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GRAMMAR SURVEY

1 Present Simple Tense


1.1 TO BE POSITIVE (+) Im very rich. (am) Youre from Manchester. (are) Hes the new teacher. (is) Shes seven years old. Its a very big school. Were all in class 4A. (are) Youre very clever pupils. (are) Theyre late again. (are) YES/NO QUESTIONS (?) Are you the new headmaster? Is she sweet? Am I in time? We put the verb before the subject. QUESTION WORD QUESTIONS (?) How is your school? Where are you from? What s your name? What s not nice about him? Who s your father? Who are you writing to? Question word / verb 1.2 CAN POSITIVE (+) I can read Chinese. You can He can She can It can We can You can They can subject / can / infinitive without to Yes/No Questions (?) NEGATIVE (-) I cant / cannot speak Italian. You cant He cant She cant It cant We cant You cant They cant subject / cant / infinitive without to short answers NEGATIVE (-) Im not from York. (am not) Youre not / arent on the list. (are not) Hes not / isnt home tonight. (is not) Shes not / isnt very tall. Its not / isnt a new school. Were not / arent very happy. (are not) Youre not / arent film stars. Theyre not / arent very kind. SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I am. No, Im not. Yes, she is. No, she isnt. Yes, you are. No, you arent.

Can you sing? Yes, I can. Cant you be on time? No, I cant. Can(t) / Cannot / subject / infinitive without to Yes, No / subject / can(t) Question Word Questions (?) Who can play the piano? Who cant sing? Question word / can(t) / infinitive without to Tom can. Alice cant.

You use can(t) to express what you can or cannot do. (Je gebruikt can(t) om uit te drukken wat je al dan niet kunt.)

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1 Present Simple Tense


1.3 FORM OF OTHER VERBS POSITIVE (+) I work in a shop. You work at home a lot. Kevin works every weekend. Kate sometimes works in a restaurant. Pluto always plays with our shoes. We often play football at school. You play tennis on Sundays. Sarah and Helen (=they) play in a hockey team. Subject / (adverb of frequency) / infinitive (without to) for the third person singular + s NEGATIVE (-) I dont work in a hotel. You dont work at school. Kevin doesnt work every day. Kate doesnt always work in a restaurant. Pluto doesnt play with my socks. We dont always play football at school. You dont play tennis on Fridays. Sarah and Helen (=they) dont play in a basketball team. Subject / dont/doesnt / (adverb of frequency) / infinitive (without to)

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY say how often things happen. We place the adverbs of frequency in front of the main verb, except with the verb to be. (We plaatsen de adverbs of frequency voor het hoofdwerkwoord, met uitzondering van het werkwoord to be.) e.g. I am always on time. PRONUNCIATION OF THE 3RD PERSON -S to pick to get to wash to watch to push to throw to find to drive he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it picks gets up washes watches pushes throws finds drives / s / after / k, f, p, t / (think of coffeepot) / z / after / s, z, , / (hissing sounds) (sisklanken) / z / after all other sounds

SPELLING OF THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE 3RD PERSON SINGULAR to play to make to fly to tidy up to buy to play to say to go to do to wash to dress he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it he/she/it plays makes flies tidies up buys plays says goes does washes dresses regular form + s consonant + y = y vowel + y = + s ies

consonant = medeklinker vowel = klinker

infinitives ending in o = + es infinitives ending in hissing sounds = + es SHORT ANSWERS Yes, you do. No, I dont.

YES/NO QUESTIONS (?) Do Do I you

look OK in this jumper? buy The Times?

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1 Present Simple Tense


Does Does Does Does Kevin he Helen she like like come go listening to music? shopping with girls? to school on foot? to school by bus? at 9.15? the children home again at twelve? English? TV every evening? strange? in Station Road? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt. No, she doesnt. Yes, she does. Yes, it does. No, it doesnt. Yes, you do. No, we dont. Yes, they do. No, they dont. Yes, No / subject / do, does, dont, doesnt

Does the bus arrive Does it take Do Do Do Do we you the Addams they learn watch look live

Do / subject / Does

infinitive without to

QUESTION WORD QUESTIONS (?) What Where How Who Who do does does do does the Pearsons Mrs Pearson Philip they she do get come call go on Sundays? lost? to school? Flipper? to school with? They go out for picnics. In the park. By bus. Philip. She goes to school with Peter.

Question word / do/does / subject / infinitive without to / (preposition) SUBJECT QUESTIONS (?) Who sits in front of the TV? Who likes pink tops? What makes you feel happy? WHO / WHAT (= SUBJECT) + verb short answers Pluto does. Helen does. Love does. Yes, No / subject / do(nt), does(nt)

We dont use to do when the question word is the subject of the sentence and the verb is positive. (We gebruiken to do niet als het vraagwoord het onderwerp van de zin is en het werkwoord positief is.) BUT! Who doesnt like dance music? Question Tag Questions (?) + positive statement - negative tag doesnt he? doesnt he? + positive tag do they? does he? + expected short answer Yes, he does. Yes, he does. expected short answer No, they dont. No, he doesnt. The verb is negative.

Pluto likes shoes, Kevin has a dog, - negative statement

Cats dont bark, A taxidermist doesnt drive taxis,

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1 Present Simple Tense


BUT! The tag of I am is arent I. Example: This time Im right, arent I? Question Tag Questions with to be and can never take to do. Example: You can speak English, cant you? Thats not your English book, is it? 1.4 USE The present simple tense describes regular activities (e.g. hobbies). It's the common (= simple) form to talk about the present. (The present simple tense beschrijft activiteiten die regelmatig voorkomen (bv. hobbys). Het is de meest gebruikelijke vorm om over de tegenwoordige tijd te praten.) The present simple tense is also used to refer to future timetable information. (We gebruiken de present simple ook om te verwijzen naar toekomstige informatie in uurschemas, dienstregelingen e.d.)

2 Present Continuous Tense


2.1 FORM Positive (+) and Negative (-) I You He She It We You They subject m (not) am (not) re (not) are (not) arent s (not) is (not) isnt re (not) are (not) arent to be (not) reading a book. going to the shops.

playing in the garden.

wearing blue trousers.

ing-form Short answers Yes, you are. No, youre not. Yes, I am. No, Im not. Yes, he is. No, shes not. No, it isnt. Yes, you are. No, you arent. Yes, we are. No, we arent. Yes, they are. No, they arent. Yes, No / subject / to be (not)

Yes/No questions (?)

Am I dreaming? Are you sleeping? Is he working? she it Are we winning? you travelling? they writing? to be subject ing-form

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2 Present Continuous Tense


Question word Questions (?) What am Why are Who is Where are question word to be Spelling of the ING Form I am playing going working I doing? you leaving? she talking to? he we going? you they subject ing-form (preposition)

play + ing go + ing work + ing

infinitive + ing infinitive ends in e: e + ing When the infinitive ends in a syllable with a short vowel and one final consonant AND that syllable is stressed: final consonant is doubled last syllable is not stressed: infinitive + ing

writing write + ing driving drive + ing sitting sit + t + ing running run + n + ing forgetting forget + t + ing entering enter + ing budgeting budget + ing opening open + ing happening happen + ing travelling modelling travel + l + ing model + l + ing

infinitive ending in -el: l is doubled

Mind! for'get forgetting Last syllable of the infinitive is stressed. 'enter entering Last syllable of the infinitive is NOT stressed. Question Tag Questions (?) + positive statements You are answering, Your back is hurting today, I am coughing all the time, - negative statements Im not missing school all week, You arent playing well, He isnt swimming, 2.2 USE - negative tags arent you? isnt it? arent I? + positive tags am I? are you? is he?

syllable = lettergreep consonant = medeklinker vowel = klinker stressed = beklemtoond

+ expected short answer Yes, I am. Yes, it is. Yes, you are. expected short answer No, you arent. No, Im not. No, he isnt.

The present continuous tense describes whats (not) happening NOW. This tense is also used for future arrangements. (De present continuous beschrijft wat er nu (niet) aan het gebeuren is. Deze tijd wordt ook gebruikt voor afspraken in de toekomst.)

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3 past simple tense


3.1 FORM (REGULAR VERBS) jump climb look play BUT! live arrive phone lived arrived phoned If the infinitive ends in -e, we only add -d. If the infinitive ends in a stressed syllable with a short vowel and one final consonant, we double the consonant. We do the same if the infinitive ends in -el. (In American English the final -l isnt doubled: traveled) Enter doesnt end in a stressed syllable. (= regular form + ed) If the infinitive ends in a consonant + -y, y ied jumped climbed looked played To make the regular past tense, we add -ed.

stop stopped prefer preferred travel travelled

BUT! enter entered try carry marry tried carried married

3.2 FORM (IRREGULAR VERBS) See Grammar Survey p. 109-111. NEGATIVE (-) I You Kevin We You They subject / didnt didnt didnt didnt didnt didnt didnt / fall do think play taste arrive infinitive without to over her handbag. it on purpose. Helens a vegetarian. with it. it at all. in time. SHORT ANSWERS Yes, you did. No, I didnt. Yes, he did. No, she didnt. Yes, it did. Yes, we did. Yes, we did. No, they didnt. Yes, No / subject / did(nt)

YES/NO-QUESTIONS (?) Did Did Did Did Did Did Did Did Did / I you Kevin Helen the bus we you they subject /

OK in this jumper? The Times? listening to music? to school on foot? at 9.15? English? this? each other?

look read like go leave speak enjoy meet infinitive without to

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3 past simple tense


QUESTION WORD QUESTIONS (?) What did Where did How did Who did Who did Question word / did / the Pearsons Mrs Pearson Philip they they subject / do on Sundays? They went out for picnics. get lost? In the park. come to school? By bus. call Flipper? Philip. have dinner with? With Peter and Paula. infinitive without to / (preposition)

SUBJECT QUESTIONS (?) Who sat in front of the TV? Who liked pink tops? What made you feel happy?

SHORT ANSWERS Pluto did. Helen did. Love did.

WHO / WHAT (= SUBJECT) + verb in the past simple tense We dont use to do when the question word is the subject of a positive question. BUT! Who didnt eat breakfast yesterday? The question is negative. The Past Simple Tense of To Be, Can, Have to be I you he she it we you they was(nt) were(nt) was(nt) was(nt) was(nt) were(nt) were(nt) were(nt) can I you he she it we you they could(nt) could(nt) could(nt) could(nt) could(nt) could(nt) could(nt) could(nt) have I you he she it we you they had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have had(nt)/didnt have

The Past Simple Tense: Pronunciation to work to cough to watch to stop to kiss to start to need to try to live to arrive he I we he they we you I they we worked coughed watched stopped kissed started needed tried lived arrived

[ t ]

after [ k, f, , p, s ]

(think of the word coffeeshops) [ d ] after [ t, d ]

[ d ]

after all other sounds

3.3 USE
The past simple tense is PAST = the period is over. (De past simple is de verleden tijd = de periode ligt in het verleden.) e.g. yesterday, last week are signal words. The common (or SIMPLE) form used to talk about actions in the past. (De gewone vorm om over gebeurtenissen in het verleden te praten.)

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4 Past Continuous Tense


4.1 FORM
POSITIVE (+) and NEGATIVE ( -) I You He She It We You They subject was (not) wasnt were (not) werent was (not) wasnt were (not) werent to be (not) reading a magazine. going to the bank. playing tennis. wearing white T-shirts.

ing-form SHORT ANSWERS Yes, you were. No, you werent. Yes, I was. No, I wasnt. Yes, he was. No, she wasnt. Yes, you were. No, you werent. Yes, we were. No, we werent. Yes, they were. No, they werent. Yes, No / subject / was(nt), were(nt)

YES/NO QUESTIONS (?) Was I dreaming? Were you trying? Was he swimming? she it Were we winning? you travelling? they leaving? to be subject ing-form

QUESTION WORD QUESTIONS (?) What was Why were Who was Where were QUESTION WORD to be I you she he we you they subject singing? crying? playing with? heading for?

ing-form (preposition)

4.2 USE
The past continuous tense describes what was going on in the past. The duration is stressed. (De past continuous tense beschrijft wat er aan het gebeuren was in het verleden. De duur wordt benadrukt.)

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5 Present Perfect Simple Tense


5.1 FORM
POSITIVE (+) and NEGATIVE (-) I ve (not) You have(nt) He s She has It We ve You have They subject ve (have) (not) s (has)(nt) Careful! Short forms Hes working. (He is working.) Hes worked. (He has worked.) QUESTIONS (?) started cleaned up phoned the car. the house. the police.

past participle past participle = voltooid deelwoord The past participle of regular verbs has the same form as the simple past. For the irregular verbs see p. 109-111. SHORT ANSWERS

Have you lost anything? Yes, I have. No, I havent. Has(nt) she met him lately? Yes, she has. No, she hasnt. Who has she kissed? Where have you been today? question word have/has (not) subject past participle Yes, No / subject / have(nt), has(nt) Watch out! In subject questions the question word is the subject! e.g.: Who has made that movie? What has gone into her?

5.2 USE
The speaker uses the present perfect simple tense when a present situation or state (present) makes him look back to the past (perfect). There is no stress on the duration (simple). (Je gebruikt de present perfect simple tense als je vanuit het heden terugkijkt naar het verleden. De duur wordt niet benadrukt.) Signal words: yet, already, since , for , just

6 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


6.1 FORM
Positive (+) and negative (-) I It We subject have (not) has(nt) have (not) has / have (not) been been been been living raining learning ing-form here since 2001. for over 2 hours. English for 3 years.

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6 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


Questions (?) SHORT ANSWERS Yes, they have. No, they havent. Yes, No / subject / has(nt), have(nt) Why has (not) he been sleeping long? Have they been eating? question word has / have subject been ing-form (not)

6.2 USE
The speaker uses the present perfect continuous tense when a present situation or state (present) makes him look back to the past (perfect). The duration is stressed (continuous). (Je gebruikt de present perfect continuous tense als je vanuit het heden terugkijkt naar het verleden. De duur wordt wl benadrukt.)

7 Past Perfect Simple tense


7.1 FORM
Positive (+) and negative (-) I had (not) / had(nt) cancelled You booked He/She/It kissed We You They subject had(nt) past participle SHORT ANSWERS this meeting. a holiday. each other.

Questions (?)

Had(nt) he opened the window? Yes, he had. No, he hadnt. Why had(nt) she called rightaway? (question word) had(nt) subject past participle Yes, No / subject / hadnt

7.2 USE
The past perfect simple is used to show that something happened (= past) before (= perfect) a specific time in the past. (De past perfect simple tense wordt gebruikt om aan te tonen dat iets gebeurde voor een bepaald moment in het verleden.)

8 Past Perfect continuous tense


8.1 FORM
Positive (+) and negative (-) I had (not) / had(nt) been You He/She/It We You They subject had(nt) been living crying there for ages. for three hours.

ing-form

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8 Past Perfect continuous tense


Questions (?) Had(nt) Why had(nt) (question word) had(nt) living crying SHORT ANSWERS

I been you he/she/it we you they subject been

there for 12 years? Yes, I had / No, I hadnt for ages?

ing-form

Yes, No / subject / had(nt)

8.2 USE
The past perfect continuous not only indicates that the action happened before another one, but also stresses the duration (= continuous) of the action. It took some time to complete or at least it felt like that for the speaker. (De past perfect continuous duidt niet enkel aan dat deze gebeurtenis voor een andere plaatsvond, maar benadrukt ook de duur van die gebeurtenis. Het kostte wat tijd om ze te voltooien of zo leek het althans voor de spreker.)

9 Going to-Future
9.1 FORM
Positive (+) and negative (-) I You/They/We He/She/It subject QUESTONS (?) When Is is m (not) going to am (not) re (not) are(nt) are (not) s (not) is(nt) is (not) to be (not) it it going to talk pay build to her. him a visit. a new house.

infinitive without to going to going to SHORT ANSWERS rain? rain? Yes, it is. / No, it isnt.

(question word) to be (not) subject going to infinitive without to Yes, No / subject / is(nt) am(not) are(nt)

9.2 USE

We use the going to-future to talk about intentions or plans. (We gebruiken de 'going to-future' om te zeggen wat we van plan zijn (niet) te doen.) We also use the going to-future when we see the future in the present. (We gebruiken de 'going to-future' ook wanneer we vanuit het heden kunnen veronderstellen wat er in de toekomst zal gebeuren.)

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10 WILL-Future Tense
10.1 FORM
POSITIVE (+) and NEGATIVE (-) I ll (not) You will (not) He wont She It We You They subject ll (not) / will (not) / wont YES/NO QUESTIONs (?) Will Wont Will / Wont drink. play. work.

infinitive without to SHORT ANSWERS Yes, you will. No, you wont.

I find a lover? you he/she/it we you they subject infinitive without to

Yes, No / subject / will, wont

QUESTION WORD QUESTIONS (?) When will will I know for sure?

Question word

subject infinitive without to

SUBJECT QUESTIONS (?) Who who / what (= subject) will will win her love?

infinitive without to

10.2 USE
The will-future tense is the common form to talk about the future and to make predictions about the future. (De 'will-future tense is de meest gebruikelijke vorm om over de toekomstige tijd te praten en om voorspellingen te doen.)

11 Imperative
11.1 FORM
POSITIVE (+) Turn left at the crossroads. Follow that car. Try again. The imperative is the infinitive without to. NEGATIVE (-) Dont park here. Dont get lost. Dont feed the animals. The imperative is dont + the infinitive without to.

11.2 USE
We use imperatives for instructions, advice and to tell people what (not) to do. (We gebruiken imperatives voor instructies, advies en om mensen te zeggen wat ze al dan niet moeten doen.)

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12 List of Irregular Verbs


Infinitive to awake to be to beat to become to begin to bend to bet to bite to bleed to blow to break to bring to build to burn to buy can to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to dig to do to draw to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forget to freeze to get to give to go to grow to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to know to lay Simple Past awoke was/were beat became began bent bet bit bled blew broke brought built burnt bought could caught chose came cost crept cut dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot froze got gave went grew had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid Past Participle awoken been beaten become begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten frozen got given gone grown had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid Translation wekken, ontwaken zijn (ver)slaan worden beginnen buigen wedden bijten bloeden blazen breken brengen bouwen branden kopen kunnen vangen kiezen komen kosten kruipen snijden graven doen tekenen drinken rijden eten vallen voeden, voederen voelen vechten vinden vliegen verbieden vergeten (be)vriezen krijgen geven gaan groeien hebben horen verbergen slaan, raken houden bezeren, pijn doen houden weten, kennen leggen

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12 List of Irregular Verbs


Infinitive to lead to leave to learn to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to pay to prove to put to quit to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to sell to send to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot to show to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to speak to speed to spell to spend to spill to spit to split to stand to steal to stick to stink to strike to swim to take to teach Simple Past led left learned/learnt lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid proved put quit read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept spoke sped spelt spent spilt spit split stood stole stuck stank struck swam took taught Past Participle led left learned/learnt lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid proved/proven put quit read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set sewn shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept spoken sped spelt spent spilt spit split stood stolen stuck stunk struck swum taken taught Translation leiden vertrekken leren uitlenen laten liggen aansteken verliezen maken menen, betekenen ontmoeten betalen bewijzen plaatsen, zetten stoppen lezen rijden bellen rijzen, opstaan lopen zeggen zien verkopen zenden zetten naaien schudden schijnen schieten tonen sluiten zingen zinken zitten slapen spreken snel rijden spellen uitgeven, spenderen morsen spuwen splitsen staan stelen klem zitten, kleven stinken raken, staken zwemmen nemen aanleren, lesgeven

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12 List of Irregular Verbs


Infinitive to tear to tell to think to throw to understand to wake to wear to weep to win to write Simple Past tore told thought threw understood woke wore wept won wrote Past Participle torn told thought thrown understood woken worn wept won written Translation (ver)scheuren vertellen denken gooien begrijpen, verstaan (ont)waken dragen wenen, huilen winnen schrijven

13 PASSIVE VOICE
13.1 FORM
Tense Present simple active My brother always signs his love notes with three Xs. That new shop in High Street sells candy in fancy boxes shaped like hearts. passive A love note is often signed with a string of Xs to represent kisses. In North America and Europe, chocolate is sold in fancy boxes shaped like hearts. Present simple of to be + past participle Present continuous Present perfect simple Father is cooking dinner. Your dinner is being cooked at this moment, sir. Present continuous of to be + past participle My mother has cut my hair. Your hair has been cut. Present perfect simple of to be + past participle The priest married young couples in secret. When he was young, my grandfather carved wooden spoons and sold them to shops. When I arrived, Tom was cleaning the windows. In those days young couples were married in secret. In Wales wooden love spoons were carved and given as Valentine gifts. Past simple of to be + past participle Past continuous When I arrived in my hotel room, the windows were being cleaned. Past continuous of to be + past participle Past perfect simple I found a Valentines note. Ann had sent it. When I came home, I noticed that I had been sent a Valentines note. Past perfect simple of to be + past participle Will-future Mother wont clean your room. The hotel rooms will not/wont be cleaned tomorrow. Will-future of to be + past participle

Past simple

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13 PASSIVE VOICE
General formation rule: To form a passive you always take the active form of to be + past participle of the main verb.

13.2 USE
When we use the passive, we say what happens to the subject. Who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant. (Als we de passieve vorm gebruiken, vertellen we wat er gebeurt met het onderwerp. Wie of wat de actie veroorzaakt, is vaak onbekend of onbelangrijk.) e.g. Mother wont clean your room. subject object In this active sentence the fact that mother wont do it is important. The hotel rooms will not be cleaned tomorrow. In this passive sentence it is unimportant who will not clean the rooms. The stress is on the fact that the rooms will not be cleaned. If it is important to know who or what causes the action, an agent (by + who / what causes the action) is added. e.g. Hamlet was written by William Shakespeare. subject agent In this passive sentence the play Hamlet is central. We are wondering who wrote Hamlet and not what plays Shakespeare has written.

14 reported SPEECH
14.1 The reporting verb is in the PAST TENSE.
A POSITIVE sentences The tense in the reported statement changes. Direct Speech I know the Invermoriston district fairly well. Present simple I took my reflex camera. Past simple I have been extremely lucky to catch a glimpse of Nessie. Present perfect simple I had walked about 20 yards from that spot when I saw a sudden commotion. Past perfect simple I will always remember the moment I saw the head of the monster. Will-future I am studying. Present continuous I was working. Past continuous Reported Speech He said he knew the Invermoriston district fairly well. Past simple He said that he had taken his reflex camera. Past perfect simple He said he had been extremely lucky to catch a glimpse of Nessie. Past perfect simple He said he had walked about 20 yards from the spot when he had seen a sudden commotion. Past perfect simple He said he would always remember the moment he had seen the head of the monster. Present conditional (= would + inf.) He said he was studying. Past continuous He claimed that he had been working. Past perfect continuous

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14 reported SPEECH
Also personal pronouns and possessives change in the reported statement! I he, she our their we they mine his, hers my his, her ours theirs Other changes: this that these those B Questions Direct Speech What are you doing? Who did you meet at the party? Why has he never told what happened there? When will your work be finished? Do you love me? here today tomorrow there that day the next day yesterday last week the day before the week before

Reported Speech He asked me what I was doing. She asked me who I had met at the party. The police asked why he had never told them what had happened there. Mother asked me when my work would be finished. He wondered if I loved him.

The same tense changes go for the questions. You start your reported question with Subject + asked / wondered + question word (question word questions) + if / whether (inversion questions) C Imperatives Direct Speech Shut the door! Never do that again! Wait for me! Look out! Reported Speech He asked me to shut the door. He told us never to do that again. He asked me to wait for him. He told them to look out.

An imperative or order is reported by using the verb to ask, to tell, to order, followed by the pronoun (the person being asked or told) and the to-infinitive.

14.2 The reporting verb is in the PRESENT TENSE.


Direct Speech I have two sisters. I have lost my key. The car is mine. We are having lunch at school. Reported Speech She says she has two sisters. She says she has lost her key. She says that car is hers. She says they are having lunch at school.

The tense in the reported statement does not change, but the verb changes with the pronoun.

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15 CONDITIONALS - IF-CLAUSES
15.1 USE
If-clauses can be used If I have enough money next year, Ill make a world tour. If the temperature drops below zero, the water will freeze. to talk about possible events or situations in the present or in the future = First conditional (Om te spreken over mogelijke gebeurtenissen of situaties in het heden en in de toekomst.) If I were a millionaire, I would give all my best friends a real nice present. If I knew where he lived, I would tell you. to talk about things that will not happen, things that didnt happen or imaginary present events = Second conditional (Om te spreken over zaken die niet zullen gebeuren, niet gebeurd zijn of denkbeeldige gebeurtenissen.) If I had seen him, I would have asked him to come in. If I had heard about this earlier, I would have come at once. to talk about things that didnt happen = Third conditional (Om te spreken over zaken die niet zijn gebeurd.)

15.2 FORM
First conditional If the weather is fine tomorrow, If you see him, If-clause = if + present simple tense Second conditional If I knew, If I were rich, If it rained, If you called me a liar, If-clause = if + past simple tense Compare: Note: Third conditional If I had known he would be so angry, If it had rained, If he had asked me for some money, If-clause = if + past perfect simple tense I wouldnt have told him. we would have left a little later. I would have given him some. Main clause = would have + past participle I would tell you. I wouldnt give up working. I wouldnt leave today. I would be really mad at you. Main clause = would + infinitive without to If it rains, I wont leave today. The rain is considered to be a real possibility. If it rained, I wouldnt leave today. You think its improbable it will rain. We often use were instead of was after if. If I were you, I wouldnt do it. well leave early in the morning. tell him Ill come as soon as possible. Main clause = will + infinitive without to

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16 ING-FORMS AND INFINITIVES


When one verb follows another, the second is usually an ing-form or an infinitive. There is often a difference between the actions contained in the ing-form and the ones contained in the infinitive. Compare: I forgot having posted the letter. Here you posted the letter and later forgot you had posted it. I regret saying you are a liar. First you said I was a liar, but you later regretted it. He denied doing it. First he did it and later denied it. I remembered locking the door before I left. When you came home, you remembered that you had locked the door when leaving. I forgot to post the letter. Here you forgot and now you will have to post the letter later. I regret to say you are a liar. In this case you regret that you have to say it now. They decided to go there. They first decided and they will now or later go there. Always remember to lock the door when leaving. Remember to lock the door the moment you leave. This difference does not explain all the different uses of -ing and infinitive. Therefore well give you a short survey of the main rules. Ing-form A After a preposition we always use an ing-form. e.g. He succeeded in climbing Mount Everest at his first attempt. He left after having told us what he thought about it all. B Some verbs always take an ing-form. e.g. I denied having tried to cheat my mother. I kept saying that it was my alarm-clock which was to blame. These are the most important of these verbs: to admit (bekennen) to appreciate (op prijs stellen) to avoid (vermijden) to delay (uitstellen) to deny (ontkennen) to dislike (niet houden van) to enjoy (genieten van) to excuse (zich verontschuldigen) to fancy (zich inbeelden) to feel like (zin hebben om) to finish (ophouden met) to forgive (vergeven) to postpone (uitstellen) to imagine (zich voorstellen) to keep (blijven, volhouden) to mind (bezwaren hebben) to pardon (vergeven) to practise (oefenen) to prevent (vermijden) to resent (kwalijk nemen) to resist (zich verzetten tegen) to risk (het risico lopen) to stand (dulden) to suggest (suggereren)

ing-form refers to past

infinitive refers to future

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16 ING-FORMS AND INFINITIVES


C The following expressions are always followed by an ing-form: Its no use repeating this over and over. I cant stand having to do this all over again. Its no good insulting other people. Im busy doing my homework. Its (not) worth doing a lot of sports. How about working together? I cant help forgetting your name. Ing-form or infinitive Some verbs can be followed by either an ing-form or an infinitive, usually with a difference in meaning. 1 Advise, allow, consider, forbid, permit, recommend He advised us not to tell anybody what we had seen. He advised not telling anybody anything. I can definitely recommend you to eat todays special at that restaurant. I can recommend going to this years Night of The Proms. My mother always forbade us to watch television past eight oclock. Few parents forbid watching television past eight oclock. If the verb is followed by the person concerned, we use the infinitive. 2 Love, hate, like, prefer I like swimming very much. I dont like to swim in this polluted river. No real change of meaning.

3 See, hear, watch, smell, notice When I looked through the window, I saw Kate crossing the street. I saw her cross the street and disappear in the house. When used with the ing-form, you refer to an action going on. When used with a bare infinitive (= infinitive without to), you refer to a completed action.

4 Mean Failing an exam, means (= signifies) having to work a little harder in the holidays. I really didnt mean (= intend) to hurt you when saying this. When used with the ing-form, you stress the significance of an action. When used with the to-infinitive, you stress an intention.

5 Try I tried to understand this problem but I didnt succeed in doing so. When used with a to-infinitive, you stress the fact that you made an effort, that you attempt to do something (difficult). I have tried it several times, but everything was in vain. Why dont you try doing it my way? When used with an ing-form, we stress the fact that there have been previous attempts, and that we will experiment doing it another way and see what happens.

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17 modal auxiliaries
Possibility You may be right (and I think you are). She might be right (but I dont think so). Ability Can you remember who won the Eurovision Song Contest in 1999? Could you play the piano when you were 12? I wasnt able to forget about Sally. I managed to climb the hill. She succeeded in persuading the teacher not to give a test. Permission Can I stay out a little longer tonight? Was your older brother allowed to go out when he was your age? You may enter the castle. May is more polite than can. Obligation Students must wear uniforms at all times. Do we have to know all this by tomorrow? In school we have to be quiet in the corridors. Did your parents have to wear uniforms when they were at school? You should come at once. Absence of Obligation Students dont have to go to school on Sundays. My grandparents didnt have to learn about the European Union. You neednt bring all your books every day. (neednt = niet hoeven) Dont I have to pay right now? Prohibition You cannot drink beer if youre under age. You are not allowed to wear jeans. You mustnt wear trainers in the classroom. (mustnt = niet mogen) Dont shout in this room. You couldnt go out on your own when you were 12. You werent allowed to kiss her. Advice You should work harder. Should I tell her about Johns affair? They ought to be more careful.

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18 possessive
THE POSSESSIVE Im in the same class as Philip. Youre in class 8B. Hes not friendly. Shes so beautiful. Its a new school. We arent friends at all. Youre thirteen. Theyre in love. My name is Kevin Pearson. Whats your name? His tricks are so funny. Her surname is Griffin. Its playground is very big. Mr Campbell is our French teacher. Your English books are great. Their house is in Selby Road.

19 Some & Any


SOME (+) There are some nice blouses in the window. Id like some more coffee. Use: We use some in positive sentences. ANY (-) I cant see any ships at sea. There arent any brown trousers left. ANY (?) Do you need any milk? Do you have any black skirts? Use: We use any in negative sentences and in questions. Could you show me some more suits? Would you like some pink underwear?

} requests (verzoeken, vragen)

some

20 genitive
Homers wife Marges husband the sons name Lisa and Maggies brother + s Barts sisters the childrens grandfather __________________________________________________________________________________________ the daughters names + the Simpsons neighbours plurals ending in -s only take an apostrophe __________________________________________________________________________________________ Mr Burns assistant Ned and Maude Flanderss sons + (s) names ending in -s mostly take s (sometimes you also see the apostrophe alone)

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21 PLURAL OF NOUNS
PRONUNCIATION Singular a book an Indian chief a shop a cat a page a pencil case an exercise a box a match a brother a pencil a pen SPELLING Singular a cat a dog a horse a monkey = vowel + y (vowel = klinker) a puppy a baby (consonant + y) (consonant = medeklinker) a bus a box a match a man a woman a child one sheep - one fish - one mouse - one goose - one wolf - two sheep two fish two mice two geese two wolves Plural seventeen books two Indian chiefs five shops eleven cats twelve pages eight pencil cases fourteen exercises three boxes six matches three brothers nineteen pencils sixteen pens

/s/ after / k, f, p, t / (think of coffeepot) /z/ after hissing sounds

/z/ after all other sounds

Plural cats dogs horses monkeys

regular form +s

puppies babies

ies

buses boxes matches men [men] sounds as pen women [wmn] sounds as swimming children one foot one louse one tooth one ox one deer - - - - - two feet two lice two teeth two oxen two deer

after a hissing sound + es irregular plurals

one salmon - one thief - one life - one dwarf - one half -

two salmon two thieves two lives two dwarves two halves

22 Comparisons
ADJECTIVE 1 syllable short high nice large hot wet COMPARATIVE shorter (than) higher nicer larger hotter wetter SUPERLATIVE (the) shortest highest nicest largest hottest wettest

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22 Comparisons
ADJECTIVE 2 syllables adjectives ending in -y, -er, -le, -ow 2 or more syllables heavy happy simple clever narrow tired handsome beautiful COMPARATIVE heavier happier simpler cleverer narrower more tired more handsome more beautiful comparative BETTER WORSE FURTHER MORE LESS SUPERLATIVE heaviest happiest simplest cleverest narrowest

most tired most handsome most beautiful superlative BEST WORST FURTHEST MOST LEAST

BUT!

adjective GOOD BAD FAR MUCH/MANY LITTLE

23 Much, Many, A lot of


We use much and many in negative sentences and questions and with so, as and too. much before uncountable nouns many before (plural) countable nouns examples: How much money does she want? How many pairs of shoes do you have? There isnt much time left. There arent many children in that school. There are too many people in this room. We had too much fun yesterday. Did you get as many visitors as last year? We use a lot of in positive sentences (both with countable and uncountable nouns). examples: There is a lot of work to be done. We used to have a lot of friends in those days. In spoken English a lot of is also used in questions and negative sentences. examples: There isnt a lot of time left. Are there a lot of people in the shop?

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24 Relative Clauses
24.1 NON-RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES
The information in the non-restrictive relative clauses is not necessary to understand the antecedent. So, we put it between commas. Subject Object Possessive Paul, who lives just around the corner, left his wife yesterday. Her heart, which had been broken before, has now fallen to pieces. John, who(m) we all know, is getting married. Ann, whose mother is also a nurse, has finally graduated. Antecedent is a person: WHO WHO(M) WHOSE Antecedent is a thing: WHICH WHICH WHOSE

24.2 RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES


The information in restrictive relative clauses is necessary to know who or what the antecedent is. Subject Object* Possessive The man who invented the Internet, is not really famous. The animals that cause the disease, spread rather quickly. The hotel (that) I stayed in was so cosy. John who(m) we all know, is getting married. The girl whose car had been stolen, has now lost her watch. Antecedent is a person: WHO / THAT (WHO / THAT) WHOSE Antecedent is a thing: WHICH / THAT (WHICH / THAT) WHOSE

Notes: - WHO and WHICH are more formal than THAT. - In spoken English WHO / WHICH / THAT are mostly left out in object clauses. e.g. This is the girl I kissed last night.

25 Adverbs
25.1 FORMATION AND USE
Study these examples: - I cant, said the man, the terrible witch might catch me. - Oh, please. Im terribly sorry! said the man. terrible is an adjective. terribly is an adverb. General formation rule: adverb = adjective + -ly. Adjective quiet quick Adverb quietly quickly

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25 Adverbs
25.2 SPELLING NOTES
- - - - Adjectives ending in -e keep e before -ly: Adjectives ending in -le drop e: Adjectives ending in -ic add -ally: Adjectives ending in consonant +y: y -ily: e.g. desperate e.g. terrible e.g. romantic e.g. happy desperately terribly romantically happily

EXCEPTIONS The adverb of good is well. A few adjectives and adverbs have the same form: deep - high - low - early - late - little - much - far near - long - short - fast - hard - straight.

25.3 ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB?


1 An adjective tells us more about a noun. We use adjectives before nouns and after a few verbs (to be, to become, to feel, to get, to seem, to smell, to sound, to taste, to look ...): - The stream ran through the garden of a cruel and wicked witch. - They were both very happy. 2 An adverb tells us more about a verb. An adverb tells us in what way something happens. - He quickly climbed the wall once more. We also use adverbs before adjectives: - Im terribly sorry! said the man. other adverbs: - He surprisingly quickly stole the food. past participles: - Im so sorry! said the man completely confused.

25.4 POSITION OF ADVERBS


1 ADVERBS OF MANNER e.g.: hard, well, slowly, quickly ... Adverbs of manner come - after the verb: e.g. Romeo tried vainly to separate the combatants. - with compound tenses after the last auxiliary: e.g. Romeo was deeply enraptured to hear Juliets voice. 2 ADVERBS OF PLACE e.g.: away, everywhere, here, there ... Adverbs of place never go between subject and verb. 3 ADVERBS OF TIME e.g.: now, recently, soon, then, yesterday ... The most usual position is at the very end of a sentence. e.g.: Romeo and Juliet will be buried later. They only met yesterday. To emphasize the time reference the adverb can be put at the beginning of the sentence. e.g.: Now I want to hear your answer. 4 POSITION OF ADVERBS OF MANNER, PLACE AND TIME GENERAL RULE: MANNER PLACE TIME They danced beautifully at the feast yesterday. manner place time

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25 Adverbs
5 ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY e.g.: always, ever, never, often, sometimes, usually ... a. Adverbs of frequency are placed: - after a simple tense of to be. e.g. He is always in time for lunch. - before simple tenses of all other verbs. e.g. The fights often troubled the tranquillity of Verona. b. With compound tenses adverbs of frequency are placed: - after the first auxiliary. e.g. He had often been told not to do that. - after the subject in questions. e.g. Why had the messenger never reached Romeo? 6 ADVERBS OF DEGREE For example: almost, enough, just, nearly, only, quite, really ... - Adverbs of degree are placed before an adjective or another adverb. e.g. Rosaline was quite beautiful. !!! Except with enough: e.g. Rosalines love for Romeo wasnt big enough. - With compound tenses, adverbs of degree are placed after the first auxiliary. e.g. Romeo was almost killed at the feast.

26 Prepositions
Study the use of the following prepositions of time and place.

26.1 TIME
He arrived at about 7.30 pm. I like coffee after dinner. They arrived at midnight. He arrived on Thursday. He died in 1987. BC means before Christ. Christianity has existed for nearly 2000 years. about after at on in before for ongeveer na om op in voor gedurende

26.2 PLACE
The helicopter hovers above the landing strip. above I cant jump across the river. across I was leaning against the wall. against There are no shops along this street. along The house is hidden among the trees. among He put his arms around me. around He stayed at home all night. at Theyve built a swimming pool behind their house. behind Theres a large cellar beneath the building. beneath The dog walked beside his master. beside The Rio Grande runs between the USA and Mexico. between There must be houses beyond these mountains. beyond Come and stand by my side. by I lost my balance and fell down the hill. down boven over tegen langs tussen rond(om) te, in achter onder naast tussen verder dan, voorbij bij, aan naar beneden

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26 Prepositions
Whiskey comes from Ireland, whisky comes from from Scotland. He is staying in hospital at this very moment. in The dentist looked inside my mouth and decided inside to extract the bad tooth. The gorilla was put into a cage. into Take the pot off the cooker. off Dont lean out of the window. out of We never go to the theatre. to Sunflowers always turn towards the sun. towards That river runs under several bridges. under (van)uit in (binnen)in in van uit naar naar ... toe onder

26.3 MANNER
I go to school by bus. He comes to school on foot. We came here in a taxi. I will accept that invitation with pleasure. She walks like a model. by on in with like met te in/met met (zo)als

26.4 OTHER PREPOSITIONS


This book was written by Anthony Horowitz. This exit is for emergencies only. We heard the news of your promotion from your boss. Ill go without you. Besides tennis, what other sports do you practise? The shop opens every day except (for) Sundays. by for of without besides except (for) door voor van zonder behalve behalve

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