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http://www.antiessays.com/free-essays/79991.html Individuals' Responsibility For The Environment Essay The government can create Awareness by organizing environment activities.

This is one way in which anyone of us can help save the environment. Read up and encourage those around you to read about the importance of saving nature. Put up posters or banners in the neighborhood, in your school, college or place of work. Organize an environmental awareness campaign. Get t-shirts or caps made with environmental awareness slogans written. Have everyone in your locality, class, school or workplace wear them and spread the word. These things help create an awakening in the masses about how grave environmental problems are and what we can do to solve them. Organize small activities like planting trees, cleaning an area in the locality, visiting an animal shelter or volunteer for an organization which works towards creating environmental awareness. Seek prior permission from concerned authorities for doing any of these things.

Below is a free essay on "Individuals' Responsibility For The Environment" from Anti Essays, your source for free research papers, essays, and term paper examples. In todays rapidly developing society, guarding environment has become a great concern of people all over the world. Many organizations have been founded to try to alleviate the situation. Governments, along with the Press, have carried out numerous campaigns to educate the public and appeal for more awareness. Nevertheless, there is still a great deal that people can do to play a much more active role. It is my conviction that pollution is not only traced to industrial waste but also household activities. Therefore, citizens should not hold the government environmentally responsible but share the burden of these issues with their administration. A large amount of garbage scientifically proved to derive more from households, not only form big factories. Take, for instance, the case of marine damages which is in a large degree is due to chemicals without any handling treatment from factories, but household wastes form families and the habit of scattering litter directly into the sea and rivers also contribute to the problem. Hence, simple manners such as putting the garbage into the bins or classifying them into categories are highly evaluated as the contribution to reduce environmental devastation. In addition, when people are aware of importance of the natural environment, it might become motivation in helping the government struggle against illegal activities related to the violation of environmental protection. It will appear to be an increasing number of demonstrations of the purpose of protecting the environment, originating from building up awareness of environment for people. Moreover, it might be a great recovery when individuals voice their disagreement with every act of environment sabotage.

From things mentioned above, without assistance coming from individuals, it is undoubtedly impossible for only the government to solve environmental problems. Both are officially needed in the pursuit of a brighter future for better environment.

The Environment The impact of people on their environment can be devastating. This is where the respective role of governments can make decisions that shape environmental policy and responsibilities. These governments can be broken up into four different levels: local, state, federal and international. A local government named Rockdale Municipal Council has implemented certain actions to deal with the quality in that region. They have recognized that the main source of poor air quality originates from air pollution sources such as motor vehicles, industrial premises and aircraft emissions. The solutions to these problems include improvements to Ryde and Botany Bay cycle way, integration of land use and transport planning strategies, production of Air Quality - the Facts booklet for community, investigation of complaints regarding odours and dust, tree planting and preparation of a Local Air Quality Management Plan in 1999. To tackle the implications of air qualitiy, state governments have created policies and responsibilities. For instance Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) is a program that enables mainly state governments to take action on greenhouse. CCP provides these state governments with a strategic framework to diminish greenhouse gas emissions by helping them identify and recognize the emissions of their council and community, set a reduction goal and develop and utilize an action plan to reach that goal. State actions include: capturing the methane from landfill sites and public and non-car transport into urban planning. On a federal or national basis Australia has employed policies to increase the air quality. For example the Commonwealth Government will guarantee that Australia carries its fair-share of the burden in worldwide efforts to combat global air pollution through policy development and implementation. They have also supported the National Greenhouse Strategy (NGS) which began in late 1996. The government will also support the development of a national strategy to observe and manage air toxics. The air toxics strategy will monitor, establish the levels of community exposure to, and manage emissions of selected air toxics. The federal government will even consider the inclusion of air toxics in a future National Environmental Protection Measure. Further measures include the leading of the development of

national ambient air quality standards through the National Environmental Protection Council and the assistance of the establishment of a National Pollutant Inventory which will require large companies to publicly report their emission of 90 pollutants. Local government Rockdale Municipal Council has introduced responsibilities and policies to reduce the loss of biodiversity. This local government has learned that the cause involves the introduction of species, pollution of land and water, weed invasion and urban encroachment. Their solutions to these problems comprise of the planting of over 3,500 plants and shrubs in Bardwell Valley and Scotts Reserve, bush regeneration and planting in Scarborough Reserve, involvement in Cooks River Foreshores Working Party and preparation of a flora and fauna study in 2000. Policies towards the community include controlling noxious weeds on your property, planting native trees indigenous to the area and applying to the council prior to removing any trees. The Labor Tasmanian Government has created a new Environment Policy on biodiversity that hopes to preserve native plants and animals. The policies commit the government to encourage community involvement in biological diversity programs, proclaim the Tasman National Park, establish a State Biodiversity Committee with community representation to arrange a Tasmanian Biodiversity Strategy, support the development of a State Policy on the protection of remnant native vegetation, examine the possibility of incorporating the Biodiversity Strategy into legislation and seeking the co-operation of local government and the community in including and enforcing biological diversity guidelines in development criteria. The federal government has enabled several policies to deal with conservation of Australia's biodiversity. The government will support the National Reserve System program to expand Australia's National Parks, support off-reserve biodiversity conservation including the planting of trees and the protection of vegetation through the Bushcare program and work with the States to reduce unsustainable land clearing, develop an alert list of introduced plants and animals that pose a risk to our environment. The government will also maintain a ban on the export of live fauna; support research into Australia's floral and fauna assemblages as well as biodiversity conservation methods and ratify the Desertification Convention. An international conference held in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997 discussed issues on how best to reduce global warming. Kyoto Protocol negotiations have reached a legally binding agreement limiting the amount of gas emissions all industrialized countries. The protocol also included provisions for emission trading between industrialized countries. The overall nominal effect of the Kyoto protocol is for a reduction of 5.2% of emissions by 2010. However the agreement has many flaws and could lead to emission rising above 1990 levels. The protocol specifies that Japan must reduce

emissions by 6%, USA by 7% and the European Union by 8%. The chairman of the conference negotiators, Raul Estrada said that further discussions were needed to find a way of implementing a system of trading in emissions. Trading allows countries that produce high levels of greenhouse gases, such as the USA, to buy the right to retain or even increase emissions. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Global

warming refers to an expected rise in global average temperature due to the continued emission of greenhouse gases produced by industry and agriculture which trap heat in the atmosphere. Higher temperatures are expected to be accompanied by changing patterns of precipitation frequency and intensity, changes in soil moisture and a rise of the global sea level. To assess current examples relating to global warming, an examination is first needed on these examples. Sea levels could rise six feet and up in future centuries. The entire Amazon rainforest will be lost if the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases by more than 50%. But no matter whatever action the world takes to stop global warming, sea levels are set to rise and wipe out several island nations. The worst news is that whatever governments do to cut emissions, sea levels will rise by at least 2 metres over the next few hundred years, devastating Tuvalu and Kiribati in the Pacific and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean. Low-lying farmland and cities occupied by hundreds of millions of people will also be engulfed. Robert Nicholls of Middlesex University in London stated that thermal expansion of the ocean will continue for many hundreds of years after CO2 is stabilized, due to the gradual penetration of heat deeper and deeper into the ocean. All around the world ice sheets and glaciers are melting at a rate quite remarkably since record keeping began. A worldwide institute, based in Washington DC says that glaciers and other features are particularly sensitive to temperature shifts, and that scientists suspect the enhanced melting is among the first observable signs of human induced global warming. Some of the effects of global warming are as follows: arctic ocean sea ice shrunk by 6% since 1978, with a 14% loss of thicker year round ice, Greenland ice sheet has thinned by more than a metre a year on its southern and eastern edges since 1993 and 22% of glacial ice volume on the Tien Shan mountains has disappeared in the last 40 years. Worldwatch declared that the Earth's ice cover reflects much of the sun's heat back into space and the loss of much of it would affect the global, raise sea levels, and threaten water supplies. They also stated that the land and water left revealed by the retaining ice would themselves retain heat, creating a feedback loop that would speed up the warming process. The institute pronounced that the world's glaciers, taken as a whole, are now shrinking faster than they are growing. Worldwatch also warns of the outcomes of retaining ice on wildlife. In northern Canada reports of hunger and weight loss among polar bears have been associated with ice cover

changes. And in Antarctica, sea loss, rising air temperatures and increased condensation are altering the habitats and the feeding and breeding patterns of seals and penguins. Cornell University ecologists believe that global warming may account for millions of human deaths from disease. David Pimentel a professor of ecology at Cornell stated and assumes that Most of the increase in disease is due to numerous environmental factors, including infectious microbes, pollution by chemicals and biological wastes and shortages of food and nutrients. Global warming will only make matters worse. Global warming will produce a favorable climate for disease producing organisms and plant pests. Global climate change will result in a net loss of obtainable food, for example the decline in rainfall (due to global warming) causes crop and plant production to die out. Infectious disease and environmental factors are to blame for more than 75% of all deaths in the world. Environmental disease may comprise of organic and chemical pollutants, including smoke from tabacco and wood sources. More than three billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition increases vulnerability to pollution-related illnesses and diseases such as diarrhea. Therefore Pimental concluded, we're seeing the first signs that global climate change can influence the incidences of human disease. And that this change combined with population growth and environmental degradation, will probably intensify world malnutrition and increases in other diseases as well. Melting is taking on vast and unprecedented level in the Arctic sea ice, the Antarctic and in dozens of mountain and sub-polar glaciers, and the rate has accelerated immensely in the past decade. The Earth's ice cover could have intense changes on the global climate and rising sea levels could start regional flooding. Melting of mountain glaciers could also endanger urban water supplies and the habitats of plant and animal species in fragile environments. Within the next 35 years, the Himalayan glacial area is expected to shrink by one-fifth, to just 100, 000 kilometres. A prediction forecasts that the remaining glaciers could disappear in 30 years. The melting has been especially noticeable in the past three decades, and scientists believe that it is the result of human behaviour and the build up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. All current examples of global warming are significant due to the effects that it has on the environment and people. For people, it can cause infectious diseases and pollution-related illnesses that in turn effect our standard of living. Some examples can be more significant than others. For example diseases amongst people is more so important than the rise in sea levels and melting of glaciers since peoples existence are endangered.

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Management of environment is possible only through concerted efforts of all the components of society such as government and non-governmental organization, industrialists, agriculturists, voluntary social welfare organizations as well as the general public. The final controlling authority in most of the issues related to environmental management is the government itself. For example, most of the forest areas are owned by the government, only the government can build dams, roads, railways, etc. industrial or any other related activity cannot start without the approval of the government. Similarly, government is directly or indirectly responsible for meeting the costs of floods, droughts, epidemics, and other environmental disasters. Therefore, the government has to apply various checks and controls so that the environment is managed properly. However, the management of environment cannot be successful until and unless everybody takes interest in it. It is difficult for the government to directly involve the masses in general. Here the role of non-governmental agencies becomes vital. They do not have to follow the formalities, which a government department has to do. Further, they have the additional advantage of being in direct contact with the masses. Let us took at these aspects in a little more detail. 1) Role of Government and the Problems Faced In India the Central and state Governments own, control and develop almost all the countrys forests, dams, major irrigation system, power stations, railways ports, roads, mines and even industries. In recognition of their responsibility in preserving the environment, the Govt. of India crated the Departmental of Environment and later the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985. The Ministry of Environment and forests is entrusted with planning, protection and coordination of environment and forestry programmes. The Ministry is involved in conservation and survey of flora, faun, forests and wildlife, prevention and control of pollution, afforestation, regeneration of degraded areas and protection of overall environment. To accomplish these tasks, the Ministry undertakes various measures. One of these takes is the assessment of environmental impact prior to implementing any project, which cane damaged environment. A study is made to evaluate its possible impact on environment and steps are suggested so that least damage is caused to environment when the project is implemented. For example, if a dam

has to be built on a river, assessment is made as to the type of environmental problems that the dam will cause when built. There may be many kinds of environmental problems like saltation of the reservoir, water logging in the area, submerging of forests, displacement of the population, etc. Corrective measure have to the am can be avoided. The Ministry implements various pollution control was directly and through the Central and State Pollution Control Boards. These agencies are responsible for controlling the discharge of wastes and pollutants into the environment. Standards have been set for such discharges and the Ministry has notified standards for discharges into air, water and soil by different industries. Now noise also considered to be a pollutant and standards have been fixed for permissible limits of noise. In addition, the Ministry undertakes eco-regeneration programmes, provides assistance to organizations implementing environmental and forestry programmes, promotes research related to environment and forestry and implements programmes concerning extension, education and training. State Governments have also set up their own departments to look after environment. In their own jurisdiction, they implements programmes related to environmental protection, environmental awareness, pollution control, eco-regeneration, etc. As forests play a very important role in maintaining the balance of the environment, forest protection and afforestation are given extra weightage at the Central and State levels. Creation of reserve forests, regulation of forest harvest and raising of new forests are some of the steps that need to be adopted. In case, some forest has to be cut for developmental projects, a clause is introduced in the approval of the project. This is called compensatory forestry, which means that new forest has to be planted in an area equal to the forest area cut for the project. Wildlife management is also a part of the environmental protection. For protecting wild species, wildlife sanctuaries, parks and zoos are created. The government undertakes these projects at various levels but it faces many problems. The foremost problem is related to lack of cooperation. For every activity, which has the potential of threatening the environment, government, has suggested corrective steps. For example, for control of pollution there are effluent treatment plants, air pollutions control equipment, noise reducing appliance, etc. People engaged in activities, which can cause pollution, are supposed to adopt them. However, they do not do so readily. They consider these devices a non-productive. Therefore, they try to avoid them. Even if they are forced to erect or install these plants, they do not maintain and run them regularly just to save some money. Government is empowered to take legal action against such offenders. However, this does not solve the problem. Court cases continue for years and no judgment is made; meanwhile the environment becomes the victim.

Similarly, illegal cutting of trees from forests, large-scale deforestation and killing of wild animals is done for small profits. People do such acts for their personal gains and it is not always possible for the government to punish them. Similarly, several species of animals and plants have already become extinct or they are on the verge of extinction. This problem cannot be solved only through legal and administrative measures. People have to realize that they have some responsibility towards their environment. 2) Role of Non-Governmental Agencies and the Problems Faced. Non-governmental agencies or voluntary organizations can play a very important role in environmental protection and management. These agencies are free from government control and they can take decisions on their own and can undertake activities, which they like. They have the advantage of being in direct contact with the masses. The non-governmental or voluntary agencies are spread all over the country, even in small villages, and as such, they have no problem in reaching people. Being based among the masses, they have no language problem; they can communicate with people in their own language and dialect. Also, since they know the local customs, traditions, folk arts, etc., they can use these media to reach people. Voluntary organizations have played a very important role in our country in creating mass awareness towards environment. They have made people aware of the environmental problems, which are caused due to neglect, and uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources. They have also helped a lot in controlling these problems. You must have heard about Chipko movement (movement of hugging trees). This can was given because women used to cling to trees so as to save them from being cut. Another movement, which attracted attention all over the country and even outside, was related to silent valley in Kerala. A dam was to be but there. The dam could generate electricity which could benefit people of that region. But more than that, the dam was going to submerge large areas of rich primeval forests. It could lead large-scale damaged to the unique ecosystem of Silent Valley. People raised their voice against the Silent Valley Project. Finally, the project had to be abandoned. Similar movements at large or small scale are still going on in other parts of the country. The March to Western Ghats is one such example. Bharat Jan Vigyan Jatha organised in 1987 was an effort by voluntary organization to educate people about science including environment. At present, a very large number of non-governmental organizations are active in our country in different areas of general concern. Environment protection has also attracted a very large number of such organizations. The ministry of environment and forests, Govt. of India has also complied a Directory of non-governmental organizations active in the filed of environmental. This Directory gives state-wise details about these organizations. The voluntary organizations are making extensive contribution but they also face difficulties. First of all, they often do not have a adequate trained personnel to carry out various

programmes. Another difficulty is that they have no easy access to authentic information and data. Above all, these organizations have to always work under great financial constraints. They have no source of income and so for most of their activities they have to raise funds on their own. Some voluntary organisations do undertake scientific studies, information collection and programme implementation on behalf of other agencies including government departments. Through these activities, they generate some income. But this is not assured income and hence they have to face financial problems. Also, administrative support at local level is not available to voluntary organizations; the reason is that generally their activities are against the interest of powerful people such as forest contractors, industrialists, colonisers, etc. Some of the important non-governmental organizations working in the filed of environment are: i) Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, Trichur (Kerala). This agency has contributed substantially to environmental protection in Kerala and the adjoining areas. ii) Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal, Gopeswar (U.P.). This organisation started the Chipko Movement. Now, it is engaged in forest conservation, protection of soil against erosion, etc. iii) Delhi Science Forum, New Delhi. This organisations consisting of scientists and technocrats making extensive contribution. It organised the Bharat Jan Vigyan Jatha in 1987, where environmental was given a special status. iv) Sanjeev Seva Samiti, Udaipur (Rajasthan). It is engaged in tree plantation, wasteland developmental, soil conservation, nursery raising, spreading environmental awareness, etc. v) The Kubda Milk Producers Cooperative Ltd., Kubda, Mehsana (Gujurat). This organisation is working in various fields including environment. It is engaged in creating awareness towards environment, taking up programmes for afforestation, soil and water conservation. http://www.preservearticles.com/201102244196/role-of-government-and-the-problems-faced-inprotecting-our-environment.html The role of government in environmental protection By Jason D Scorse There is an ongoing debate about the appropriate role of government for solving environmental problems, with many environmentalists calling for increased government intervention and many people more predisposed to individual responsibility calling for less. Without getting into a long discussion on political and economic philosophy (for now), here are a few observations on this important topic: 1. Proponents of classic liberalism property rights, free markets, the rule of law, individual freedom assume that as information improves, private markets will lead to

the increased preservation of environmental resources, and that externalities (e.g., pollution) will be internalized (e.g., taken into account by private actors) given a system of strong property rights. While much improvement in the environmental arena has occurred for this very reason, and much of this is due to property rights and better scientific knowledge, many famous economists vastly under-estimated the level of coordination required to tackle some of the worlds most serious environmental problems. Issues such as global warming and the loss of biodiversity require much more government intervention then had previously been assumed. This is not to say that this government intervention wont rely heavily on the workings of the market system, but only that top-down regulation is absolutely necessary. There is simply no way to adequately address these issues without a strong commitment from the federal government, which will eventually include a high level of international cooperation. Policies such as absolute limits on CO2, government funding of alternative-energy systems, and coordinated efforts to purchase and protect biodiversity hotspots around the world will need to be a major component of future government policy. 2. Facing increased probabilities of natural disasters (many presumably due to global warming), the government should move us towards a more rational method of risk management in areas prone to natural disasters. It is highly inefficient, as well as an abrogation of government responsibility, to create incentives for people to live in areas that are both dangerous and prone to catastrophe by providing them with reconstruction aid every time disaster strikes. The government has two options; either require that all people living in hurricane zones, flood plains, or near fault lines purchase private insurance, or make it absolutely clear that people will not be compensated for their loss of property by the government if disaster strikes. Such a policy would no doubt lead to dramatic shifts in the population densities in many disaster-prone areas of the country, and perhaps some one-time assistance for relocation would be required. The net effect would be to dramatically reduce future losses of life and property and save the government hundreds of billions in future costs. It would also force private actors (notably insurance companies) to fully take into account the effects of environmental externalities that until now have largely been ignored. 3. Regarding personal health and risk, the government must play a much more active role than typically advocated by some of the strongest proponents of free markets. Milton Friedman famously noted that there is no use for the Food and Drug Administration since companies whose products lead to illness will be forced out of the market (i.e., products that make people sick will not be bought). What he failed to realize is that if someone gets sick, it is extremely difficult to trace the source of the illness, and without government regulation many companies that poison consumers could in fact operate profitably for long periods of time. But Friedman did have a point in that as people look more and more toward government to regulate the economy, they sometimes do decrease the effort they invest in making wise choices for themselves (e.g., does anyone really need the government to tell them that fast food is bad for you?). This being said, it is clear that in this highly complex and inter-connected system, where we all are exposed to thousands of chemicals a year, many of which interact in ways that arent yet

fully understood, where it is hard to trace the origin of products, and where the effects of these products often dont manifest for years, the government must play an active role in regulation. The information problems are too complex for individuals to cope with (and, unfortunately, governments, at this point). The Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture should all be well-funded, be decoupled from conflicts of interest with industry, and their mandate to protect the public welfare through rational risk assessment should be strengthened. http://grist.org/article/the-role-of-government-in-environmental-protection/