our chart. ! -antt chart is a pro'ect-planning tool that can be used to represent the timing of tasks re uired to complete a pro'ect$ -antt charts are simple to understand and eas" to construct$ The" are used b" most pro'ect managers for all but the most comple( pro'ects$ #n a -antt chart, each task takes up one row$ Dates run along the top in increments of da"s, weeks or months, depending on the total length of the pro'ect$ The e(pected time for each task is represented b" a hori%ontal bar whose left end marks the e(pected beginning of the task and whose right end marks the e(pected completion date$ Tasks ma" run se uentiall", in parallel, or overlapping$ !s the pro'ect progresses, the chart is updated b" filling in the bars to a length proportional to the fraction of work that has been accomplished on the task$ This wa", one can get a uick reading of pro'ect progress b" drawing a vertical line through the chart at the current date$ 1ompleted tasks lie to the left of the line and are completel" filled in$ 1urrent tasks cross the line, and are behind schedule if their filled-in section is to the left of the line$ Tasks are ahead of schedule if the filled-in section stops to the right of the line$ Future tasks lie completel" to the right of the line$ #n constructing a -antt chart, keep the tasks to a manageable number /no more than 1; or 5G3 so that the chart fits on a single page$ More comple( pro'ects ma" re uire subordinate charts, which detail the timing of all the subtasks, which make up one of the main tasks$ For team pro'ects, it often helps to have an additional column containing numbers or initials, which identif" who on the team, is responsible for the task$ 4ften the pro'ect has important events that "ou would like to appear on the pro'ect timeline, but which are not tasks$ For e(ample, "ou ma" wish to highlight when a protot"pe is complete, or the date of a design review$ 9ou enter these on a -antt chart as JmilestoneJ events and mark them with a special s"mbol, often an upside-down triangle$ The simplest -antt 1hart ma" look like this6 Ceeks -enerate &ro'ects Test Design 1 5 8 : ; < =

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

/sing E(#el to m ,e G ntt C. %ts


"antt charts made with Excel are eas% to update and maintain. 1$ 4n paper, make a list of tasks$ For each task assign tentative start and stop dates /or durations3 and the people responsible$ 5$ !lso list important milestones and their dates$ 8$ #f "ou have more than 1; or 5G tasks, split "our pro'ect into main tasks and subtasks, then make an overall -antt 1hart for the main tasks$ :$ Make separate -antt 1harts for the sub-tasks that make up each main task$ ;$ Decide what resolution to use in the timeline$ For pro'ects of three months or less use da"s, for longer pro'ects use weeks or months, and for ver" short pro'ects use hours$ /For these instructions, choose a resolution of da"s$3 )et 'p in Excel 1$ Inder &age Setup, select landscape orientation, then select the margin tab and center the chart hori%ontall" and verticall" on the page$ 5$ !lso under &age Setup, activate the Jfit to one pageJ button$ 8$ #f the te(t comes out too small, "ou ma" have to print "our chart on two pages and paste togetherB or, even better, ad'ust the resolution of "our date scale or drop less important tasks to make "our chart fit comfortabl" on one page$ :$ Still under &age Setup, check that the header and footer are blank$ #t@s better to put the title right on the spreadsheet rather than use the header for the title$ T%pe 1$ T"pe in the tasks$ 5$ T"pe in weeks or da"s heading using Dmerge and center> button on the toolbar$ 8$ Make columns narrow to represent the smallest unit "ou re uire$ )et up cells 1$ 9ou can use the sample as a guide$ 5$ )nter "our scheduling data$ To make the gra" bars /shaded area3 that indicate length of task - select the appropriate cells, then the Dfill> button on the toolbar$ 8$ Ise the border button on the toolbar to put a border around each shaded area /representing length of task3 in each line$ :$ &ut a border around entire area to be printed$ Tid% up 1$ B" selecting Dprint preview> button on the toolbar "ou can note where "ou need to use bold letters, underline, etc$ 5$ !s the pro'ect progresses, fill in the gra" bars with black to denote the fraction of a task that is complete$ 8$ 1op" and paste into MS Cord$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

S)stems De$elo1ment

G ntt C. %t

E( m1le in E(#el

Task
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1) 11 12 13 14 15 High level analysis Selection of hard are !latfor" #nstallation$co""issioning of hard are %etailed analysis of core "od&les %etailed analysis of s&!!orting &tilities 'rogra""ing of core "od&les 'rogra""ing of s&!!orting "od&les (&ality ass&rance of core "od&les (&ality ass&rance of s&!!orting "od&les *ore "od&le training %evelo!"ent of acco&nting re!orting %evelo!"ent of "anage"ent re!orting %evelo!"ent of "anage"ent analysis %etailed training %oc&"entation

Weeks
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

&lease review and update the -antt 1hart ever" 1: da"s, or more often if needed$ For more information on -antt 1harts and how to use them "ou ma" refer to http6** www$ -anttchart$ com$

P%o&e#t M n gement P #, ges


9ou can also create -antt 1harts using a pro'ect management computer package$ The following sample chart made using Microsoft &ro'ect is taken in large part from C$ Durfee M T$ 1hase /5GG83 and ma" be referenced at the following website - http6** www$ me$umn$edu*courses*me:G;:*assignments*gantt$ ?tml$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

To embed a -antt 1hart created using MS &ro'ect into a MS Cord document, 1$ -et the chart showing on the screen, then )dit O 1op" &icture$ $ $ O to -#F file$ 5$ #mport the -#F file into Cord$ 8$ 2otate it FG degrees, or as needed, in MS &aint to get it to fit and be readable$ Follow these guidelines in creating "our chart6 Ise weeks as the time unit #nclude the Mid-&ro'ect 2eview, Design Show, and Final 2eport Due as milestones$ Do not have more than four additional milestones$ Show more detail on design tasks, less detail on reports*documentation* presentation tasks$ 9ou should have about three- uarter design tasks and oneuarter documentation*presentation related tasks$

PERT*CPM Te#.ni0ue "o% P%o&e#t Pl nning


This techni ue is one of the most advanced approaches for planning comple( pro'ects$ #t was concurrentl" developed b" the IS militar" and b" private corporations, and gained great recognition when used b" .!S! to plan space e(ploration pro'ects$ &rogram )valuation and 2eview Techni ue /&)2T3 and 1ritical &ath Method /1&M3 are
Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

two closel" related techni ues for monitoring the progress of a large pro'ect$ ! ke" part of &)2T*1&M is calculating the critical path$ That is, identif"ing the subset of the activities that must be performed e(actl" as planned in order for the pro'ect to finish on time. &)2T became famous when it was developed and used for the management of the development of the &olaris fleet ballistic missile s"stem for the I$S$ .av"$ This pro'ect was notable in that it finished 1K months ahead of schedule and within budget$ !t roughl" the same time, the Du&ont compan" was using 1&M to manage its construction and repair of manufacturing plants$ Ce will start b" looking at a simple e(ample of a standard &)2T*1&M without complications$ The calculation of the critical path is conceptuall" simple, although for large pro'ects it is convenient to automate it$ #n the table below, we list the activities involved in the simple, but nontrivial, pro'ect of building a house$ !n activit" cannot be started until all of its predecessors are finished6 P%ede#esso%s 8Mnemoni#9 --D#F4I.D F4I.D F4I.D C!00S, &4I2B P4#STS F0442 2!FT)2S 24I-?, 244F &4I2B, C!00S

A#ti$it) Dig Basement &our Foundation &our Basement #nstall Floor Poists #nstall Calls #nstall 2afters #nstall Flooring 2ough #nterior #nstall 2oof Finish #nterior 0andscape

Mnemoni# D#F4I.D &4I2B P4#STS C!00S 2!FT)2S F0442 24I-? 244F F#.#S? S1!&)

A#ti$it) Time 8 : 8 : ; 8 : < = : F

#n Figure 1, we show the so-called &)2T /or activit"-on-arrow3 network for this pro'ect$ Ce would like to calculate the minimum elapsed time to complete this pro'ect$ 2elative to this figure, the number of interest is simpl" the longest path from left to right in this figure$ The pro'ect can be completed no sooner than the sum of the times of the successive activities on this path$ 1learl", . " and /O'0. must be on the critical path$ !lso, at least one of / 0 )1 and )C2*E must be on the critical path$ Qerif" for "ourself that the critical path consists of activities . ": /O'0., 3244), 52/TE5), 5OO/, and / 0 )1 and has a length of 5<$

Figure 1 !ctivit"-on-!rc &)2T*1&M .etwork 1<

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

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A#ti$it);on;A%# $s4 A#ti$it);on;Node Net-o%, Di g% ms Two conventions are used in practice for displa"ing pro'ect networks6 /13 !ctivit"-on!rc /!4!3 and /53 !ctivit"-on-.ode /!4.3$ 4ur previous e(ample used the !4! convention$ The characteristics of the two are6 2O0 )ach activit" is represented b" a node in the network$ ! precedence relationship between two activities is represented b" an arc or link between the two$ !4. ma" be less error prone because it does not need dumm" activities or arcs$ )ach activit" is represented b" an arc in the network$ #f activit" 6 must precede activit" Y, there are 6 leads into arc Y$ Thus, the nodes represent events or +milestones, /e$g$, +finished activit" 6,3$ Dumm" activities of %ero length ma" be re uired to properl" represent precedence relationships$ !4! historicall" has been more popular, perhaps because of its similarit" to -antt charts used in scheduling$ ! small pro'ect with si( activities is displa"ed in 2O0 form in Figure 5$ The number ne(t to each node is the duration of the activit"$ B" inspection, "ou can discover that the longest path consists of activities 2, C, E, and /$ #t has a length of 5F$ The corresponding 2O2 network for the same pro'ect is shown in Figure 8$ #n the 2O2 network, we have enclosed the activit" letters in circles above the associated arc$ The unenclosed numbers below each arc are the durations of the activities$ Ce have given the nodes, or milestones,
Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

2O2

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Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

arbitrar" number designations enclosed in s uares$ .otice the dumm" activit" /the dotted arc3 between nodes 8 and :$ This is because a dumm% activit% will be re,uired in an 2O2 diagram an%time that two activities /e$g$, 2 and !3 share some /e$g$, activit" .3, but not all /e$g$, activit" C3, successor activities. Figure 5 !n !ctivit"-on .ode 2epresentation F
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This section was adapted from an !pplication Surve" &aper, +&ro'ect &lanning with &)2T*S&M, b" 0#.D4 S"stems 5GG8 /http6** www$lindo$ com*pertcpm:$pdf3$

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

1K

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

T.e P%o&e#t Re1o%t


The preceding pro'ect management techni ues are to be used in the planning of "our s"stems development pro'ect$ The ob'ective and deliverable of the pro'ect is a &ro'ect 2eport$ #n other words what must be produced at the end of the pro'ect is a comprehensive report, the format of which is as follows6

E(e#uti$e Summ %) T s, Lists: G ntt C. %ts nd ot.e% Pl nning Do#uments Outline o" S)stems Stud) Summ %) O$e%$ie- o" Com1 n) Do#uments <uestionn i%es Obse%$ tions Inte%$ie- T% ns#%i1ts

Det iled Results o" S)stems Stud) O%g ni= tion l In"o%m tion O%g ni= tion l St%u#tu%e C. %t E(isting In1ut nd Out1ut Do#uments N %% ti$e Des#%i1tion o" P%o#esses D t "lo- Di g% ms o" E(isting S)stem Conte(t Di g% m Le$el One Di g% m C.ild Di g% ms

S)stem Alte%n ti$es Full Com1ute%i= tion P %ti l Com1ute%i= tion Reo%g ni= tion o" M nu l S)stem M int ining t.e St tus <uo E$ lu tion o" Alte%n ti$es Cost*'ene"it An l)sis

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

1F

Systems Analysis with Data Flow Diagrams (2007)

Chapter One

Re#ommend tion N %% ti$es D t "lo- Di g% ms o" P%o1osed S)stem Conte(t Di g% m Le$el One Di g% m C.ild Di g% ms D t Sto%e Des#%i1tions P%o#ess S1e#i"i# tion Design o" Inte%" #e P%elimin %) Out1ut*In1ut Design 81%otot)1es9

P%o1os l Summ %) Aims nd Ob&e#ti$es Re1o%ts to be gene% ted Role o" Pe%sonnel A11endi#es Minutes o" Meetings Com1 n) Do#uments 'ibliog% 1.) Ot.e%

Terence Brunton, Department of Management Studies

5G