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1.

1 2 3 4 " # %

ref to operon; normally repressor substance bound to operator; prevents RNA polymerase binding (at promoter) / prevents transcription; lactose binds to repressor; c!anges s!ape of protein molecule; unable to bind (to operator); RNA polymerase binds (at promoter) / transcription occurs / genes s$itc!ed on; A&'; e(g( production of lactose permease / production of beta) galactosidase;

ma*
[5]

2.

a c!ange in t!e genetic material; unpredictable / A+; e*tra detail; e(g( addition / substitution / deletion / frame s!ift / small part of c!romosome / may code for different protein / may code for no protein
[2]

3.

1 mark max for general effect of mutations: mutation may give different, amino acid / primary structure; A ref stop codon some mutations alter, molecular s!ape / tertiary structure / binding; max 3 for explaining data in Table: ) so unable to, accept / transport, -./3 ; unable to bind A0'; so increase in acidity / decrease in p-; effect on mucus; effect on en1yme(s) /ref p- optimum of en1yme(s); poor digestion of, protein / lipid / starc!; A&'; e(g( some mutations, give some transport / !ave less effect( 2 333 (of norm) allo$s normal digestive function / 4 "3 5A very low6 does not(

ma* 3
[3]

4.

allow max 5 for following: transcription; 7NA un1ips / - bonds brea8; e*posing re9uired, gene / se9uence of bases; RNA nucleotides align $it! 7NA; : $it! A, A $it! 0, . $it! ;, and ; $it! .; RNA polymerase; mRNA formed (using 7NA strand as template); leaves nucleus t!roug! pore; allow max 5 for following:

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translation; mRNA attac!es to ribosome; tRNA brings amino acid (to, ribosome / mRNA); eac! tRNA attac!ed to specific amino acid; tRNA binds to mRNA using complementary, base triplet / anticodon; peptide bond formed bet$een amino acids; 7NA / mRNA, (nucleotide / base) se9uence determines se9uence of amino acids; A&'; e(g( 2, base triplets / codons, in ribosome A&'; e(g( ref( to < start / stop, codons polysomes large and small subunit in ribosome 2> =g
[10]

5.

1 mark per correct row Look for both ticks and crosses. f a table consists of ticks !"L# or crosses !"L#$ then assume that the blank spaces are the other symbol. f a table consists of ticks$ crosses and blanks then the blanks represent no attempt at the answer. Nucleotides line up along an e*posed 7NA strand( 0!e $!ole of t!e double !eli* ?un1ips@( :racil pairs $it! adenine( A tRNA triplet pairs $it! an e*posed codon( Aot! 7NA polynucleotide c!ains act as templates( AdBacent nucleotides bond, forming a sugar)p!osp!ate bac8bone( 0!e original 7NA molecule is unc!anged after t!e process( Adenine pairs $it! t!ymine( ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
[8]

6.

(a)

(i)

: A . . ; ; A : : . A .;; 1 error % 1$ & errors % ' allow 1 mark for giving T throughout instead of ( )i.e. T * + + , , * T T + * + % 1 mark2 1

(ii)

transcription / transcribed; R transcriptase

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(b)

(i)

J K L M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

anticodon; R anticodons transfer RNA / tRNA; ribosome / rRNA; codon; R codons 7NA triplet / codon / M / mRNA triplet, codes for specific amino acid; order of, triplets / bases, determines t!e order of amino acids; tRNA / C, !as, corresponding / complementary, triplet / anticodon; (tRNA / C) attac!ed to specific amino acid; activation of amino acid; 2 (tRNA) binding sites on t!e ribosome; codon and anticodon bind; A matc! A to : and . to ;; adBacent amino acids Boin; peptide bond;

(ii)

4 ma*

(c)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

attac!es to ribosome; removes, base / portion, of ribosome; A stops ribosome assembling / c!anges s!ape of ribosome prevents ribosome, attac!ing to / reading, mRNA; prevents codons being e*posed; prevents, tRNA / anticodon, attac!ing to, mRNA / codon; prevents / in!ibits en1yme responsible for, formation of peptide lin8ages; A&'; e(g( furt!er detail of any of t!e above points 2 ma*
[13]

7.

(a)

(i)

mRNA leaves nucleus; ora mRNA, translated / used to ma8e, protein; 7NA, transcribed / used to ma8e, mRNA; mRNA s!ort)term / 7NA (long)term) store; siRNA smaller / fe$er nucleotides / only matc!es part of gene; ora siRNA double)stranded; ora

2 ma* 2

(ii)

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(b)

(complementary) base)pairing; !ydrogen bonding; bet$een purines and pyrimidines; A $it! :; R A $it! 0 . $it! ;; ref to 2 or 3 bonds (correct conte*t);

3 ma*
[7]

8.

(i)

)++.5 / macrophages(siRNAs continue to $or8) in long)lived cells; only one treatment needed for macrop!ages / ..R ; (siRNAs diluted) as lymp!ocytes divide; ora repeat treatments needed for, lymp!ocytes / .74; )++.5because no essential function in body / absence not a problem;

2 1
[3]

(ii)

9.

(a)

(i)

steep increase, for t!e first 1 ) 2 !ours / till 2(2 ) 3(% (a(u) ; A linear, steady became constant at, 3 !ours / 4(3 (a(u) ; if no figs in description$ e.g. 0rose then constant1 award 1 mark max (increased as) en1yme $or8ing / rate of reaction !ig! / reaction proceeding ; (increased as) substrate converted into, drug / product ; (levelled off / became constant, after t!e) en1yme, became inactive / $as denatured; (levelled off / became constant) because product in!ibits, reaction / en1yme ; R references to en1yme or substrate being used up R 0 D. limiting

(ii)

(b)

p- ; degree of mi*ing ; en1yme concentration ; A&' ; e(g( ref to concentration of in!ibitors

1 ma*

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(c) P1 P2 P3 P4 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5

max of & marks for predicting or explaining concentration of drug !ig!er / A+ ; rate of reaction slo$er / A+ ; may not level off (in time scale s!o$n on grap!) ; time ta8en to reac! t!e ma*imum yield (appro*imately) doubles ; (c(f( 1 D.) not denatured ; adapted to D. / optimum / body / usual, temperature ; ref to E1F of about 2 ; ref to lo$er 8inetic energy / A+ ; ref to G)H, collisions / comple*es ; A&' ; e(g( ref to active site 3 ma*

(d)

(i)

(s!aded amino acids) form t!e active site ; substrate may not attac! to t!e active site ; en1yme)substrate comple* may not be formed / A+ ;

1 ma*

(ii)

44 and "" not part of active site ; !old, active site / 3D structure / 37 structure, in s!ape ; A stop denaturing !ydrogen bonds $ea8 ; easily bro8en by, vibration / !eat ; A pdisulp!ide bridge strong ; not bro8en by !eat ; 2 ma*

(e)

nucleotide / base/ 7NA, se9uence codes for, protein / amino acid, se9uence ; c!anges 7NA ; A c!ange triplet ma8es different mRNA ; A c!ange codon transcription ; different tRNAs line up ; A c!ange anticodon translation ; different (amino acid se9uence in), en1yme / protein / polypeptide ; 2 ma*
[13]

10.

(a)

estimate of role of genotype in p!enotypic variation / A+ ; !eritability I &; / &' ; $!en !eritability !ig! muc! of variation is, genetic / not environmental / ora ; !ig! !eritability $ill result in successful selective breeding / ora ;

2 ma*

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(b)

single / maBor / =endelian, gene ; large effect ; little environmental effect ; dominant allele 0 e*pressed in !omo) and !etero1ygote ; not polygenic ; not additive ; discontinuous variation / not continuous variation ; 9ualitative / not 9uantitative ; (i) triplet of bases t!at does not code for an amino acid ; A00 / A0. / A.0 ; code to mar8 end of gene ; code to stop transcription / ref to disengagement RNA polymerase ; transcription !alted early / A+ ; protein $ill, be smaller / !ave fe$er amino acids ; tertiary structure / 37 s!ape different ; binding / affinity, different ; protein inactive ; ref to lac operon ; (iii) ref to, promoter / operator / ?on@ s$itc! ; allele 0 is regulator ; (protein) binds to 7NA ; (protein) binds to repressor and prevents it binding to 7NA ; allo$s RNA polymerase to bind ; A&' ; e(g( en1yme affecting transcription tt > 0 / A+, increases number of tillers per plant ; and number of branc!es per tiller ; ref to comparative figures ; inserted into genome randomly / cannot c!oose $!ere it is inserted ; may be $it!in a fre9uently e*pressed gene ; may be after an ?on@ s$itc! ; lac8s normal controls ; A&' ; e(g( no ot!er alleles affecting it different promoter

2 ma*

(c)

2 ma*

(ii)

3 ma*

2 ma*

(d)

(i)

2 ma*

(ii)

2 ma*
[15]

Macmillan Academy

11.

plant signal used by ear$orms ; J s$itc!es on gene coding for E ; can t!en brea8 do$n insecticide ; effect on transcription ; (J ( ) reduces mortality ; even in absence of insecticide ; in absence of J, mortality, !ig! / c( %#3 ; ref to comparative figures ; e(g( %# to 4%3 / almost !alved, in presence of insecticide 1" to #3 / more t!an !alved, in absence of insecticide slig!t e*pression of E in absence of J caused by insecticide ;

4 ma*
[4]

12.

(a)

plasmid 2"* nucleotides / sugar > p!osp!ate > base ; 4 different subunits ; p!osp!odiester bonds ; A p!osp!oester contains ' ; double)stranded / double !eli* ; circular ; A&' ; e(g( role of - bonds

protein amino acids ; 2F different subunits ; peptide bonds / polypeptide ; contains H / disulp!ide bonds ; may !ave 4D structure ; ref to, 2D / 3D, structure / A+ ; 3 ma* 1

(b)

(i) (ii)

stimulates, immune response / production of antibodies / 0 or A cells ; stimulate, cell)mediated immunity / 0 cells ; antigen, remains in body longer / continuously produced ; antigens in blood only stimulate, !umoral immune system / A cells ; antigens (in blood) lost in urine / bro8en do$n in liver ; ref to =-. ; binds RNA polymerase ; allo$s, transcription / production of mRNA ; s$itc!es gene on / allo$s gene e*pression ; (protect against) more t!an one, strain / disease / pat!ogen / A+ ; stronger immune response ; less li8ely mutant form $ill escape immune response / A+ ; A&' ; c!eaper / reduces number of vaccinations ;olgi modifies protein / polypeptide / A+ ; forms glycoproteins / add sugars or carbo!ydrate ; ;olgi forms vesicles ; incorporated into cell membrane ; R e*ocytosis A&' ;

1 ma*

(c)

(i)

2 ma*

(ii)

2 ma*

(iii)

2 ma*

Macmillan Academy

(d)

cells that take up 2"* vaccine might 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 function less $ell ; be 8illed by immune system / trigger auto)immune response ; !ave genes disrupted / mutation ; ne$ gene mig!t be in!erited / A+ ; plasmid could enter bacteria ; superbug / create ne$ disease / A+ ; effects un8no$n / ne$ tec!nology / no !uman trials ; A&' ; ref et!ics, ref irreversible

3 ma*
[14]

13.

(a)

(i)

AaBB $!ite; aaBB blac8; Aabb $!ite; aabb bro$n; (dominant) epistasis; codes for in!ibitor; protein; bloc8s transcription (of allele coding for pigment); ref to, regulator / promoter; bloc8s en1yme (producing pigment); A&'; e(g( detail

4 1

(ii) (iii)

ma* 3

(b)

(i)

AaAb J AaAb / AaAb J Aabb; bot! must !ave A because t!ey are $!ite; K bot! must, !ave a / not be !omo1ygous AA, because some 8ittens coloured; K bot! must !ave b to give bro$n 8ittens; L 0must be hetero3ygous at both loci1 % 1 only at least one / one or bot!, must !ave A to give blac8 8ittens; credit ref to 'unnett s9uare s!o$ing genotypes; credit ref to 'unnett s9uare s!o$ing p!enotypes;

ma* ma* 2
[15]

(ii)

AaAb J AaAb 12 $!ite < 3 blac8 < 1 bro$n;; AaAb J Aabb " $!ite < 1 blac8 < 1 bro$n;;

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14.

(i)

RNA(i) combines $it! mRNA; e(g( of base pairing (but not 0) A): / ;).; stops translation; ref to stops mRNA combining $it! ribosomes; stops protein synt!esis; c!emicals / en1ymes in, mout! / toot!paste / bacteria; denature / degrade, RNA; RNA not normally ta8en up by bacterial cells; s!ort life of RNA; RNA not replicated in bacteria $!en bacteria reproduce; toot!paste in mout! only for s!ort time; A&'; A&'; e(g( $as!ed a$ay by saliva

ma* 3

(ii)

ma* 2
[5]

15.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ref to operon; normally repressor substance bound to operator; prevents RNA polymerase binding (at promoter) / prevents transcription; lactose binds to repressor; c!anges s!ape of protein molecule; unable to bind (to operator); RNA polymerase binds (at promoter) / transcription occurs / genes s$itc!ed on; production of lactose permease; production of beta M galactosidase;
[5]

16.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

proteins needed for repair / A+; more transcription of, 7NA / genes; more translation; protein synt!esis; named protein; e(g( actin / myosin / troponin / tropomyosin ignore all refs to muscle contraction more aerobic respiration; so more, energy released / A0' produced; (energy re9uired for) condensation / anabolic, reactions; (energy re9uired for) formation of peptide bonds; (energy re9uired for) formation of e*tra mRNA;

ma*
[5]

Macmillan Academy

17.

(a)

provides sites for binding; ref to, spindle fibres / microtubules; ref to genes being spaced out along c!romosome; places to brea8 and reBoin (during meiotic division); A c!iasmata formation ?Bun8@ implies no, function / purpose; ora function may not yet !ave been discovered; A&'; e(g( ra$ material for, evolution / natural selection, re9uired for, cell division / mitosis / meiosis ma* 2 straig!t line sloping up from left to rig!t; (does not need to start at origin) A0' / NA7 / NA7' / RNA / p!osp!olipid / ;' / 0' / RuA' / A7' / R:' / A=' / cA='/ p!osp!ocreatine / A&'; R 7NA 1

(b) (c)

1
[4]

18.

7NA codes for, protein / polypeptide; transcription and translation (or described); en1yme is globular (protein); 3 bases 1 amino acid; se9uence of bases / triplets, determines, se9uence of amino acids / primary structure; coiling / !eli* / )pleated s!eet / particular secondary structure; determines proBecting side groups; folding / bonding, for tertiary structure; 3)7 structure is tertiary structure; A&'; e(g( ref( active site related to s!ape 2 or more genes produce 9uaternary structure

4 ma*
[4]

Macmillan Academy

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