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Regular physical activity is essential for healthy growth and also for the
importance of source of energy in every single cells activities that occur in human
body especially. Being physically active not only strengthens your body, but it can
also provide a better life since doing those physical activities such as playing games
and everything will increase the amount of oxygen gases in body which carry by the
blood into the whole body. Physically active people have a lower risk of developing
many chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension,
osteoporosis and obesity. They also experienced increased sense of well-being and
are much better equipped to cope with stress. Health Canada recommends choosing
a variety of from three types of exercises which are, endurance, flexibility and
strength as shown in figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1
Source : Rauramaa, R. & Leon, A.S. (1996) Physical Activity and risk of
cardiovascular disease in middle aged individuals. Sports Medicine; 22(2):65-69.

According to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the level of physical

activities that may reduce the risk of various chronic diseases may not be enough,
nutrition taken also one of the vital component of any programme that seeks to
enhance health, fitness and athletics performance. These three components are
enhance by the optimal nutrition. What is optimal nutrition? It is the same for a child
who plays recreational softball and for a senior citizens who takes daily walks to

reduce the risks of type 2 disease? An optimal diet or nutrition supplies the required
nutrients which are adequate for tissue maintenance, repair, and growth without
excess energy intake. It is now possible to make estimate nutritional needs for men
and women which should account for their daily energy expenditure. The dietary
needs for athletes, however must consider the specific energy requirements
attributed to their sport as well as taking into consideration the athlete's food
preferences. Although there is no one diet for optimal exercise performance, the
planning and evaluation of food intake should be based on sound judgement. Here
are six major classes of nutrients found in food such as carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids (fats and oils), vitamins (both fat-soluble and water-soluble), minerals , and
water. People depend on nutrients in their diet because the human body is not able
to produce many of these nutrients or it cannot produce them in adequate amounts.


As mentioned above, there are six major types of nutrition needed in body.
There are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, minerals and vitamins. There are
three major functions of these nutrition in body such as providing energy, promote
growth and development and regulate the body functions.

Carbohydrates are the major source of energy for the body. They are
composed mostly of the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O).
Through the bonding of these elements, carbohydrates provide energy for the
body in the form of kilocalories (kcal), with an average of 4 kcal per gram
(kcal/g) of carbohydrates (a kcal is equivalent to a calorie on a nutritional label
of a packaged food). Carbohydrates come in a variety of sizes. The smallest
carbohydrates are the simple sugars, also known as monosaccharides and
disaccharides, meaning that they are made up of one or two sugar molecules.
The best known simple sugar is table sugar, which is also known as sucrose ,
a disaccharide. Other simple sugars include the monosaccharides glucose
and fructose, which are found in fruits, and the disaccharides, which include
sucrose, lactose (found in milk), and maltose (in beer and malt liquors). The
larger carbohydrates are made up of these smaller simple sugars and are
known as polysaccharides (many sugar molecules) or complex
carbohydrates. These are usually made up of many linked glucose molecules,
though, unlike simple sugars, they do not have a sweet taste. Examples of

foods high in complex carbohydrates include potatoes, beans, and
vegetables. Another type of complex carbohydrate is dietary fiber . However,
although fiber is a complex carbohydrate made up of linked sugar molecules,
the body cannot break apart the sugar linkages and, unlike other complex
carbohydrates, it passes through the body with minimal changes.
Although carbohydrates are not considered to be an essential nutrient,
the body depends on them as its primary energy source. The body utilizes
most carbohydrates to generate glucose, which serves as the basic functional
molecule of energy within the cells of the human body (glucose is broken
down to ultimately produce adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the fundamental
unit of energy). When the supply of carbohydrates is too low to adequately
supply all the energy needs of the body, amino acids from proteins are
converted to glucose. However, the typical American individual consumes
more than adequate amounts of carbohydrates to prevent this utilization of
protein. Carbohydrate intake is of great importance and those athletes who
neglect this specific intake in their diet will eventually lead to glycogen
depletion, which will definitely effect their training causing 'staleness' that will
hinder the ability to train and compete. The recommended intakes for active
men and women are listed in the diagram below:

For athletes especially, dietary carbohydrates should come mainly
from complex carbohydrates, which provide many of the B vitamins
necessary for energy metabolisms, along with iron and fiber. A high
carbohydrate diets will helps increase glycogen stores and extend endurance.
For Endurance athletes, research studies suggest that should supply a
minimum of 60 percents of calories. A high carbohydrate diet also may
prevent mental as well as physical fatigue and is important for stop-and-go
sports such as basketball, footballs and soccer. ( Discovery Nutrition : page
437 ). Endurance athletes, for example such as marathon runners, rely on
their stores of glycogen as a source of energy during competition.
Carbohydrate loading is a legal method of boosting the amount of glycogen in
the body prior to a competition. It is generally recommended for endurance
events lasting longer than 90 minutes. In this process, athletes manipulate
their carbohydrate intake and exercise regimen to maximize muscle glycogen
stores. Table 1.2 shows carbohydrate loading for endurance athletes.

Number of days before Exercise duration Training diet (g

event carbohydrate/kg body
6 90 5
5 40 5
4 40 5
3 20 10
2 20 10
1 Rest day 10
Race Competition Precompetition food and
Table 1.2 : Carbohydrate loading for endurance athletes
( Discovery Nutrition ; page 438 )

The simplest form of carbohydrate that usually discuss about carbohydrate

metabolisms usually involve glucose, fructose and galactose. These travel in
the bloodstream from the small intestine to the liver, where they are stored as
long chains of glucose units in the form of glycogen. The liver stores one-third
of the body’s total glycogen which is about 150 g. The remainder of the
glucose may pass on to the muscles, where it is also stored as glycogen.
Glycogen is stored in association with water and is bulky way of storing
energy. Thus, body only contains glycogen to provide energy for relatively
short periods of time. The longer form of energy stored are maintained in the

form of fats. Carbohydrate is one of the most important energy reservoir other
than fats where it providing glucose for immediate use and glycogen
The intake of carbohydrate must not only be sufficient to provide the
necessary energy for the survival of the body, but must also contain sufficient
specific sugars to allow the synthesis of essential complex molecules. The
sources of carbohydrate should be unprocessed as possible, as any increase
in the degree of process is linked with possible adverse effect. The dietary
reference values report suggest that, dietary carbohydrate should supply 50
percent of energy, sugars not contained within cellular structure should
constitute no more than 10 percent of the energy and the balance should be
made up from complex carbohydrate and other sugars, such as those in fruits
and milks. ( Human Nutrition : A health perspective, page 113).

The word proteins was coined by the Dutch Chemist, Gerardus Mulder
in 1838and comes from the Greek words protos, meaning “of prime
importance”. Mulder discovered that proteins are the major components of all
plants and animal tissues, second only to water.The building blocks of human
proteins are twenty amino acids that may be consumed from both plant and
animal sources. Of these 20 amino acids, 9 are considered to be essential
because their carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized by human enzymes.
The remaining "nonessential" amino acids can be synthesized endogenously
with transfer of amino groups to carbon compounds that are formed as
intermediates of glucose (glucogenic amino acids) and lipid (ketogenic amino
acids) metabolism.
Protein is the basic structural material of all cells. Biologically active
proteins include enzymes, immunoglobulins, hormones, neurotransmitters,
nutrient transport and storage compounds, and cell membrane receptors.
Plasma proteins (e.g., albumin) contribute to osmotic pressure that directs the
flow of fluid and metabolic waste from the intracellular compartment into the
capillary venules. These proteins (e.g., hemoglobin) also contribute to plasma
buffering capacity and oxygen-carbon dioxide transport (e.g., hemoglobin,
myoglobin). Acute phase reactant proteins (e.g., ferritin, prealbumin) secreted
by the liver bind minerals such as iron and zinc rendering them unavailable to
support microbial proliferation.

Think on every people favourite meals perhaps on a holiday feast,
festivals or daily meals, what are most of them contain common things
needed by every person bodies. From the young age, for example, meat,
contain a very high protein that needed for our body to continue on living.
Many emphasize protein as one of the important source of protein and they
are the most important nutrients in body. Each of every human body, they
contain thousand of different proteins which have their own function and
importance to body. Before the body can turn this food protein example as
meats, fish and everything, they need to undergo a process called digestion
to turn them into body protein. This digestion process occur in stomach and
also in the small intestines. They are digested by different enzymes and
different conditions as where it is be. But, not all the food proteins can be
digested in the body to become body proteins, some that can not be digested
are continue from the small intestines to large intestines and then pass out of
the body in the feces.

2.3 FATS
All living cells contains fats in their structures since it is important for
cell walls and also the intracellular membranes usually refers as
phospholipids bilayers. Mammals and birds commonly store fats throughout
the body especially between the muscles, around internal organs and under
the skin. fats keep under the skin is actually refers to the adipose tissues that
act as an insulator and make our body prevent from coldness. Fats are
substances that insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents like
acetone, fats are greasy in texture and are non-volatile. Fats can be in many
forms such as solid at room temperature and oils, which is in liquid form.
however, they both are similar to each other but somehow, they only differ in
the size of molecules and the bonds that present in each of the structures.
some may called fats as lipids. in nutrition aspect, the most important lipids
are called as triglycerides (triacylglycerols), which constitute over 95 percents
of the fat that human consume. Triglycerides is a molecule with three fatty
acids and a glycerol. In addition, they are also phospholipids, sterols and fat-
soluble vitamins in the diet and body tissues.
A fat's constituent fatty acids may also differ in the number of
hydrogen atoms that are bonded to the chain of carbon atoms. Each carbon
atom is typically bonded to two hydrogen atoms. When a fatty acid has this
typical arrangement, it is called "saturated", because the carbon atoms are

saturated with hydrogen, meaning that they are bonded to as many hydrogen
as possible. In other fats, a carbon atom may instead bond to only one other
hydrogen atom, and have a double bond to a neighbouring carbon atom. This
results in an "unsaturated" fatty acid. More specifically, it would be a
"monounsaturated" fatty acid, whereas, a "polyunsaturated" fatty acid would
be a fatty acid with more than one double bond. Saturated and unsaturated
fats differ in their energy content and melting point. Since an unsaturated fat
contains fewer carbon-hydrogen bonds than a saturated fat with the same
number of carbon atoms, unsaturated fats will yield slightly less energy during
metabolism than saturated fats with the same number of carbon atoms.
Saturated fats can stack themselves in a closely packed arrangement, so
they can freeze easily and are typically solid at room temperature. But the
rigid double bond in an unsaturated fat fundamentally changes the chemistry
of the fat. Trans fats and saturated fats significantly increase the risk of
coronary heart disease.
Nowadays, people always talk about the importance of the omega
brand product where we should all be increasing our intake. Dietary
triglycerides such as omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 Fatty Acids can be
found in a variety of fats and oils as well as foods contain them, such as
omega-3 can be found in plant foods while omega-6 fatty acids in seeds, nuts
and also common vegetables oils. Omega-3 triglycerides need for body
functions like controlling blood clotting and building cell membranes in the
brain and. This omega-3 fatty acids is one of the type of fats that can help
build our body strong and healthy. Research has shown that this fatty acid
can have a positive impact on Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Epidemiologic
and clinical trials have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce CVD incidence
(American Heart Association), by decreasing risk of arrhythmias, which can
lead to sudden cardiac death, decreasing triglyceride levels, decreasing
growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque, lowering blood pressure (slightly) and it
also an effective therapy for both the treatment and prevention of human liver
cancers. (University of Pittsburg study). Omega-3 fatty acid DHA also reduces
symptoms of depression probably because it increases gray matter in the
brain. (University of Pittsburg study). Eating fatty fish, high in omega 3, lowers
the likelihood of developing “silent” brain lesions that can cause memory loss
and dementia (University of Kuopio in Finland).

Good nutrition means getting enough macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrients contain calories (energy) such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
They help us maintain our body weight. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals.
They keep our cells working properly, but will not prevent weight loss. Good nutrition
provides more than energy, structural components, vitamins and minerals. There are
other substances in the foods that we eat that have become better known over the
last few years.

Carbohydrates are our main source of energy and provide the ideal
fuel (glucose) for our body to function optimally, as well as many essential
vitamins and minerals. They are also the only form of energy used by the
brain. Complex carbohydrates provide long-term energy and help jump-start
our metabolism. As the metabolism speeds up, our body burns calories more
efficiently and this may make us get hungry between meals. This is often
mistaken for carbohydrate cravings. Studies show, however, that fueling up
with several small meals throughout the day is better for your metabolism
than three big meals. If your body is hungry, you are metabolizing fuel - in
order to continue this process, you need to honor that hunger appropriately.
Maintaining a steady flow of glucose through your blood stream will ensure
optimal fat burning efficiency, peak performance, long-term appetite control,
and minimal food cravings.
Sometimes, eating too many high carbohydrate (the ones that are
very quickly broken down into glucose in the stomach), this can trigger a very
rapid rise in blood sugar. This "sugar-spike" can cause food cravings, appetite
swings and, over time, impaired glucose tolerance or insulin insensitivity.
However, the presence of dietary fiber in the digestive tract can help to slow
down this conversion of carbohydrates to glucose. as a result, blood sugar
levels rise at a more normal speed thus avoiding the above health problems.

Many important source of proteins such as fish, meats and many more
are important in order to help us grow big and strong especially for athletes.
They need strong muscles to keep on doing exercises everyday. Protein is
part of every cell, is needed in thousands of chemical reaction, and keep
people or living things “together” structurally. When these food proteins
change into the body proteins, they will perform different functions in order to

maintain the activities of the cells in the body. For example, proteins important
for structural and mechanical functions of the body where the structures such
as bone, skin and hair owe their physical properties to unique proteins.
people always mention about collagen. do we know what is actually collagen
and how is it important for living cells? Collagen is actually the most abundant
proteins in mammals and essential in giving bone and skin their elastic
strength. Hair and nails also made up from protein which is in a coiled shape
if seeing under microscope. it called as keratin. The protein deficiency during
a child’s development can be disastrous. The insufficient of proteins may
cause a disease called ‘marasmus’ and ‘kwashiorkor’ where this especially
happened to those in the many poor countries. The child will exhibit growth
failure, in particular, a slowing of linear growth, resulting in stunting. for those
who experience ‘kwashiorkor’, they have an edema in the feet and legs and a
bloated belly. while for the symptoms of ‘marasmus’, they are actually short
and thin for their age and can appear frail and wrinkled. Moreover, protein
also play an important roles as hormones, enzymes, carriers and maintaining
homeostasis or the body balance condition. Antibodies or the body defense
system in the body also come from protein. It also play important role in
immune system, which is responsible for fighting infection and invasion by
foreign substances. The other important of proteins is in acting as the source
of energy and glucose. in the bodies, as mention above, protein plays
numerous vital functions that are determined by each protein’s shapes.
protein antibodies protect the body from infections and illness, as enzymes, it
speed up reactions and as hormones, they are chemical messenger. In
addition, proteins maintain the fluid balance and acid-base balance and
transport substances through out the body. If needed, protein can used as a
source of energy or glucose.

3.3 FATS
The human body uses fatty acids to do everything from building cell
membranes to performing key functions in the brain, eyes, and lungs. Fats
are compose of 60% of the brain and are essential to brain function, including
learning abilities, memory retention and moods. Fatty acids help our cells stay
moveable and flexible, as well as being responsible for building cell
membranes. Moreover, 60% of our heart’s energy comes from burning fats.
Specific fats are also used to help keep the heart beating in a regular rhythm.

the most important of fats is where they act as a cushioning and protector for
the internal organs and they also involved in our immune system. Fats can
ease inflammation, helping our metabolism and immune system stay healthy
and functioning.
Amongst the various foodstuffs, fats provide the body with maximum
energy (9 kcal per gram), approximately twice that for an equal amount of
protein or carbohydrates. Fats should make up only 10 to 25 percent of the
calories (not weight) in our diet. There is an overwhelming consumption of
fats in the average Western Diet. This has lead to a huge health problem
among population groups with a diet high in animal fats (ice-cream,
chocolates, fast foods and desserts). There are many diet related human
disorders that are found almost exclusively in the Western World, Coronary
Heart Disease (CHD) and cancer of the colon, are a few of the more severe.
Fats also help in the storage of energy in the form of adipocytes, some called
in specialized tissues. this adipocytes contain in the adipose tissues that can
be found under the skin layers. this function is the major importance in having
fats as one of the main nutrition in our body. the hydrocarbons chains in fats
are similar to gasoline molecules and just as rich in energy.


Other than those three major nutrition, water of course is the main nutrition
ever. the needed of water cannot be questioning as living things cannot live without
water in just a few days only. Besides that, vitamins also importance for living things
to be healthy. A compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in
sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Feeling
tired, run down AND stressed out showing that a signal for a person to have their
own vitamins intake. although many people think of vitamins as an energy boosters,
in truth, vitamins do not supply the body with energy in the form of calories like fats,
carbohydrate and proteins. however, people do need certain vitamins to obtain
energy from those nutrition then to give up more energy. there are so many vitamins
that can be found in every foods we have every day, they are group in two ways
where one type of vitamins are water soluble such as, vitamin B and vitamin C. While
fat-soluble vitamins is the other group of vitamins that contains vitamins A, D, E and
vitamin K. In general, water-soluble vitamins are more fragile than fat-soluble
vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins stored in the liver and fatty tissues of the body, are
extracted more slowly than water-soluble vitamins, and reverse last longer. Fat-

soluble vitamins, when consumed in excess, generally pose a greater risk of toxicity
than water-soluble vitamins.


As mentioned above, there are two types of vitamins which group in
water-soluble vitamins which is vitamin B and C. The scientist first discovered
vitamin B, believed that it was a single compound, but a further study done,
they realized that it was actually composed of several vitamins. In fact, there
are eight B vitamins. Some of them are vitamin B6, B12, B1, B2 and some
more. but they are also called as other name, for example as vitamin B6, it
also called as pyridoxine. Vitamin (B6) or Pyridoxine or 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-
4,5-bis(hydroxy-methyl)pyridineor is group of six compound and group of
vitamin B complex.

2-D structure pyridoxine

Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine is part of the B group vitamins
and is water-soluble and is required for both mental and physical health.
However pyridoxine is sensitive to sunlight, cooking and processing Cortisone
is known to impair the absorption of pyridoxine.


Many of the body's metabolic processes depend on the action of the
water soluble vitamin B6. This is actually the chemical that plays such a vital
role in the release of glucose and the metabolic processing of sugar. With a
seven-type variety, vitamin B6 has a pervading role in many of the body's
functions, particularly at the brain level. Normally found in food and
supplements, it is considered a great way of preventing Parkinson’s disease,
not to mention that it is one of the most widely used treatments against
several forms of autism.
Moreover, vitamin B6 is an essential element in the making process of
the blood cells which is hemoglobin in the structure of the red blood cells is

responsible for the oxygen transfer to tissues. Hence, the more vitamin B6,
the better oxygenated the blood. This blood will carry the oxygen all ober the
body to make sure the cell activities occur just as usual. This is the reason for
which a vitamin B6 deficiency is considered just as serious as an iron anemia.
There is one other way by which vitamin B6 is very important for the blood
structure where it is actually preserves the health and proper functioning of
the organs responsible for the white cell production, spleen, lymph nodes and
Vitamin B6 is mainly taken from a variety of food items that include
whole and fortified cereals, fish, beans, vegetables and fruits. Bananas,
peanut butter, spinach, tomatoes, the kernels of sunflower seeds, potatoes,
red meat, beef, cabbage and so on usually ensure the right amount of vitamin
B6. Normally, a balanced diet should be a rich enough source of essential
substances for the proper functioning of the body system, however, if
deficiencies are identified following blood tests, the doctor will most surely
recommend some vitamin B6 supplement. Women in particular may suffer
from pre-menstrual fluid retention, severe period pains, emotional PMS
symptoms, premenstrual acne and nausea in early pregnancy. Mood swings,
depression as well as loss of sexual drive is sometimes noted when
pyridoxine is in short supply and the person is on hormone replacement
therapy or on birth control pills.
Almost all the daily multivitamin and minerals comprise of Vitamin B6.
It is helpful in maintaining proper functioning of the central nervous system.
The homocysteine (amino acid) levels can be lowered by using vitamin B6
along with folic acid and vitamin B 12 supplementation. A high level of blood
serum homocysteine is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Unfortunately, one study which attempted to decrease the risk by lowering
homocysteine was not fruitful. Certain people have type 1 primary
hyperoxaluria which leads to development of stones in kidney. Primary
hyperoxaluria is a rare condition characterized by the overproduction of a
substance called oxalate (also called oxalic acid). In the kidneys, the excess
oxalate combines with calcium to form calcium oxalate, a hard compound that
is the main component of kidney stones. Deposits of calcium oxalate can lead
to kidney damage, kidney failure, and injury to other organs. Vitamin B6 has
shown some amount of results in getting rid of these types of stones.
Vitamin B6 is essentially present in health drinks for kids. It is
especially good for children who have low levels of serotonin and also the

ones who suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Vitamin B6 is
required for metabolism and absorption intestinal amino acids. Many pregnant
women take daily supplementation of Vitamin B6. It tends to decrease the
symptoms of morning sickness. This vitamin is somewhat related to
production of RBCs. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the
average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient
requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in each life-
stage and gender group. The 1998 RDAs for vitamin B6 for adults, in
milligrams, are:

Life-Stage Men Women Pregnancy Lactation

Ages 19-50 1.3 mg 1.3 mg

Ages 51+ 1.7 mg 1.5 mg

All Ages 1.9 mg 2.0 mg

Results of two national surveys, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES III 1988-94) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals
(1994-96 CSFII), indicated that diets of most Americans meet current intake
recommendations for vitamin B6 .


Because vitamin B6 is present in most foods, dietary deficiency is
rare. Secondary deficiency may result from various conditions. Symptoms can
include peripheral neuropathy, a pellagra-like syndrome, anaemia, and
seizures, which, particularly in infants, may not resolve when treated with
anticonvulsants (group of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment
of epileptic seizures). Impaired metabolism (dependency) is rare where it
produces various symptoms, including seizures, mental retardation, and
Vitamin B6 deficiency symptoms will be very much like those of B2
and B3. Vitamin B6 is needed by the body to manufacture its own B3 vitamin.
A deficiency of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) usually accompanies depression.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) levels are typically quite low in depressed patients,
especially women taking birth-control pills or other forms of estrogens.
Vitamin B6 deficiency usually arises from malabsorption (state arising from
abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal(GI)
tract. Impairment can be of single or multiple nutrients depending on the

abnormality of the vitamin due to disease, drugs, and an unusually fast
metabolism). Vitamin B6 deficiency has been strongly linked to depression.
Several observations have caused researchers to wonder about the
relationship between vitamin B6 and heart disease. People who don't get
enough B6 in their diet have a higher risk of heart disease. Low dietary intake
of vitamin B6 is associated with higher risk of having heart disease. And as
mentioned, B6 plays a role in lowering levels of homocysteine in the blood.
High levels of homocysteine appear to be associated with heart disease, but
it's not clear exactly what the relationship is. Nor is it clear whether lowering
levels of homocysteine will reduce risk of heart disease.

Scientific evidence is very clear about we can definitely manage our own
health through the things we daily eat. It is a good thing that nowadays more and
more people take notice and change the way they live in order to embrace the
benefits of a healthy nutrition and exercise. If a healthy body and mind is what you
want, understanding nutrition is of the utmost importance. In its infinite wisdom nature
has provided us with everything one needs to promote growth, immune system,
mental alertness, physical strength and so on. Without a basic understanding about
nutrition it will be very difficult, if not impossible to establish a diet which includes the
necessary elements the body needs. Everything we ingest have an influence on your
body. So you have to make sure that what you eat contains those elements our body
needs. What the body needs are carbohydrates, fat, protein and last but certainly not
least water. The amount in which each of these elements is consumed influences
greatly the way we feel, react and age


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